You are on page 1of 941

PNOC- Energy Development Corporation

Environmental Management Department


Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig, Metro Manila

January 2003

PREFACE

This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tanawon Geothermal Project consists of
two (2) volumes: Volume I covers the Executive Summary, Process Documentation, and Main
Report, while Volume II is the Appendices. The main report is further subdivided into 5 sections:
Project Description (Sec. 1.0), Baseline Environmental Profile (Sec. 2.0), Impact Assessment
(Sec. 3.0), Environmental Risk Assessment or ERA (Sec. 4.0), and Environmental Management
and Monitoring Plans (Sec. 5.0).
The appendices include the LGU endorsements, PNOC-EDCs position on the Environmental
Guarantee Fund (EGF) and Environmental Monitoring Fund (EMF), estimated EIA Review Fund,
SEC registration with company Financial Statement, and the Accountability Statement of EIA
Preparers and Project Proponent. The Water Rights Permit application has already been filed
with the National Water Rights Bureau (NWRB) and is currently pending.
A multi-disciplinary effort for this EIS resulted from the contribution of in-house PNOC-EDC
environmental specialists, consultants, technical and administrative assistants, as well as
technical personnel from the Geoscientific, Engineering Design, Field Operations, Reservoir,
Drilling, Power, Transmission & Dispatch, and Planning departments of the Company. Their
contributions are hereby acknowledged.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 1

Page

I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I-1

I.1

A Background on Geothermal Resources

I-1

I.2

Project Rationale

I-1

I.3

Project Description

I-1

I.4

Process Documentation Summary

I-2

I.5
I.5.1
1.5.1.1
1.5.1.2
1.5.1.3
1.5.1.4
1.5.1.5
1.5.1.6
1.5.1.7

Baseline Profile
Physical Environment
Geology
Pedology
Hydrology
Water Quality
Meteorology/Climatology
Oceanography
Air Quality/Noise

I-3
I-3
I-3
I-4
I-4
I-4
I-5
I-5
I-5

1.5.2
1.5.2.1
1.5.2.2
1.5.2.3
1.5.2.4
1.5.2.5
I.5.3

Biological Environment
Terrestrial Flora
Terrestrial Fauna
Agriculture
Freshwater Flora and Fauna
Marine Flora and Fauna
Socio-economic Environment

I-6
I-6
I-6
I-6
I-6
I-7
I-7

I.6
1.7
I.8

Major Impacts, Mitigation Measures and Management Plan


Environmental Risk Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Plan

I-8
I-8
I-9

I I.

EIA PROCESS DOCUMENTATION

II-1

I I.1
I I.2
I I.2.1
I I.2.2
I I.2.3
I I.3
I I.3.1
I I.4
I I.5

Philippine EIA Process


EIA Process for Tanawon Geothermal Project
Social Preparation (Pre-Scoping)
Scoping Process
EIA Scoping Report
EIA Field Survey
The EIA Study Team
Consultations with LGUs and Securing of Project Endorsements
Summary of Issues/Concerns raised during all Consultations

II-1
II-1
II-2
II-3
II-4
II-5
II-5
II-6
II-6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 1

1.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1-1

1.1

Basic Project Information

1-1

1.2

Introduction on the Existing BacMan Geothermal


Production Field (BGPF)

1-1

1.3

Background on the Geothermal Resources

1-2

1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5

Definition of Geothermal Energy


Basic Features of a Geothermal System
Countries Using Geothermal Energy
Location of Philippine Geothermal Fields
Geothermal Power Development

1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4

1.4

Project Rationale

1-4

1.4.1
1.4.2

Project Purpose and Background


Need for the Project

1-4
1-4

1.5

Alternatives

1-5

1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.2.1
1.5.2.2
1.5.3

Alternative Energy Resources


Alternatives in Project Location
Siting of the Geothermal Project
Alternatives in Siting of Specific Facilities
Alternatives in Technology Selection/Engineering Design

1-5
1-7
1-7
1-8
1-8

1.6

Project Components

1-9

1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3

Area/Spatial Description
Process Flowchart
Cost Estimate

1-9
1-9
1-9

1.7

Project Location

1-10

1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3

Location
Access to the Project
Primary and Secondary Impact Areas

1-10
1-10
1-10

1.8

Description of Project Phases

1-11

1.8.1

Pre-Operations Phase (Exploration and Development)

1-11

1.8.1.1

Construction Phase
A. Construction Plan and Schedule
B. Surface development block/construction area
C. Area to be opened for construction
D. Nature of major openings and construction activities
E. Siting Criteria for facilities
F. Basic Engineering Equipment
G. Route and frequency of transportation from source of
materials to the construction site
H. Source of construction materials
I. Support services and facilities requirements
J. Estimate of total cut soil volume
K. Manpower requirement (and skills)
L. Safety Measures During Civil Works/ Construction

1-12
1-12
1-12
1-12
1-13
1-17
1-17

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1-17
1-18
1-18
1-18
1-18
1-19

p. TOC- 2

1.8.1.2

1.8.1.3

Well Drilling Phase


A. Drilling Plan and Schedule
B. Siting Criteria
C. Drilling Activities/Procedures
D. Vertical and Directional Drilling
E. Basic Engineering Equipment
F. Route and Frequency of transportation from source of
materials to the drill site
G. Source of drilling materials and supplies
H. Support services and facilities requirements
I. Nature and Magnitude of Drilling Waste Production
J. Manpower requirements (and skills)
K. Safety Measures During Well Drilling

1-20
1-20
1-20
1-21
1-21
1-21
1-21
1-22
1-22
1-22
1-22
1-22

Well Testing
A. Well Testing Plan and Schedule
B. Testing Activities/ Procedure
C. Well Chemistry
D. Basic Engineering Equipment
E. Support Services and Facilities Requirements
F. Nature and Magnitude of Waste Production from Well Testing
Activities
G. Manpower requirements (and skills)
H. Safety Measures During Well Testing

1-24
1-24
1-24
1-26
1-26
1-26
1-26

1.8.2

Operations Phase

1-28

1.8.2.1
1.8.2.2

1.8.2.9

Project Operations Schedule


Project Components
A. Fluid Collection and Requirement System (FCRS)
B. Power Plant and Control Center
C. Switchyard and Transmission line (230 kv)
D. Waste Management Facilities and Other Support Facilities
Testing /Commissioning Activities
Process Flow/Technology
A. Project Capacity
B. Project Technology and Alternatives
C. Technology Selection Criteria
D. Flow Diagram and Materials Balance
E. Project Layout
New Material Requirement
Provision of Safety Devices/Features
A. Fluid Collection and Requirement System (FCRS)
B. Power Plant and Control Center
C. Switchyard and Transmission Lines
Drilling of Maintenance and Replacement Wells (M&R)
Nature and Magnitude of Waste Production
A. Gaseous Emissions
B. Noise Generation
C. Liquid Discharges
D. Solid Waste
Manpower Requirement

1-28
1-28
1-28
1-28
1-29
1-29
1-30
1-30
1-30
1-30
1-31
1-31
1-32
1-32
1-32
1-32
1-33
1-33
1-34
1-34
1-34
1-34
1-34
1-35
1-35

1.8.3

Abandonment Phase

1-36

1.8.3.1
1.8.3.2
1.8.3.3

Facilities to be abandoned, decommissioned, demobilized


Site Rehabilitation/Restoration Plan
Abandonment Schedule

1-36
1-36
1-36

1.8.2.3
1.8.2.4

1.8.2.5
1.8.2.6

1.8.2.7
1.8.2.8

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1-27
1-27

p. TOC- 3

2.0

BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

2.1.1-1

2.1

Physical Environment

2.1.1-1

2.1.1

Geology

2.1.1-1

2.1.1.1
2.1.1.2
2.1.1.3

Summary of Results and Conclusions


Methodology
Results and Discussion
A. Terrain
B. Regional/General Geology
C. Geology of Pocdol Mountains
D. Geomorphology
E. Geophysics
F. Geochemistry
G. Seismicity
H. Peak Horizontal Acceleration Factors
I. Natural Hazards
J. Engineering Geology
K. Petrological Analysis of Surface Rocks
L. Geochemical Analysis of Surface Rocks
M. Trace Elements
N. Integrated Hydrogeochemical Model with Resistivity Contours

2.1.1-1
2.1.1-1
2.1.1-2
2.1.1-2
2.1.1-3
2.1.1-3
2.1.1-7
2.1.1-8
2.1.1-8
2.1.1-9
2.1.1-10
2.1.1-11
2.1.1-14
2.1.1-15
2.1.1-16
2.1.1-17
2.1.1-18

2.1.2

Pedology

2.1.2-1

2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2

Summary of Results and Conclusions


Methodology
A. List of EIA Study Team
B. Location, Area and Scope of Study
C. Study Parameters
D. Methods/Procedures
E. List of Study Sources
Results and Discussions
A. Slopes and Elevation
B. Engineering Geology and Morphology
C. Soils and for Engineering Purpose
D. Soils
E. Soil Fertility
F. Laboratory Results of Soil Sample Analysis

2.1.2-1
2.1.2-1
2.1.2-1
2.1.2-1
2.1.2-1
2.1.2-2
2.1.2-2
2.1.2-2
2.1.2-2
2.1.2-3
2.1.2-3
2.1.2-3
2.1.2-4
2.1.2-4

2.1.3

Hydrology

2.1.3-1

2.1.3.1
2.1.3.2

Summary of Conclusions and Findings


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Location, Area and Scope of Study
C. Study Parameters/ Components
D. Methods/Procedures
E. Study Sources
Results and Discussions
A. Surface Water
B. Hydrogeology

2.1.3-1
2.1.3-2
2.1.3-2
2.1.3-2
2.1.3-2
2.1.3-3
2.1.3-5
2.1.3-5
2.1.3-5
2.1.3-10

2.1.4

Water Quality

2.1.4-1

2.1.4.1

Summary of Findings and Conclusions

2.1.4-1

2.1.2-3

2.1.3.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 4

2.1.4.2

Methodology
A. Study Team
B. Study General Coverage and Approach
C. Identification of Water Bodies
D. Selection of Sampling Stations
E. Water Quality Parameters
F. Sampling Procedure and Analytical Methods
Results and Discussion
A. Selected Waterbodies and Sampling Stations
B. Stream Water Quality
C. Groundwater Quality
D. Coastal Water Quality
E. River Sediment Quality
F. Coastal Sediment Quality

2.1.4-1
2.1.4-1
2.1.4-2
2.1.4-2
2.1.4-2
2.1.4-3
2.1.4-3
2.1.4-3
2.1.4-3
2.1.4-4
2.1.4-5
2.1.4-5
2.1.4-6
2.1.4-6

2.1.5

Meteorology/Climatology

2.1.5-1

2.1.5.1
2.1.5.2

Summary of findings and Conclusions


Methodology
A. Study Team
B. Parameters
C. Selected Meteorological Stations
Results and Discussion
A. Rainfall
B. Temperature
C. Surface Winds
D. Other Meteorological

2.1.5-1
2.1.5-1
2.1.5-1
2.1.5-1
2.1.5-1
2.1.5-2
2.1.5-2
2.1.5-2
2.1.5-2
2.1.5-3

2.1.6

Physical Oceanography

2.1.6-1

2.1.6-1
2.1.6-1

Summary of Findings and Conclusions


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Description of the Circulation Model
C. Sediment Transport
Results and Discussion
A. Coastal Geometry and Bathymetry
B. Wave Characteristics in Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays
C. Tides
D. Currents
E. Water Transparency
F. Temperature Profile

2.1.6-1
2.1.6-1
2.1.6-1
2.1.6-1
2.1.6-4
2.16-4
2.16-4
2.16-5
2.16-6
2.1.6-6
2.1.6-7
2.1.6-8

2.1.7

Air Quality

2.1.7-1

2.1.7.1
2.1.7.2

Summary of findings and Conclusions


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Location and Scope of Study
C. Study Parameters and Methods
Results and Discussion
A. Ambient Air Quality
B. Ambient Noise Quality

2.1.7-1
2.1.7-1
2.1.7-1
2.1.7-1
2.1.7-1
2.1.7-2
2.1.7-3
2.1.7-3

2.1.4-3

2.1.5.3

2.16.3

2.1.7.3

2.2

Biological Environment

2.2.1-1

2.2.1

Terrestrial Flora

2.2.1-1

2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2

Summary of Results and Conclusions


Methodology

2.2.1-1
2.2.1-1

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 5

2.2.1.2

A. EIA Study Team


B. Location and Scope of Study
C. Study Parameters
D. Methods and Procedures
E. Study Sources
Results and Discussion

2.2.1-1
2.2.1-1
2.2.1-2
2.2.1-2
2.2.1-2
2.2.1-2

2.2.2

Terrestrial Fauna

2.2.2-1

2.2.2-1
2.2.2.2

Summary of Findings and Conclusions


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Location, Area and Scope of the Study
C. Study Parameters/Components
D. Methods/Procedures
E. Data Analysis
Results and Discussion
A. Species Inventory
B. Threatened and Protected Species
C. Biodiversity Parameters

2.2.2-1
2.2.2-1
2.2.2-1
2.2.2-1
2.2.2-2
2.2.2-2
2.2.2-2
2.2.2-3
2.2.2-3
2.2.2-3
2.2.2-4

2.2.3

Agriculture

2.2.3.1

2.2.3.1
2.2.3.2

Summary of Finding and Conclusions


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Location, Area and Scope of the Study
C. Study Parameters/Components
D. Methods/Procedures
E. List of Study Sources
Results and Discussion
A. Agricultural Profile of Sorsogon City
B. Profile of Irrigated Ricefields
C. Physical and Chemical Analysis of Soil, Plant Tissue and
Water samples

2.2.3.1
2.2.3.1
2.2.3.1
2.2.3.1
2.2.3.1
2.2.3-2
2.2.3-2
2.2.3-2
2.2.3-2
2.2.3-3
2.2.3-4

2.2.4

Freshwater Flora and Fauna

2.2.4-1

2.2.4-1
2.2.4-2

Summary of Findings and Conclusions


Methodology
A. EIA Study Team
B. Location, Area and Scope of the Study
C. Study Parameters/Components
D. Methods/Procedures
E. Data Analysis
Results and Discussion
A. Plankton
B. Benthic Fauna
C. Fishery

2.2.4-1
2.2.4-1
2.2.4-1
2.2.4-1
2.2.4-2
2.2.4-2
2.2.4-3
2.2.4-4
2.2.4-4
2.2.4-6
2.2.4-6

2.2.5

Marine Flora and Fauna

2.2.5-1

2.2.5.1
2.2.5.2

Summary of Findings and Conclusion


Methodology
A. EIA Survey Team
B. Study Sources
C. Location, Area and Scope of Study
D. Sampling Procedures
Results and Discussion

2.2.5-1
2.2.5-1
2.2.5-1
2.2.5-2
2.2.5-2
2.2.5-2
2.2.5-4

2.2.2-3

2.2.3.3

2.2.4-3

2.2.5.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 6

Poligui Bay
A. Plankton
B. Soft Bottom Benthos
C. Coral Reef and Other Invertebrates
D. Reef Fishes
E. Seagrasses
F. Mangroves
Sorsogon Bay
A. Plankton
B. Soft Bottom Benthos
C. Coral Reef and Other Invertebrates
D. Reef Fishes
E. Seagrasses
F. Mangroves
Albay Gulf
A. Coral Reefs
B. Fishery/Reef Fishes

2.2.5-4
2.2.5-5
2.2.5-6
2.2.5-7
2.2.5-7
2.2.5-7
2.2.5-8
2.2.5-8
2.2.5-9
2.2.5-10
2.2.5-10
2.2.5-10
2.2.5-11
2.2.5-12
2.2.5-12
2.2.5-12

2.3

Socio-economics

2.3-1

2.3.1

Summary of Findings

2.3-1

2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.1.3
2.3.2

Socio-economic Conditions in the Host Province


Socio-economic Conditions in the Host City
Socio-economic Conditions in the Host Barangays
Methodology
A. The Study Team
B. Identification of Study Area and Scope of the Study
C. Methods and Procedures
D. Data Sources

2.3-1
2.3-1
2.3-1
2.3-2
2.3-2
2.3-2
2.3-4
2.3-4

2.3.3

Baseline Socio-economic Conditions

2.3-5

2.3.3.1

Baseline Socio-Economic Conditions of the Host Province


A. Status of Infrastructure Facilities in Sorsogon Province
B. Level of Socio-economic Development in Sorsogon Province
C. Socio-political Dynamics in Sorsgon Province
Baseline Socio-economic Conditions of the Host Municipality
A. Status of Physical Facilities and Infrastracure in the Host City
B. Demographic Trends in the Host Municipality
C. Level of Socio-economic Development in the Host City
D. Trade and Commerce in Host City
E. Socio-political Dynamics in Host City
Baseline Socio-economic Conditions in the Host Barangays
A. Demographic Trends in the Affected Barangays
B. Economic Status of Households in the Host Barangays
C. Housing and Standard of Living in the Affected Barangays
D. Socio-cultural Indicators in the Affected Barangays
E. Health and Nutrition Status in the Affected Barangays
F. Socio-Political Dynamics in the Host Barangays
G. Perceptions and Attitudes toward the Proposed Geothermal
Project

2.5-5
2.5-5
2.3-8
2.3-10
2.3-11
2.3-11
2.3-15
2.3-16
2.3-17
2.3-17
2.3-17
2.3-19
2.3-20
2.3-22
2.3-23
2.3-25
2.3-28
2.3-28

2.3.3.2

2.3.3.3

3.0

IMPACT IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND


EVALUATION

3-1

3.1

Future Environmental Conditions Without the


Project

3-1

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 7

3.1.1

3.1.2

Physical Environment

3-1

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3

Land Use
Soil
Hydrology
Water Quality
Oceanography
Sediment Transport
Marine- Physical Environment

Biological Environment

3-3

A.
B.
C.
D.

3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4

Vegetation
Agriculture
Fresh Water Environment
Marine Biological Environment

3.1.3

Socio- Economic Environment Without the Project

3-4

3.1.3.1

3.1.3.3

Economic Outlook
A. Infrastructure Outlook
B. Economic Development Outlook
Demographics and Livelihood Outlook

3-4
3-4
3-4
3-5

3.2

Future Environmental Conditions With The Project

3-6

3.2.1

Pre-Construction Phase

3-6

A.
B.
C.
D.

3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7

Royalty and Benefit Sharing Issues


Rights of Way Concerns
Effects of Geothermal on the Water Supply
Environmental and Health Issues

3.2.2

Construction Phase

3-8

3.2.2.1

Physical Environment
A. Change in Land Use
B. Alteration of Topography/ Physiography
C. Effects on Aesthetics
D. Potential Generations of Landslides
E. Soil Erosion
F. Disturbance of River Channels by Civil Works/ Constructions
Activities
G. Effect on River,Estuary and Coastal Water Quality
H. Effect on the Oceanographic Conditions
I. Potential of Lowering of Groundwater Level due to Reductions
of Recharge Areas
J. Generation of Air Suspended Particulates
K. Generation of Noise
Biological Environment
A. Effect on Vegetation
B. Effect on Wildlife
C. Effect of River Siltation on Irrigated System
D. Effect of River Sediment on Aquatic Biota
E. Effect on Coral Reefs
F. Disturbance/ Alteration of Marine Habitats
Socio-economic Environment
A. Impact on the Local Government on the Economy
B. Impact on Demography and Settlement Patterns

3-8
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-9

3.2.2.2

3.2.2.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-15

p. TOC- 8

C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

Impact on Livelihood Sources


Impact on Public Health and Safety
Impact on Poverty Incidence and Income Levels
Impact on the Local Culture
Impact on Perceptions
Resource Use Competition

3-15
3-16
3-17
3-17
3-17
3-18

3.2.3

Well Drilling (Exploratory And Development)

3-19

3.2.3.1

Physical Environment
A. Effect on Surface Water and Ground Water
B. Possible Decrease in Surface and Groundwater
Storage / Effect on Groundwater Sources
C. Possible Contamination of Coastal Water
D. Effect on Municipal Water Sources (Cold Springs)
E. Possible Occasional Release of Small Amounts H2S Gas
F. Increase in Dust Emissions
G. Increase in Noise
Biological Environment
A. Effect on Irrigated Ricefields
B. Effect of Drilling Noise, Dust and Light on Wildlife
Socio-economic Environment

3-19
3-19
3-19
3-19
3-19
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21

3.2.4

Well Testing

3-22

3.2.4.1

Physical Environment
A. Release of H2S
B. Generation of Noise
C. Generation of Brine
D. Deterioration of Underlying Soil and Groundwater

3-22
3-22
3-23
3-23
3-23

3.2.4.2

Biological Environment
A. Damage to Surrounding Vegetation
B. Effects on Wildlife
C. Change in Soil and Plant Quality of Irrigated Ricefields
D. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals
Socio-economic Environment

3-24
3-24
3-24
3-25
3-25
3-26

3.2.5

Operations Phase

3-27

3.2.5.1

Physical Environment
A. Geologic Hazards
B. Occurrence of a Well Blow-out
C. Soil and Water Contamination
D. Possible Decrease in Discharges of Local Water Sources due
to Extraction by Geothermal Wells
E. Effect on River Water Quality
F. Contamination of Groundwater Due to accidental Discharge of
Effluents and Improper Disposal of Sludge and Domestic
Wastes
G. Oceanography
H. Generation of Noise
I. Noise and Dust Due to traffic
J. Release of H2S Gas
K. Possible Acid Rain Effects
L. Release of CO2 Gas (Global Warming Issue)
M. Generation of Heat

3-27
3-27
3-33
3-34
3-34

3.2.3.2

3.2.3.3

3.2.4.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3-34
3-34
3-34
3-35
3-35
3-35
3-41
3-41
3-41

p. TOC- 9

N. Rise in Relative Humidity


Biological Environment
A. Effects on Land Use and the Watershed
B. Effect of Power Plant Emissions on Forest
C. Change in Quality of Irrigated Crops and Soil
D. Effect on H2S on Wildlife
E. Effect on Aquatic Biota Due to Effluent Discharges
F. Effect on Marine Organisms
Socio-economic Environment
A. Impact on the National Economy
B. Impact on the Local Government and Economy
C. Impact on Demography and Settlement Patterns
D. Impact on Peoples Livelihood

3-41
3-42
3-42
3-42
3-42
3-43
3-43
3-43
3-43
3-43
3-43
3-45
3-45

4.0

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND


MANAGEMENT

4-1

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5

Introduction
ERA Overview
Study Rationale
Study Objectives
Framework of the Study
Project Description

4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3

4.1.5.1

Project Components
A. Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS)
B. Power Plant and Control Center
C. Switchyard and Transmission Line
D. Waste Management Facilities and Other Support Facilities
Project Activities
A. Pre-Operational Phase (Exploration and Development)
B. Operations Phase
C. Project Abandonment

4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-8

4.1.6

Description of Physical Environment

4-8

4.1.6.1
4.1.6.2
4.1.6.3

Geology
Regional Tectonic Setting
Seismicity

4-8
4-8
4-9

4.2

Methodology

4-11

4.2.1

Hazard Assessment

4-13

4.2.1.1

Identification of Sources of Hazards


A. Hazards from PNOC-EDC Facilities
B. Hazards from PNOC-EDC Activities
C. Hazards from PNOC-EDC Products
D. Hazards from the Natural Environment
Hazards Inventory
A. Physical Hazards
B. Chemical Hazards
C. Health Hazards
D. Natural Hazards
Assessment of the Destructive Potential
A. Physical Hazards
B. Chemical Hazards

4-13
4-13
4-13
4-13
4-13
4-14
4-14
4-14
4-15
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-17

3.2.5.2

3.2.5.3

4.1.5.2

4.2.1.2

4.2.1.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 10

C. Biological Health Hazards


D. Natural Hazards
Delineation of Temporal and Spatial Features of Hazards

4-19
4-19
4-20

4.2.2

Risk Assessment

4-21

4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3

Identification of Items at Risk


Exposure Assessment
Risk Valuation
A. Risk Index Matrix
B. Economic Valuation of Risks

4-21
4-21
4-21
4-22
4-23

4.2.3

Risk Management Planning

4-24

4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
4.2.3.3
4.2.3.4

Hazard Monitoring and Intervention


Exposure Monitoring and Intervention
Recovery and Rehabilitation
Risk Management Capability Assessment

4-26
4-26
4-27
4-27

4.2.4

Boundaries of this ERA Study

4-28

4.3

Hazards Assessment

4-30

4.3.1

Identification of Sources of Hazards

4-30

4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2

Hazards from PNOC-EDC Facilities


Hazards from PNOC-EDC Activities
A. Pre-Operations Activities
B. Operation and Maintenance Activities
Hazards from PNOC-EDC Products
Hazards from the Natural Environment

4-30
4-30
4-30
4-31
4-31
4-31

4.3.2

Identification and Assessment of Types of Hazards

4-31

4.3.2.1

Physical Hazards
A. Heat and Thermal Hazards
B. Pressure Explosion Hazards
C. Shock Explosion Hazards
D. Noise
E. Vibration and Shaking
F. Radiation and Radioactivity Hazards
G. Electricity and Electromagnetic Forces
Chemical Hazards
A. Gases and Emissions
B. Liquids and Effluents
Natural Hazards
A. Landslide and Downslope Movement
B. Earthquakes
C. Volcanism
D. Subsidence and Other Forms of Surface Displacement
E. Rainfall and Typhoons
F. Floods

4-31
4-32
4-33
4-33
4-33
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-35
4-35
4-38
4-37
4-39
4-41
4-43
4-44
4-45
4-45

4.4

Risk Assessment

4-46

4.4.1

Hazards Receptors

4-46

4.4.2

Vulnerability Assessment for Various Receptors

4-46

4.4.2.1

Vulnerability of Human Population to Various Hazards

4-46

4.2.1.4

4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4

4.3.2.2

4.3.2.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 11

4.4.2.2

Vulnerability of Natural Resources to Various Hazards


A. H2S Gas Release
B. Steam Release
C. Heavy Metals and Solids
D. Noise
E. Landslides/Soil Movement

4-46
4-46
4-47
4-47
4-48

4.4.3

Risk Assessment for Hazards in Tanawon Geothermal


Project

4-48

4.4.3.1

Physical Hazards
A. Heat and Thermal Hazards
B. Burns
C. Shock Explosion Hazards
D. Noise
E. Vibration and Shaking
F. Radiation Hazards
G. Radioactivity
H. Electricity and Electromagnetic Forces
Chemical Hazards
A. Hydrogen Sulfide
B. O2 Deficiency
C. Noxious Liquids/Heavy Metals
D. Lubricants and Fuels
Natural Hazards
A. Risk Assessment on Landslides
B. Risk Assessment on Earthquakes
C. Risk Assessment on Vulcanism

4-48
4-48
4-50
4-52
4-52
4-55
4-56
4-57
4-57
4-58
4-58
4-63
4-63
4-65
4-67
4-67
4-68
4-69

4.4.4

Summary Risk Matrix

4-69

4.5

Risk Management

4-70

4.5.1
4.5.2

Bow-Tie Analysis of High Risk Situations


Management Measures for the High Risk Events

4-70
4-71

4.5.2.1

Management of Risks from Hydrogen Sulfide Gas


A. Occupational Health Preventive and Mitigating Measures
to Minimize Adverse Health Consequences
B. Recommendations for Development Drilling
C. Recommendations for Vertical Well Testing
D. Recommendations for Horizontal Well Testing
E. Recommendations for Well Bleeding
F. Recommendations for Separator Station
G. Recommendations for Power Plant
Management of Risks from Noise
A. Recommendations
B. Threshold Limit Values for Noise
Management of Risks from Heavy Metals
Management of Risks from Explosions
Management of Risks from Extremes of Temperatures
A. Recommendations for Piping System
B. Recommendations for Power Plant
C. Recommendations for Burns

4-71
4-72
4-72
4-73
4-73
4-73
4-73
4-74
4-74
4-75
4-75
4-76
4-76
4-77
4-77
4-77
4-77

4.5.3

Risk Management Measures for Other Hazards

4-78

4.5.3.1

Management of Risks from Oxygen-Deficient Work Areas

4-78

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.3

4.5.2.2

4.5.2.3
4.5.2.4
4.5.2.5

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 12

4.5.3.2
4.5.3.3
4.5.3.4
4.5.3.5

Management of Risks from Vibrations


Management of Risks from Ultraviolet Radiations
Management of Risks from Fuels Oils
Management of Risks from Electricity and Electromagnetic
Energy
Indirect Health Determinants
Management of Risks to Natural Resources
Hazards that are nonexistent or insignificant to Tanawon
A. Hazards from earthquakes induced by geothermal exploration
B. Hazards from volcanic eruptions
C. Hazards of diminishing water flow in rivers
D. Hazards of affecting ground water quantity and quality

4-80
4-80
4-81
4-81
4-82
4-82
4-82

4.5.4

Mitigation of Measures for Natural Hazards

4-82

4.5.4.1

Mitigation for Landslide

4-82

5.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND


MONITORING PLAN

5-1

5.1

Impacts Mitigation/ Enhancement Plan

5-1

5.1.1

Pre-Construction Phase

5-1

A. Conduct of Information Drives


B. Early Involvement of NGOs and POs
C. Securing Endorsements from Local Government (LGUs)

5-1
5-1
5-2

5.1.2

Construction Phase

5-2

5.1.2.1

Measures for the Physical Environment


A. Geotechnical Hazard Studies to Identify Critical Slopes/Areas
B. Slope-Risk Assessment and Mitigation
C. Civil Works Rehabilitation/ Slope Stabilization
D. Prevention and Control of Erosion and Surface Water Siltation
E. Spoil Disposal Area
F. Multi-wellpad Strategy
G. Prevention of Temporary and Localized Changes in Soil
Quality of Irrigated Farmlands
H. Dust Suppression
I. Traffic Plan
J. Measures to Address Noise
K. Alternative to the Use of Explosives
L. Transport of Heavy Equipment
Measures for the Biological Environment
A. Prevention Of Vegetation Damage
B. Reforestation Activities To Mitigate Reduction Of Recharge
Areas
C. Protection of Faunal Habitats
D. Compensation Of Crop Damages
E. Measures for Protection of Freshwater and Marine Biota
Measures for the Socio-Economic Environment
A. Priority Hiring of Local Residents
B. Watershed Management Program
C. Land/Crop Damage Compensation
D. Livelihood Assistance
E. Community Medical Outreach Program

5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-5
5-5
5-6
5-6

4.5.3.6
4.5.3.7
4.5.3.8

5.1.2.2

5.1.2.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4-78
4-79
4-79

5-6
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-9
5-9
510

p. TOC- 13

F. Health and Safety of Workers


G. Coordination with LGUs and DPWH for the Maintenance of
Roads
H. Vehicular Accidents Prevention
I. Participation of Project Personnel in Socio-cultural Affairs of
the Community
J. Project Tours, Open House and Eco-Tourism

5-10

5.1.3

Well Drilling

5-11

5.1.3.1

Measures for the Physical Environment


A. Directional Drilling and Multi-wellpad Strategy
B. Selection of Drilling Mud Components
C. Containment of Mud And Drilling Cuttings
D. Prevention of Run-off Water into the Sump
E. Protection Of Groundwater Aquifers
Measures for the Biological Environment
A. Maintenance of Vegetation Buffer Around The Wellpad
Measures for the Socio-economic Environment

5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12

5.1.4

Well Testing

5-13

5.1.4.1

Measures for the Physical Environment


A. Prevention of Groundwater Contamination Due to Potential
Seepage From Holding Ponds
B. Containment / Temporary Reinjection of Geothermal Brine
C. Noise Reduction
D. Protection Of Workers From Noise And Gas Emissions
Measures for the Biological Environment
A. Prevention Of Vegetation Damages
B. Minimizing Effects of Noise and H2S on Wildlife
C. Measures to Prevent or Address Crop Damage
D. Prevention Of Deterioration of River Water Quality and
Aquatic Biota
E. Measures During Well Bleeding

5-12

5-15

5.1.5

Operations Phase

5-15

5.1.5.1

Measures for Geologic Hazards


A. Measures For Geologic Hazards
B. Contingency for Landslips Knocking Over Pipelines
C. By-Products and Waste Management
D. Utilization of a Thermal Pond
E. Prevention of Seepage from Holding Ponds and Leakage
from Pipelines
F. Management of Air Quality
G. System Maintenance
H. Pollution Control Research/Studies
Measures for the Biological Environment
A. Use Of Tolerant And Resistant Plants To Air Pollution
B. Protection Of Existing Vegetation And Wildlife
C. Watershed Protection And Management
D. Crop Damage Measures
Measures for the Socio-economic Environment
A. Provisions of Medical Services and Facilities
B. Skills Development
C. Livelihood Development Assistance
D. Measures For Layed-Off Workers

5-15
5-15
5-17
5-17
5-17
5 18

5.1.3.2
5.1.3.3

5.1.4.2

5.1.5.2

5.1.5.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

510
5-10

5-10
5-11

5-12
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-15

5-18
5-19
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-21
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-23
5-23

p. TOC- 14

E. Measures For Public Health And Safety

5-23

5.1.6

Construction Contractors Program

5-24

5.1.7

Loss Control and Security Plan

5-24

5.1.8

Community Relations and (ComRel) Program

5-25

5.1.9

Contingency Response Plan

5-26

5.1.10

Abandonment/ Rehabilitation Plan

5-29

A. Abandonment during Pre-operational Phase (Exploration and


Development)
B. Abandonment after Operational Life of the Power Plant

5-29
5-29

5.1.11

Environmental Management Costs

5-30

5.2

Environment Monitoring Action Plan

5-31

5.2.1
5.2.1.1

Project Monitoring
Pre-Operational Phase
A. Civil Works/ Construction Phase
B. Well Drilling

5-31
5-31
5-31
5-31

C. Well Testing

5-31

Operational Phase
Environmental Monitoring
Physical Environment
A. Seismicity
B. Potential Subsidence
C. Hydrology
D. Water Quality
E. Meteorology
F. Air Quality Monitoring
Biological Environment
A. Land Use and Forest Cover Monitoring
B. Terrestrial Flora
C. Terrestrial Fauna
D. Agriculture Monitoring
E. Freshwater Biology
F. Marine Ecology
Socio-Economic Environment
A. Monitoring of the Implementation of the Social Programs
B. Monitoring of Socio-economic and Health Conditions

5-32
5-32
5-32
5-32
5-33
5-33
5-33
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-34
5-35
5-35
5-35
5-35
5-35
5-36

Institutional Plan

5-37

5.2.1.2
5.2.2
5.2.2.1

5.2.2.2

5.2.2.3

5.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 15

LIST OF TABLES
I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I -1
I -2

Summary of Major Impact and Management Measures


Summary of the Monitoring Plan

I I.

PROCESS DOCUMENTATION

I I-1
I I-2
I I-3

EIA Stages and Public Involvement


Summary of the Tanawon EIA Process
Tabulation of Concerns and PNOC-EDC Response

1.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1.4-1
1.4-2

Power Plant Retirement as Programmed by the DOE


Carbon Dioxide Credit of 80 MW Geothermal Power Plant vs. 80 MW Oil-Fired
Power Plant
Comparative Costs and Resources Required for a 120 MW Capacity Electricity
Generating Plant
Comparative Data of six power alternatives
Replacement Planting
Project Cost Estimate for 50-80 MW Tanawon Geo. Project
Primary and Secondary Impact Areas
Typical Dimensions for Lattice Type or Pole Type Transmission Tower
Engineering Equipment During Construction, Drilling and Well Testing
Manpower and Skills Requirement
Drilling Chemicals: Classification, Product Types, Purpose and Volume
Types and Volume of Sump Fluids During Drilling
Projected Gas and Water Chemistry for Tanawon
Characterization of Typical Geothermal Waste from Bacman I and II
(1995-2002)

1.5-1
1.5-2
1.5-3
1.6-1
1.7-1
1.8-1
1.8-2
1.8-3
1.8-4
1.8-5
1.8-6
1.8-7

2.0

I-9
I-10

I -7
I -8
I -9

1-37
1-38
1-39
1-39
1-40
1-41
1-42
1-43
1-43
1-44
1-47
1-48
1-49
1-50

BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.1.1
2.1.1-1
2.1.1-2
2.1.1-3
2.1.1-4
2.1.1-5
2.1.1-6
2.1.1-7
2.1.1-8

GEOLOGY
Stratigraphy of the Pocdol Mountains
Calculated gas geothermometry of Damoy gas seepages
Calculated Peak Ground Acceleration values
Observed Rock Characteristics of Two Outcrops at Tanawon Area
Modal compositions of WPM series lavas taken from a minimum of 500 points
(Tebar, 1988)
Modal compositions of EPM series lavas taken from a minimum of 500 points
(Tebar, 1988)
Representative major element composition of WPM and EPM series lavas
Major and trace element concentrations and CIPW norm of selected EPM
series lavas

2.1.1-20
2.1.1-21
2.1.1-21
2.1.1-22
2.1.1-22
2.1.1-23

2.1.1-23b

2.1.2
2.1.2-1
2.1.2-2

PEDOLOGY
Physical Analysis of Forest soils at Tanawon
Chemical Analysis of Forest Soils at Tanawon

2.1.2-5
2.1.2-6

2.1.3
2.1.3-1

HYDROLOGY
River Water Sampling Stations

2.1.3-19

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 16

2.1.3-2
2.1.3-3
2.1.3-4
2.1.3-5
2.1.3-6
2.1.3-7
2.1.3-8
2.1.4
2.1.4-1
2.1.4-2
2.1.4-3
2.1.4-4a
2.1.4-4b
2.1.4-5
2.1.4-6
2.1.4-7
2.1.4-8
2.1.4-9
2.1.4-10
2.1.4-11
2.1.4-12
2.1.4-13
2.1.4-14
2.1.4-15
2.1.4-16
2.1.4-17
2.1.5
2.1.5-1
2.1.5-2
2.1.5-3
2.1.5-4
2.1.5-5
2.1.6
2.1.6-1
2.1.6-2
2.1.6-3
2.1.6-4
2.1.7
2.1.7-1
2.1.7-2
2.1.7-3
2.1.7-4
2.1.7-5
2.1.7-6

Groundwater Monitoring Stations


Summary of Physical Attributes of Drainage Systems
River Flow Baseline Data
Historical River Flow Data
Mean Monthly Discharge of Cawayan River (in m3/s)
General Resistivity Structure of the BaconManito Geothermal Production
Field
Summary of Sorsogon Water District Well Data
WATER QUALITY
Checklist of Some Relevant Parameters
Significance of Parameters measured
Methods of Analysis
Inventory of River Water, River Sediment and Ground Water Sampling
Stations
Inventory of Marine Sampling Stations
Location of River Water and River Sediments Sampling Stations
Location of Groundwater Sampling Stations
Location of Marine Sampling Stations
Physico-chemical Characteristics of River Water Samples
Concentration (ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in River Water Samples
DENR Water Classification Table, DENR Administrative Order (DAO) 90-34
Physico-chemical Characteristics of Groundwater Samples
Concentration (ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in Groundwater Samples
Results of Analysis of Major Ions Composition of Groundwater Stations
Physico-chemical characteristics of Coastal Water Samples
Concentration (ppm) of Dissolved Elements in Coastal Water Samples
River Sediment Chemistry
Coastal Sediment Chemistry
METEOROLOGY/ CLIMATOLOGY
Climatological Normals from 1961-1995 in Legaspi City, Albay (1308 N, 123
44 E)
Climatological Extremes as of 1999 in Legazpi City, Albay (13 08 N, 123 44
E)
Rainfall Data from Several Rain Gauging Stations in BacMan Geothermal
Reservation
Monthly Average Wind Direction and Speed (mps) by year, Legaspi City,
Albay
Wind Frequency Data
OCEANOGRAPHY
Estimated significant wave heights (m)
Major Tidal Constituents in the coastal areas of Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays
Observed physical oceanographic characteristics in Sorsogon Bay in
December 7, 2000
Observed physical oceanographic characteristic in Poliqui Bay in December 8,
2000
AIR QUALITY
Philippine Ambient Air Quality STandards
Emission Data of the Three Existing Power Plants
Summary of PNOC-EDC H2S monitoring results from 1996 to 2002
Observed H2S on June 6-7, 2002
Observed ambient TSP levels on July 11-12, 2002
Observed noise levels on June 6-9, 2002

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.1.3-21
2.1.3-25
2.1.3-26
2.1.3-27
2.1.3-28
2.1.3-29
2.1.3-30
2.1.4-7
2.1.4-8
2.1.4-10
2.1.4-11
2.1.4-11
2.1.4-12
2.1.4-13
2.1.4-15
2.1.4-18
2.1.4-20
2.1.4-22
2.1.4-23
2.1.4-25
2.1.4-27
2.1.4-28
2.1.4-32
2.1.4-34
2.1.4-35
2.1.5-4
2.1.5-5
2.1.5-6
2.1.5-7
2.1.5-8
2.1.6-9
2.1.6-2
2.1.6-10
2.1.6-10

2.1.7-5
2.1.7-5
2.1.7-6
2.1.7-6
2.1.7-7
2.1.7-7

p. TOC- 17

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.2.1
2.2.1-1A
2.2.1-2A
2.2.1-3A
2.2.1-4A
2.2.1-5A
2.2.1-6A
2.2.1-7A
2.2.1-8A
2.2.1-9A
2.2-1-10
2.2-1-11
2.2.1-12
2.2.1-13
2.2.1-14
2.2.1-15
2.2.1-16
2.2.1-17
2.2.1-18
2.2.1-19
2.2.1-20
2.2.1-21
2.2.1-22

TERRESTRIAL FLORA
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 1
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 2
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 3
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 4
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 5
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 6
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 7
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 8
Summary of the Different Uses of Species in sample Plot no. 9
List of Timber Producing Species Sampled
List of Sampled Species for Landscaping
List of Sampled Species with Ornamental Values
List of Sampled Species with Medicinal Values
List of Species for Different Other Purposes
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Plot No. 2
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Plot No. 3
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Plot No. 4
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Plot No. 5
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Plot No. 6
Inventory of Plants Within Sample Plot No. 7
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Pad A Botong
Timber Volume Determination from Sample Pad B Cawayan

2.2.2
2.2.2-1

TERRESTRIAL FAUNA
Summary of the Wildlife Species Inventory and Percentage Frequency of
Various Categories
Summary of Bio-Diversity Parameters of Various Transects in Tanawon
Geothermal Project, Sorsogon, Sorsogon 2002-2002

2.2.2-2
2.2.3
2.2.3-1
2.2.3-2
2.2.3-3
2.2.3-4
2.2.3-5

AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Area Planted and No. of Farmers
Agricultural Stations for Tanawon
Soil Texture and Fertility
Chemical Analysis of Agricultural Soils
Chemical Analysis of Rice Grains

2.2.4
2.2.4-1

FRESHWATER FLORA AND FAUNA


List of Pythoplankton and algal species recorded from river systems around
the Tanawon Geothermal Project
Richness, diversity and evenness indices of phytoplankton in river systems
around the Tanawon Geothermal Project
List of zooplankton species recorded from river systems around the Tanawon
Geothermal Project.
List of Benthic Fauna species recorded from river systems around the
Tanawon Geothermal Project
Richness, diversity and evenness indices of Benthic Fauna in river systems
around the Tanawon Geothermal Project
Riverine fish and crustacean species recorded from three (3) major river
systems drained by the Tanawon Geothermal Project

2.2.4-2
2.2.4-3
2.24-4
2.2.4-5
2.2.4-6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.2.1-8
2.2.1-9
2.2.1-11
2.2.1-13
2.2.1-15
2.2.1-17
2.2.1-19
2.2.1-22
2.2.1-26
2.2.1-29
2.2.1-30
2.2.1-33
2.2.1-35
2.2.1-36
2.2.1-38
2.2.1-39
2.2.1-40
2.2.1-42
2.2.1-44
2.2.1-46
2.2.1-49
2.2.1-52
2.2.2-5
2.2.2-6

2.2.3-6
2.2.3-6
2.2.3-7
2.2.3-8
2.2.3-8
2.2.4-8
2.2.4-10
2.2.4-11
2.2.4-12
2.2.4-14
2.2.4-15

p. TOC- 18

2.2.5
2.2.5-1
2.2.5-2
2.2.5-3
2.2.5-4
2.2.5-5
2.2.5-6
2.2.5-7
2.2.5-8
2.2.5-9
2.2.5-10
2.2.5-11
2.2.5-12
2.2.5-13
2.2.5-14
2.2.5-15
2.2.5-16
2.2.5-17
2.2.5-18

MARINE FLORA AND FAUNA


Sampling stations for phytoplankton and zooplankton in Sorsogon and Poliqui
Bays
Reef sites surveyed in Poliqui Bay
Mangrove stations in Sorsogon and Poliqui Bay established on Nov. 30 - Dec
4, 2000
Density and abundance of phytoplankton at nearshore stations along Manito,
Poliqui Bay
Density and abundance of zooplankton in Poliqui Bay
Population Density of soft bottom benthos in Poliqui Bay
Grain Size Analysis and Substrate Type of Sediments in Poliqui Bay
(November 29 December 2, 2002)
Relative percent coral cover by hard, soft and dead corals in reef of Poliqui
Bay and status of the living coral reef
Corals and other benthic organisms in Sorsogon Bay
Summary of reef fish information in Poliqui Bay
List of Reef Fish in Poliqui Bay
Most abundant species (first five) per site in Poliqui Bay
Summary of density and relative frequency of seagrasses
Summary list of the mangrove species and associates found in the mangrove
and nipa swamps of Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays
Basal area and density of mangrove species in Poliqui Bay
Diversity, density and basal area of mangrove vegetation in three sampling
sites in Manito, Poliqui Albay
Density (indv/m3) and abundance (%) of phytoplankton at nearshore along
Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bay
Density (indv/m3) and abundance (%) of zooplankton in Sorsogon Bay

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.2.5-13
2.2.5-14
2.2.5-14
2.2.5-15
2.2.5-15
2.2.5-16
2.2.5-17
2.2.5-17
2.2.5-18
2.2.5-19
2.2.5-20
2.2.5-21
2.2.5-21
2.2.5-22
2.2.5-23
2.2.5-23
2.2.5-24
2.2.5-24

p. TOC- 19

2.2.5-19
2.2.5-20
2.2.5-21
2.2.5-22
2.2.5-23
2.2.5-24
2.2.5-25
2.2.5-26

Population Density of soft bottom benthos in Sorsogon Bay


Grain Size Analysis and Substrate Type of Sediments in Sorsogon Bay
(December 3, 2000)
Diversty, density and basal area of mangrove vegetation in three sampling
sites in Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bay
Basal area and density of mangrove species in Sorsogon Bay
Corals in Osiao, Albay Gulf
Relative percent coral cover by hard, soft and dead corals in reef of Osiao,
Albay Gulf and status of the living coral cover
Summary of reef fish information in Albay Gulf
List of Reef Fish in Osiao, Albay Gulf

2.2.5-25
2.2.5-27
2.2.5-27
2.2.5-27
2.2.5-28
2.2.5-28
2.2.5-28
2.2.5-29

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
2.3-1

2.3-23

Definition of impact areas and the relevant socio-economic parameters to be


studied
Distribution of respondents of the household survey
Physical and Social Infrastructure of Sorsogon Province
Development Indicators of the Province of Sorsogon and Region V
An Appraisal of Physical Facilities and Socio-economic Infrastructures in Host
Municipality
Demographic Characteristics of Host City
Socio-economic development indicators in the host city
Barangays hosting the proposed Geothermal Project
Potentially indirectly affected barangays
Demographic Characteristics of host Barangays and Vicinity
Migration Profile of host barangays (20% household survey)
Income sources of households in host barangays as percent of total number of
households25 (20% household survey)
Sources of household income as percent of the total income as percent of total
amount of income (20% household survey)
Occupation of residents in host barangays (20% household Survey)
Economic status of households in the host barangays (data from 20%
household survey)
Ownership Status and Structure of Dwellings in the Host Barangays (20%
household survey)
Housing amenities and durables (20% Household Survey)
Household appliances and durables in host barangays (20% Household
Survey)
Average educational attainment and religion (20% Houseshold Survey)
Socio-cultural profile of the host barangays (20% Household Survey)
Health statistics in host barangays30 (from Rural Health Stations)
Morbidity cases in the host barangays during the last six months (20%
Household Survey)
Results of the opinion/perception survey (20% Household Survey)

3.0

IMPACT ASSESSMENT

3.2-2
3.2-3
3.2-4
3.2-5
3.2-6
3.2-7
3.2-8

Construction equipment noise levels at 15-m distance at maximum power


Predicted noise levels
Highest predicted H2S at Prevailing Wind Directions
Average noise levels of five geothermal wells (dB)
Source emission parameters used in dispersion modeling
Description of Modeling Scenarios
Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S from 2 and 3 existing power plants (in ppm)

2.3-2
2.3.3
2.3-4
2.3-5
2.3-6
2.3-7
2.3-8
2.3-9
2.3-10
2.3-11
2.3-12
2.3-13
2.3-14
2.3-15
2.3-16
2.3-17
2.3-18
2.3-19
2.3-20
2.3-21
2.3-22

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.3-3
2.3-4
2.3-7
2.3-9
2.3-13
2.3-15
2.3-16
2.3-18
2.3-18
2.3-19
2.3-19
2.3-20
2.3-20
2.3-21
2.3-22
2.3-22
2.3-23
2.3-23
2.3-24
2.3-24
2.3-26
2.3-27
2.3-30

3-55
3-55
3-56
3-56
3-56
3-56
3-57

p. TOC- 20

3.2-9
3.2-10
3.2-11
3.2-12
3.2-13

Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S (in ppm) from the proposed 1 x 80 MW


Tanawon GPP emitting H2S at 84 g/sec
Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S (in ppm) from the proposed 1 x 80 MW
Tanawon GPP emitting H2S at 64 g/sec
Predicted GLC of H2S from 1 x 50 MW and 1 x 30 MW GPPs
Comparison of Observed and Predicted Ambient H2S
Estimated Annual Economic Benefits from the 50-80 MW Tanawon
Geothermal Project (in PHP)

4.0

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

4.2.1.3-1
4.2.1.3-2
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3-1

Likelihood of Occurrence Rating


Severity of Impact/Consequence Rating
Exposure Rating
Risk Index Matrix: Consequence/Severity Rating vs. Exposure Rating/Incident
Potential Rating
Risk Rating and Descriptions
Sources of high sound levels
Receptors of Landslide Hazards
Human Health Effects of Some Heavy Metals
Risk Assessment of Heat Exposure to Workers
Risk Assessment of Burn Exposure to Workers
Health Risk Assessment of Noise Exposure to Workers
Risk Rating of Noise as Hazard
Health Risk Assessment of Noise Exposure to Communities
Health Risk Assessment of Vibration Exposure to Workers
Health Risk Assessment of H2S affecting Tanawon Workers
Risk Assessment of H2S exposure to Power Plant Workers
Health Risk Assessment of H2S Exposure to Community
Health Risk Assessment for Noxious Liquids/Heavy Metals Exposure on
Tanawon workers
Risk Assessment on Noxious Liquids/Heavy Metals Exposure on Community
Residents
Health Risk Assessment for Lubricants and Fuels affecting Tanawon workers
Risk Assessment of Lubricants and Fuels Exposure on Community Residents
Risk Assessment for Fuel and Lubricants Release on Flora and Fauna
Probabilities earthquake intensity at 30-year return period and corresponding
of damage and cost (in Pesos) of damage

4.2.2.3-2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.3
4.4.2.2
4.4.3.1-1
4.4.3.1-2
4.4.3.1-3
4.4.3.1-4
4.4.3.1-5
4.4.3.1-6
4.4.3.2-1
4.4.3.2-2
4.4.3.2-3
4.4.3.2-4
4.4.3.2-5
4.4.3.2-6
4.4.3.2-7
4.4.3.2-8
4.4.3.3-2

5.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN

5.2-1

Pre-operational and Operational Monitoring Program for Tanawon Geothermal


Project (Water, Sediment, Soil, and Biological)
Pre-operational and Operational Monitoring Program for Tanawon Geothermal
project (Water, Sediment, Soil, and Biological)
Pre-operational and Operational Monitoring Program for Tanawon Geothermal
Project
Environmental Management and Monitoring Costs

5.2-2
5.2-3
5.2-4

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3-57

3-57
3-58
3-58
3-59

4-17
4-19
4-22
4-22
4-23
4-34
4-41
4-47
4-49
4-51
4-53
4-54
4-54
4-55
4-59
4-62
4-62
4-64
4-64
4-65
4-66
4-66
4-68

5-39
5-41
5-42
5-43

p. TOC- 21

LIST OF FIGURES
Page
1.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1.3-1
Fig. 1.3-2
Fig. 1.3-3
Fig. 1.3-4
Fig. 1.3-5
Fig. 1.3-6
Fig. 1.4.1

Fig. 1.5-2
Fig. 1.6-1
Fig. 1.7-1
Fig. 1.7-2
Fig. 1.7-3
Fig. 1.7-4
Fig. 1.8-1
Fig. 1.8-2
Fig. 1.8-3
Fig. 1.8-4
Fig. 1.8-5
Fig. 1.8-6
Fig. 1.8-7
Fig. 1.8-8
Fig. 1.8-9
Fig. 1.8-10
Fig. 1.8-11
Fig. 1.8-12
Fig. 1.8-13

Basic Features of a Geothermal System


Locations of Geothermal Power Plants Around the World
Current Worldwide Installed Geothermal Capacity
Existing Philippine Geothermal Power Plants
List of Operating Projects
Geothermal Power Development
The Philippine Power Generation Mix for 1999 and 2000 shows a selfsufficiency level of 48%. This is expected to increase further with the
programmed increase in contribution from indigenous energy sources such as
geothermal
Gas emission contribution per MW produced for various power generation
facilities
A model of recharge to geothermal reservoir
A typical layout of a geothermal power project
Bicol Regional Map
Political Boundary Map
Tanawon Geothermal Development BGPF
Primary and Secondary Impact Area
Transmission Tower
Location of potential Spoil Disposal Areas (SDAs) for excess earth material
Set-up of a drilling rig with sumps for full containment of drilling materials
Typical well casing program for a geothermal well
Directional drilling technology
Single Flash System with Condensing Power Plant
Single Flash System with Combined Cycle Power Plant
Single Flash System with Condensing and Brine Binary Power Plant
Single Flash with Topping Plant
Double Flash with Dual Pressure Power Plant
Double Flash with Condensing, Topping and Bottoming Plant
Material Balance for a 40 MW Tanawon power plant
Material Balance for an 80 MW Tanawon power plant

2.0

BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

Fig. 1.5-1

1-51
1-52
1-52
1-53
1-53
1-54
1-55

1-56
1-57
1-58
1-58A
1-58B
1-58C
1-58D
1-59
1-60
1-61
1-62
1-62
1-63
1-63
1-64
1-64
1-65
1-65
1-66
1-66

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.1.1
Fig. 2.1.1-1
Fig. 2.1.1-2
Fig. 2.1.1-3
Fig. 2.1.1-4
Fig. 2.1.1-5
Fig. 2.1.1-6
Fig. 2.1.1-7
Fig. 2.1.1-8
Fig. 2.1.1-9
Fig. 2.1.1-10

GEOLOGY
Major tectonic features and Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism in the Central
Philippines
Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field and Tanawon Development Block
Classified Slope Map of BGPF
Classified slope direction (aspect) map of BGPF
Classified slope shape of BGPF
Generalized Geology of Pocdol Mountains and Vicinity
Geologic Map of Pocdol Mountains
Cross Section from west to east across Mt. Pulog and Maharang
Structural Map of Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF)
Two-dimensional Geomorphic Map of BGPF

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.1.1-24
2.1.1-25
2.1.1-26
2.1.1-27
2.1.1-28
2.1.1-29
2.1.1-30
2.1.1-31
2.1.1-32
2.1.1-33

p. TOC- 22

Fig. 2.1.1-11

Fig. 2.1.1-22

Three-dimensional geomorphic view of BGPF


Isoresistivity map at 700 m rsl
Bougueranomaly map of BGPF
Iso-chloride (mg?kg) field contours at BGPF
Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field Temperature
Historical significant earthquakes in the Philippines (1608-1997)
Map Showing Peak Horizontal Acceleration Magnitudes in Rocks for the
Philippine Region
Map Showing Peak Horizontal Acceleration Magnitudes in Medium Soil for the
Philippine Region
Existing minor slides at Tanawon road leading to pad C
Location Map of Selected Sampling Stations for Petrology and Geochemistry
Analysis
Chemical nomenclature of volcanic rocks according to Peccerillo and Taylor
(1976) as modified by Ewatt (1982)
BGPF Hydrological model with Iso-resistivity contours and isotherms at
1600m elevation
BGPF sectoral distribution

2.1.2
Fig. 2.1.2-1
Fig. 2.1.2-2
Fig. 2.1.2-3
Fig. 2.1.2-4
Fig. 2.1.2-5
Fig. 2.1.2-6
Fig. 2.1.2-7

PEDOLOGY
Soil Type Map
Slope Map
Location of Exploratory Boreholes within Tanawon Geothermal Block
Subsurface Borehole Logs
Particle Size Distribution Curve
Soil Classification Test
Erosion Map

2.1.2-8
2.1.2-9
2.1.2-10
2.1.2-11
2.1.2-14
2.1.2-17
2.1.2-21

2.1.3
Fig.2.1.3-1
Fig. 2.1.3-2
Fig. 2.1.3-3
Fig. 2.1.3-4
Fig. 2.1.3-5

HYDROLOGY
Environmental Sampling Stations
River Usage & Sampling Stations
Hydrogeological Map
Inferred Recharge Areas Based on Isotope Geology
Stream flow Hydrograph of Cawayan River

2.1.3-31
2.1.3-32
2.1.3-33
2.1.3-34
2.1.3-35

2.1.4
Fig. 2.1.4-1

WATER QUALITY
Piper Diagram of Selected Water Sources at BGPF and Vicinity

2.1.3-36

2.1.5
Fig. 2.1.5-1
Fig. 2.1.5-2

METEOROLOGY/ CLIMATOLOGY
Philippine Coronas Climate Map
Meteorological Data at BGPF Weather Station July 01, 1999 to October 24,
2000
Wind Rose Diagrams, 1961-1995, Legaspi City, Albay
Cyclone Map of the Philippines

Fig.. 2.1.1-12

Fig. 2.1.1-13
Fig. 2.1.1-14
Fig. 2.1.1-15
Fig. 2.1.1-16
Fig. 2.1.1-17
Fig. 2.1.1-18
Fig. 2.1.1-18a

Fig. 2.1.1-19
Fig. 2.1.1-20
Fig. 2.1.1-21

Fig. 2.1.5-3
Fig. 2.1.5-4
2.1.6
Fig. 2.1.6-1
Fig. 2.1.6-2
Fig. 2.1.6-3
Fig. 2.1.6-4
Fig. 2.1.6-5
Fig. 2.1.6-6
Fig. 2.1.6-7

OCEANOGRAPHY
Coastal geometry and bathymetry of Sorsogon Bay. Depths are given in
meters below Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW)
Coastal geometry and bathymetry of Poligui. Depths are given in meters below
Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW)
Tidal heights (m) in the project site during the period of observation in
December 2000 (NAMRIA, 2000)
Predicted currents in Sorsogon Bay during tidal ebbing
Predicted currents in Sorsogon Bay during tidal flooding
Predicted currents in Poliqui Bay during the northeast monsoon season.
Predicted currents in Poliqui Bay during the southwest monsoon season

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.1.1-34
2.1.1-35
2.1.1-36
2.1.1-37
2.1.1-38
2.1.1-39
2.1.1-40
2.1.1-41
2.1.1-42
2.1.1-43
2.1.1-44
2.1.1-45
2.1.1-46

2.1.5-9
2.1.5-10
2.1.5-11
2.1.5-15

2.1.6-11
2.1.6-12
2.1.6-13
2.1.6-14
2.1.6-15
2.1.6-16
2.1.6-17

p. TOC- 23

2.1.7
Fig. 2.1.7-1
Fig. 2.1.7.2
Fig. 2.1.7-3

AIR QUALITY
Locations of Existing Geothermal Power Plants and Air Sampling Stations
Median of observed maximum daytime noise levels
Daytime noise levels exceeding 90% of the time (L90)

2.1.7-8
2.1.7-9
2.1.7-9

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.2.1
Fig. 2.2.1-1
Fig. 2.2.1-2

TERRESTRIAL FLORA
Land Classification Map
Land use Map

2.2.1-54
2.2.1-53

2.2.3
Fig. 2.2.3-1

AGRICULTURE
Irrigated Ricefields and Sampling stations

2.2.3-8

2.2.5
Fig. 2.2.5-1
Fig. 2.2.5-2
Fig. 2.2.5-3
Fig. 2.2.5-4
Fig. 2.2.5-5
Fig. 2.2.5-6
Fig. 2.2.5-7
Fig. 2.2.5-8
Fig. 2.2.5-9

MARINE BIOLOGY
Marine Biology Sampling Stations
Relative abundance of soft bottom benthos in Sorsogon Bay
Relative of Abundance of polychaete fauna in Sorsogon Bay
Relative abundance of crustacean fauna in Sorsogon Bay
Diversity Index of soft bottom benthos in Sorsogon Bay
Relative abundance of bottom benthosf in Sorsogon fauna
Relative abundance of polychaetes in Poliqui Bay
Relative abundance of crustaceans in Poliqui Bay
Diversity index of soft bottom benthos in Poliqui Bay

2.2.5-30
2.2.5-31
2.2.5-31
2.2.5-32
2.2.5-32
2.2.5-33
2.2.5-33
2.2.5-34
2.2.5-34

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.2.1
Fig. 2.2.1-2
Fig. 2.2.3-1

TERRESTRIAL FLORA
Land Use/ Vegetation Map
Irrigated Areas and Sampling Stations

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Fig. 2.3-1

Map Showing Settlement Areas

3.0

IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Fig. 3.1-1

Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Sorsogon


Bay without the project
Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Poliqui bay
without the project
Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Sorsogon
Bay with the project
Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Sorsogon
Bay with (dashed contour) and without (solid contour) the project. These are
predicted to exceed the 30 mg/l standard
Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Poliqui Bay
with the project
Predicted increase in suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) in Poliqui Bay
with (dashed contour) and without (solid contour) the project. These areas are
predicted to exceed the 30 mg/l standard
Predicted ambient GLCs of H2S during horizontal well testing at worst case
meteorological condition. The well is assumed located at Site 7 (Wind = WSW,
Stability = stable, Max concentration = 0.227 ppm)
Predicted noise levels in (in dBA) during well testing (background noise levels

Fig. 3.1-2
Fig. 3.2-1
Fig. 3.2-2

Fig. 3.2-3
Fig. 3.2-4

Fig. 3.2-5

Fig. 3.2-6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

2.3-31

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3-60
3-60
3-61
3-61

3-62
3-62

3-63

3-64

p. TOC- 24

Fig. 3.2-7
Fig. 3.2-8
Fig. 3.2-9
Fig. 3.2-10
Fig. 3.2-11
Fig. 3.2-12

Fig. 3.2-13
Fig. 3.2-14

Fig. 3.2-15
Fig. 3.2-16

Fig. 3.2-17
Fig. 3.2-18
Fig. 3.2.-19

Fig. 3.2.-20

Fig. 3.2-21

not included)
Map showing the prevailing wind flow (annual wind rose) over the proposed
project site and vicinity
Receptors generated for CTDMPLUS modeling
Predicted GLC of H2S from three existing geothermal power plants (Wind =
NE, Stability = stable. Direction of arrow indicates prevailing wild flow)
Predicted GLC of H2S from three existing geothermal power plants (Wind =
NE, Stability = unstable. Direction of arrow indicates prevailing wind flow)
Predicted GLC of H2S from three existing geothermal power plants (Wind = W,
Stability = stable. Direction of arrow indicates prevailing wind flow)
Predicted GLC of H2S from Botong and Cawayan geothermal power plant
Bacman not operating (Wind = Wind, Stability = stable. Direction of arrow
indicates prevailing wind flow)
Locations of potential power plant siting options
Predicted GLC of H2S for the proposed 1x80 MW geothermal power plant
during worst-case meteorological condition. Direction of arrow 1 indicates wind
direction (Location = Sites, Wind = WSW, Stability = Stable)
Preferred siting options for combined 1x50 MW and 1x30 MW GPPs (Option =
Sites 4 & 7, Wind = NE, Stability = stable)
Predicted GLC of H2S from combined 1x50 MW and 1x30MW GPPs during
worst-case meterological condition (Option = Sites 2 & 8, Wind = WSW,
Stability = stable)
Predicted GLC of H2S from three existing GPP and proposed 1x80MW GPP
located at Site 4 (Wind = NE, Stability = stable)
Predicted GLC of H2S from three existing GPP and proposed 1x80MW GPP
located at Site 4 (Wind = NE, Stability = stable)
Predicted GLC of H2S from combined three existing GPP and proposed
1x50MW and 1x30MW GPPs located at site 4 and Site 7, respectively. (Wind
= NE, Stability = stable, Direction of arrow indicates prevailing wind flow)
Predicted GLC of H2S from combined existing three GPP and proposed 1 x 50
and 1 x 30 MW GPPs located at Site 4 and Site 7, respectively. (Wind = NE,
Stability = unstable, Direction of arrow indicates prevailing wind flow)
Predicted GLC of H2S from proposed 1 x 50 and 1 x 30 MW GPPs located at
Site 4 and Site 7, respectively. (Wind = NE, Stability = unstable, Direction of
arrow indicates prevailing wind flow)

4.0

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

Fig. 4.1.6.2-1

Geomorphic features of the region around the project site. (Shaded relief map
of 1km gridded topography data, thin line are bathymetric contours (in m) of
the seafloor)
Tectonic features of the region around the project site
Epicenter of earthquakes from 1907 to 1998. (Coastline is blue, colored thin
lines are bathymetric contours)
Number of events of each Voronoi polygon. (Coastline is blue, colored thin
lines are bathymetric contours)
Largest earthquake magnitude for each Voronoi polygon. (Coastline is blue,
colored thin lines are bathymetric contours)
Gemographic features of the Project site. The Pocdol Mountains is an eastwest volcanic system
Landslide susceptibility in the project area
Seismic acceleration for soft soil with 90% of non-exceedance
Seismic acceleration for medium soil with 90% of non-exceedance
Seismic acceleration for rock with 90% of non-exceedance
Annual frequency of typhoons and storms in the project area

Fig. 4.1.6.2-1
Fig. 4.1.6.3-1
Fig. 4.1.6.3-2
Fig. 4.1.6.3-3
Fig. 4.3.2.3-1
Fig. 4.3.2.3-2
Fig. 4.3.2.3-3
Fig. 4.3.2.3-4
Fig. 4.3.2.3-5
Fig. 4.3.2.3-6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3-65
3-66
3-67
3-68
3-69
3-70

3-71
3-72

3-73
3-74

3-75
3-76
3-77

3-78

3-79

4-106

4-107
4-108
4-109
4-110
4-111
4-112
4-113
4-114
4-115
4-116

p. TOC- 25

5.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN

Fig. 5.1-1
Fig. 5.1-2

Roads Stabilization Techniques


Location of Social Forestry Projects Organized by PNOC w/in BacMan
Geothermal Reservation
Geothermal Waste Management during Construction, Well Drilling and Testing
Geothermal Waste Management during Steam Field and Power Plant
Operations

Fig. 5.1-3
Fig. 5.1-4

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5-44
5-45
5-46
5-47

p. TOC- 26

LIST OF PLATES
Page

1.0

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.7-1

To the left Sorsogon Highway is the existing road entrance at Brgy. Rizal
leading to the BacMan Geothermal Production Field (BGPF)
The above photo shows the topography within the northwest sector of the
Tanawon geothermal development block which is found at an elevation
ranging from 480-940 masl. Note the existing Cawayan power plant and
transmission lines at the extreme right
Photo showing the general topography of the mid-portion of the Tanawon
geothermal development block. Note the wellpad with a drilling rig.
A typical Drilling Rig
A typical Geothermal Production Well showing the well head assembly
Vertical Well Testing
A silencer is attached to the production well to reduce noise
A multi-well pad strategy allows several wells to be located in just one pad,
thus minimizing surface disturbance
Pipeline route of the existing Cawayan FCRS
Existing BGPF Separator Station / FCRS Pipelines
Among the existing facilities within the Tanawon Geothermal block is the
FCRS of BacMan II (Cawayan sector) as shown above: multi-well pad with
wells, pipelines, separator statin and polythelene-lined thermal pond
Interface point of the BacMan II (Cawayan Sector) FCRS and Power Plant
Existing Botong Power Plant found within the Bacman Geothermal
Production Field
Inside the Power Plant Control Center
Switchyard of the existing Bacman 1 Power Plant
A lattice-type transmission tower
The existing Sludge Pit of the BGPF is fenced to prevent entry of
unauthorized personnel

Plate 1.8-1

Plate 1.8-2
Plate 1.8-3
Plate 1.8-4
Plate 1.8-5
Plate 1.8-6
Plate 1.8-7
Plate 1.8-8
Plate 1.8-9
Plate 1.8-10

Plate 1.8-11
Plate 1.8-12
Plate 1.8-13
Plate 1.8-14
Plate 1.8-15
Plate 1.8-16

2.0

1-67
1-68

1-68
1-69
1-69
1-69
1-70
1-70
1-71
1-71
1-71

1-72
1-72
1-72
1-73
1-73
1-73

BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.1.3
Plate 2.1.3-2
Plate 2.1.3-3
Plate 2.1.3-4
Plate 2.1.3-5
Plate 2.1.3-6
Plate 2.1.3-7
Plate 2.1.3-8
Plate 2.1.3-9
Plate 2.1.3-10
Plate 2.1.3-11
Plate 2.1.3-12
Plate 2.1.3-13
Plate 2.1.3-14

HYDROLOGY
Domestic garbage dumped by nearby residents along creeks/ rivers
Station BMGP-35
Station BMGP 127
Station BMGP- 126
Station BMGP- 121
Station BMGP 116
Station BMGP 111
Station BMGP-104
Station BMGP 79
Station BMGP 103
Station BMGP 107
Station BMGP-80
Station BMGP 12

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.1.3-36
2.1.3-36
2.1.3-36
2.1.3-37
2.1.3-37
2.1.3-37
2.1.3-37
2.1.3-38
2.1.3-38
2.1.3-38
2.1.3-38
2.1.3-39
2.1.3-39

p. TOC- 27

Plate 2.1.3-15
Plate 2.1.3-16
Plate 2.1.3-17
Plate 2.1.3-18
Plate 2.1.3-19
Plate 2.1.3-20
Plate 2.1.3-21
Plate 2.1.3-22
Plate 2.1.3-23
Plate 2.1.3-24
Plate 2.1.3-25
Plate 2.1.3-26
Plate 2.1.3-27
Plate 2.1.3-28
Plate 2.1.3-29
Plate 2.1.3-30
Plate 2.1.3-31
Plate 2.1.3-32
Plate 2.1.3-33
Plate 2.1.3-34
Plate 2.1.3-35
Plate 2.1.3-36
Plate 2.1.3-37
Plate 2.1.3-38
Plate 2.1.3-39
Plate 2.1.3-40
Plate 2.1.3-41
Plate 2.1.3-42
Plate 2.1.3-43
Plate 2.1.3-44
Plate 2.1.3-45

Station BMGP 71
Station BMGP -24
Station BMGP-133
Station BMGP 132
Station BMGP 72
NPC Mini-Hydroelectric Dam at Cawayan River
Station BMGW 11
Station BMGW 54
Station BMGW 56
Station BMGW 55
2 swimming pools fed by Palhi spring
Station BMGW 52
Station BMGW 52
Station BMGW 52
Station BMGW 57
Station BMGW 51
Station BMGW 8
Station BMGP 40
Station BMGW 59
Station BMGW 60
Station BMGW 61
Station BMGP 62
Station BMGP 63
Station BMGP 64
Station BMGP 65
Station BMGP 66
Station BMGP 67
Station BMGP 68
Station BMGP 69
Station BMGP 70
Station BMGP 71 & 72

2.1.3-39
2.1.3-39
2.1.3-40
2.1.3-40
2.1.3-40
2.1.3-40
2.1.3-41
2.1.3-41
2.1.3-41
2.1.3-41
2.1.3-42
2.1.3-42
2.1.3-42
2.1.3-43
2.1.3-43
2.1.3-43
2.1.3-43
2.1.3-44
2.1.3-44
2.1.3-44
2.1.3-44
2.1.3-45
2.1.3-45
2.1.3-45
2.1.3-45
2.1.3-46
2.1.3-46
2.1.3-46
2.1.3-47
2.1.3-47
2.1.3-47

2.1.4
Plate 2.1.4-1

WATER QUALITY
In situ determination of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity
at BMGP-72

2.1.3-47

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.2.1
Plate 2.2.1-1
Plate 2.2.1-2
Plate 2.2.1-3
Plate 2.2.1-4
Plate 2.2.1-5
Plate 2.2.1-6
Plate 2.2.1-7
Plate 2.2.1-8
Plate 2.2.1-9
Plate 2.2.1-10
Plate 2.2.1-11
Plate 2.2.1-12

TERRESTRIAL FLORA
Forest Inventory at Plot 1
Forest Inventory at Plot 2
Forest Inventory at Plot 3
Forest Inventory at Plot 4
Forest Inventory at Plot 5
Forest Inventory at Plot 6
Forest Inventory at Plot 7
Forest Inventory at Plot 8
Forest Inventory at Plot 9
Reforestation species intermingled with sparse secondary forest species
within the Tanawon block
Abaca plantation at the southern portion of the Tanawon block
Cacao plantation at the southern flank of the Tanawon block

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.2.1-56
2.2.1-56
2.2.1-56
2.2.1-56
2.2.1-57
2.2.1-57
2.2.1-57
2.2.1-58
2.2.1-58
2.2.1-59
2.2.1-59
2.2.1-59

p. TOC- 28

2.2.2

TERRESTRIAL FAUNA

Plate 2.2.2-1
Plate 2.2.1-12

Philippine Pit Viper showing its back stripes suggesting it is still a sub-adult
Faecal droppings of palm Civet Cat consisting of coffee beans

2.2.3

AGRICULTURE

Plate 2.2.3-1
Plate 2.2.3-2
Plate 2.2.3-3
Plate 2.2.3-4
Plate 2.2.3-5
Plate 2.2.3-6
Plate 2.2.3-7
Plate 2.2.3-8
Plate 2.2.3-9
Plate 2.2.3-10
Plate 2.2.3-11
Plate 2.2.3-12
Plate 2.2.3-13
Plate 2.2.3-14
Plate 2.2.3-15

One of the make-shift irrigation diversions along Manitohan River


Ricefields irrigated by Manitohan river Station BM-AS 11A
Irrigation water from Ticol merges with waters from Capuy River To the left
is Capuy river.
Station BMAS76A is a ricefield irrigated by Capuy-Ticol river.
Main irrigation canal tapping water from Ticol river
Ricefield station BM-AS70B irrigation by Ticol River
One of the first few ricefield fed by Cawayan Irrigation System
Irrigation dam along Cawayan River
Spring-fed ricefield at Cawayan watershed
Small fishpond at Cawayan watershed
Irrigation diversion at Anahaw river
Ricefield along Anahaw river
Panoramic view of Sorsogon ricefields
Osiao irrigation intake
Osiao riceifeld station BM-AS50B

2.2.4

FRESHWATER FLORA AND FAUNA

Plate 2.2.4-1
Plate 2.2.4-2

Plankton sampling at BMGP-126 (Ticol River) using a plankton net.


Sampling for benthic fauna at BMGP-127 (Ticol River) using a Surber
sampler
Sampling for aquatic biota at BMGP-79 (Rizal River) at the height of the
typhoon

Plate 2.2.4-3
2.2.5

MARINE FLORA AND FAUNA

Plate 2.2.5-1
Plate 2.2.5-2

Local residents in Manito area involved during marine survey


Sediment sample sieved on-site using wire mesh for soft bottom benthos
determination
Rows of newly planted mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) ;expansion of
PNOC Manito Mangrove Reforestration Project (10 hectares)
Mangrove Reforestation area of PNOC covering 9 hectares. Planted
species is Rhizophora apiculata
Fishermen are using sailboat made of patch sacks/clothes (sibid) to catch
blue crab
Hook and line fishing method in Sorsogon Bay
Gleaners collecting mollusks
Bryozoans Lingula sp. Gathered by gleaners in Cawayan seabed at low
tide
Basket of Psammotea sp. Gleaned in Cawayan tidal flat
Stand of Sonneratia alba (Pagatpat) within the transect plot
Mangroves in Cawayan, Sorsogon were indiscriminately cut for fuel
purposes. Foreground of the picture is the Cawayan River
Avincennia marina (miapi)
Nypa fruticans
Fishermen were interviewed on their fishery resource

Plate 2.2.5-3
Plate 2.2.5-4
Plate 2.2.5-5
Plate 2.2.5-6
Plate 2.2.5-7
Plate 2.2.5-8
Plate 2.2.5-9
Plate 2.2.5-10
Plate 2.2.5-11
Plate 2.2.5-12
Plate 2.2.5-13
Plate 2.2.5-14

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.2.2-7
2.2.2-7

2.2.3-9
2.2.3-9
2.2.3-10
2.2.3-10
2.2.3-11
2.2.3-11
2.2.3-12
2.2.3-12
2.2.3-13
2.2.3-13
2.2.3-14
2.2.3-14
2.2.3-15
2.2.3-16
2.2.3-16

2.2.4-16
2.2.4-16
2.2.4-16

2.2.5-35
2.2.5-35
2.2.5-35
2.2.5-35
2.2.5-36
2.2.5-36
2.2.5-36
2.2.5-36
2.2.5-37
2.2.5-37
2.2.5-37
2.2.5-38
2.2.5-38
2.2.5-38

p. TOC- 29

5.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Plate 5.1-1
Plate 5.1-2

Silt barriers are constructed along slopes during road opening


A method of slope stabilization using a combination of coco-fiber matting
and slope terracing. The planted Agoho will grow intermingling with the mat
to result in greater stability
Biological stabilization (using Agoho spp.) at open slopes proved to be
successful at the existing Cawayan sector within the Tanawon development
block
Azupre / Tublijon Agroforestry Project
Manito mangrove rehabilitation
Seedlings for outplanting at PNOC-EDCs nursery
A billboard at the entrance of the Bacman Geothermal Reservation
informing the public that illegal tree cutting is punishable by law
A 30-ha. Reforestation area at Rizal watershed
PNOC-EDC has undertaken Social Forestry Projects within the BacMan
Geothermal Reservation
NCG ducting to the cooling tower cells of the power plant as a means of
dispersing NCG, and thus reducing the stack emission concentration. The
arrow points to the NCG pipe.
Another view of the NCG ducting scheme to the cooling tower of the power
plant. Both photos taken at PNOC-EDCs Mahanagdong power plant in
Leyte

5-48
5-48

Water Quality Monitoring


Ground water monitoring
Air Quality Monitoring
Forest cover and biodiversity monitoring
Terrestrial fauna monitoring
Agriculture soil/water/plant quality monitoring
River biota monitoring
Marine biota monitoring
Multi-Sectoral Monitoring

5-52
5-52
5-52
5-53
5-53
5-53
5-54
5-54
5-54

Plate 5.1-3

Plate 5.1-4
Plate 5.1-5
Plate 5.1-6
Plate 5.1-7
Plate 5.1-8
Plate 5.1-9
Plate 5.1-10

Plate 5.1-11

Plate 5.2-1
Plate 5.2-2
Plate 5.2-3
Plate 5.2-4
Plate 5.2-5
Plate 5.2-6
Plate 5.2-7
Plate 5.2-8
Plate 5.2-9

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5-48

5-49
5-49
5-49
5-50
5-50
5-50
5-51

5-51

p. TOC- 30

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix No.

Title

EIA Reference

Appendix A

Tanawon EIA Formal Scoping Report

Sec. II: EIA Process


Documentation

Appendix B-1

Additional Consultations with Barangays

Sec. II: EIA Process


Documentation

Appendix B-2

Consultations and Site Visits of Sorsogon City and Provincial


Councils, Sorsogon Water District

Sec. II: EIA Process


Documentation

Appendix B-3

Supplemental Scoping with DENR-EMB and EIARC

Sec. II: EIA Process


Documentation

Appendix C

Project Endorsements (Proof of Social Acceptability)

Sec. II: EIA Process


Documentation

Appendix D

BGPF Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC)


confirmation dated Nov. 17, 1995;
Aug. 21, 1987 ECC

Sec. 1.2

Appendix E

Executive Order 223;


Presidential Proclamation 2036-A

Sec. 1.2

Appendix F

Siting Criteria for Project Facilities

Sec. 1.5.2; Sec. 1.8.1.1;


Sec. 4.1.5.2

Appendix G

PNOC-EDC ISRS Certificate;


PNOC-EDC Corporate Safety Policy

Sec. 1.8.1.1;
Sec. 1.8.1.6; Sec. 5.1.7

Appendix H

Global and Local Slope Stability Analysis

Sec. 2.1.2

Appendix I-1

Terrestrial Flora: Inventory of Plants within Plots 1 to 9

Sec. 2.2.1

Appendix I-2

Terrestrial Fauna: Species Accounts of Wildlife;


Bird Transects

Sec. 2.2.2

Appendix J

Marine Biology: Density data for Marine Organisms

Sec. 2.2.5

Appendix K

Socio-economic Profile of Host Barangays;


Projected Local Spending from the Project

Sec. 2.3; Sec. 3.2.2.3

Appendix L

Environmental Management Associates (EMA) Experts


opinion on Geothermal Energy Development

Sec. 3.2.5.1;
Sec. 5.1.5.1

Appendix M

Experts Opinion on Mt. Punatubo Eruption

Sec. 3.2.5.1

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 31

Appendix No.

Title

EIA Reference

Appendix N

Watershed Management Plan for Tanawon Geothermal


Project

Sec. 5.1.2.1;
Sec. 5.1.2.3;
Sec. 5.1.5.2

Appendix O

Water Quality Variance for Exploration Projects

Sec. 5.1.4; Sec. 5.2.1.1

Appendix P

Draft Contractors Contract Provisions on Environment


(lifted from Leyte Steamline Interconnection contract)

Sec. 5.1.6

Appendix Q

PNOC-EDC Corporate Environmental Policy

Sec. 5.3

Appendix R

PNOC-EDC Institutional Plan and Table of Organization

Sec. 5.3

Appendix S

PNOC Environmental Track Record

Sec. 5.3

Appendix T

PNOC-EDC Position on the MOA for the Multi Partite


Monitoring Team, Environmental Monitoring Fund and the
Environmental Guarantee Fund
- Annex 1: Existing MOA for the MSMT
- Annex 2: Financial Test Mechanism for SLGP

Sec 5.1.1

Appendix U

Estimated Review Support Fund for the Proposed 50-80 MW


Tanawon Geothermal Project

Appendix V

Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) Registration;


Financial statement for the last 5 years

Appendix W

Accountability Statement of EIA Preparers;


Accountability Statement of Project Proponent

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p. TOC- 32

I.
I.1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A Background on Geothermal Resources

Geothermal energy is the energy tapped from beneath the earth. Water serves as the medium to tap this
heat, and it is this hot water found at about 2,000-3,000m deep which is extracted through the drilling of
geothermal wells. Upon reaching the surface, the steam portion is collected through a series of pipelines
which feed mechanical power to run the power plant and thus produce electricity.
The Philippines ranks second to the United States in terms of geothermal power generation worldwide
producing about 1,904 MW. PNOC-EDC operates a total of 1,148 MW in four geothermal fields in the
Philippines, specifically in Leyte, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato and in Bicol .

I.2

Project Rationale

Geothermal power has been found to be one of the more advantageous energy options to the country in
terms of lesser greenhouse gas emissions, lower investment, high power plant reliability, and renewability.
An 80 MW geothermal power project such as that in Tanawon shall avoid or reduce the greenhouse gas
emission of about 435 kilotons of CO2 annually if a similar capacity of fossil-fired power plant were to be
set up. Being indigenous, it shall contribute to the displacement of imported fuel amounting to a dollar
reserve savings of about US$18 million (for 50 MW) to US$29 million (for 80 MW) annually for 30 years of
operation.
With the increased energy demand in the medium to long-term and the retirement of aging oil and coalbased power plants, the development of indigenous and clean energy resources such as geothermal is
being prioritized in the governments Philippine Energy Plan of 2003-2012 to ensure the countrys selfsufficiency and power security.

I.3

Project Description

The Tanawon Geothermal Project is proposed by the PNOC-Energy Development Corporation as an


expansion or a fourth sector of the existing BacMan Geothermal Production Field (BGPF) in Sorsogon
City, Sorsogon Province. The project shall utilize geothermal resources originally intended for the
maintenance and replacement (M&R) sector of BacMan-II (Cawayan sector), where the surrounding
geothermal resource was assessed to have potential for a separate sectoral development.
Project components consist of (1) a Fluid Collection and Reinjection System or FCRS, (2) 50 to 80 MW
power plant(s) and control center(s), (3) switchyard(s) and transmission line, and (4) waste management
facilities & support facilities.
Project phases fall under three general categories, namely, (1) Pre-operations Phase lasting about 3-5
years, (2) Operations Phase for 30 years, and (3) Abandonment Phase. The Pre-operations phase covers
the exploration and development of the geothermal steamfield, and consists of (a) civil works/construction,
(b) well drilling, and (c) well testing. The operations phase covers the actual operations of the entire
system, commencing from steam supply to the power plant, electric power generation and finally power
transmission. Electricity generated from Tanawon shall contribute to the Luzon grid through several
options: via the existing switchyard in BGPF, or via NPCs substation in Daraga or Sorsogon. The
operations phase also covers the continued implementation of environmental and watershed management
activities already existing in the BacMan Geothermal Reservation which is under the jurisdiction and
management of PNOC-EDC. Project abandonment may occur in either two instances: (1) if the wells

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 1

prove to be unproductive or non-commercial after resource assessment, and (2) if the power plant has
exceeded its commercial life.
Sources of gaseous emissions are the wellheads, well silencers, rock mufflers, minor steam traps of the
FCRS; and the cooling tower stacks and gas ejector system of the power plant. Noise generation is
expected from the drilling rig, separator station, well silencers, and pressure-reducing station, airplant, and
power plant generator.
By-products and wastes come in the form of excess drilling fluids, separated geothermal brine (from well
testing and operations), fluids from bore output measurements (BOM), laboratory wastes, cooling tower
blowdown, and steam condensate. Solid waste include the earth spoils from earthmoving activities, and
cooling tower sludge and machinery scales from the power plant.
The proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project is delineated by a 2,460-hectare geothermal development
block wherein all surface development will be confined. Within this block, only about 5-10% shall be
opened for the various facilities and installations.
The proposed project falls within the political jurisdiction of nine barangays, namely, Brgys. Rizal, Bulabog,
Bucalbucalan, Capuy, Ticol, Basud, Guinlajon, San Juan, and Osiao of Sorsogon City, Sorsogon Province.
However, no household occupies the area which is generally forested and mountainous. The site is also
found within the existing 25,000-hectare BacMan Geothermal Reservation declared under Presidential
Proclamation 2036A (1980) and managed by PNOC-EDC per Executive Order 223 (1987).
The employees of the existing BacMan Geothermal Production Field will be tapped. Additional projected
manpower will be in the form of contractors personnel, estimated at about 500 to 1,500 during peak
construction periods, depending on the extent of actual development.
The estimated cost for a 50-80 MW Tanawon Geothermal Project is at PhP9.1 billion (Nine Billion One
Hundred Million Pesos) to PhP14.1 billion (Fourteen Billion One Hundred Million Pesos) to cover for its 35-year development and 30-year operations/ maintenance.
Pre-operations and operations of the project shall be undertaken either singly by PNOC-EDC or with
another business partner.

I.4

Process Documentation Summary

Social Preparation activities were undertaken in various forms. Among these include information drives
conducted on Nov. 15-17, 2000 and Jun. 1-2, 2002, with each of the nine host barangays. Comics in the
local dialect were distributed as another means to introduce the project to the community. To complement
the information drives, the residents were also invited for a site visit to the proposed Tanawon sector and
the operating BGPF on Dec. 14, 2000 and Nov. 18, 2002 for their appreciation and awareness of the
nature of the project as well as current environmental management practices.
Social Preparation was succeeded by a First and Second Level (Community) Scoping conducted on Nov.
16, 2000 and Dec. 11, 2000, respectively. During the first level scoping, DENR-EMB and the EIA Review
Committee (EIARC) came up with a checklist on the minimum parameters to be addressed in the EIA. In
the course of EIA preparation, revisions were made on the extent of the Tanawon geothermal block thus
a supplemental scoping with the EIARC was held on Sep. 18, 2002 for additional requirements. During the
second level scoping, the community was given another opportunity to participate in the open dialogue.
The issues and concerns raised also formed part of the EIS scope.
During the baseline environmental profiling, participation by the local residents was again activated when
some local residents (both PNOC workers and non-workers) were tapped as information sources and/or

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 2

samplers/ guides within the survey areas. Local government offices and agencies were likewise tapped as
secondary data sources.
Consultations and presentations to the Sorsogon City Council (Sannguniang Panlunsod), the Sorsogon
Provincial Council (Sangguniang Panlalawigan), and concerned government agencies (e.g., Sorsogon
Water District) were done from May to June 2002. These were complemented with site visits which
significantly increased their understanding of the project and their appreciation of the environmental
management measures undertaken by the company in the existing BGPF.
The information gathered from the community and local government, issues and concerns raised, EIARC
requirements, DENR-EMB checklists and guidelines, were all integrated to come up with the final scope of
the EIA study.

Baseline Profile

I.5

Baseline profiling for the project was conducted on three occasions in November 2000 to January 2001,
October 2001 and again on May-June 2002 to address the original Tanawon surface development block
as well as its expansion area. These consisted of primary data gathering during actual field sampling and
surveys, observations, interviews with locals, and informal dialogues. Secondary data were secured from
the various government agencies in the local and regional level. Historical data gathered from the
operations of the BGPF were also used as basis in coming up with impact predictions and management
planning.
Study areas include the entire Tanawon geothermal block as the primary impact area, and river systems
from headwaters to downstream coastal areas as secondary impact zones. Nine host barangays whose
political jurisdiction fall within the Tanawon block were likewise studied.

I.5.1

Physical Environment
I.5.1.1 Geology

The area is characterized by clusters of small eruptive centers, collectively known as the Pocdol
mountains which belong to the Bicol arc. The SanVicente-Linao fault (SVLF) is a major fault structure
bisecting the Pocdol Mountains. To date no active fault structure is recognized in the Pocdol mountains.
The morphology of the area is typical of a slightly, moderate and eroded volcanic region. Closely-spaced
eruptive vents still display their distinctive crater-like structures or in cases where they are heavily eroded,
hydrothermal activity is sometimes present. The active volcanoes nearest to the project site are Mt. Mayon
and Mt. Bulusan.
The Tanawon area is within a 50 ohm-m resistivity value, indicating a good potential for yielding additional
resource. No thermal manifestations are found within Tanawon, except for dilute warm springs and
altered grounds to the north and south of these areas.
In the absence of any observed subsidence in PNOC-EDC operated fields in Leyte, Cotabato, Southern
Negros and Bicol, minimal or no subsidence is expected to occur within Tanawon as the production zone
horizon lies at around 1600 mRSL , and the field is capped by competent volcanic materials which are
unlikely to collapse. Continuous injection of geothermal brine may have minimized possible effects of
geothermal production within the field and surrounding areas.

I.5.1.2 Pedology
The area within the Tanawon block is overlain by an Annam Clay Loam soil type, characterized by its clay
loam texture at the surface, clay loam to clayey at the subsoil, and gravelly to strong clay at the
substratum. Slope ranges from18-50% within the block. Erosion is slight to severe.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 3

Exploratory boreholes drilled within the Tanawon development block show that the area is dominated by
thick overburden of clayey soils. The hardness or softness of the soils (N-value is 4-27), ranges from
soft to hard. The estimated allowable soil bearing capacity for design purposes is equal to 50 kPA at a
minimum founding level of 1.0 meter below the natural grade line.
Soil from subsurface boreholes indicate a clay soil type. However, randomly samples soil from existing
road cuts indicate a sandy-silt characteristic. The variability in soil characteristics are typical of volcanic
areas.

I.5.1.3 Hydrology
Ten (10 ) major river systems were surveyed in the study area block, namely: Manitohan, Menito, Rizal,
Bucalbucalan, Bulabog, Capuy, Ticol, Cawayan, Anahaw and Osiao rivers.. On-site flow measurements of
these rivers range from a minimum of 0.01 m3/s ( Anahaw river ) to a maximum of 4.46 m3/s (Cawayan
river). Upstream tributaries are used for drinking in some rivers, while mid- to lower reaches are used for
domestic purposes (bathing and washing), sustenance fishery, and irrigation (Cawayan, Ticol, Capuy,
Manitohan rivers). A mini hydroelectric dam used to operate along Cawayan river. Rivermouths are
usually used for fishing and transport purposes. Domestic garbage was observed in most lowland rivers.
Domestic drinking water sources are provided mostlyby cold springs supplemented by water wells. The
Sorsogon Water District ( SWD ) is currently tapping seven (7) springs and five (5) deep wells to supply its
drinking water requirement.. Both are outside of the potential impact areas. Other domestic water
sources within the area include shallow wells (<20 m depth) or low-capacity springs. The major hydrologic
units in the study area are composed of Recent alluvial sediments (Qal), Quaternary volcanics (QV) and
Quaternary pyroclastic and clastic sedimentary rocks (Qvp ). The ground water systems within the Qvp
and Qal occur either as water table or leaky artesian aquifers.

I.5.1.4 Water Quality


A total of 70 water quality monitoring stations were established comprising of river water, groundwater,
and marine/coastal waters. Generally, the physico-chemical parameters of the freshwater samples are
within the National Water Quality Criteria for class AA waters, except for TSS (total suspended solids)
which was relatively high ( mean value = 228 ppm ) due to frequent and intense rains, steep slopes and
loose soil. This suggests the prohibitive use of the rivers for drinking, bathing and primary contact
recreation especially during rainy days occurring 21 days per month. Furthermore, a western tributary of
Dalipay Creek upstream of the Cawayan sector naturally contains 0.08 ppm of arsenic which is slightly
above the 0.05 ppm limit for Class AA, A, B and C surface waters. Such elevated As concentration can be
considered as natural occurrence and not indicative of geothermal brine discharge level due to its location
(upstream of pad) and low concentration of other geothermal-associated elements such as Cl, B, and Li
levels.
Physico-chemical properties of cold springs are generally within the National Drinking Water Standards
except for two SWD wells located east of Sorsogon City proper which naturally contained Boron at 0.38
and 0.81 ppm respectively. Such an occurrence can be attributed to their locations ( 5 masl ) where the
tendency of this dissolved element is to concentrate at these lower regions.
Sorsogon Bay,Poliqui Bay and Albay Gulfnaturally contain As, Cd, Hg, within class SA water quality
criteria. On the other hand, Cr levels in some coastal sampling stations slightly exceeded the 0.10 ppm
limit for class SB waters, while most stations contained Pb exceeding the 0.05 ppm limit.. River and
coastal sediments appear to have similar contents of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 4

I.5.1.5 Meteorology/ Climatology


The project site is found in a Type II climate region characterized by the absence of a dry season and a
very pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January. Annual rainfall is about 5,000 mm (19961999) measured at 3 Bacon-Manito rain gauges found at elevations 600-730 mASL. Mean rainfall is 32.3
mm per day; mean temperature is 26.6oC; mean humidity is 83.6%; and mean wind speed is high at 4.5
m/sec.

I.5.1.6 Oceanography
Sorsogon Bay has a very irregular coastal geometry. The bathymetric contours show increasing depth
towards the western direction. Wave characteristics are wind-induced. Wave heights are less than 1.5 m
during stormy conditions and about 0.2 - 0.48 m during ordinary conditions. The tides are predominantly
semi-diurnal with two (2) high and two (2) low water levels occurring in a day. Surface currents ranged
from 5-50 cm/s. Water transparency is low ranging from 0.33 - 2.2 m. Mean water temperature is 27oC.
Poliqui Bay has a sharp bathymetric gradient away from a rivermouth. Waves are induced by the wind.
Wave heights may reach over 3 m amplitude during stormy conditions with surface winds ranging from
10-20 m/s. Poliqui Bay has semi-diurnal tides. The surface currents are dictated by wind with observed
values ranging from 7.4 62.5 cm/s. A maximum depth-averaged current magnitude of 30 m/s has been
estimated in Poliqui Bay. Water transparency readings ranged from 0.8-2.2 m, while water temperature
ranged from 26.5 28.1 oC.

I.5.1.7 Air Quality/ Noise


Baseline hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations at the proposed Tanawon geothermal block range from
0.000 to 0.080 ppm, or within the 10 ppm H2S occupational standard of the Dept. of Labor & Employment
(DOLE). H2S levels at the nearest population area, on the other hand, measure 0.000 to 0.002 ppm,
within the 0.07 ppm ambient DENR standard.
Noise levels were measured to be well within the DOLE 90 dBA occupational standard for 8-hour
exposure.

I.5.2

Biological Environment
I.5.2.1 Terrestrial Flora

From the nine stations inventoried, total of 2,388 flora species were listed, eleven percent (11%) of which
belong to the Lesser Known/Use Species (LKS/LUS). Only a few dipterocarps were noted within the study
area, and these include: Shorea negrosensis, Shorea contorta, Shorea palosapis, Shorea squamata,
Hopea acuminata, and Anisoptera thurifera. Timber-producing species belong to 17 families. Numerous
species from 48 families have aesthetic values for landscaping. Species from 29 families have ornamental
value. Species with medicinal value belong to 8 families. No rare or endangered plant and forest tree
species were encountered in the study area.

I.5.2.2 Terrestrial Fauna


A total of 118 wildlife species was observed in 19 transect lines within the project area, comprising of 7
amphibians, 15 reptiles, 86 birds, and 10 mammals. Birds comprised about 72.88% of the surveyed
population. In terms of ecological status, about 62 species were endemic, 45 residents, 10 migratory, and
1 introduced species. The inventory also listed 3 protected species (per CITES II under regulated trade
category), namely Malay Monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), reticulated python (Python reticulatus), and the
long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), all of which were very common in forested areas of the project.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 5

There were also 5 threatened endemic species of birds, namely: Luzon bleeding heart pigeon
(Gallicolumbia luzonica), blue-naped parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis), Philippine horned owl (Bubo
philippinensis), the Rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), and the Tarictic hornbill (Penelopides panini).
All these are found in major islands in the Philippines, except the Luzon bleeding heart pigeon.
Diversity indices in the Tanawon geothermal block is moderate to high indicating a rich and diverse wildlife
species present in the area.

I.5.2.3 Agriculture
Agricultural areas (comprised mainly of coconut and abaca plantations) occupy the alienable and
disposable areas south of the geothermal block. A small patch of spring-fed ricefield (~1/4 ha) is found
along one of the Cawayan headwaters within the Tanawon block but has recently been abandoned.
Lowland irrigated ricefields fed by rivers emanating from the Tanawon block total 609 hectares and are
found along Capuy (<50 has.), Ticol (87 has.), Cawayan (472 has.) rivers, comprising of make-shift or
communal irrigation systems. Other irrigated ricefields proximate to the study area are found along
Manitohan (142 has.), Anahaw (~10 has.), and Osiao (~50 has.) rivers. Manitohan ricefields are found
in two general areas: at an upland plateau (280 mASL) in Sitio Inang Maharang in Brgy. Nagotgot, and at
the lowlands of Manito town. For most farms, average yield of rice is 4 metric tons (80 cavans) per
harvest per year.

I.5.2.4 Freshwater Flora and Fauna


A survey of nine rivers resulted to the recovery of the following taxa: 26 phytoplankton, 13 zooplankton,
30 benthic fauna, 8 riverine fishes and 3 crustaceans. Phytoplankton diversity is moderate to high in all
stations. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) were found to be the dominant plankton in most stations, except in
stations BMGP-121, BMGP-107 and BMGP-12 where green algae (Chlorophyta) were dominant. Tolerant
and resistant species of Nitzchia were observed in great number at BMGP-127 and BMGP-132 due to
extensive ricefields along the riparian environment. Zooplankton population is low due to the unidirectional
and fast-flowing river waters.
Benthic fauna was moderate to high in diversity index values.
The dominance of mayflies
(Ephemeroptera) with the presence of clean-water indicators (e.g. Heptagenia sp., Leptophlebiidae) and
the poor number of trueflies indicates a relatively good water quality of water in the surveyed rivers.
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), freshwater eel (Anguilla sp.) and native catfish (Clarias batrachus) are the
dominant fish species identified in the surveyed rivers.

I.5.2.5 Marine Flora and Fauna


In Sorsogon Bay, there is a dominance of phytoplankton population (99.6%), mainly comprised of diatoms.
The minor zooplankton population (0.04%) is mainly composed of nauplii larvae. The high count of
polychaetes and nematodes and the low count of crustaceans indicate a stressed marine environment.
Seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) is sparse probably due to the high siltation/sedimentation rate from all
surrounding rivers draining into the bay. Mangrove exploitation is highly rampant in the area.
In Poliqui Bay, phytoplankton also dominate the plankton population by 99.6%, comprising mainly of
diatoms (Chaetoceros). The zooplankton minority is dominated by Copepods. Polychaete population is
high, indicating high organic deposits. Live coral cover is poor (22.7%) while dead coral cover and coral
rubbles are prevalent. Coral-fishes are few. This may have been caused by destructive fishing methods
like blast-fishing and dynamite-fishing. Seagrass (Halophila pinifolia) is patchy and sparse (17% cover).
Turbidity and sedimentation was also observed in the bay.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 6

In Albay Gulf (specifically Sugot Bay), although corals have good to excellent categories (68-100%), the
condition of reef fish communities is poor.

I.5.3

Socio-economic Environment

The proposed geothermal development block straddles the uninhabited mountainous portions of the
barangays of Rizal, Bucalbucalan, Bulabog, Capuy, Ticol, Basud, Guinlajon, San Juan and Osiao. These
barangays are administratively under the City of Sorsogon, the capital city of the Province of Sorsogon.
The socioeconomic conditions in the Province of Sorsogon have been described as poor, characterized by
low household incomes, high poverty incidence, high malnutrition rate, heavy dependence of the economy
on agriculture and fisheries, lack of food self-sufficiency and undeveloped industrial and manufacturing
sector. Although the capital City of Sorsogon is better off in terms of the availability of amenities and jobs
outside of agriculture and fisheries, the socioeconomic conditions in the Citys rural barangays are
generally the same as with the rest of the province. Jobs in construction, transport and retail services are
available in the city center but agriculture and fisheries remained the major sources of livelihood in the
Citys rural barangays. At 56%, poverty incidence in the rural areas is almost twice the national average of
33.7%. Data from the Rural Health Units indicate that the leading causes of death are respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases while leading causes of morbidity are influenza, respiratory and gastro-intestinal
diseases. The City is currently experiencing rapid urbanization as evidenced by a population growth which
is higher than the provincial and regional averages and by the new settlements around the city center and
along the national highway. Results of the survey of residents in the affected barangays revealed that
majority favors the development of geothermal resource in the area.
The project will not cause any dislocation of households, as the distance of the nearest settlement from
the edge of the proposed geothermal development block is more than one kilometer. Except for the
potential sedimentation of rice farms along the Cawayan and Manitohan Rivers during rainy days, impacts
of the project on the peoples livelihood will be very limited and indirect. Impacts on the local culture and
health and safety will be also insignificant because of the distance and relative isolation of the project site
from the settlements. Positive socioeconomic impacts from the project will largely depend on the effects of
the law-mandated economic benefits that the host communities will receive. These benefits include royalty
and power subsidy, livelihood development fund, reforestation and environmental enhancement fund,
missionary electrification and prioritization of load dispatch. Indirect economic impacts will be felt in
provincial economy in the form of increased business activities brought about by increase in the
disposable incomes of the local population and increase in investment.

I.6

Major Impacts, Mitigation Measures and Management Plan

Bulk of the potential adverse impacts are expected during the 3 to 5-year construction phase especially
during construction/ earthmoving activities and well testing. The scale of impacts are expected to be
similar to the BGPF experience, although these are expected to be less adverse due to continuous
improvements being undertaken by the Company from experiences in its other operating fields. Table I-1
is a summary of the major impacts and corresponding management measures for the proposed project.
Impacts due to construction/ earthmoving activities shall be localized to the river tributary immediately
downstream of the construction activity. Thus it will be unlikely for all the drainage systems to be affected
simultaneously. However, high rainfall in the area is expected to aggravate potential erosion and river
siltation. River turbidity in most rivers was found to be a common sight during and after a rainfall event
perhaps due to riverbank scouring and agricultural run-off. The extent of erosion is a factor of slope, soil
type, vegetation cover, residual root strength. Thus, with erosion control measures in place, hauling of

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 7

excess earth spoil to Spoil Disposal Areas (SDA), and strict monitoring of project activities, erosion and
thus river siltation is expected to be of lesser magnitude.
The major impacts from drilling activities include localized noise and generation of excess drilling fluids.
The latter will be contained in sumps. During well testing, noise generated during vertical discharge is
limited to a 5 to 30-minute testing, while noise during horizontal discharge is muffled by well silencers.
In the absence of reinjection wells during the initial exploration phase, short-term regulated discharge of
geothermal brine may be undertaken per DENR-EMB approved Water Quality Variance for Geothermal
Exploration Projects. With more wells during the development phase, brine shall be directly injected or
indirectly via the sump.
During operations of the steamfield, power plant and transmission line, one of the major impacts is the
H2S releases which is a component of the steam. H2S emissions shall comply with detailed guidelines of
the Philippine Clean Air Act for the geothermal sector (MC 2002-13). Geothermal brine will be held in
thermal ponds or directly injected to reinjection wells. Sludge accumulated from the cooling tower during
preventive maintenance shutdown will be cement-fixed and entombed in designated sludge pits.
The socio-economic impacts of the proposed geothermal development in the Tanawon Sector will largely
depend on the effects of economic benefits received by the host communities from the project. These
benefits include, employment, royalty and power subsidy, livelihood development fund, reforestation and
environmental enhancement fund, missionary electrification and prioritization of load dispatch. Indirect
economic impacts will be felt in provincial economy in the form of increased business activities brought
about by increase in the disposable incomes of the local population and increase in investment.
The project will not cause any dislocation of households. Except for the potential sedimentation of rice
farms along the Cawayan and Ticol Rivers, and to a lesser extent along Manitohan, Anahaw and Osiao
rivers during rainy days, impacts of the project on the peoples livelihood will be very limited and indirect.
Impacts on the local culture, health and safety will be insignificant because of the distance and relative
isolation of the project site from the host communities.
Corresponding to the various project impacts, the Environmental Management Plan has the following
components to ensure protection of the environment, workers, and the community where the project
operates:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I.7

Impacts Mitigation/ Enhancement Plan for the Pre-operations and Operations Phase
Construction Contractors Program
Loss Control and Security Plan
Community Relations (ComRel) Program
Abandonment/ Rehabilitation Plan
Environmental Monitoring Action Plan
Institutional Plan

Environmental Risk Assessment and Management

The Environmental Risk Assessment study identified the natural hazards that exist in the site and the hazards
that may be introduced by the project. These hazards were then described and characterized for destructive
potential on identified project and environmental receptors. Subsequently, risks indices (or the combined
results of consequence ratings and exposure ratings for the various hazards and for the different
receptors) were presented.
The risk index values were used to identify which significant risks need to be managed in order to make
the project a viable endeavor.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 8

The hazards with high risks values on receptors were presented. The results indicate that for risk to
Tanawon workers, high scores of 3 - 4 were registered from the following hazards: 1) noise, 2) radiation
(from welding), 3) electricity, 4) shock explosion, 5) H2S and 6) heavy metals. These risks all come from
work/work-related hazards.
On the risk to flora and fauna, only fuels showed a high (4) risk score (during the drilling phase). The risk
value is however limited to a few meters distance from the well pad. There is no high risk value on
residents or community areas. This indicates that residents would be safe in any emergency event
occurring in the Tanawon project. Risk would be limited to the Tanawon area.
Earthquakes and volcanism registered low risk values on geothermal facilities, while a high value of 3 was
arrived at for facilities near landslide-prone areas. The absence of risk values indicate no pathway or
exposure to the receptor. Hence, no risk is expected.

I.8

Environmental Monitoring Plan

As there is already an existing monitoring plan for the BGPF, monitoring for the Tanawon sector shall be
implemented by the existing PNOC-EDC environmental field personnel. Specific to the monitoring plan for
the Tanawon sector, monitoring shall cover the entire development block, the drainage systems emanating
from the block, and impact areas downstream (Table I-2). Separate monitoring shall be undertaken by
the existing Provincial Environmental Monitoring Task Force (PEMTF) for BacMan I and II.

Table I-1:

Summary of Major Impacts and Management Measures for the 50-80 MW Tanawon
Geothermal Project

Project Phase
A. Pre-operations
1. Construction

Environmental Concerns
a. Erosion/ Landslide/ River siltation

2. Well Drilling

b. Crop damage
c. Slight increase in employment and
livelihood opportunities
a. River contamination

3. Well Testing

a. River contamination

b. Contamination of air
B. Operations

a. River contamination
b. Release of H2S in steam

Management Measures

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Facility siting in less critical slopes


Geotechnical hazard studies
Multi-wellpads; Directional drilling
Proper slope cutting
Spoils hauling
Spoil disposal area
Slope stabilization & erosion control
measures (mechanical & vegetative)
Avoidance of waterways when possible
Reforestation
Damage compensation
Local hiring
Purchase of available local supplies
Holding ponds
Recycling of drilling fluids
Closure of acidic wells
Holding ponds
Regulated discharge or early injection when
well is available
Reduced testing period
Silencers
Closed system of fluid collection & reinjection
Compliance with guidelines of the Phil. Clean
Air Act for the geothermal sector
(MC 2002-13)
H2S gas monitoring

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 9

Table I-1:

Summary of Major Impacts and Management Measures for the 50-80 MW Tanawon
Geothermal Project (continuation)

Project Phase
B. Operations (cont)

Environmental Concerns

Management Measures

c. Land contamination
d. Reinjection failure
e. Potential Subsidence
f. Royalty, electric subsidy, & others per
DOE Law on Benefits to Host
Communities

Table I-2:

Cement fixing
Cement-lined pit
Holding pond
Plant shutdown
Reinjection

Summary of the Monitoring Plan for the 50-80 MW Tanawon Geothermal Project

Aspect / Phase
A. Project Monitoring
1. Construction
2. Well Drilling
3. Well Testing
4. Operations

Parameters
Extent of earthmoving activities; spoils handling
Status of sump, oil traps, rain drains, water recycling
Brine sampling; compliance with applicable DENR standards
Closed system of fluid collection and reinjection; Emission
sources

B. Environmental Monitoring
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
1. Seismicity
Seismic occurrences
2. Potential
Pipeline alignments;
Subsidence
microgravity and precise leveling survey
3. Hydrology
Flowrate
4. Water Quality
Construction: TSS;
Drilling: TSS, pH, AS, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Oil & Grease;
Well Testing: temp, pH, B, Cl, As; complete analysis of brine
Operations: pH, B, Cl, As (in rivers);
Complete analysis of brine, groundwater, river
Water, marine water, sediments
5. Meteorology
Rainfall, rain pH, wind, wind direction, temperature
6. Air Quality

Construction: TSP
Drilling, Testing, Operations : Noise, H2S

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
7. Land Use/Forest
Land use & forest cover
8. Terrestrial Flora
Density and diversity
9. Terrestrial Fauna
Density and diversity
10. Agriculture
Impact evaluation only as necessary (using secondary data and
soil/plant analysis)
11. Freshwater Biology Species composition, density, diversity
12. Marine Biology
Species composition, density, diversity
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
13. Social Programs
Status and progress of livelihood development programs
14. Socio-economic
and Health
Conditions

Impact evaluation of social (livelihood, incomes, settlements,


farms affected, perceptions) and health indicators
(mortality/morbidity) periodically or as needed

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Location
Per major facility
Per well drilled
Per well tested
Per major facility

Sesimograph station
Pipeline route
Groundwater & rivers
Water Quality impact
stations

Rainfall stations;
power plant area
Work area
Wellpad, power plant;
receptors
Tanawon block
Tanawon block
Tanawon block
Tanawon block;
downstream irrigated
areas
Impact rivers
Marine stations
Potential host
barangays
Potential host
barangays

p. I- 10

II.

EIA PROCESS DOCUMENTATION

Philippine EIA Process

II.1

Presidential Decree 1151 (1977), otherwise known as the Philippine Environmental Policy was the
first policy issuance requiring an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for all projects or undertaking
with significant effects on the environment. The Philippine EIS system was formally established in
1978 with the enactment of Presidential Decree (PD) 1586, followed by PD 2146 (1981) for the
definition of Environmentally Critical Projects (ECPs) and Environmentally Critical Areas (ECAs) for
which the EIS system would apply. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the process,
while the EIS is the report.
Recently the EIA system has undergone several refinements to make it a more effective planning,
management and regulatory tool to address environmental problems in the country. The latest of this
effort is DENR Administrative Order (DAO) no. 37, series of 1996, or DAO 96-37. This superseded
DAO-21, series of 1992. DAO 96-37 is an attempt to streamline the EIS system. Just this November
2002, Administrative Order No. 42 was issued by President Gloria Macapagal for the streamlining of
the ECC processing and approval procedures. The Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR) is the regulatory body responsible for implementation of these policies.
DAO 96-37 requires the submission of an EIS for ECPs in order to secure an Environmental
Compliance Certificate (ECC). It is the DENR-Environmental Management Bureau (DENR-EMB) who
reviews the EISs and issues the ECC. Similarly, an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) is
required for projects located in ECAs in order to secure an ECC. IEEs are reviewed by the DENREMB Regional Office for their issuance of an ECC. Geothermal projects such as in Tanawon fall
under the ECP category thus this EIS submission.

II. 2

EIA Process for Tanawon Geothermal Project

The PNOC-Energy Development Corporation firmly believes that people's participation in any of its
projects is not only desirable and advantageous, but also a basic right, especially when people's lives
and future are affected by the proposed project. The local population has priceless indigenous
knowledge and insights which should not be ignored in project planning and design. It is with this
belief that a participatory EIA was adopted by the company for the proposed Tanawon Geothermal
Project (BacMan Geothermal Production Field) to promote productive use of information and ideas
from local communities and interested groups and individuals to enhance the quality of environmental
decision-making.
The EIA method followed by the proponent is the so-called participatory EIA, wherein the different
sectors in the community are consulted and involved from the very start of the process until its final
phases. They were specifically involved in important activities such as information sharing, data
gathering and planning. The participatory EIA and its different phases is shown in Figure II-1.
The participatory process with the project stakeholders is undertaken based on the following
objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To inform the public about the project, objectives, impacts, management measures, and benefits
To involve the host communities as partners in project planning and implementation
To consult the communities on their issues/ concerns and discuss potential solutions
To resolve conflicts at the earliest stage by involving communities

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 1

Table II-1 summarizes the extent of participation undertaken by the project stakeholders, including
involvement by the DENR, while Table II-2 is a summary of the EIA process undertaken for the
project. Appendix A is the Formal Scoping Report submitted to DENR, detailing each activity.
The community is again given a chance to air their concerns during the public hearing (after EIA
submission); they are also welcome even at any phase of the EIA process. If determined as valid and
feasible, their recommendations shall be taken into consideration in the final project planning process.
Besides their participation in the EIA process, stakeholders are given the opportunity to participate in
project monitoring during actual construction and operation of the project, through the multi-partite
environmental monitoring team.
Even outside the project environs, the community shall be a company partner in helping ensure that
protection measures are implemented. It is thus important that company personnel come from the
locality. This is the actual case in the existing BacMan Geothermal Production Field where majority of
its employees are local-hired.

II.2.1 SOCIAL PREPARATION (PRE-SCOPING)


As a pre-scoping activity, social preparation for the Tanawon sector of BGPF was undertaken in the
form of information drives, site visit by residents, and informal dialogues with community leaders prior
to the conduct of the EIA proper. One of the objectives of this activity is to acquaint and familiarize
different target groups on the geothermal project and its operations, its impacts and management
activities, as well as the benefits gained from the project. This activity is also aimed at
increasing peoples awareness on the proposed project.
Although no residents reside within the Tanawon development block which is generally a forested
mountainous area, potential host barangays were determined on the basis of political jurisdiction.
Information drives were conducted on Nov. 15-17, 2000 at 6 barangays and again on Jun 1-2, 2002
for additional three barangays found within Sorsogon City, Sorsogon Province. Another information
drive was conducted for the new set of Brgy. San Juan officials on Nov. 18, 2002.

Brgy. Rizal
Brgy. Bulabog
Brgy. Bucalbucalan
Brgy. Ticol
Brgy. Capuy
Brgy. Basud
Brgy. Guinlajon
Brgy. San Juan
Brgy. Osiao

There were a total of 525 attendees in the nine information drive sessions. PNOC-EDC presented the
project description, environmental impacts, management and monitoring activities, socio-economic
benefits, and held an open discussion. Although no indication for project opposition was expressly
declared during all the sessions, several clarifications/issues/ concerns were raised by residents on
environmental aspects and benefits. Annex B-1 of Appendix A is a summary of attendees and
issues raised during the open forum, while Annex B-2 of Appendix A presents the attendance sheet
for these sessions. Annex B-3 of Appendix A is a photodocumentation of the activity. Appendix B1 shows the attendance and concerns raised during additional consultations at Brgys. Guinlajon, San
Juan and Osiao.
Before each session, comics in the Bicolano dialect were distributed to the participants upon
registration. The comics (Annex B-4 of Appendix A) introduces the project to the community through
a simple and indirect manner, touching more on layman conversation. Members of the information
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 2

drive team were composed of five to seven PNOC personnel from different departments in order to
address all queries that may be raised by the audience.
After the info drives, community residents participated in a site visit on Dec. 14, 2000 and Nov. 18,
2002 to the proposed Tanawon sector as well as existing BGPF facilities for their familiarization and
awareness on project activities. Questions from the participants were entertained during the entire
trip.
During distribution of invitations for the info drive and community scoping, the PNOC Community
Relations Officer also held informal discussions with the local leaders on the proposed Tanawon
Geothermal Project.
Concerns raised by the community were gathered and this formed part of the EIA scope of study. The
issues are addressed here in Table II-3, and are separately discussed per environmental component.

II.2.2 SCOPING PROCESS


A Scoping activity is undertaken to define the scope or coverage of the EIA study. Per DENR
Administrative Order (DAO) 96-37, scoping has two levels: First Level with the DENR-EMB and
review committee, and Second Level with the community/ stakeholders.

II.2.2.1 First Level Scoping and Supplemental Scoping


The First (1st) Level Scoping was held on Nov. 16, 2000 at the DENR-EMB office in Quezon City by
the DENR-Environmental Management Bureau (DENR-EMB), EIARC (EIA Review Committee)
members, and PNOC-EDC as project proponent. After presenting the Project Description, clarificatory
questions were raised by the EIARC members, and the participants agreed on a set of EIA
requirements as presented in the 1st Level Scoping Checklist in Annex C of Appendix A. The
checklist would be among the basis for EIA scope and format. DENR-EMB advised PNOC-EDC that
the Second Level Scoping is scheduled for Dec. 11, 2000, and that field surveys can already be
commenced.
In the course of the EIA preparation, revisions in the extent of the Tanawon surface development
block were made, thus a Supplemental Scoping exercise was held with the DENR-EMBs EIA Review
Committee (EIARC) on Sept. 18, 2002 (Appendix B-3). Additional scope was minor and were
generally covered by additional information drives and surveys undertaken by the proponent.

II.2.2.2 Second Level (Community) Scoping


The Second Level or Community Scoping was conducted on Dec. 11, 2000 at the Acacia Grille
Restaurant in Sorsogon City. There were a total of 52 participants represented by the office of
Sorsogon Governor Raul Lee, Sorsogon Mayor Rosalio Delgado, barangay officials, government
agencies, youth sector, NGO/Forestry Associations, Media, and DENR-EMB/ EIARC members. All
the participants were previously sent invitation letters. Their attendance was recorded in a registration
desk found at the entrance of the venue.
A second set of comics in the Bicolano dialect was distributed to the participants, this time introducing
the EIA, the project impacts, as well as the mitigation measures, all in an indirect manner (Annex D-1
of Appendix A). An indirect approach was adopted so the reader would be gradually introduced to
terms or concepts they may not be familiar with.
The Program of Activities during the session are presented below:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 3

Second Level Scoping for Tanawon Geothermal Project


Dec. 11, 2000
PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES
1:30
2:00
2:10
2:30
2:40
2:50
3:00

Registration
National Anthem & Invocation................................Denny Daep (PNOC-EDC)
Welcome/ Opening Remarks............................. Office of Sorsogon Governor Lee
Introduction of Participants................................... Jerry Bunao (PNOC-EDC ComRel)
Objectives & Mechanics of Scoping ....Marivic Yao (DENR-EMB)
st
EIA Backgrounder & Results of 1 level Scoping......Esperanza Lee (PNOC-EDC)
Presentation of the project............................. Erly del Rosario (PNOC-EDC)
Jerry Bunao (PNOC)
3:30 Plenary/ Open Forum..........................................Participants
4:30 Closing Remarks.....................................................Office of Sorsogon Mayor Delgado

The session was opened by a statement from Ms. Nilda Bautista of the Office of Governor Raul Lee
indicating support for the project. This was shortly followed by an introductory statement on the
Scoping process and its mechanics by DENR-EMB EIA Case Handler Marivic Yao. PNOC then
started its presentation with an introduction of the EIA process, summary of 1st Level Scoping results,
the project description, potential environmental impacts and mitigation measures, and lastly the project
benefits. An open forum followed with various queries from almost all invited sectors. No opposition
was expressly declared for the project. Concerns raised were mostly clarificatory in nature due to lack
of understanding of the project. The session was closed by a representative of Sorsogon Mayor
Delgado, also indicating support for the project.
Annex D-2 of Appendix A is the Second Level (Community) Scoping report highlighting the issues
and concerns raised during the session. Annex D-3 of said report is the minutes of the open forum
question and answer portion, while Annex D-4 is the attendance sheet per sector. Annex D-5 is a
photoducumentation of the activity. The activity was also covered by a video camera recording to
ensure its full documentation.
The open forum was unstructured to allow stakeholders to participate freely in the discussion; most of
them have actively participated. It was a fruitful exercise such that all sectors of the stakeholders
were given the opportunity to raise their concerns or present their perceptions, and was an equal
opportune for the proponent to resolve stakeholders concerns by either elaborating on its existing
management measures or clarifying misconceptions. Certain misconceptions are usually expected in
a complex and dynamic geothermal project and have to be explained as simple as possible.
All concerns were noted and formed part of the EIA study. These concerns were distributed among the
respective environmental components of the study for the experts to address them in detail. The
consultation process also allowed project planning to consider certain aspects which may have been
overlooked in the course of its operations in the existing BGPF.

II.2.3 EIA Scoping Report


The EIA scope and format is patterned after DENR-EMBs First Level Scoping Checklist (signed), the
Procedural checklist and the Substantive Checklist of DENR DAO 96-37, and shall consider the issues
and concerns raised during community consultations, i.e., during the information drives and
community scoping. Other relevant concerns on the geothermal project, although not addressed in
any of the above references, shall likewise form part of the report. All these scoping parameters are
contained in the Formal Scoping Report submitted to DENR-EMB on January 31, 2001 (refer again to
Appendix A). This was confirmed by DENR-EMB in its Feb. 19, 2001 reply. In addition, concerns
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 4

raised by the LGU, concerned government agencies, additional info drives will form part of the EIA
report.

II.3

EIA FIELD SURVEY

Prior to the survey proper, a reconnaissance visit was undertaken at the proposed Tanawon sector
with the following objectives: (1) determine the peace and order situation in the area, (2) delineate
the environmental boundaries of the project, (3) identify study areas (e.g., rivers, watersheds,
settlements, etc.) that may be affected by the project, (4) coordinate with the local and government
officials about the project and the study that will be undertaken, (5) gather secondary data from line
agencies, and host municipalities, and (6) determine accommodation and logistical requirements
needed for the study/survey.
The baseline environmental study was undertaken by the EIA team from Nov. 28, 2000 to January 7,
2001, October 2001 and May-June 2002. The activity involved secondary data gathering and
interviews with local offices and government agencies, as well as primary data gathering through
actual field surveys and sampling, observations and household interviews.
Prior to entry into each barangay, coordination was made with the barangay captain or his
constituents for the following: (1) to pay a courtesy call, (2) to inform them of the EIA teams activities,
(3) to gather information on the local environment profile, (4) to seek guidance on access areas, and
(5) to ensure safety of the team.
The survey of the EIA Team was participated by local residents familiar with the survey areas and
trails, and by PNOC-EDC environmental personnel who are at the same time residents of the locality.
This approach was found to be advantageous to the locals as it made them familiar with the EIA
purpose and survey methods, and also to the survey team who gained vital information on the project
environs and community way of life.
The details of the data collection technique employed per module are discussed in the methodology
sections of each modular report.
The baseline information gathered would be used to establish an environmental and socio-economic
baseline profile before entry of the BGPFs fourth project sector. This would then be taken into account
in predicting and estimating any potential future impacts on the environment and the socio-economic
status of the area.
During actual project implementation, the same information would be basis to assess the extent of
any predicted positive and negative impacts which may have occurred (impact validation). Moreover,
the data would also serve as the base level for assessing compliance with environmental standards.

II.3.1 The EIA Study Team


The EIA study was conducted in-house by the EIA team of the Environmental Management
Department of PNOC-Energy Development Corporation. The team is multidisciplinary, composed of
staff with diverse background in order to address and assess the physical, chemical, biological, and
socio-cultural aspects of the environment. To ensure that environmental inputs were considered in the
detailed project planning, active participation by the Geoscientific, Engineering Design, Project
Operations, Reservoir, Drilling, Power, Transmission & Dispatch, and Planning departments was
likewise undertaken for the EIA writing.
To further boost the capability of the team, the professional services of consultants, an air quality
specialist, oceanographer, a wildlife specialist, and a geologic risk assessment specialist were also
availed of.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 5

II-4

CONSULTATIONS
ENDORSEMENTS

WITH

LGUs

AND

SECURING

OF

PROJECT

On top of the consultative sessions undertaken during social preparation activities and community
scoping, separate consultations/ presentations were made to the Sorsogon City council (called
Sangguniang Bayan), the Sorsogon Provincial Council (called Sangguniang Panlalawigan) , and
concerned government agencies (e.g., Sorsogon Water District) from May to June 2002. A project
brief was provided to each attendee. These groups were also invited for a site visit to the existing
BGPF facilities and proposed Tanawon project after each session, together with an open dialogues.
The site visits significantly improved their understanding of the project such that most of the
misconceptions were clarified. Their appreciation was also noted for the existing environmental
management activities undertaken in BGPF. Appendix B-2 presents the attendance sheet, list of
issues raised, and the photodocumentation of each activity.
During these sessions, endorsements for the proposed project were also requested. Said
endorsements are in compliance with the Local Government Code for the barangay, city/municipal,
and provincial level. For all levels, official letters were sent requesting their endorsements. In
addition to the LGUs, endorsements were also sought from local Peoples Organizations (POs) in the
form of forestry associations being the actual stakeholders in the BacMan Geothermal Reservation.
Appendix C is a copy of these endorsements.

II-5. SUMMARY OF ISSUES/ CONCERNS RAISED DURING ALL CONSULTATIONS


A summary of all issues and concerns raised by the various stakeholders during all consultative
sessions are presented in Table II-3. Most of these were common to all sessions, and was an
indication of lack of understanding of the project. Perceptions/ misconceptions/ concerns were
clarified by PNOC-EDCs responses, presentations and site visits.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 6

Table II-1 : EIA Stages and Public Involvement


EIA Phase

Participants

Subject

Method

Social Preparation
(Information Drives)

Officials and residents


of nine (9) potential
host barangays

Purpose of the project


Project description
Environmental impacts &
management activities
Socio-economic benefits

First Level Scoping

DENR-EMB Manila,
EIA Review
Committee or EIARC

Information drives with open


forum
Site visit with open forum
Comics in Bicol Dialect
introducing the project
Informal discussions with
local leaders by BGPF
Comrel Officer
Overhead Presentation with
their copy of the Project
Description

Second Level
(Community) Scoping

Local Government
Units (Office of the
Governor, & Mayor,
barangay officials),
Government
Agencies, NGO, local
Forestry Associations,
Youth, media
Local residents;
PNOC personnel who
are also residents
familiar with the
locality

Baseline Environmental
Profiling (Survey),
Impact Assessment &
Management Planning

Consultation with LGUs

Sorsogon City
Council, Sorsogon
Provincial Council,
Concerned
Government Agencies

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Purpose of the project


Project description
Impact assessment
Environmental
management activities
Socio-economic benefits
Purpose of the project
Project description
Impact assessment
Environmental
management activities
Socio-economic benefits

Observations on the
existing environmental
conditions
Public Perceptions &
Concerns
Socio-economic profile
Guidance to the study
areas
Project purpose &
description
Impacts and
Management Measures
Socio-economic benefits
Concerns
Project Endorsements

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Overhead Presentation
Dialogue
Comics in Bicol dialect on
common project issues/
concerns and management
measures
Interviews
Informal discussions
Guidance within study area

Presentations
Provision of Project Brief and
comics in Bicol dialect
Dialogues and site visit with
open forum

p. I- 7

Table II-2: Summary of the Tanawon EIA Process


Date
Oct. 27, 2000
Nov. 15-17, 2000

Activity
Submission of Project Description to
DENR-EMB
Social Preparation/ Information Drives;
Open Forum

Nov. 16, 2000

First Level Scoping

Dec. 11, 2000

Second Level (Community) Scoping

Dec. 14, 2000

Site visit to proposed Tanawon project


and existing BacMan project;
Open Forum
Environmental Field Surveys

Nov. Dec. 2000

Jan. 31, 2000


Feb. 19, 2001
May 10, 2002

Oct. 2001, MayJun 2002


May 27, 2002

Jun 1-2, 2002


Jun. 7, 2002

Jun. 12, 2002


Jun. 25, 2002
Jun. 27, 2002

Jul. 5, 2002

Sep. 18, 2002

Nov. 18, 2002

Jan. 2003

Submission of Scoping Report to


DENR-EMB
DENR-EMB Confirmation of EIA
Scope
PNOC-EDC letter to DENR-EMB re
increase in project capacity and
geothermal block expansion
Additional environmental field surveys
for expansion area
Consultation /Presentation to
Sorsogon Provincial Council
(Sangguniang Panlalawigan)
Additional social preparation/
information drives; Open Forum
Consultation /Presentation to
Sorsogon City Council
(Sangguniang Panlunsod)
Sorsogon City Council site visit
Sorsogon Provincial Council site visit
Meeting/ Presentation to Sorsogon
Water District (SWD) and Sorsogon
City Council
DENR-EMB reply requiring
Supplemental Scoping for the increase
in capacity and geothermal block
expansion
Supplemental Scoping for the increase
in capacity and geothermal block
expansion
Repeat of information drive for new
officials of Brgy,. San Juan; Site visit
and Open forum
EIA Submission to DENR-EMB

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Audience/ Participants

No.

6 barangays in Sorsogon City


(Rizal, Bucalbucalan, Bulabog,
Capuy, Ticol, Basud)
DENR-EMB, EIA Review
Committee (EIARC), PNOC-EDC
DENR-EMB, EIARC, LGUs, Govt
Agencies, NGOs/ POs, Youth
Sector, Media
Community /barangay residents

370

13
52

~50

PNOC-EDC environmental
specialists & staff, consultants,
local representatives

PNOC-EDC environmental
specialists & staff, consultants,
local representatives
Provincial Council members;
PNOC-EDC

7
SP

3 barangays in Sorsogon City


(Guinlajon, San Juan, Osiao)
City Council members;
PNOC-EDC

155

City Council members


Provincial Council members
SWD Board of Directors, Sorsogon
City Council Committee on Energy
and Environment

~15
39
15

DENR-EMB, EIARC, PNOC-EDC

11

11
SP

Brgy. San Juan officials

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 8

SCOPING APPLICATION

FIRST LEVEL SCOPING


(with DENR and EIARC);
SUPPLEMENTAL SCOPING FOR
EXPANSION AREA

SECOND LEVEL
(COMMUNITY ) SCOPING

SOCIAL PREPARATION
(INFORMATION DRIVES &
SITE VISITS)

CONSULTATIONS WITH
LGU, POS, GA

BASELINE DATA GATHERING


(FIELD WORK)

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS;


MANAGEMENT PLANNING

EIS PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION TO DENR-EMB

EIARC REVIEW ; ADDITIONAL INFORMATION; PUBLIC HEARING

EIARC/ DENR-EMB DECISION

APPROVAL & ISSUANCE OF


ECC

DISSAPROVAL

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION;
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AND MONITORING

Figure II-1: Overview of the EIA Process for Tanawon Geothermal Project

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

p. I- 1

1.1

BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION


Project Name:

Tanawon Geothermal Project


(Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field)

Proponent:

PNOC-Energy Development Corporation


Tax Identification No. 000-169-125-000

Address:

Head Office:
PNOC-EDC, Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio
Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines
(02)893-6001; (02)893-1320
Fax No. (02)840-1575
Field Office:
PNOC BacMan Geothermal Production Field
Admin Complex, Palayang Bayan
Manito, Albay

Project Officer
Liable for the EIS:
EIA Preparers:

1.2

Mr. Leonardo M. Ote


Manager, Environmental and External Relations Department

(in-house)

Environmental Management Department (EMD),


PNOC-Energy Development Corporation
c/o Ms. Agnes C. de Jesus, Manager

Estimated Project
Cost:

PhP9.1 billion to PhP14.1 billion


(development and operations/maintenance)

INTRODUCTION ON THE EXISTING BACMAN GEOTHERMAL


PRODUCTION FIELD (BGPF)
PNOC-EDC presently operates jointly with National Power Corporation (NPC) a 150 MW
BacMan (Bacon-Manito) Geothermal Production Field (BGPF) in Albay and Sorsogon. The
name BacMan is actually a combination of the two towns, Bacon and Manito, where the project
is generally situated. The BGPF is subdivided according to three geothermal sectors, namely
Palayang Bayan (BacMan I) with 110 MW, Cawayan (BacMan II) with 20 MW, and Botong
(BacMan II) with 20 MW. Each sector operates independently with a separate Fluid Collection
and Reinjection System (FCRS) of PNOC-EDC, and a power plant with transmission system by
NPC. PNOC provides the steam, while NPC operates the power plants. BacMan-I power plant

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 1

utilizes steam from the Palayang Bayan field, while BacMan-II has two separate power plants
utilizing steam from the Cawayan and Botong sectors.
At present, electric power from the three power plants is transmitted via a 230- kV transmission
line system operated by NPC to its existing substation in Daraga, Albay.
In the BGPFs Cawayan sector which has been in operation for about six years todate, two wells
were recently drilled for maintenance and replacement (M&R) purposes. Based on updated
geophysical investigations and confirmed by initial tests after the drilling of these M&R wells, the
area south and east of the Cawayan sector has demonstrated potential for a separate sectoral
development.
Thus, the Tanawon Geothermal Project is proposed by the PNOC-Energy Development
Corporation as an expansion or a fourth sector of the existing BacMan Geothermal Production
Field (BGPF) in Sorsogon, Sorsogon Province. Unlike the 3 existing sectors, PNOC-EDC will
be the developer and operator for the Tanawon FCRS, power plant and transmission line, either
singly or in partnership with another business entity.
The proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project is delineated by a 2,460-hectare geothermal
development block wherein all surface development facilities will be confined. The northern half
of this block falls within the existing 3,826-ha. geothermal block of BacMan I and II Geothermal
Production Field (BGPF) already covered by an ECC issued to PNOC-EDC in 1985, the block
coverage of which was confirmed on November 17, 1995 (Appendix D). NPC has separate
ECCs for its power plants within said block.
Thus, this application for an Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) will cover all new
facilities for the Tanawon development falling within the existing BGPF block, and those within
the remaining blocked area outside. Those existing facilities within the 3,826-ha BacMan I and
II geothermal block will remain to be covered by the 1985/1995 ECC. Existing facilities are
already found within the Tanawon block and these include PNOC-EDCs Fluid Collection and
Reinjection System (FCRS) and NPCs power plant with transmission system for the Cawayan
sector of BacMan II.
BGPF is found within the existing BacMan Geothermal Reservation (created by Republic Act
2036-A) managed by PNOC-EDC (per Executive Order 223) Appendix E. Same reservation
is also subject of a Geothermal Service Contract with the Department Of Energy (DOE) for the
exploration, development and production of the reservation.

1.3

BACKGROUND ON GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES


For a better appreciation of the nature and dynamism taking place in a geothermal system, it is
important to have a common understanding of the basic concepts of geothermal energy.

1.3.1

Definition of Geothermal Energy


In Greek, Geo means earth and thermos means heat. Thus, geothermal energy comes from
the heat of the earth.
The heat source is the magma which comes close to the earths surface in some places, most
often in cooling volcanic areas. The heat in a geothermal system can be harnessed in the form
of steam, or with water as the medium.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 2

1.3.2

Basic Features of a Geothermal System


A geothermal system can be likened to a covered pot filled with water. When heated, the water
will boil and produce steam. (Figure 1.3-1). The steam stays within the pot because of its cover
and is released only in open portions of the lid. The fire is the underlying heat source; the pot is
the reservoir; the lid is the caprock; and open portions of the cover are like the fractures in the
earth where steam or hot water escapes.
In a geothermal system, there are four basic elements , namely:
1.

A heat source, which is the magma that comes close to the surface of the earth in
volcanic areas.

2.

A permeable underground reservoir rock which can hold or store water.

3.

A solid cap rock which maintains pressure and does not allow the heat, water or steam to
escape.

4.

Water, which serves as the medium for carrying the heat.

The geothermal resource commonly manifests on the earths surface as hotsprings, steaming
grounds, boiling lakes or mudpools, and hydrothermally altered grounds. These areas are
normally located at the upflow or outflow or cooler zone of a geothermal resource, and are
suitable for recreational, balynological (medicinal) and other non-electrical applications.
Exploration through surface geological, geochemical and geophysical studies provide initial
o
information on locations of the hotter (about 220 C compared with outflows ~100C) zone of
the resource which can be tapped for power generation.

1.3.3

Countries Using Geothermal Energy


The first country to use geothermal energy for power generation is Italy, specifically in Lardello,
which started way back in 1904. This geothermal field is still operating and is a favorite tourist
attraction.
With the onset of the oil crisis of 1973, more countries turned to indigenous sources of energy,
including geothermal power.
However, not all countries have geothermal energy. Those old volcanic areas most of which are
found around the Pacific Ocean, or the so-called Circum-Pacific Ring of Fire have potential
geothermal energy to tap. Figure 1.3-2 shows the location of geothermal plants around the
world.
In these countries, geothermal energy has various uses: power generation, space heating,
refrigeration, food processing and similar industrial purposes. In terms of geothermal power
generation, the Philippines is the worlds second largest geothermal producer to the United
States. The Philippines now has a total installed capacity of 1904 MW or about 23% of the
worlds installed capacity (Figure 1.3-3).

1.3.4

Location of Philippine Geothermal Fields


The Philippines has about 200 active and dormant volcanic centers which can be tapped for
geothermal power. Out of an estimated potential reserves of 4,536 megawatts, (MW) only 1,904
MW have been harnessed from our geothermal fields since 1979.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 3

From these , PNOC-EDC presently operates four (4) geothermal fields with a total of 1,148 MW
or about 60% of the national geothermal output (Figures 1.3-4 and 1.3-5).

1.3.5

Geothermal Power Development


Geothermal power development undergoes three basic phases: (a) exploration, (b)
development, and (c) production or operations (Figure 1.3-6). Both the exploration and
development phases fall under the pre-operations stage but have similar general activities which
will be discussed under section 1.8.1 of this report.
During the exploration phase, surface explorations or geoscientific investigations are done to
locate the potential geothermal resource. Rock types, structures and the geohydrology of the
target areas are studied. Estimates are then made on the temperature and chemistry of the
possible reservoir fluids. A geophysical survey is done to delineate the probable boundary of the
resource by measuring the conductive nature of the ground. With these information, exploratory
drilling commences to prove the potential of the field. After the discovery of a steam reservoir,
additional wells are drilled to define the possible resource boundaries.
Prior to the development phase, a resource assessment or feasibility study is conducted to
establish the viability of harnessing the resource for power generation. If findings are positive,
the development phase sets in where more wells are drilled to tap the resource and obtain the
required steam for power generation. The steam collection system, power plant, and
transmission system are designed and constructed.
Electricity generation commences during the production or operation phase, wherein the steam
is collected from the well heads and piped to the steam turbines. Through the turbine
generators, geothermal steam is converted to electricity. Power is then transmitted to
consumers.

1.4

PROJECT RATIONALE

1.4.1

Project Purpose and Background


The project aims to develop and utilize the geothermal resources beneath Sorsogon City, in
order to contribute to the supply of electric power needs of Luzon. The project is targeted to
generate 50-80 MW of electrical power.
Geothermal energy is one of the major replacement options to oil-based electricity. To date,
the Philippines ranks second to the United States of America as the largest geothermal
producer in the world (refer again to Figure 1.3-3). A conservative estimate of the countrys
potential geothermal reserves is placed at 4,536 MW. At present, 1904 MW or 16.8% of the
countrys power supplies are derived from geothermal energy. Of these, PNOC-EDC operates
four geothermal fields in Leyte, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato and Albay/ Sorsogon totaling
1,148 MW. Immediate plans by the Department of Energy (DOE) include speeding up the
development of indigenous and clean energy sources such as geothermal.

1.4.2

Need for the project


The Department of Energys (DOEs) Philippine Energy Plan (2003 - 2012) is geared towards
ensuring energy self-sufficiency and diversification in harmony with the countrys social
concerns and environmental objectives to ensure sustainable development. This policy calls for

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 4

the shifting gradually from the use of oil in the power sector to non-oil power sources like
hydroelectric, geothermal, coal, natural gas, as well as new and renewable energy (NRE)
sources . The thrust is biased towards environmental-friendly, indigenous and low cost sources
of energy.
The DOE estimates the countrys electricity demand to increase at an average annual rate of
9.0%, from 47.9 x 106 MWh in 2002 to 57 x 106 MWh in 2004, and further by 9.9% onwards to
2011 at 110.2 x 106 MWh. This results in a 9.7% average growth per annum for the 10-year
period.
Along with this is the increase in peak demand; the country is forecasted to reach a peak
demand of 19,325 MW in 10 years. Luzon is forecasted to have a peak demand of 14,038 MW
in 2011 more than double the 6,293 MW in 2002.
In order to meet this demand, it is now the policy of the government to accelerate the
development of indigenous energy sources, such as geothermal energy, as a means to lower
dependence on imported fuel to ensure security of energy supply in the country. According to
the DOE Energy Plan (2003-2011), the countrys self-sufficiency level was estimated at 48.7%
in 2000, with 26% contribution from the geothermal sector (Figure 1.4-1). Complemented by
the recent entry of natural gas in 2002, the self-sufficiency level is expected to increase further
should physical targets for indigenous energy development be met in the coming years. The
Tanawon Geothermal Project is in line with this thrust.
In terms of the countrys dollar savings, a 50-80 MW geothermal power plant such as that in
Tanawon would displace about 0.67-1.07 MMBFOE (million barrels of fuel-oil equivalent) of
imported fuel in a year, equivalent to huge dollar savings of US$18.1 million to US$29.0 million
a year. Such huge dollar savings will continue for the 25-30 year life of the project and will
contribute significantly to the economic upliftment of the country.
Although the DOE claims that currently there is excess capacity in the power system, demand
growth and plant retirement shall eventually lead to shortage. A threat to the need for additional
energy demand in the future is the program to retire a total of 1,145.3 MW of aging oil-based
and coal-fired power plants that have outlived their economic useful life for the period 20042011(Table 1.4-1).
This is in addition to the 1,020 MW which have already been
decommissioned in 2000. The DOE predicts that there will be a shortage of supply during the
forecast period if no new power plants will be built. Additional capacity requirements need to be
planned as early as possible to avoid this situation considering the demand growth and
gestation periods of power generation options.
The entry of the Tanawon Geothermal Project will be timely as its operations will coincide with
the period when a deficit in energy supply is projected after the retirement of the aging power
plants.
The environment-friendly geothermal power project will also displace a fossil-fired or coal-fired
or bunker-fired power plant with similar capacity, thus reducing greenhouse emissions by about
435 kilotons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year (Table 1.4-2).

1.5

ALTERNATIVES

1.5.1

Alternative Energy Resources


Because of economic and environmental concerns, many countries, including the Philippines,
are looking to indigenous alternative fuels to help solve their energy problems. The choices are

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 5

the following: hydropower, solar, wind, biogass, natural gas, and geothermal. Table 1.5-1
shows the comparative costs of different power alternatives.
Hydropower has been considered among the major replacements of imported energy, and its
potential is being maximized under the Philippine Energy Plan (2002-2011), with corresponding
more efficient water management. Although being tapped in the country, it is often less
acceptable because of environmental and social impacts, including construction near fertile or
populated river valleys, damage to natural fisheries, as well as its high cost. The Philippines
has tapped some of its hydropower resources in Luzon and Mindanao. In 1989, 35% of the
installed energy capacity of the country was derived from hydropower technology. This could
not, however, ensure a stable supply of energy due to changes in the water level as a result of
climatic and environmental factors.
Wind energy shows considerable promise but is limited to certain areas. Wind energy is still in
its onset. In fact, PNOC-EDC will be developing the countrys first commercial wind power
project in Ilocos Norte.
Solar energys economic success depends on such factors as the local energy economy, the
amount of solar insulation, and the availability of a cheap supplementary fuel such as natural
gas to enable a plant to produce power for more than the daylight hours. Solar photovoltaic (PV)
systems are currently unable to provide substantial quantities of grid-connected electrical power
at a reasonable cost.
Biomass energy utilization is a traditional way of improving energy efficiency. There are,
however, social or replacement costs involved considering the deforestation, reforestation and a
possible expanded protection of property rights on timber.
Geothermal projects have a built-in competitive advantages over other oil and non-oil power
plants. These advantages were confirmed by the Department of Energy in its Philippine Energy
Plan for 2000-2009.

Geothermal Facilities are more reliable baseload plants


Geothermal plants are not adversely affected by seasonal changes like hydro. They
operate at plant factors (percentage of time on-line at full output) as high as 95%.
Geothermal energy provides a 24-hour, year-round source of base-load power to national
or local grids at a cost often competitive with fossil fuels (Table 1.5-2).

Geothermal energy prices are more stable than oil and coal which are highly sensitive to
fuel price volatility and foreign exchange rate fluctuations.
The dynamics of oil supply and demand can send shocking ripples throughout the global
system. Fuel prices are so volatile that two years ago, the fuel prices are at their 25 year
lows. At present, the current crude oil price of $26/barrel is already almost three times
more than its cost level around three to five years ago. This reality that government has
long come to terms with which is why energy self-reliance and diversification continues to
be a priority in the energy program.
Geothermal energy is immune to the geopolitics of oil and its consequential price
volatility.Geothermal is locally available and in abundance. With no imported fuel to
contend with, geothermal energy is less sensitive to foreign exchange rate fluctuations
than oil and coal based plants.

Geothermal plants are modular, and can be installed in units ranging in size from a few
hundred kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 6

Geothermal is more environment-friendly.


Geothermal facilities are by far superior to conventional thermal plants in view of their
minimal greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a total gas emission produced from each
energy source, geothermal energy accounts for the lowest contribution. A comparative
contribution of gas emissions are presented in Figures 1.5-1. These gaseous emissions
consist of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide (converted as sulfur dioxide) and NOx.
Geothermal has the lowest CO2 emission compared with coal and oil as confirmed by
Asia-Pacific Clean Air Development Plan for the Rescue of Bio-Physical and World
Climate. A 80 MW geothermal plant prevents additional emissions of 435 kilotons CO2/yr
by displacing a similar capacity oil-fired plant.
Moreover, the United National Development Program (UNDP) categorizes geothermal
energy as a non-greenhouse option.
Geothermal development affects a limited area. The operation takes place in a confined
area and there is no need to mine or transport fuel or waste over long distances.

Geothermal resources are renewable.


Geothermal energy can replenish itself over time with careful management.

Geothermal development favors forest protection.


The utilization of geothermal energy has a built-in conservation-related feature: for
indefinite sustainability, it relies on recharge of the geothermal reservoir (Figure 1.5-2).
Forested areas intercept much of rainwater and allows it to percolate down to the
geothermal reservoir, much more than bareground does. Since geothermal projects would
benefit from forest protection, protection of mountain vegetation is important and
advantageous to ensure its sustainability. Based on experience in other geothermal
fields, PNOC-EDC has cleared an aggregate of 579 hectares for a total of 1149 MW in 5
provinces, and has replanted/ established 4,147 hectares of forest
(Table 1.5-3),
resulting in a 1:7 ratio. Aside from this, the company has organized 73 farmers
associations to manage the forest.

1.5.2

Alternatives in Project Location

1.5.2.1 Siting of the geothermal project


Geothermal is site-specific and thus can only be found in certain volcanic regions/locations.
PNOC-EDC has identified a number of geothermal prospects for exploration in then next few
years. These include among others, Montelago in Mindoro, Mt. Cabalian in So. Leyte, and
Tanawon, and Mt. Labo in Camarines. Among the geothermal prospects, the Tanawon
Geothermal Project presents the most favorable prospect in view of the following:

Availability of a Ready Market and Facilities

Electricity generated by the Tanawon Geothermal Project can be easily connected to the Luzon
Grid where demand for electricity is highest. In contrast, there is no ready market to take in
electricity to be generated from Mt. Cabalian, Southern Leyte, as the transmission line
interconnecting Leyte and Mindanao is not yet in place. Likewise, Montelago in Mindoro is an
off-grid area whose electricity demand is currently met by existing plant facilities.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 7

Most promising/ advanced technical feasibility

While Mt. Labo is similarly situated in Luzon, PNOC-EDCs drilling activities yielded acidic fluids
which is very expensive to develop using present technology. This has led to the abandonment
of the area. Meanwhile, the initial tests in the Tanawon area showed promising results in terms
of resource potential and temperatures, deeming it suitable for development.

Lower Cost of Development

The Tanawon Geothermal prospect would be more economical to develop as the project would
entail less infrastructure costs due to proximity to the existing Bacman I and II Geothermal
Project. This proximity allows the Tanawon sector to be supported by BGPF facilities, example,
roads, administration building, electrical facilities, and others.

1.5.2.2 Alternatives in Siting of Specific Facilities


In terms of specific siting for the power plant(s), FCRS, and other facilities within the Tanawon
geothermal block, alternative options for location of the project facilities are carefully formulated
on the basis of several criteria and considerations which are discussed in detail in section 1.8.1
and Appendix F. Generally these include:
1. Available area, cost and ease of development
2. Proximity to drilled wells, calculated geothermal resource blocks, existing pipeline corridors
and existing roads, existing facilities
3. Distant from known active geologic structures, altered grounds, and other geologic
features (e.g. volcanoes)
4. Natural drainage patterns around the proposed sites for proper management of run-of and
containment of spills to prevent surface and sub-surface containment spills
5. Slope restrictions for the prevention of erosion and landslips; ground stability
6. Depth and type of top soil for stripping, spoil disposal and reclamation requirements
7. Least environmental impact of development and with due consideration to wind direction,
noise levels, vegetation, population centers
8. Availability of water supply
9. Effects of the operation on public health and safety

1.5.3

Alternatives in Technology Selection/ Engineering Design


The final selection of the FCRS /power plant technology and engineering design for the
Tanawon Geothermal Project of BGPF shall be determined after completion of geothermal
resource assessment, which will be undertaken after development drilling. Various well data
parameters such as two-phase enthalpy, well head pressure, mass flow, and gas component
are among the major parameters in deciding the final scheme. In the absence of these design
parameters, all possible engineering processes have been considered as options.
Several options are available to convert geothermal energy to electrical energy. These options
include one or a combination or modification of the following:

single flash to run a conventional power plant with condensing turbine,


single flash to supply a combined cycle binary power plant,
single flash to supply a condensing turbine coupled with a binary plant,
single flash with topping plant,
double flash with topping and bottoming plant, and
double flash to supply a dual pressure turbine.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 8

Section 1.8.2.3 (Process Flow/ Technology) further presents the process flow diagram and
general description for each scheme.
The power plant will either be modular (2 or more units or stations) or centralized (1 unit or
station) depending on engineering, geoscientific, economic and environmental requirements/
constraints.

1.6

PROJECT COMPONENTS

1.6.1

Area/Spatial Description
The proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project covers the pre-operations (exploration and
development) and operations of a geothermal production field consisting of the following
components: (1) a Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS), (2) 50-80 MW geothermal
power plant (s) with control center(s), (3) switchyard(s) and on-site transmission line, and (4)
waste management facilities and other support facilities. All these components will be confined
within a 2,460-hectare geothermal development block which will be discussed in detail under
section 1.8.1 of this report.

1.6.2

Process Flowchart
Activities for the Tanawon Geothermal Project will entail a complex process as simplified in the
form of an illustration shown in Figure 1.6-1. More details on the process flowchart are
presented under section 1.8.2.3 (Process Flow/TEchnology) of this report.
Deep holes (2,000-3,000 m) are drilled down to the geothermal reservoirs and pipes are
inserted in these holes. The mixture of hot water and steam, under its own pressure, will flow up
the pipe.
Upon reaching the wellhead at the surface, the water and steam go through a separator which
separates the steam and water phase. The steam portion is sent through a pipeline to the
power plant, passing through scrubbersand catalysts. The hot water, on the other hand, is sent
via another pipe to a reinjection well where the water is sent back to the geothermal reservoir.
The powerful natural steam, still under pressure, is directed into the power plant where it spins
the blades of a turbine. Attached to the turbine is a generator, a tightly coiled wire cylinder
which rotates in a field of magnets surrounding it.
This rotation process generates electricity, and the electric current is then sent to the
transmission lines then to the electric cooperatives which distribute electricity to homes, offices,
factories, schools, and other consumers.

1.6.3

Cost Estimate
Table 1.6-1 shows the investment requirements for the exploration and development (preoperations) of the 50-80 MW Tanawon Geothermal Project, estimated at P9.1 billion to P14.1
billion. This covers (a) investment requirements during development (3-5 years), as well as (b)
actual operations, maintenance, and replacement well drilling for a 30 year operational period.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 9

1.7

PROJECT LOCATION

1.7.1

Location
The Tanawon Geothermal Project is situated at the central portion of Sorsogon City in
Sorsogon Province of the Bicol Region-Region V (Figure 1.7-1), specifically in the uninhabited
mountainous regions of Barangays Rizal, Bucalbucalan, Bulabog, Capuy, Ticol, Basud,
Guinlajon, San Juan and Osiao (Figure 1.7-2). Sorsogon City was recently established in
2001, as a result of the merging of two municipalities, namely Sorsogon in the southwest and
Bacon in the north to east.
The proposed project area is delineated by a 2,460-hectare geothermal development block with
the following geographic coordinates:
NORTHING
A. 1,442,650
B. 1,442,650
C. 1,442,050
D. 1,437,700
E. 1,437,700
F. 1,438,550
G. 1,438,750
H. 1,439,010
I. 1,439,010

EASTING
605,550
600,000
599,500
599,500
604,200
604,040
604,150
604,150
603,830

NORTHING
J. 1,438,800
K. 1,439,200
L. 1,439,620
M. 1,440,020
N. 1,440,010
O. 1,440,200
P. 1,440,350
Q. 1,440,350
R. 1,441,600

EASTING
603,480
603,640
603,600
603,700
603,400
603,410
603,620
605,460
605,550

Surface development of all project facilities (consisting 5 to 10% of block area) will be confined
within said geothermal development block.
About half of this Tanawon block falls within the existing ECC coverage for the BGPF issued in
1985/1995. However, the entire Tanawon block falls within the existing 25,000-hectare BacMan
Geothermal Reservation managed by PNOC-EDC since 1986 per Executive Order 223 and
Proclamation 2036-A . The reservation is also covered by a Geothermal Service Contract with
the Department of Energy or DOE (since 1981) for the exploration, development and production
of the geothermal resource.
This Tanawon block is found at elevations ranging from 200 - 940 masl (Figure 1.7-3). There
are eight major rivers that drain from the project area and its surrounding vicinity: Manitohan
river drains in a northwesterly direction into Poliqui Bay, Menito, Rizal, Bucalbucalan, Bulabog,
Capuy, Ticol, Cawayan rivers drain southward into Sorsogon Bay, and Osiao river drains toward
Albay Gulf.. Of these, four rivers namely, Bulabog, Capuy, Anahaw and Osiao rivers actually
originate outside the block but were included as study areas due to proximity to the project.

1.7.2

Access to the Project


The Tanawon area is about 24 aerial kms southeast of Legaspi City, and 10 kms. northwest of
Sorsogon City proper. Although the project is accessible by helicopter, the most common mode
of transportation to the project site is by land travel.
There are two existing concrete highways from Legaspi City airport which lead to the project:
(1) via the Sorsogon highway and through an existing dirt road at Brgy. Rizal ascending
northward to the project area (Plate 1.7-1). This route will take about 1 hour and a half (1 hr);
or (2) via the coastal highway at Albay and through an existing dirt road at Manito town
ascending southward to the project area. The latter route will take about 2 hours. There are
buses and jeepneys that pass along the highway, but private vehicles (preferably 4-wheel drive)
will have to be taken through the ascending rough roads.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 10

The project can also be reached by land travel from Sorsogon town proper, which will take about
30 minutes ride in a private vehicle.

1.7.3

Primary and Secondary Impact Areas


Impact areas were determined as those areas most likely to be affected directly or indirectly by
the proposed project, in terms of physical, chemical, biological and social disturbance as well as
benefits. These were first delineated on a modular basis, and then integrated as one. These
impact areas are plotted in Figure 1.7-4.
The primary impact area was delineated as the area falling inside the Tanawon geothermal
block, i.e., within areas to be cleared and constructed, within the location of gas-emitting and
waste-generating facilities; within areas where equipment will be mobilizing; springs within the
block; and the upper reaches of river tributaries emanating from the block. This block is
uninhabited thus no households fall within the primary impact area.
Secondary impact areas include those regions falling outside of the block but found within
impact watersheds, mid-stretch of the impact rivers down to the coastal areas; irrigated
ricefields utilizing the impact rivers; marine areas within a 2-km radius from each of the impact
river mouths toward Sorsogon Bay, Poliqui Bay, and Albay Gulf (specifically Sugot Bay);
springs located in the nine host barangays; and downstream coastal barangays.
Table1.7-1 is a tabulation of the impact area per environmental component.

1.8

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT PHASES


Project activities are to be undertaken in two (2) phases: namely the pre-operational phase and
the operational phase.
The-operational phase will include all exploration and development activities prior to commercial
operations of the geothermal production field, the power plant, and the transmission line system.
The operations phase involves steam collection and reinjection, conversion of steam to
electricity, electricity generation, and power transmission. This is the commercial operations of
the entire production field, power plant(s) and transmission lines.
Project abandonment may take place on either of the two scenarios: (1) when the drilled wells
prove to have non-commercial value or are technically unfeasible to develop, or (2) when the
project exceeds its economic life after about 30 years of operation. In either case, abandonment
and/or rehabilitation of the area will follow standard PNOC policies and guidelines.

1.8.1

Pre-Operations Phase (Exploration and Development)


The pre-operational phase starts with the exploration of the field and is succeeded by full scale
development of the area. Both exploration and development stages consist of the following
activities: (1) construction, (2) well drilling, and (3) well testing. This phase will approximately
take 3-5 years.
Plates 1.8-1 to 1.8-2 show the general environment within the proposed project area while
Plates 1.8-3 to 1.8-16 present the various activities and facilities to be undertaken for the
geothermal project.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 11

1.8.1.1 Construction Phase


This phase includes all civil, mechanical, structural, and electrical works and installations for the
exploration and development of the geothermal field.

A.

Construction Plan and Schedule

At the initial phases of exploratory and development drilling, construction activities will mainly
involve civil works/ earthworks for roads and wellpad preparation to access the wells pinpointed
by initial geoscientific investigations. After several wells are drilled and a decision is reached to
pursue field development, construction activities for development will then take place for the
major facilities, i.e., FCRS, power plant, transmission system, waste management and other
support facilities. In some instances, drilling works and well testing will be undertaken almost
simultaneously with construction in other areas.

B. Surface development block/construction area


All surface development will be confined within a 2,460-hectare geothermal development block
as earlier shown in Figure 1.7-3. From this, the total aggregate area to be cleared is estimated
at 5-10%. Priority construction areas will include those proximate to existing and proposed wells
and facilities, as well as gently sloping areas to minimize on earthworks spoils.

C. Area to be opened for construction


All surface development for project facilities will be confined within the Tanawon geothermal
development block. The final development layout still has to be developed based on results of
exploratory and development well drilling and testing.
Geothermal systems are highly dynamic as evidenced by the differences in thermodynamics,
physico-chemical characteristics, and power potential of each well. Only after completion of
delineation well drilling can the likely production or reinjection zones be determined, and the
development scheme be finalized. In general, as long as delineation drilling has not yet been
completed in an area, any proposed field development strategy and FCRS design are subject to
revision and modification. These revisions in field strategy during development and operations
are expected in meeting operational requirements, and are often balanced with the overall
economics of the project, giving consideration to environmental protection.
Given this complexity and dynamism in geothermal systems, specific areas for construction
activities within the geothermal development block cannot yet be identified but will be selected
later based on the siting criteria adopted by PNOC-EDC in its other project sites. These siting
criteria have earlier been presented in Appendix F. The results of the EIS will be used as basis
for siting of facilities and defining development options. Nevertheless, project facilities will still
be confined to about 5-10% opening anywhere within the 2,460-ha geothermal block. This
percentage is based on field development experience by PNOC EDC in its other geothermal
projects.
A conceptual layout of a typical geothermal site development has earlier been presented in
Figure 1.6-1. The major project components include the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS)


Power Plant(s) and Control Center(s)
Switchyard(s) and Transmission Line
Waste Management Facilities and Other Support Facilities

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 12

To give an idea on the areas typically opened for the major facilities, a typical power plant
complex will require a minimum of about 2.0 hectares of land, while each multi-wellpad will
require about 1.0 to 1.5 hectares. Access roads will have a 4 to 7-meter width plus 1-2 m
shoulder on each side and 10-m slope cut for steep areas. FCRS pipeline routes will have a
width ranging from 3 to 8 meters, depending on the number of pipelines to be set-up. Opening
for transmission lines will mainly be at tower bases, i.e., 15m x 15m (225 m2) per tower for
lattice-type or 1m x 1m (1 m2) per tower for a pole-type. Vegetation trimming /pruning
underneath the lines will depend on the height of the tower and cable. Actual areas to be
opened for each facility will depend on site-specific topographic constraints and the slope angle
to be attained.

D.

Nature of major openings and construction activities

Initially, construction activities will involve preparatory activities for well drilling. After
development drilling is completed, the other major facilities such as the FCRS, power plant and
control center, switchyard and transmission system, waste management and support facilities
will be constructed. The number of units for each facility will depend on whether a central or
modular FCRS/ power plant will be installed. Each facility is discussed below:

1.

Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS)

Although treated as one system, the FCRS generally has two components, the Steam
Gathering System (SGS) for delivery of steam to the power plant, and a Reinjection/
Recycling System for management of geothermal fluids. The FCRS consists of the
following facilities: production, reinjection and M&R (maintenance and replacement) wells
and their wellpads; two-phase/ steam/ reinjection pipelines, separator stations, rock
muffler, sumps, and thermal ponds.
Wellpad Construction. A few wellpads will initially be constructed in preparation for the
drilling of exploratory wells. Additional pads will then be opened during the development
phase for additional wells to meet the 50-80 MW power requirement.
Each will be designed as a multi-wellpad in order to accommodate 2 or more wells, thus
minimizing surface disturbance (refer again to Plate 1.8-7).
Wellpad construction will involve clearing/grubbing, site preparation, excavation and
hauling of spoils, pad surfacing, deep cellar construction, and conveyance & drill canal
preparation.
Sumps. Within the wellpad vicinity, holding ponds called sumps will be constructed to
contain fluids generated from drilling and well testing activities. Sumps have been
designed to allow settling of solids prior to reinjection, or prior to regulated discharge
(during exploration phase) in order to meet water quality standards. To filter fine particles
and diesel, the sump outlets will be installed with silt and oil traps. A 2 or 3-stage sump
will be constructed for each wellpad. The sump is lined with a suitable material like
cement, clay or tarpaulin/polyethlylene , to prevent any ground seepage.
Sumps will be constructed preferably on original ground. Where possible, it will be
excavated from an impervious and undisturbed topsoil. It shall also be designed to hold
the anticipated volume of fluids plus a free board to address high rainfall scenarios and
emergency situations.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 13

Activities include sump preparation, excavation and hauling of spoils, sump construction,
and lining.
Pipelines and Corridors/ Routes. A network of insulated pipelines consisting of twophase, steam and re-injection pipelines for the FCRS will be installed at the designated
pipeline routes (refer again to Plate 1.8-8). The route will normally be from the wells to
the separator stations, then to the power plant and finally toward the reinjection wells.
Both sides of the lines will be provided with corridors or buffer areas for maintenance
access.
Pipeline installation, structural works, mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation works
will be undertaken for the FCRS pipelines for two-phase steam and re-injection fluids.
These 100% heavily insulated pipelines ranging from 2 inches to 60 inches in diameter
are selected in accordance with design pressure and temperature. Insulation material
will be asbestos-free, as evidenced by accompanying Material Safety Data Sheets to be
required from suppliers.
A flat area for the construction and installation of
Separator Stations and Pads.
separator stations will be prepared usually proximate to the power plant. The separator
station will consist of separator vessels (refer again to Plate 1.8-9) where steam and
water are separated under high pressure. From here, steam is diverted to the power
plant, while separated brine or hot water is diverted into the reinjection wells.
Rock Muffler(s). A rock muffler will be installed after the separator station for control of
FCRS pressure. Should the power plant trip or encounter upsets, the blow-off/ steam will
be vented off at the rock muffler. During start-ups, when the power plant needs the
steam, the blow-off is closed and rock muffler is by-passed.
Thermal Ponds. A holding pond will be provided to contain separated geothermal brine,
cooling tower blowdown and/or power plant condensate prior to injection. It also serves
to provide containment volume during emergency situations (refer again to Plate 1.8-10).
The pond will have a capacity equivalent to at least four hours of operations while
emergency repairs are being undertaken.
3

The pond is designed for a maximum holding capacity of 10,000 m or may be modified
based on operational requirements. It will be lined with a suitable material like concrete,
high density polyethylene (HDPE), or grouted riprap to ensure that no seepage occurs.

2.

Power plant(s) and Control Center(s)

Power Plant Complex. Selection of power plant site(s) will be based on its proximity to
the various wells and on its relative elevation to ensure optimized fluid flow. Sites will also
be assessed based on space availability so as to allow flexibility for development of the
power plant and its auxiliary facilities. The power plant may either be centralized or
modular, depending on operational requirements. In the latter case, a modular scheme
would mean two or more smaller units in separate locations/complexes.
Power Plant(s). In assuring the optimum design, and, layout of equipment, systems and
other associated structures, the following parameters are taken into account: steam and
gas capacities/characteristics, steam impurities, climatic conditions and topography.
Plates 1.8-11 and 1.8-12 show the existing NPC power plants in BacMan I and II
(Cawayan and Botong sectors) found within the BGPF.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 14

A typical power generating facility will consist of the following principal equipment and
systems. Additional components may be added or modified to suite the selected
technology.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Steam turbine generator and its ancillaries


Condenser equipment
Gas ejection system
Cooling towers and cooling water system
Electrical equipment
Piping systems Instruments and Controls
Transformer
Condensate System
Pressure reducing station
Airplant

Control Center. The facility will contain the control panels, instrumentation and other
auxiliaries for the FCRS. It is usually located within the power plant complex (refer again
to Plate 1.8-13).

3.

Switchyard and Transmission line

Switchyard. The switchyard will be located in a flat area right next to the power plant. It
is where the high voltage equipment are located necessary for the protection and control
of the transmission lines and power plant operation. This is the terminal point of the
transmission line to serve as switching station for power or electricity to be dispatched
(Plate 1.8-14). The number of switchyards will be dependent on the final number of
power plants to be constructed, i.e., centralized or modular type.
Transmission Line and Towers.
The transmission line applied for in this EIA will be confined within the geothermal block,
and is more or less 5-10 kilometers long, depending on the final arrangements with NPC.
The line will generally traverse public lands within the Tanawon geothermal block,
although some patches of private lands may be encountered at the lower section of said
block.
Activities include clearing at tower bases, vegetation pruning or clearing beneath the lines
and along the 40-meter right-of-way (ROW) area, transmission tower erection, and cables
stringing. A 230-kV transmission line will involve lattice type of towers. Where necessary,
additional 69 kV transmission lines may be set-up using a pole type tower (Figure 1.8-1
and Plate 1.8-15). The tower height is about 40 meters. Table 1.8-1 show the typical
figures which more or less approximate the dimensions of a lattice or pole-type tower.
Actual sizes and lengths may vary during actual construction to suite site-specific
constraints.

4.

Waste Management Facilities and Other Support Facilities

These include spoil disposal areas, non-hazardous waste disposal pits, sludge pit, solid
waste management pits, housing and office buildings, DOLC (Drilling, Operations and
Logistics Center), and temporary facilities (TemFacil) such as storage areas, stockyard,
warehouse, staging areas, laydown areas, camps and other related facilities.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 15

Access Roads. The existing BacMan road network leading to the Tanawon sector will
be improved to accommodate entry of heavy equipment for the project. In order to access
the drill/well pads and other facilities, new access roads will be constructed within the
Tanawon geothermal block. Where necessary, roads may also be built for maintenance
access of the FCRS pipelines and may run parallel or adjacent to the pipeline routes.
The extent of new road construction will be limited as use of existing ones will be
optimized.
Road construction will entail the following sub-activities: piloting, widening, hauling of
spoils, surfacing, canal and cross drain installation, and slope stabilization. As the area is
found in a sloping and mountainous area, the road route will generally cut across slopes
but will maintain a gradual target gradient that will be safe for both workers and heavy
equipment.
Spoil Disposal Areas (SDA). Spoil disposal areas will be prepared to accommodate the
earth spoils generated during all construction activities.
SDAs will preferably be located on topographical depressions with no associated
perennial water bodies (surface and groundwater systems). In areas where SDAs are to
be located near water bodies, appropriate engineering and stabilization measures will be
constructed prior to usage of SDAs. As dictated by on-site conditions, primary
consideration will be given to possible geotechnical hazards, hydrological alterations and
terrestrial impacts. Siting will also consider easy access for hauling of spoils and minimal
damage to surrounding vegetation, surface drainage systems and groundwater sources.
Old quarry sites, if available, can also be reclaimed through its utilization as an SDA.
Figure 1.8-2 shows the potential locations for the Spoil Disposal Areas initially identified
for the project. One of these include an existing SDA of BGPF which can still
accommodate earth spoils from Tanawon.
Non-hazardous Waste Disposal Pits. Subject to the Implementing Rules and
Regulations (IRR) of the recently-passed law enacted Jan. 26, 2001 or called the
Ecological Solid Waste Management of 2000 (R.A. 9003), the Tanawon Geothermal
Project will coordinate with the local government units or other industries in the province
for a centralized waste management approach.
Sludge pits. These concrete structures will be used to contain the toxic sludge
generated during preventive maintenance shutdown (PMS) of the power plant or any
other waste from support activities to the steam field and power plant operation, i.e.,
laboratory waste. There is an existing sludge pit for the BacMan Geothermal Production
Field which can largely accommodate sludge from the four BGPF sectors (Plate 1.8-16).
The area is fenced to prevent entry of unauthorized personnel. A separate pit for
Tanawon will be constructed if there are constraints or when the maximum capacity for
the BGPF pit cannot fully contain the toxic sludge from the Tanawon sector.
Studies are also ongoing regarding the technical, environmental, and
feasibility of injecting sludge to non-producing wells.

economic

Permanent Facilities. Permanent housing and office structures for the working
personnel will be provided if the existing ones at BGPF will be inadequate, e.g., the
DOLC (Drilling, Operations and Logistics Center),
housing, offices, other storage
structures/areas for Tanawon equipment and supplies.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 16

Temporary Facilities (Temfacil). Temporary facilities during construction periods will be


built. These include staging, storage areas, housing and office buildings, warehouses,
stockyards, basecamps, and other similar support facilities necessary during construction
works by PNOC and its contractors.
The staging area will be used as a temporary storage for piping materials, equipment and
other bulky materials and supplies used in the construction of the FCRS and power plant.
The storage area will be designated for drilling supplies, pipes, valves and other
construction materials.
Housing, basecamps, and office facilities will be provided for PNOC-EDC and its
contractors during construction periods.
Additional facilities for offices , warehouses and stockyards will be constructed depending
on operational requirements.
There are existing BGPF facilities which may be utilized as temporary facilities, subject to
space availability and requirement. Because of these existing facilities, new openings
may be minimized.
Quarries. Surfacing material for road and pad construction will most likely be sourced
from Sorsogon or Legaspi, unless a potential quarry site is discovered during the
development of the field. The estimated volume of quarry material required will depend
on the final number of wellpads, road length and power plant site.

E.

Siting Criteria for Facilities

Various criteria as presented in Appendix F and section 1.5.2.2 will be taken into account in the
final selection of the civil work areas (roads, pads, support facilities such as camps, offices,
staging areas, FCRS, power plant, transmission lines, waste management facilities, etc.). The
criteria may be modified as appropriate depending on site specific constraints.

F.

Basic Engineering Equipment

Table 1.8- 2 shows the typical equipment that will be utilized during construction of the various
facilities. Use may not be simultaneous, and may be operating at one or several areas within
the block. The list below may be modified depending on operational requirements.

G.

Route and frequency of transportation from source of materials to the


construction site

Most parts and equipment for the FCRS, power plant, transmission system are foreign supplied
items. Due to the volume of these items required, they will be transported by sea from the
country of origin to Manila and then Legaspi or Sorsogon either by land or sea depending on
economics. Common construction materials will be sourced out from Sorsogon City, Legaspi
City or Manila. Materials from Legaspi will be transported via the existing Sorsogon or Albay
Highway, entering through existing access roads in Bgy. Rizal or Manito town proper,
respectively. Those originating from Manila will be transported via trucking (land travel) passing
the same routes mentioned above, or through water barge in the case of large volumes.
Existing pier facilities will be utilized as long as it can accommodate the required capacity.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 17

Other excess/ available materials at the BGPF warehouse will be transported via the existing insite road network at BGPF.

H.

Source of construction materials

Unless a potential quarry site is discovered during the development at Tanawon, all quarry
materials will be purchased at either Sorsogon or Legaspi. All other construction materials will
originate from either Sorsogon, Legaspi, Manila, or the existing warehouse at BGPF.

I.

Support services and facilities requirements

Water requirement during construction and domestic use will be pumped from tributaries of
nearby rivers such as Cawayan or Osiao, depending on the specific water requirement. The
Water Rights Permit application for proposed sources has already been filed with NWRB.
Estimated rate of water extraction during peak construction periods is approximately 100,000
gallons per day for concreting and domestic purposes. The rate may be more or less
depending on the final design of facilities and the extent of project activities. Drinking water will
be purchased, i.e., bottled water.
Electricity requirements will either be by generator set or by extension of 13.8 kV lines from the
existing BGPF facilities, depending on economics.
Existing facilities of the BGPF will be optimized when feasible.

J.

Estimate of total cut soil volume

During the aforementioned earthmoving activities, a corresponding total cut volume of soil
estimated at 2,000,000 m3 may be generated from excavation or cut activities. This value may
be more or less depending on the final project layout. Bulk of these will be derived from the
road preparation, pipeline routes and power plant construction. If not utilized for fill areas and
road surfacing, these will be hauled and properly disposed to suitable designated spoil disposal
areas (SDAs).

K.

Manpower requirement (and skills)

Existing permanent employees of BGPF will be tapped to meet the requirement for the preoperational phase. Should these be insufficient, the balance shall come from locally qualified
individuals. Table 1.8-3 shows the manpower skills requirement for the development and
operations phase of the project.
Other manpower required for the construction phase will come from the PNOC-EDC
construction contractors and sub-contractors, numbering more or less 500-750 during peak
construction periods. Duration of this manpower requirement will be short-term or until
completion of construction activities in 3 to 5 years This manpower requirement generally
includes skilled and unskilled workers such as engineers, maintenance personnel, technicians,
administrative personnel, laborers, and others.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 18

L.

Safety Measures During Construction

Standard safety measures will be implemented to prevent work-related injuries, and to ensure
the general safety of the employees. Safety seminars and meetings will also be conducted by a
Safety Officer. These are complemented by billboards, posters and memos to remind
employees to be vigilant in the observance of safety procedures. All safety practices will be
consistent with the corporate safety guidelines shown in Appendix G.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 19

1.8.1.2 Well Drilling Phase


After preparation of the access road, wellpad and sump, the drilling rig and its components are
set up (refer again to Figure 1.8-3).
Drilling is undertaken to tap the underlying geothermal reservoir. A few exploratory wells are
initially drilled to prove the existence of a geothermal resource and to determine the potential
and initial characteristics of the underlying geothermal reservoir. After exploratory drilling,
additional wells are drilled to define the possible resource boundaries. The latter is called as
delineation or development drilling. Both shall involve similar or standard activities as
follows:

A.

Drilling Plan and Schedule

A drilling rig is used to tap the geothermal resource, and makes use of a freshwater-based mud
system. A typical rig has earlier been shown in Plate 1.8-3. Average drilling time is 45-75 days
per well, depending on attainment of target underlying structures.
A drilling rig drills the production, reinjection and M&R (maintenance & replacement) wells to a
depth range of 2.0 to 3.0 kms below the ground. The rig is mobile and can be transferred from
one wellpad to another, wherever drilling is required.
Figure 1.8-4 presents the casing program for an average well with a measured depth of 2.0-3.0
kms. The diameter of a drillhole ranges from 22 to 26 inches at the surface down to about 100
meters depth; it then narrows telescopically to about 8 inches at the production zone. The
drillhole is completely lined with steel casings and cemented from the surface down to a depth of
1,600 meters. At the remaining depth within the production zone, slotted steel casings are set.
This system totally prevents any communication between the geothermal fluids and the shallow
potable water aquifer which is usually found at a depth ranging from 10 to 100 meters from the
surface.
After completion of drilling, the wellhead assembly shall be installed (refer again to Plate
1.8-4).

B.

Siting Criteria

The following will serve as basis for location of drilling targets:


1.
2.
3.

Target permeable geologic structures


The production wells required should be distributed so as to balance production
while maximizing output
Injection wells should be strategically located to provide adequate reservoir
pressure in support of natural recharge, thus maintaining well productivities.

For the initial exploratory wells drilled, the above criteria will be applied. Subsequent wells will
be based on physico-chemical characteristics and outputs of previously drilled wells. When
feasible, various well targets are drilled from a multi-well pad. This scheme has successfully
been adopted in various PNOC geothermal areas including the BGPF, and has resulted in
minimized openings (refer again to Plate 1.8-7 and Figure 1.8-5).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 20

C. Drilling Activities /Procedures


As in a backyard drilling, a drill bit is attached to the end of a pipe string and rotated to make a
hole in the ground. Drilling fluid/mud is piped into the string and comes out from the holes of
the bit to push the cut rocks along and up the annulus of the well.
Table 1.8-4 shows the classification, product types, purpose and volume of the various drilling
fluid components to be used. The composition of drilling fluids/mud remain generally the same
for every geothermal well regardless of project location. Drilling of a geothermal well involves
the use of a mud slurry and chemical additives to maintain the desired rheological properties of
the mud. The mud slurry is mainly composed of clay minerals which are non-toxic. These
include bentonite as viscosifier, lignite and sodium lignosulfonate as mud thinner/ dispersants,
caustic soda for pH control. Chemical additives such as sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose and
soda ash are also employed.
When a desired depth is reached, the hole is cased in steel and cement is piped through the
drill string, and out the bit towards and up the annulus. Steel and cement casings are
necessary to ensure stability of the drillhole. Once the cement hardens, the bit is again rotated
to target the next depth, until the final target depth is reached.

D.

Vertical and Directional Drilling

Well drilling are of two types, namely: vertical and directional drilling.
Vertical drilling involves drilling from surface to total depth in an almost vertical direction, with a
controlled deviation within 2 to 3 degrees from the vertical.
Modern technology, originating from the international offshore oil and gas industry, now exists
for directional drilling. In this method, the geothermal well is curved or deviated from the vertical
axis to as far as 1.5 kilometers (Figure 1.8-5).
Directional drilling is adopted to reach areas inaccessible from above the targetted coordinates
or zone. This strategy prevents or limits disturbance of forested areas, populated areas,
mountain systems or riverbeds, and other environmentally critical areas. Areas which require
excessive earthmoving activities can likewise be avoided.
Moreover, the directional method allows several wells to be strategically located and drilled
from a single well pad. This multi-wellpad system minimizes surface disturbance and results in
a very compact field development.

E. Basic Engineering Equipment


Table 1.8-2 show the various equipment will be utilized during drilling activities. These set of
equipment will be mobilized from one drilling area to the next depending on the drilling target
areas. The types and number may vary depending on operational requirements.

F. Route and Frequency of transportation from source of materials to the


drill site
If not found within the Sorsogon locality, most of the drilling materials, supplies and heavy
equipment will either come from Legaspi City or Manila. Materials from Legaspi will be
transported via the existing Sorsogon or Albay highway, entering through existing access roads
in Bgy. Rizal or Manito town proper, respectively. Those originating from Manila will be sent via
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 21

trucking (land travel) passing the same routes mentioned above, or through water barge in the
case of large volumes. Existing pier facilities will be utilized.
Other excess/ available materials at the BGPF warehouse will be transported via the existing
on-site road network at BGPF.

G.

Source of drilling materials and supplies

Drilling materials and supplies, which are in the form of drilling mud and additives will be
sourced from either Manila or from the existing BGPF warehouse. Others will be sourced from
the nearest availablesupplier.

H.

Support services and facilities requirements

Drilling water source will be from the nearest tributary from the wellpad which can meet the
water requirement of 600 gallons per minute.
For electricity requirements, each drilling rig is provided with about 3 rig engines (with capacity
of 500-800 HP) and 2 alternating rig generators (with a capacity of ~300 HP), all of which run
on diesel.
Movable sleepers will be utilized by the drilling personnel as temporary office and camps.

I.

Nature and Magnitude of Drilling Waste Production

Fluids and materials generated during the drilling process include rock cuttings, excess drilling
mud and rig washings, with a total volume of about 1,622 m3 per well. Assumptions are based
on a typical well depth of 2,800 meters (Table 1.8-5).
Rock cuttings, equivalent to the annular space drilled, will be spread out around the pad. The
drilling fluids will pass a three-stage sump where the drill cuttings and mud particles settle and
the viscous drilling fluid can be recycled back to the system. Excess drilling fluids, which now
form the drilling waste will be stored in the sump until it can be piped to the nearest reinjection
well.

J.

Manpower requirement (and skills)

PNOC-EDC has an existing manpower which is fixed for a given drilling rig. Thus, local labor
requirement may be very minimal during drilling to include a few laborers or helpers.

K.

Safety Measures During Well Drilling

For the entire drilling period, PNOC-EDCs Standard Drilling Operating Procedures and Well
Control Procedures shall be strictly observed to maintain a safe environment at all times.
These procedures include the necessary implementation of control, maintenance of safety
procedures.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 22

The well control equipment used are as follows:


1. Blow-out Preventers used to close the well in and allow the crew to control a kick
before it becomes a blow-out, and
2. Accumulator serves as storage for hydraulic fluid and used to open or close the
blow-out preventers.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 23

1.8.1.3 Well Testing


After drilling is completed, each well is subjected to a series of tests to determine whether it
can be utilized in any future development of the project. The basic objectives of these tests are
to characterize the behavior of the well and determine its power potential and/or injection
capacity. After these tests are completed, the well can then be assessed in relation to the
development plan of the project. The following will outline the standard tests conducted for
each well.

A.

Well Testing Plan and Schedule

The tests start off with the completion test which is conducted immediately after well drilling is
completed, with the rig normally still in place. The wells initial temperatures, permeable zones
and permeability are measured and evaluated in this test. The completion test usually lasts for
1-2 days.
The heat-up surveys follow where the wells temperatures and pressures are monitored
through time, normally for a period of 1-2 months. After this heat-up period, the well is readied
for discharge or output testing. In some cases, the well may heat-up faster or slower than
normal. In such cases, the timetable of the ensuing activity (discharge testing) is adjusted to
minimize delays.
The discharge test is conducted to define the wells output characteristics such as discharge
pressure, power potential, NCG (non-condensable gases) levels, fluid chemistry, etc. The
discharge test may also determine the wells ability to interfere with the conditions in the other
wells in the field. The discharge test normally lasts from 1 to 3 months.
After the discharge test, the well undergoes periodic post-discharge temperature and pressure
monitoring surveys. The well is left either on shut or bleed condition, depending on whether it
develops wellhead pressure.

B.

Testing Activities/ Procedures

The test procedures are as follows:

1.

Well Completion test

The test is conducted normally while the rig is still on top of the well. Measuring devices
such as go-devils, Kuster tools and/or electronic logging tools are used for measuring the
downhole clear depths and the wells temperatures and pressures. Several survey runs
are made to determine the location of possible feed zones or permeable zones while
water is pumped into the well. Pumping tests are also made to determine the injectivity
and pressure transients which are later evaluated to determine the overall permeability of
the well. A well with good injectivty and high temperatures normally indicate that it can be
a good production well. A confirmation of its potential is done during the discharge test. If
the well has low temperatures but has good injectivity, then it can become a good injection
well.

2.

Heat-up Surveys

These tests are just the standard downhole temperature and pressure surveys at
specified intervals. The heat-up surveys employ the same set of tools used during the
completion test. No pumping of water into the well is, however, done. The heat-up

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 24

surveys monitor the wells temperature and pressure and these data are used to further
evaluate the location of permeable zones identified during the completion test. The heatup survey data also help in evaluating the possible modes of initiating discharge of the
well.

3. Discharge Tests
After the heat-up surveys, the well is ready for discharge testing.
A discharge set-up is installed usually composed of the wellhead Christmas Tree and
the discharge spools and pipes connected to the twin-cyclone silencer in the pad. The
Christmas Tree is a series of valves that control the flow from the well. The twin-cyclone
silencer is a standard discharge test equipment which separates the water and the
vapor/steam phases of the well flow. The vapor/steam is vented towards the atmosphere
via silencer stacks which also muffle the sound of the discharge. The water phase is
collected through a weirbox from where it is then conveyed to the holding pond (sump)
prior to injection to a nearby well, if available. The silencer set-up also has measurement
points where the various well discharge parameters are observed and measured.
The well may either discharge by itself or be initiated through a stimulation process if it is
unable to discharge by itself. In all cases, the discharge process is normally done in the
following stages:
3.1 Vertical Discharge
The vertical discharge (VD) is usually done to initially release the wells high wellhead
pressure through a discharge pipe directed towards a suitable area in the well pad
(refer again to Plate 1.8-5) The discharge pipe may be directed vertically to the
atmosphere or at an angle, depending on the presence of critical environmental
sectors. The VD helps in initiating and sustaining well flow as this configuration
minimizes pressure drops during the wells initial flow period when collapse of the
discharge is quite possible. After a reasonable period of VD, normally 30 minutes (or
less), the well will have stabilized its initial flow and can then be diverted to the
silencers for the horizontal discharge.
3.2 Horizontal Discharge
With a horizontal discharge, the flow from the well is conveyed to the silencer via the
discharge spool connected to the side valve of the well (Plate 1.8-6). The flow to the
silencer can be varied depending on the opening of the side valve or the presence of
throttle plates called back-pressure plates (BPPs). During the discharge test, the
various parameters such as wellhead discharge pressure, weir box flow, and
discharge lip pressure are measured and monitored. Water and gas samples are also
taken to characterize the chemistry of the discharged fluids. Several sets of data are
taken for each wellhead condition (or opening) to ensure that the stabilized
parameters are measured. The thermodynamic and chemical data obtained during
the test establishes the wells power potential, its chemistry and NCG levels and its
optimum operating condition. These are all used as basis for designing the FCDS as
well as the steam interface parameters from which the steam turbine design is based.
To ensure compliance with environmental standards, the volume flow of the well
discharge can be regulated by reducing the sizes of the BPPs used during the test.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 25

3.3 Intermittent Discharges


In some cases, in order to improve the wells output, a series of intermittent VDs are
conducted on the well. This is normally limited to 30 minutes per day and conducted
at the best window during the day wherein wind conditions are favorable at the pad.
3.4 Subsequent Discharges
After the horizontal discharge tests are completed, it may necessary to re-test the well
in order to accurately obtain the latest output data from the well, since the wells
characteristics may change with time. In such case, the standard discharge
procedure outlined above are followed.

4. Post Discharge Activity (Well Bleeding)


After the discharge tests, the well is either shut or put on controlled bleed. If the well
develops a wellhead pressure, it may be necessary to open it through its bleed line to
release excess pressure that may build up inside the casing. In this process, minor
steam and gas releases are experienced. This process of bleeding is required for
safety reasons as excessive pressure build-up in the casing of the well is not
advisable in the long term. The bleeding of wells is also beneficial as it keeps the
casing hot and free of corrosion. It also keeps the well ready for discharge when
needed.

C.

Well Chemistry

Physico-chemical characterization of the proposed wells may be projected by utilizing data from
the initially drilled wells in the Tanawon sector The projected water and gas chemistry are
presented in Table 1.8-6.

D.

Basic Engineering Equipment

The equipment needed for the well testing phase include 6 types as presented in Table 1.8-2.

E.

Support services and facilities requirements

During well testing, the use of water may not be required. Drinking water for company personnel
will be purchased, i.e., bottled water.
Electricity during well completion tests will utilize the rig generator. Electricity requirement during
discharge testing will either be from a generator set or by extension of 13.8 kV lines from the
existing BGPF facilities, depending on economics.
Existing services and facilities of the BGPF will be optimized whenever possible.

F.

Nature and Magnitude of Waste Production from Well Testing


Activities

Well testing involves release of the underlying natural geothermal fluids at various wellhead
pressures. The composition of these fluids consist of brine and steam components, although
some drilling debris may be encountered during the initial vertical release. Noise and heat are
also emitted during this phase. However, noise during horizontal discharge testing is muffled
by silencers.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 26

The projected chemical composition of these fluid and steam components have earlier been
presented under item C above on well chemistry (refer again to Table 1.8-6).

G.

Manpower requirement (and skills)

Manpower required for the well testing phase will be minimal and will be taken from the existing
pool at BGPF as it is a short-term activity (1-3 months) requiring highly skilled, experienced, and
trained personnel.

H. Safety Measures During Well Testing


During discharge tests, workers/personnel will be provided with ear plugs, gas masks, safety
hats, safety shoes, and raincoats. Shifting of working schedules is also practiced so as not to
continually expose workers to noise and gaseous emissions.
Monitoring of H2S levels shall also be done with the use of H2S detectors. As a usual practice,
workplaces are sited upwind of the vent structure. A wind bag is installed near the wellhead to
guide personnel away from the downwind direction of any possible H2S emission.
Standard operating procedures to be observed when entering an area with H2S will be adopted
such as avoidance (staying upwind), use of personnel protective equipment (PPEs), and H2S
measurements. An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is also is place at the existing BGPF for
any eventual H2S encounters (section 5.1.7). All safety practices will be undertaken consistent
with these corporate safety guidelines.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 27

1.8.2 Operations Phase


This is the commercial operations of the entire geothermal field.
Activities include
commissioning of the entire geothermal system, steam production from the FCRS, electric
power generation by the power plant, delivery of electricity through the transmission lines, and
use of the waste management facilities and support facilities.
Prior to actual operations, preliminary activities include quality assurance/ quality control
(QA/QC) tests/ inspections/ checks and actual project commissioning of the FCRS and power
plant(s). Similarly the switchyard and transmission system will also undergo a series of tests.
During actual commercial operations, geothermal steam from the production wells is collected
and delivered to the steam turbines of the power plant for conversion to electricity. Power to be
generated will be fed to the transmission system, delivered to the local electric cooperatives and
eventually to the consumers for commercial utilization.
A standard practice in geothermal operations is the re-injection of spent fluids back to the
geothermal reservoir. Drilling of maintenance and replacement (M & R) wells will be undertaken
to compensate for the potential decline in the geothermal reservoir pressure or lowering of
steam production due to possible corrosion or clogging of wells. Moreover, M&R wells would
be a necessity in the event of a re-injection shortfall.

1.8.2.1 Project Operations Schedule


The commercial operating life of the project is projected at 30 years, assuming careful
management of the geothermal reservoir and the facilities. It will operate for a 24-hour period,
subject to scheduled preventive maintenance repairs.
Project commissioning and full operations is scheduled in 2005 onwards.

1.8.2.2 Project Components


The project will consist of the following components:

A.

Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS)

The FCRS is comprised of two major components. The first is the Steam Gathering System
(SGS) consisting of production wells, steam/ water/ two-phase pipelines, separator stations, and
rock mufflers. The SGS supplies the steam for electric power generation. For water-dominated
geothermal fields, the geothermal fluid will undergo phase separation in separator vessels,
where separated steam is delivered to the power station, and the separated brine or wastewater
is reinjected back to the geothermal reservoir through the second FCRS component called the
Reinjection/ Recycling System. The latter consists of reinjection wells, reinjection pipelines,
and sumps/ thermal ponds. The reinjection system is necessary to maintain productivity and
pressure within the geothermal resource as well as to prevent pollution of the environment.

B.

Power Plant(s) and Control Center(s)

A typical power generating facility will consist of the following principal equipment and systems.
Additional components may be added or modified to suite the selected technology.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 28

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

C.

Steam turbine generator and its ancillaries


Condenser equipment
Gas ejection system
Cooling water system including cooling tower stacks
Electrical equipment
Piping systems Instruments and Controls
Transformer
Condensate system
Control Center This may be built within or outside the plant
Pressure reducing station
Airplant

Switchyard(s) and Transmission Line

The Transmission line system will be highly dependent on the final power plant location(s).
Several options have been studies as follows:
1.

Electricity generated from the Tanawon power plant(s) will be directed to its own switchyard,
and from there a 230-kV transmission line shall be interconnected either via the existing
BacMan-II (Cawayan sector) transmission line or tapped directly to the BacMan-I
transmission line leading to the main BacMan-I switchyard. The NPC BacMan-I main
switchyard is currently connected to the Daraga substation in Albay where electricity is
distributed to local cooperatives.
The Bacman-I and Bacman-II power plants and their respective switchyards, transmission
lines, and substation are existing in the area and are owned and operated by the National
Power Corporation (NPC). The existing Cawayan plant is found within the same
development block of the Tanawon Sector.

2.

Another option, though more expensive would be to send the power from Tanawon direct to
the existing switchyard of BacMan-I .

3.

From the switchyard, it may be directed to another point within the Tanawon geothermal
block for connection to another switchyard or substation outside the block.

Whatever option is selected, the Tanawon transmission line system applied for in this EIA will be
defined after the final location of the power plant(s) have been identified and will be limited
within the confines of the geothermal development block.
A 40-m right-of-way (ROW) will be maintained along the entire transmission line stretch.
Although 230 kV lines are planned at the moment, additional 69 kV transmission lines may be
added as necessary.

D. Waste Management Facilities and Other Support Facilities


The following facilities will be utilized during the operations phase: sludge pit (for cooling tower
sludge), and solid waste management pits (for domestic waste). Support facilities such as
access roads, housing/camps and office buildings, storage areas, stockyard, warehouse, DOLC
(Drilling, Operations and Logistics Center) building, and other related facilities established
during the construction phase shall be used for their intended purpose. Existing facilities of the
BGPF will also be tapped.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 29

1.8.2.3 Testing/ Commissioning Activities


Prior to actual operations, several tests will be undertaken for the entire system. Tests will
generally consist of preliminary, performance and efficiency tests. These activities include quality
assurance/ quality control (QA/QC) tests and inspections, line flushing, equipment checks,
system checks, commissioning check and actual project commissioning of the FCRS and power
plant(s).
Commissioning involves the actual flushing and testing of the entire geothermal system to
ensure an efficient flow of steam from the wellhead, through the network of FCRS pipelines,
separator vessels, and through the turbine of the power plant. This will be a dry-run of the
actual operations.
The transmission line will undergo megger testing to determine the insulation resistance, hi-pot
testing to determine the integrity of the line, and ground resistance testing. The switchyard will
also be tested in order to determine the integrity, functionality, and correctness of connections
of the entire system.
Test methods employed will be in accordance with the latest American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), Power Test Code, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEE),
Energy Power Research Institute (EPRI) or equivalent internationally-accepted standards of
PNOC-EDC.

1.8.2.4 Process Flow/ Technology


A.

Project Capacity

The total generation capacity of the central or modular power plant(s) is projected at 50-80 MW.
Electricity will be sent via a 230 kV transmission line system, although some 69 kV lines may be
set-up.

B.

Project Technology and Alternatives

Several options are available to convert geothermal energy to electrical energy. These options
include one or a combination or modification of the following:

single flash to run a conventional power plant with condensing turbine,


single flash to supply a combined cycle binary power plant,
single flash to supply a condensing turbine coupled with a binary plant,
single flash with topping plant,
double flash with topping and bottoming plant, and
double flash to supply a dual pressure turbine.

Depending on technological advancements, the schemes may be modified to meet operational


requirements.
A reinjection technology will be undertaken whereby geothermal fluids are injected back into the
geothermal reservoir. This injected fluid replenishes the geothermal reservoir and maintains the
pressure needed to continue producing hot water and steam. In this manner, the potential for
subsidence is remote.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 30

C.

Technology Selection Criteria

The final engineering process design to be adopted for the Tanawon FCRS and power plant will
yet have to be defined after all wells have been drilled and the geothermal field has been fully
characterized for its potential. The design must take into account a wide range of factors
including the temperature of the resource, fluid chemistry and fluid enthalpy , and other
important features of the production wells yet to be drilled. Design variables are optimized to
ensure that the design solutions chosen are the most cost effective, energy efficient, and
complying with the Philippine Clean Air Act (PCAA) specific guidelines for the geothermal
sector which are currently being reviewed by the DOE and DENR. Engineering, environmental
and economic requirements shall likewise be considered.
The optimum selection of the number and size of turbine-generator units to be used requires the
consideration of several parameters such as present and future load demands, investment cost,
transportation of components during construction and availability of commercially available
geothermal units. The sustainable steam output capacity of the resource is of prime importance.

D.

Flow Diagram and Materials Balance

Figures 1.8-6 to 1.8-11 are flow diagrams of the possible power plant engineering options
being considered. Figures 1.8-12 to 1.8-13 present the materials balance for each process.
The values presented were initially computed based on initial well tests; actual values and even
specific processes may vary based on the physico-chemical characteristics of future wells to be
drilled.
In a conventional power plant system, two-phase fluid from the geothermal production wells is
delivered to the high pressure separator stations. Liquid is separated from the steam and is
directed by gravity or by reinjection pumps into reinjection wells. The latter constitutes the
Reinjection System of the FCRS. Aside from being a means of waste management,
reinjection plays a greater role in maintaining the pressure within the deep underlying
geothermal reservoir, thereby preventing subsidence from occurring.
At the Steam Gathering System (SGS) component of the FCRS, the separated steam enters
the scrubbers located downstream of the separators for a final scrub of the steam. These
scrubbers spin the steam to remove the few remaining particles or droplets of condensate that
may have been formed by condensation in the pipeline transit. Upon entering the power plant,
steam from the SGS turns the turbine. This results in the operation of an air-cooled generator,
which in turn produces electricity.
Electricity from the generator is converted into 230 kV and eventually delivered via an on-site
transmission line interconnected to either of the following: (1) the existing Cawayan transmission
lines, for eventual delivery to the existing main switchyard of the NPC BacMan-1 Power Plant, or
(2) direct to a new switchyard beside the BacMan-I power plant, or (3) to another point found in
the same Tanawon geothermal development block for transmission to another switchyard or
substation outside the block.
Power generated from the Tanawon sector will be directed to an existing substation of the
National Power Corporation (NPC) either at Daraga, Albay or Sorsogon and then to the local
electric cooperatives and finally distributed to the consumers. The local cooperative in Daraga,
Albay is ALECO (Albay Electric Cooperative), while that of Sorsogon is SORECO (Sorsogon
Electric Cooperative).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 31

During the 30-year operating life of the project, some production wells may experience a decline
in power output or the lowering of steam production due to silica deposition in wells or other well
constraints. Similarly, some reinjection wells may experience a reinjection shortfall. Thus, in
order to maintain the full operating load of the project, maintenance and replacement (M&R)
wells for production and reinjection purposes will be drilled to compensate for previous wells.

E.

Project Layout

The project layout will be determined after development drilling, resource assessment and the
process design are completed. Whatever resulting design will be limited within the confines of
the Tanawon geothermal development block.

1.8.2.5 New Material Requirement


Water required during power plant operation would be for domestic water use estimated at
about 600 gallons per day. This will likely be sourced from the most proximate river tributary.
The Water Rights Permit application for proposed sources has already been filed with the
NWRB. Bottled water will be used as drinking water for company personnel.
Electrical consumption for the operating facilities will be taken from the Tanawon power plant
itself.
Office materials and supplies will be sourced from Sorsogon or Legaspi City as long as these
are available. Otherwise, these will come from Manila. Operating materials and supplies will
originate from the original manufacturers/ suppliers usually either from Manila or from abroad.
Chemical supplies such as caustic soda and others will be sourced from suppliers in Manila or
the nearest available supplier.

1.8.2.6 Provision of Safety Devices/ Features


Strict implementation of safety rules and regulations will be enforced during the operations
stage. All working personnel will be provided with appropriate safety gadgets such as hard hats,
safety shoes and belts, gas masks, gloves, ear plugs and other protective devices whenever
they are within hazard areas. Moreover, fire-fighting equipment for alarm and control will be
installed. Seminars on occupational safety and health hazards will also be conducted.
Other procedures shall be undertaken in line with the existing Corporate Safety Policy as
presented in Appendix G, with the International Safety Rating System (ISRS) Program and
Emergency Response Program (ERP), the latter of which is summarized in section 5.1.7.

A.

Fluid Collection and Reinjection System (FCRS)

To regulate and distribute the two-phase, steam and brine fluids in the field, various
control devices will be installed along the FCRS pipeline system designed to perform specific
functions such as regulating, section isolation, diverting, and relieving flow. The system is
provided with automatic pressure control vales that regulate the FCRS and power plant system
pressure. These provisions may vary from one system to another depending on the final
engineering design. Generally, these include the following:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 32

Rupture discs at the two-phase lines and reinjection lines to prevent possible rupture or
failures in the pipeline and equipment

Pressure relief valves at the steamline to prevent pressure surges or overpressure in


the unlikely event of system failure or malfunction

To ensure that these safety devices are in good condition, periodic inspection and on-line testing
are regularly conducted.
Aside from the above devices, the company adopts a fully closed system of pipelines from each
wellhead to the separator stations, to the power plant, and down to the injection wells. The
pipelines are insulated to prevent heat loss and at the same time to ensure safety of the
operating personnel.

B. Power Plant and Control Center


The design of the power plant includes the following safety features:

Utilization of latest governor valves whose primary function is to regulate the rotational
speed of the turbo-generating unit within the pre-set limits.
Safety elements on both the upstream and downstream side of the governor valves to
protect the system in the unlikely event of overpressure
Vibration monitoring equipment at the steam turbo-generator to monitor any slight
manifestation of operational abnormality
Numerous protective safety devices and equipment (e.g., circuit breakers, relays,
lightning arresters, etc.) to guard the system from harm during normal and abnormal
operations.
Sophisticated Distributed Control/Indication System (DCS) is provided to monitor and
control by computer interface the various plant operating parameters

A fire protection system and plant wide alarm is built within the power plant facility for
emergency purposes, while all pipes are 100% insulated for thermal protection. Noise insulation
materials are also used in order to reduce running equipment noise at levels within occupational
levels.
Safety wash/spray area, safety and emergency warning signs are provided in strategic areas of
the power plant. All maintenance and operating personnel are provided with protective
paraphernalia while inside the power plant.

C. Switchyard and Transmission Lines


The switchyard is equipped with several safety provisions among which include the following:
(a) a circuit breaker to isolate a trip or a fault, (b) current transformer and voltage transformer,
(c) disconnect switch to manually isolate a trip, (d) insulators, (e) and surge arresters.
Similarly, the transmission system is provided with safety devices as follows: (a) insulators, (b)
ACSR cable or overhead ground wire to prevent lightning strikes from affecting the system, (c)
grounding system, (d) surge arresters, and (e) vibration damper to minimize vibration for lattice
towers only.
Lattice-type transmission towers are provided with warning/danger signs at the base, and with
helicopter patrol signs at the tower apex to prevent helicopters from hovering within its vicinity.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 33

For any problems encountered along the line, e.g., accidental failure or any fault occurrence on
the power lines, sophisticated protection relays are provided to instantaneously isolate the
affected area, until immediate repairs are undertaken.

1.8.2.7 Drilling of Maintenance and Replacement Wells (M&R)


Simulation studies show that the geothermal wells could experience a pressure decline in the
initial years of full-loadoperation. These pressure drops may result in decreased steam flows
leading to the increased production enthalpies and the subsequent decline in power availability.
To compensate for this, Maintenance and Replacement (M & R) wells will be drilled at an
average of 2 to 5 wells a year, or as necessary. In preparation for drilling of these wells,
road/pad preparation will be carried out, unless existing multi-wellpads will be optimized. Well
drilling testing will also be conducted. The new wells will then be hooked up to the system.

1.8.2.8 Nature and Magnitude of Waste Production


Below are the potential by-products, emissions, liquid discharges and wastes generated during
the operations phase.

A. Gaseous Emissions
Potential gaseous emissions from the FCRS component will come from well silencers, rock
mufflers and minor releases from the pressure release valves (steam traps) along the steam
lines. Sources of power plant emissions include the cooling tower stacks and the gas ejector
(ducting) system. Said emissions will come in the form of steam and minor non-condensable
gases or NCG (2-5%). The NCG fraction is composed of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide,
ammonia, and fractions of nitrogen, methane and hydrogen.
Gaseous emissions during this phase are similar to those experienced during horizontal well
testing.

B. Noise Generation
Noise is generated from separator stations, silencers, mufflers, pressure reducing station,
cooling tower, power plant, and airplant. Sound from these sources are of varying magnitudes
and are expected to be confined within the vicinity of the source. Noise generated from the
power plant and air plant are usually confined within their respective buildings or complexes.

C. Liquid Discharges
Water-dominated geothermal fields produce quantities of separated brine which may be:
(1) hot, e.g., separated brine after steam flashing in the separator station which are injected to
hot brine reinjection wells, (2) cold, e.g., separated brine contained in thermal ponds as a result
of previous release during reinjection breakdown, and (3) from Bore Output Measurements or
BOMs, i.e., separated water released from well maintenance.
These separated waters are not technically wastes because these will be injected back into the
geothermal reservoir for immediate recharge and pressure maintenance. However, when there
are reinjection constraints and discharge to surface waters is inevitable and allowed by permits,
the brine can be considered as waste.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 34

Also generated are drilling fluids from maintenance and replacement (M&R) wells with the same
composition as those fluids of any drilled well, i.e., excess drilling mud, rig washings and rock
cuttings. Separated brine from the testing of these new wells are also expected and will be
injected.
Power plant operations will involve generation of cooling tower blowdown and condensate which
will be channeled to the thermal pond prior to cold injection. Also generated are laboratory
wastes from the analysis of geothermal and environmental parameters. Laboratory waste can
either be combined with the sludge for cementfixing, or can be injected to a designated
injection well, depending on its chemical characterization.

D. Solid Waste
The bulk of amorphous silica scales are formed in the reinjection pipelines. The rate of scale
formation is rather slow, projected at 2 mm/year. This rate is considered insignificant to
produce a sizable amount of solid waste. These are characterized for its chemical composition
for proper handling and disposal.
Only if a new wellpad will be opened, earth spoils may also be generated during preparation of
wellpads for M & R wells. The volume of spoils is expected to be minimal due to optimization of
available opened up areas.
Cooling tower sludge generated from the cooling tower basin during Preventive Maintenance
Shutdown (PMS) and machinery scales comprise the solid waste produced from the power
plant. Sludge will be combined with cement to form solid concrete blocks and will be stored in a
sludge pit.
No waste is generated from the the Transmission Line system.
Table 1.8-7 presents a characterization of the aforementioned by-products, emissions, and
wastes based on data gathered from the operational BacMan Geothermal Production Field.
Similar types of wastes are expected for the Tanawon Geothermal Project.
The impacts of these wastes and the corresponding management measures will be addressed in
the succeeding sections of this report (Sections 5.0).

1.8.2.9 Manpower Requirement


Table 1.8-3 earlier presented the projected manpower requirements to be directly involved in the
entire Tanawon Geothermal Project during the operations phase. Due to the highly technical
nature of the work, a big proportion of these shall be tapped from existing BGPF employees,
while the balance will be sourced from locally qualified individuals.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 35

1.8.3 Abandonment Phase


As agreed during the First Level Scoping Checklist of the DENR-EIARC on Nov. 16, 2000, only
policies and general guidelines will be submitted for the abandonment phase as the extent of
abandonment will depend on the future use of the area and the intended use of the abandoned
facility.

1.8.3.1 Facilities to be abandoned, decommissioned, demobilized


If abandonment takes place after exploratory or early development drilling, facilities to be
abandoned include the wells and their respective wellpads, sumps, and access roads.
If abandonment is undertaken after the economic life is reached, all operating facilities from the
FCRS, power plant and transmission line systems will be decommissioned.
Existing housing or office buildings will either be dismantled or may be tuned over to the local
government as appropriate, depending on the intended use of the area.

1.8.3.2 Site rehabilitation / restoration plan


Abandonment or decommissioning will involve implementation of rehabilitation/ restoration
measures to bring back the areas as close as possible to its baseline condition. The scheme to
be undertaken will largely depend on the intended use of the area or on the usability of existing
facilities for other existing BGPF sectors. Abandonment for Tanawon will be patterned after
previous experiences in other PNOC-DEDC projects such as in Mt. Cagua in Cagayan, and Mt.
Natib in Bataan.

1.8.3.2 Abandonment Schedule


Abandonment of the area may either be during exploration or early development phase when
wells prove to be non-productive, or during/after operations when the project exceeds its
economic life.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 36

Table 1.4-1: Power Plant Retirement as Programmed by the DOE


PDP 2002

MW

PRESENT
YEAR IN
SERVICE

DECOMMISIONING
YEAR

YEARS IN
SERVICE BY
RETIREMENT

LUZON:
Malaya 1
Malaya 2

300
350

26
22

2010
2010

36
32

VISAYAS:
Bohol DPP
Panay DPP
Power Barge Diesel (101-104)
Cebu Land- based Gt
Cebu Diesel I

22
36.5
128
55
43.8

23
22
20
10
21

2005 1/
2004
2005
2011
2011

27
25
24
20
31

PLANT

TOTAL
Note:
1/ Retirement is contingent upon completion of Ormoc-Maasin 138kV Double Circuit line which is also
contingent to the completion of Leyte-Bohol uprating (stage 2).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 37

Table 1. 4 -2: Carbon Dioxide Credit of 80 MW Geothermal Power Plant


vs. 80 MW Oil-Fired Power Plant
Unit

Oil-Fired Power
Plant

Geothermal

Gross Output
Pressure
Net Output
Steam Flow
Steam
Temperature
%w NCG in Steam
%w CO2 in NCG

MW
Kscg
MW
Kg/s
deg C

80
17.6
74.4
91.4
260.1

80
6.0
78.4
164.0
164.4

Fuel Oil/Electrical
Output
PMS days/year
Plant Factor (%)
Exhaust Gas
Temperature
Elect. Energy
Conversion from
Heat Energy
Net CO2/year
CO2 saved/yr (80
MWe PP)
Net CO2
Emission/MWe-Yr
CO2 saved/ MWeyr

Tons/GMWe-Hr

0.2667

Days/yr
%
deg C

60
83.56
105

31.35

Ktons/yr
Ktons/yr

484.8

49.6
435.2

Ktons/Yr

6.05

0.62

%w
%w

1.19
96.4

Ktons/Yr

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

60
83.56

5.44

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 38

Table 1.5-1: Comparative Costs and Resources Required for a 120 MW


Capacity Electricity Generating Plant
Energy/Tech

Landuse
( Hectares)

0.68

112-200

15,800

19.8

1,700

330

2.38

56,100

2,280
Maya Farms or
50,000,000 Pigs

697

1.48

10,418

About 275 Sites

391

0.32

Photovoltaic

36,000,000
Panels of 53 WP

Dendrothermal

2.24 M
Tons of Wood/Year

Hydro

Electricity
Cost (P/KwHr)

240

Geothermal

Biogas

Investment
(In 1M US$)

Number Required

Table 1.5 -2: Comparative data of six power alternatives


TYPE OF
POWER
GENERATION

Geothermal
Oil-fired
Hydrothermal
Gas turbine
Diesel
Coal-fired

Lead
Time

RANK IN POINTS *
Investment
($/kw) (P/kw)

4
5
6
1
2
5

2
3
4
1
5
6

1
3
7
2
5
6

Opex +
Fuel

Cost
(P/kw)

Plant
Factor

Total
Points

3
6
1
7
5
4

1
5
2
9
6
4

1
2
4
5
3
2

12
24
24
25
26
27

The lower the rank, the better the option, i.e., rank 1 = most advantageous, rank = least advantageous

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 39

Table 1.5 - 3

REPLACEMENT PLANTING
(TOTAL COMPANY)
Project

Capacity
(MWe)

Clearing
(Has.)

Replacement
(Has.)

Leyte

700

185

564

So. Negros

193

60

1,749

Bacon-Manito 150

105

963

106

66

778

26

278

579

4,147

Mt. Apo
No. Negros
Total

1,149

* as of year 2000

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 40

Table 1.6 -1:

Project Cost Estimate for 50 80 MW Tanawon Geo. Project


(cost in MMP or million pesos)

Development & Operating Cost Estimates

50 MW

80 MW

Investment Requirement, MMP


Development of Geothermal Steamfield
FCRS
Power Plant
Switchyard & Transmission Lines
Sub-Total

488.1
249.8
3,545.2
58.7
4,341.7

707.7
399.6
5,392.8
58.7
6,558.7

Annual O & M Cost, MMP*


Steamfield
Power Plant
Sub-total (for 30 years)

42.9
115.5
4,750.8

68.6
184.8
7,601.1

9,092.5

14,159.8

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 41

ESTIMATED TOTAL PROJECT COST


(in Million Pesos)
*Replacement Well Drilling @ MMP61.68 per well

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Table 1.7-1: Primary and Secondary Impact Areas


Environmental
Component
1.

Primary Impact Areas

Secondary Impact Areas

1. Geology

Inside the Tanawon geothermal


block

2. Pedology

Inside the Tanawon geothermal


block

3. Hydrology

Upper reaches
Menito, Rizal,
Ticol, Cawayan
within the block

4. Water Quality

Upper reaches of of Manitohan,


Menito, Rizal,
Bucalbucalan,
Ticol, Cawayan rivers found within
the block; springs within the block

Coastal communities outside the block


potentially affected by hydrogeological
impacts attributable to project activities
Ricelands outside the Tanawon block
irrigated by Manitohan, Ticol, Cawayan,
Anahaw and Osiaorivers
Capuy, Bulabog, Anahaw and Osiao
rivers; lower stretch of primary impact
rivers;
springs outside of the Tanawon block
(located in 9 Brgys.)
Capuy, Bulabog, Anahaw and Osiao
rivers; lower stretch of primary impact
rivers;
springs outside of the Tanawon block
(located in 9 Brgys.)
2- km radius from the rivermouth
Potential above-ambient areas outside the
geothermal block

PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT

5. Oceanography
6. Air Quality/
Noise
2.

of Manitohan,
Bucalbucalan,
rivers; springs

Within location of gas-emitting


facilities (localized)

BIOLOGICAL
ENVIRONMENT
1. Terrestrial Flora

2. Terrestrial
Fauna
3. Agriculture

4. Freshwater
Flora & Fauna

5. Marine Flora &


Fauna
C. SOCIOECONOMICS
ENVIRONMENT

Forest and agricultural areas


inside the Tanawon geothermal
block
Inside the Tanawon geothermal
block

Upper reaches of of Manitohan,


Menito, Rizal,
Bucalbucalan,
Ticol, Cawayan rivers found within
the block;

None
(No households within the block)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Ricefields
outside
the
Tanawon
geothermal block irrigated by Manitohan,
Capuy, Ticol, Cawayan, Anahaw and
Osiaorivers
Sectors of rivers outside of the Tanawon
block mid to lower reaches

Nearshore areas of Sorsogon Bay, Poliqui


Bay and Albay Gulf (2-km from shoreline)
(1) Host Barangays: Brgys. Rizal, Ticol,
Capuy, Bucalbucalan, Bulabog, Basud,
Guinlajon, San Juan and Osiao, all within
Sorsogon City
(2) Other Communities along the rivers:

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 42

Table 1.8 -1: Typical Dimensions for Lattice Type or Pole Type
Transmission Tower
Item
Switchyard area
Structure Base Area needed
Structure Base Area to
disturbed during construction
Ruling Span
Width of easement

be

Lattice Steel Tower


Option

Galvanized Steel
Poles

30 x 40 m (1,200 m2)

30 x 40 m (1,200
m2)
1 x 1 m (1 m2)
per tower
10 x 10 m (100 m2)
per tower
~100 m
30 m

15 x 15 m (225 m2)
per tower
30 x 30 m (900 m2)
per tower
~350 - 400 m
40 m

Table 1.8 -2: Engineering Equipment During Construction, Drilling


and Well Testing
A. Construction
Type
Dump Truck
Backhoe
Payloader
Bulldozer
Boom Truck
Generator Set
Jumping Jack
Crane
Service Vehicles
Plate Compactor

Units
10
7
2
5
2
3
6
1
13
6

Type
Air Compressor
Jack Hammer
Vibratory Compactor
One Bagger Mixer
Transit Mixer
Water Pumps
Road Grader
Tensioner
Puller

Units
1
1
3
1

Type
Forklift
Water Pumps
Crane

Units
4
2
2
8
1
4
2
1
1

B. Well Drilling
Type
Drilling Rig
Rig Trucks
Service vehicles
Cementing unit

Units
1
8
1

C. Well Testing
Type
Winch
Truck mounted Crane
Service Vehicle

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Units
1
1
2

Type
Logging Truck
Lifting Equipment
Welding Machine

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Units
1
1
1

p. 1- 43

Table 1.8 3: Manpower and Skills Requirement

I.

DRILLING (per rig)

Rank
and
File
7

II.

CONSTRUCTION
DEPARTMENT
DRILLING-EDD
POWER PLANT GROUP
Construction Coordinator
Driver

10

40

12
15
1

28
6

Sections/Positions
Development
Phase

III
IV.

V.

Clerk-General
Project Control Supervisor
Driver
Clerk-Encoder
Contracts Engineer
Cost Engineer
Planning Engr/Qty
Supervisor
Quality Control Supervisor
Driver
Clerk-Encoder
Mechanical QC Engineer
Electrical/Inst. QC Engineer
Civil/Structural QC Engineer
TRANSMISSION &
DISPATCH
Superintendent
Driver
Clerk-General
Project Control Supervisor
Planning / Cost Engineer
Contracts Engineer
Materials Control Engineer
Driver
Clerk/Encoder
Switchyard/Transmission Line
Supervisor
Electrical Engineer
Civil/Structural Engr.
Clerk
Driver

TOTAL REQUIREMENT, DEVELOPMENT PHASE

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

MPT

Others
(Contractual)

1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
11

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1

54

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

87

p. 1- 44

Table 1.8 3: Manpower and Skills Requirement (Continuation)


Sections/Positions
Operations
and
Maintenance

I.

II.

MPT

FCRS OPERATIONS
Engineer, Flash Plant
Engineer, Control Panel
Technician, Flash Plant
Technician, Air Plant
Driver
Instrument Engineer
Instrumentation Technical
Driver

11
5
5

POWER PLANT GROUP


Power Plant O & M Manager
Driver
Secretary
Utility Man
Power Plant Operations
Superintendent
Drivers
Clerk Encoder
Shift Supervisor
Control Room Operator
Aux Operators
H2S System Operator
Power Plant Maintenance
Superintendent
Drivers
Clerk-Encoder
Mechanical Supervisor
Mechanical Tech
Welder / Fitter
Millwrite
Heavy Equipment
Operator
Maintenance Aide
E & I Supervisor
Electrician
Instrumentation Tech.
Computer Technician
E & I Aide

14
1

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Rank
and
File
21

Others
(Contractual)

10
5
5
1
1
53
1
1
1
1
4
1
4
4
8
4
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
1

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2
1
2
3

p. 1- 45

Table 1.8 3: Manpower and Skills Requirement (Continuation)


Sections/Positions
II.

III.

POWER PLANT GROUP


(continuation)
Power Plant Technical
Services Superintendent
Drivers
Clerk - Encoder
Warehouse Supervisor
Materials Control
Engineer
Warehouse Aide
Plant Performance Engineer
Plant Engineer
Chemical Engr/Pollution
Control Officer

TRANSMISSION &
DISPATCH
O & M Supervisor
Shift Engineer
Maintenance Engineer
Linemen/Electrician
Clerk
Driver

TOTAL REQUIREMENT, OPERATING PHASE

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

MPT

Rank
and
File

Others
(Contractual)

2
2
1
1
3
1
1
1

1
5
1
2
1
1

32

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

78

p. 1- 46

Table 1.8-4
Drilling Chemicals: Classification, Product Types, Purpose and Volume

CLASSIFICATION

PRODUCT TYPE

PURPOSE

ESTIMATE
VOLUME
(Kg/Well)

VISCOSIFIER

Bentonite

used for gel strength;


suspends rock cuttings

72,115

FLUID LOSS
ADDITIVE

Carboxymethyl
cellulose

controls mud loss to


the formation

5,219

High temperature
fluid loss additive

controls muds loss to


the formation at high
temperature

18,615

Lignites/
lignosulfonate

decreases viscosity of
the drilling mud at
high temperature

8,191
(lignites)
3,914
(lignosulfate)

High temperature
mud thinner

decreases viscosity of
the drilling mud at high
temperature

18,615

pH CONTROL

Caustic soda

controls degree of
alkalinity of mud;
enhances capability of
viscosifiers for
corrosion control

4,095

CALCIUM
REMOVERS

Soda ash
(Sodium carbonate)

prevents/overcomes
the contaminating
effects of anhydrite,
gypsum and cement

THINNERS

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

148

p. 1- 47

Table 1.8-5
Types and Volume of Sump Fluids During Drilling

TYPE

NATURE

TYPICAL
VOL/WELL
(CU..M.)

ROCK CUTTINGS*

drilled rock chips of the


same type &
composition as the
naturally-occuring rock
types in the
development area

DRILLING MUD

mud slurry used to


remove rock cuttings

1,115

RIG WASHINGS

water used to
clean/maintain the rig

334

TOTAL

213

1,662

Note (*):
a)
b)

Values presented are the maximum volumes involved. This will happen only if the well
completed with full circulation, i.e. the well is tight & permeability is poor.
Volume involved will be much easier if a series of total loss of circulation is
encountered, or the well is partially of fully drilled blind in the 8-1/2 hole.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 48

Table 1.8-6: Projected Gas and Water Chemistry for Tanawon


Average
A. Gas Chemistry, %
Steam (H2O) (kg/s/well)
NCG
CO2 in NCG
H2S in NCG
Gas Flow, kg/sec/well

14.5
1.19
96.14
3.58
0.17

B. Well Water Chemistry (ppm)


pH at 25oC
Na
K
Ca
Mg
Cl
SO4
HCO3
B
SiO2
Water flow per well, kg/sec

7.48
3,975
805
231
0.17
7,617
24.3
42.5
43.0
663
35.0

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1- 49

Table 1.8-7: Characterization of Typical Geothermal Waste from BacMan I and II (1995 - 2002)
Waste

Estimated

Classification

Generation

CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS ( in ppm except pH and temperature )


pH

Temp,
o

Rate

As

Cd

Cr

3.4-4.0

30-48

0.02-0.38

<0.05

Cu

Fe

Hg

Li

Mg

Mn

Na

Pb

Zn

I. LIQUID WASTES

a. Geothermal Brine

488 kg /sec

6.84-7.5

b. Cooling Tower Blowdown

15 - 60 kg/sec

7.10-7.9

c. Laboratory Waste

200 - 240 L/yr

<1 - 13

Effluent Standards

<0.02-0.34 1.0-9.3
0.02-2.9

<0.01

0.15-8.4 0.03-0.11

0.05-0.11 0.16-0.20 <0.0001-0.0001

<0.05

<0.02

0.14-79

5.6-17

0.84 0.33-0.63

5,900

<0.05-0.06 0.0001-0.0003 <0.01-0.27

<0.02-0.04 0.68-6.1

0.02-0.03 <0.05-0.60 <0.0001-0.0005 <0.01-0.54

0.07-0.49

0.17-0.19 0.04-0.05
<0.05

<0.01-0.12

0.08-0.11 0.06-0.16

max rise
o

DAO 35, 1990 for N / PI's

in C

Class A, B, SB

6.0- 9.0

0.1

0.02

0.05

0.005

0.1

Class C

6.5- 9.0

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.005

0.3

Class SC

6.0- 9.0

0.5

0.1

0.02

0.005

0.5

Class SD

5.0- 9.0

0.5

0.2

0.5

0.01

0.33-45

<0.02

58-66

II. SOLID WASTES

LEACHED
( US TCLP METHOD )
1. Cooling Tower Sludge

60 - 84 drums/yr 1.94-4.82 25-27.3

2. Machinery Scales

120-150 L/yr

3. Desilted Matl's from

250-350 m /

Thermal Pond / Sump Mud

0.05-1.5

0.02-1.3 0.02-0.22

2.2 - 7.80

25.3

<0.50-1.6

3.8 - 7.8

25.3

<0.02-0.46 2.1-11

72

<0.01-0.30 <0.05-5.5
0.04-0.16 <0.05-<0.40

<0.0001-0.0074 0.01-0.03 16-23 0.82-3.6 150-320 <0.05-0.82

10-24

18,000

<0.0001

0.007

210

<0.01-3.1

13

<0.30

<1

<0.0001

<0.10-0.73

<0.20-0.27

0.15-<1

<0.10-0.12

0.2

5.0

drilling

Leacheate Std. ( US EPA )

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

5.0

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1.0

5.0

p. 1- 50

Fig. 1.3 1: Basic Features of a Geothermal System

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-51

Figure 1.3-2: Locations of Geothermal Power Plants Around the World

Figure 1.3-3: Current Worldwide Installed Geothermal Capacity

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

1. USA

2733

2. Philippines

1904

3. Italy

768

4. Mexico

743

5. Indonesia

59 0

6. Japan

530

7. New Zealand

345

8. Iceland

140

9. Costa Rica

120

10. El Salvador

105

11. Nicaragua

70

12 Ken a

45

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Figure 1.3-4:
EXISTING
PHILIPPINE
GEOTHERMAL
POWERPOWER
PLANTS
EXISTING
PHILIPPINE
GEOTHERMAL

19
30

KILOMETER

Figure 1.3-5: LIST OF OPERATING PROJECTS


GEOTHERMAL
CONTRACT AREA

LUZON

15

INDEX

330.0 MW

426 MW

TIWI, ALBAY

LAGUNA

PROJECT

TONGONAN (LEYTE)

TONGONAN I
UPPER MAHIAO
MALITBOG
MAHANAGDONG
OPTIMIZATION

BACON-MANITO
(ALBAY/SORSOGON)

BACMAN I
BACMAN II

PALINPINON
(NEGROS ORIENTAL)

PALINPINON I
PALINPINON II

MINDANAO (MT. APO)

MINDANAO I
MINDANAO II

150.0 MW
ALBAY, SORSOGON

VISAYAS
11

MAP 2

112.5 MW
TONGONAN, LEYTE

202 MW Leyte-Cebu

192.5 MW
NEGROS ORIENTAL

INSTALLED
CAPACITY
(MW)

COMMENCEMENT
OF
OPERATION

1 1 2 .5
125
231
180
5 0 .9

1 9 83
1996
1996/1997
1997
1997

110
40

1993
1994/1998

112.5
80

1983
1993-1995

52
54

1997
1999

1,147.9

LEYTE
384.9 MW Leyte- Luzon
LEYTE

MINDANAO
7

TOTAL:
1,904
PNOC-EDC: 1,148
PGI:
756

1
2
1

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

106 MW
KIDAPAWAN NO. COTABATO

5
2
1

D-

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-53

FIGURE 1 3 - 6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-54

Figure 1.4-1:
The Philippine Power Generation
Mix for 1999 and 2000 shows a
self-sufficiency level of 48%. This is
expected to increase further with
the programmed increase in
contribution from indigenous energy
sources such as geothermal
(Source: DOE PEP 2002-2011)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-55

EMISSIONS IN TONS CO2/1000MWe-Year

Tons CO2

9,000,000
8,000,000
7,000,000
6,000,000
5,000,000
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
0

7,700,000
6,100,000
4,100,000

1,100,000

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Geothermal

Generating Facility
EMISSIONS IN TONS SOx/1000 MWe-Year
60,000

Tons SOx

50,000

48,000
42,000

40,000
30,000

21,700

20,000
10,000

0
Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Geothermal

Generating Facility

Tons NOx

EMISSIONS IN TONS NOx /1000 MWe-Year


1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0

1,400

1,400

400
17

Coal

Oil

Natural Gas

Geothermal

Generating Facility

* Geothermal sulfur emission is Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S)

Figure 1.5-1: Gas emission contribution per MW produced for various power
generating facilities
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-56

Fig. 1.5 2:
A model of recharge to geothermal reservoir

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-57

Figure 1.8-2: Location of potential Spoil Disposal Areas (SDAs)


Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)
for excess earth material Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-60

Recirculating drilling
mud

Recirculating drilling mud

Figure 1.8-3: Set-up of a drilling rig with sumps for full containment of drilling materials

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-61

Figure 1.8-4:

Figure 1.8-5:

Typical well casing program for a geothermal well

Directional drilling technology

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-62

TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE GEOTHERMAL POWER SYSTEM


SINGLE FLASH
SEPARATOR

From Production
Wells

CONDENSING POWER
PLANT

Steam

TURBINE

Brine

GENERATOR
To Reinjection
Wells

Fig. 1.8-6 : Single Flash System with Condensing Power Plant


The two-phase geothermal fluid from the production wells goes to the separator where steam is
separated from the brine. The steam is led to the turbine to produce electrical energy. The brine is
injected to reinjection wells both for reservoir recharge of the geothermal system and for environmental
protection.
SINGLE FLASH WITH COMBINED CYCLE BINARY SYSTEM
SEPARATOR

From Production
Wells

Steam
TURBINE
GENERATOR

Brine

To Reinjection
Wells

Heat Exchanger
TURBINE
GENERATOR

Air Cooler

Pump

Fig. 1.8-7: Single Flash System with Combined Cycle Power Plant
With two phase geothermal fluid passing the separator, the separated brine from the separator is routed
to heat exchangers while the separated steam is routed to the primary back pressure turbine. The
exhaust from the back pressure turbine is routed to heat exchanger together with the separated brine
where heat is further extracted in the heat exchanger by an organic fluid. The organic fluid is then
expanded at organic turbine producing additional power. Both primary and secondary turbines drive its
own generator to produce electrical energy.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-63

TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE GEOTHERMAL POWER SYSTEM


SINGLE FLASH WITH CONDENSING AND BINARY POWER PLANT
SEPARATOR

From Production
Wells

CONDENSING POWER
PLANT

TURBINE
GENERATOR

To Reinjection
Wells

Heat Exchanger

BRINE
BINARY

TURBINE

GENERATOR

Pump

Air Cooler

Fig. 1.8-8 : Single Flash with Condensing and Brine Binary Power Plant
Two-phase geothermal fluid enters the separator and produce steam that is routed to the main
turbine. The separated brine is routed to the heat exchanger of the brine binary plant to heat
the organic fluid. The heated organic fluid is routed to the organic turbine and subsequently
produces power.

SINGLE FLASH WITH TOPPING PLANT

SEPARATOR

TOPPING PLANT
BACK-PRESSURE
TURBINE

GENERATOR

From Production
Wells
Condensing Power
Plant

TURBINE
GENERATOR

To Reinjection Wells

Fig. 1.8-9 : Single Flash with Topping Plant


As part of the steam field and power plant optimization, a back pressure turbine may be
installed upstream of the main turbine. The separated steam at high pressure enters the back
pressure turbine and produce additional power. The exhaust steam from the back pressure
turbine enter to the main power plant. The back pressure turbine is called the Topping Plant.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-64

TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE GEOTHERMAL POWER SYSTEM


DOUBLE FLASH WITH CONDENSING POWER PLANT
SEPARATOR

From Production
Wells
Condensing Power
Plant

TURBINE
GENERATOR

To Reinjection
Wells

Fig. 1.8-10 : Double Flash with Dual Pressure Power Plant


The two-phase fluid is separated at high pressure producing steam and separated geothermal
water. Geothermal water extracted from the first flash vessel is then routed to the 2nd flash vessel
for further steam extraction at lower pressure. Both high and low pressure steam enters a single
turbine to generate power.
DOUBLE FLASH WITH CONDENSING, BOTTOMING AND TOPPING POWER PLANTS
SEPARATOR

TOPPING PLANT
BACK-PRESSURE
TURBINE
GENERATOR

From Production
Wells
Main Power Plant

TURBINE
GENERATOR

Bottoming Power
Plant

TURBINE
GENERATOR

To Reinjection
Wells

Fig. 1.8-11 : Double Flash with Condensing, Topping and Bottoming Plant
In optimizing a steam field, high pressure steam is produced from the 1st flash and the HP steam
routed to a back pressure turbine (topping plant). The exhaust steam is transported to the main
plant. A 2nd flash vessel is installed to extract the steam from the 1st flash separated geothermal
water at lower pressure. The low pressure steam from the 2nd flash is used to run a low pressure
condensing turbine. This is called the Bottoming Plant.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-65

40 MWe GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT SYSTEM


Geothermal
Steam

4
3
2

To RI Well
Streams Number
Phase
Flow (kg/s)
NCG Flow (kg/s)
H2S Flow (kg/s)
CO2 Flow (kg/s)
Dry Air (kg/s)
Water in Air (kg/s)
H2S Concentration (ppmv)
Emission (grams H2S/GMWhr)

1
vapor
82.0
0.98
0.04
0.94
-

2
vapor
3285.18
3229.95
55.23
-

3
vapor
1.96
0.98
0.04
0.94

49,294
3,162

4
vapor
1.96
0.98
0.04
0.94
3229.95
118.65
9.27
3,162

5
liquid
17.6
-

Figure 1.8-12: Material balance for a 40 MW Tanawon power plant

80 MWe GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT SYSTEM


Geothermal
Steam

4
3
2

To RI Well
Streams Number
Phase
Flow (kg/s)
NCG Flow (kg/s)
H2S Flow (kg/s)
CO2 Flow (kg/s)
Dry Air (kg/s)
Water in Air (kg/s)
H2S Concentration (ppmv)
Emission (grams H2S/GMWhr)

1
vapor
164.0
1.96
0.07
1.89
-

2
vapor
6570.36
6459.90
110.46
-

3
vapor
3.92
1.96
0.07
1.89

49,294
3,162

4
vapor
3.92
1.96
0.07
1.89
6459.90
237.30
9.27
3,162

5
liquid
35.2
-

Figure 1.8-13: Material balance for an 80 MW Tanawon power plant

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

p. 1-66

Plate 1.7 1:
To the left of the Sorsogon highway is the existing
road entrance at Brgy. Rizal leading to the Bacman
Geothermal Production Field (BGPF)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8 1:
The above photo shows the topography within the northwest sector of the Tanawon geothermal development
Block. Note the existing Cawayan power plant and transmission tower at the extreme right.

Plate 1.8 2:
Photo showing the general topography at the mid-portion of the Tanawon geothermal development block.
Note the wellpad with a drilling rig .

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8 11:


Interface point of the
BACMAN II (Cawayan
Sector) FCRS and
Power Plant

Plate 1.8 12:


Existing Botong Power
Plant found within the
Bacman Geothermal
Production Field.

Plate 1.8-13:
Inside the Power Plant
Control Center

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8-14:
Switchyard of the existing Bacman 1 Power Plant

Plate 1.8 -15:


A lattice type transmission tower

Plate 1.8 16:


The existing Sludge Pit of the BGPF is fenced to prevent
entry of unauthorized personnel

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8 3:
A typical Drilling Rig

Plate 1.8 5:
Vertical Well Testing

Plate 1.8 4:
A typical Geothermal Production well showing the well
head assembly

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8 6:
A silencer is attached to the production well to
reduce noise

Plate 1.8 7:
A multi-well pad strategy allows several wells to be
located in just one pad, thus minimizing surface
disturbance

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Plate 1.8 -9:


Existing BGPF Separator Station / FCRS Pipelines

Plate 1.8 -8:


Pipeline route of the existing Cawayan
FCRS
Plate 1.8 -10:
Among the existing facilities within the Tanawon geothermal
block is the FCRS of BacMan II (Cawayan sector) as shown
above: multi-wellpad with wells, pipelines, separator station
and a polyethylene-lined thermal pond.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 1.0: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

2.1.1 GEOLOGY
2.1.1.1 Summary of Results and Conclusions
The major rock units which comprise the Pocdol Mountains include the following - Basement
rocks, Malobago Volcanics, Suminandig Volcanics, Pangas Volcanics, Lison Volcanics,
Kayabon Volcanics, Cawayan Volcanics and Pulog Volcanics.
The major geologic structures are the San Vicente-Linao Fault, the E-W fault sets, the NW/NE
fault sets and the N-NNE fault sets. The San Vicente-Linao Fault is another possible extension
of the Philippine Fault. Although no movement has been recorded in the past associated to this
fault, it could be a potential hazard for earthquakes.
Based on geophysical data, the delineated resource has low to intermediate resistivity (< 50
ohm-meter). Geochemical data indicate that the minimum range of reservoir temperature is
0
from 177 to 229 C.
The reservoir center is postulated to occur beneath Mt. Pangas (temperature > 300 0C), with the
major outflow zone towards Puting Bato.
No significant earthquake (Ms > 6.5) was recorded in the 1990s. Two (2) earthquake
epicenters in Southern Luzon (within a 100-km distance from the project site) occurred in 1865
(Ms 7.9) and in 1877 (Ms 6.9).
The regional Peak Horizontal Acceleration (PHA) factors within the project could be designated
a g value of 0.38 for medium soils and 0.24 for rocks. However, site-specific Peak Ground
Acceleration (PGA) calculations from three possible earthquake generators, namely: San
Vicente-Linao fault (SVLF), Philippine Fault (PF) and Manila Trench (MT), resulted to g values
for hard rocks of 0.33, 0.16 and 0.01, respectively. For hard-medium soils the calculated g
values for SVLF, PF and MT are 0.48, 0.23 and 0.02, respectively.
The active volcanoes nearest to the project site are Mt. Mayon and Mt. Bulusan. Hazards
associated with volcanic activity are minor ground shaking and ash falls, depending on the
magnitude of volcanic activity (i.e. height of eruption column) and prevailing wind direction at the
time of the event.
Existing mass movements along the road leading to the existing Pad C in Tanawon are slip
failure, creep, slumping and rockfall. No hazards are associated with seismogenic faulting. In
terms of surface mass movement, areas with moderate to steep slopes (> 40 degrees) may
become unstable during extreme cases of strong typhoons or earthquakes. Rockslides may
also occur in newly cut fresh volcanic outcrops.
A global slope stability analysis of the area suggests a cut batter of 1H:1V for both static and
pseudostatic conditions. Slope stability analysis of the existing road and pad C indicating cut
batters ranging from 0.5H:1V were likewise undertaken to check slope stability.
Among the geothermal fields in the world, Hatchobaru and Bulalo fields are similar in geology
and reservoir management practice to the BGPF. In the absence of real time data in Tanawon

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 1

for empirical calculations, therefore, the subsidence from the two fields of 35 mm and 50 cm,
respectively, is predicted in the Tanawon geothermal field. No adverse hazard is associated with
the values predicted.

2.1.1.2 Methodology
Available data were collated and integrated from existing PNOC-EDC internal reports and
published technical manuscripts. All available secondary data were used in this report with
permission from the authors. A list of references is included at the end of this report.
The components of the report are part of the technical requirements on geology for the
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of Tanawon. There are, among others, comprehensive
discussions on regional and local geology, lithologic profiles, stratigraphic correlations,
geomorphology, seismicity, natural hazard, peak ground acceleration, petrography,
geochemistry of rock samples and hydrogeochemical model.
Slope stability analysis was undertaken using the Fellenius Method of Slices, both at static
condition (without earthquake) and pseudo-static condition (with earthquake). Analysis was
computer-generated and based on earlier data gathered on soil type, cohesion, and friction
angle.
The team members of the Geology and Engineering Geology module are Larry F. Bayrante, Jeff
A. Caranto and Rex A. Camit of the Geoscientific Department, and Ernie R. Gagto of the
Engineering Design Department.

2.1.1.3 Results and Discussion


The existing Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF) is located within a cluster of
late Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic cones called the Pocdol Mountains. This volcanic complex
belongs to the Bicol Arc (Figure 2.1.1- 1).
The BGPF covers an area of approximately 3,826has. The proposed Tanawon development
block is partly included in the BGPF and extends further to the south of BGPF with an area of
about 2,460 has. (Figure 2.1.1-2).
Geoscientific investigations in the field started in 1977 thru a joint cooperation between the
government of New Zealand and PNOC-EDC. The discovery well, CN-1D, was successfully
discharged with an initial capacity of 18 MWe. Further scientific studies and drilling have
delineated a resource capable of supplying 110 MWe. The first stage of development, called the
BACMAN-I, is centered in the Palayang Bayan sector. Development expanded to the Cawayan
and Botong sectors (BACMAN-II) with 20 MWe modular power plants each.
Renewed interest in drilling beyond Bacman I and II was initiated by the results of well CN-3D
(towards Tanawon sector), drilled south of the field which revealed a bottom hole temperature of
272C.

A.

Terrain

The terrain in the Pocdol Mountains is generally comprised of moderate to steep slopes near
volcanic centers and low to slightly moderate terrain in other areas. A slope angle (in degrees)
classification map was extracted from the topographic data of the field (Figure 2.1.1-3). Five
slope classes were established as follows: (1) very low slope (0-10); (2) low slope (10-20);
(3) slightly moderate slope (20-40); (4) moderate slope (40-50); and, (5) steep slope (50 to
>70). The moderate to steep slope of >40 (yellow-brown colored pixels) dominates the
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 2

volcanic centers at BGPF, while very low to slightly moderate slopes (blue-magenta-dark blue
colored pixels) represent the low relief portions of the study area.
A slope direction (aspect) and slope shape classification map was likewise created from the
digital elevation model (DEM) data of BGPF (Figs. 2.1.1-4 and 2.1.1-5). The slope direction map
was sliced into azimuthal directions while the slope map was classified into convex (negative
values), concave (positive values) and straight or flat slopes (values close to zero). These maps
complement that of the slope angle classification map.
Portions of Tanawon sector are believed to be straddling along moderate to steep slope ranges,
especially along the vicinity of the crater walls or depressions at the Cawayan-Damoy-Tanawon
areas (Figs. 2.1.1-3 and 2.1.1-4).

B.

Regional/ General Geology

The area is characterized by clusters of small eruptive centers, collectively known as the
Pocdol Mountain Range, which belong to the Bicol arc (Figure 2.1.1- 6).
Volcanic rocks at Pocdol Mountains overlie Oligocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences.
This sedimentary sequence is probably underlain by pre-Tertiary schists and ultramafic rocks.
Initiation of volcanism in the Pocdol Mountains probably started in Late Miocene, as indicated by
volcanic flows unconformably underlain by Upper Miocene sedimentary units (Travaglia and
Baes, 1979; Balce et al., 1979). The volcanic activity may have continued until Pleistocene to
Recent times (De Leon, et al., 1983).
The San Vicente-Linao Fault (SVLF) is a major fault structure cutting across the northern fringe
of the Pocdol Mountains, and appears to be related to movements along the Philippine fault.
The SVLF trace is characterized by a 5 km-wide east-trending sheared zone consisting mainly
of pre-Pulog volcanic rocks. Other major faults in the region trend north-northwest, northwest,
north-northeast and northeast; local faults usually have north-south or east-west strikes (Ferrer,
et al., 1986). The north-south faults are inferred to be the youngest, as well as the dominant
trend in the Pocdol Mountains (Panem and Alincastre, 1985). Seismic activity had been inferred
and ascribed to these north-south-trending faults, and slickensides are found where the SVLF
cuts Pleistocene limestone (Travaglia and Baes, 1979).

C.

Geology of Pocdol Mountains


1.

Stratigraphy (Stratigraphic Column of Rock Units and Cross


Sections)

Seven distinct lithostratigraphic units (Table 2.1.1-1) comprise the Pocdol Mountains, and
their subaerial distributions are shown in Figure 2.1.1-7. These rocks, together with two
sedimentary units (Gayong Formation and Rangas conglomerate) and two intrusive units
(Rangas microdiorite and Pangas intrusives), form the Pocdol Volcanic Field (PVF).
A cross section cutting across Mt. Pulog and Inang Maharang (E-W section) is shown in
Figure 2.1.1-8.
The following sections are discussions on the characteristics of the individual rock units.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 3

1a

Basement Rocks
Subvolcanic basement rocks at PVF comprised of lenses of Late Miocene to Early
Pliocene calcareous to carbonaceous siltstones and sandstones of the Gayong
Formation (Gy) were encountered at about 1500 mRSL in boreholes Pal-8D and
6D in the Eastern Pocdol Mountains (EPM) (Reyes, 1985). The contact between
the overlying highly altered volcanic rocks, which are inferred herein to be the
Malobago Volcanics and Gayong Formation, are marked by sedimentary breccias.
The contact horizon shows angular to subrounded clasts cemented by diagenetic
calcite (Reyes, 1985).

1.b

Malobago Volcanics (Mgv)


This unit is composed dominantly of basaltic rocks, exposed mainly along river
valleys and beds at Magaho area. The age of Early Pliocene is proposed in the
absence of K-Ar age data.
Mgv shows variable lithologic but little petrographic variation. Most of the rocks are
vent facies assemblage consisting of lava flows and monolithologic to
heterolithologic tuff breccias. However, at lower elevations, rounded fragmental
deposits such as unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits are common. Lava flows
occur both in the upper and lower portions of the cone complex (i.e., Magaho area).
In most outcrops, the flow interiors are cut by blocky jointing; platy jointing is
generally developed near the base.
Massive but weakly-bedded, heterolithologic tuff breccias dominate the lower
portion of the cone complex and consist of angular to subrounded dense blocks
(<2m) with subordinate amount of rounded, vesicular, and highly oxidized bombs.
Clasts are matrix-supported consisting of subrounded to subangular lapilli and
coarse to medium-sized crystal lithic tuff.

1c.

Suminandig Volcanics (Sgv)


The rocks of the Sgv, with thickest outcrop of 30m, show a wide lithologic but
moderate petrographic variation, presumably due to its limited parental magma
source. The vent facies consists of highly eroded assemblage of volcanic breccias,
agglomerates and minor lavas. Interbedded with these rocks are abundant
moderately graded and sorted conglomerate breccias and pyroclastic breccias,
showing heterolithologic clasts. The clasts are usually dense, subrounded to
subangular, and ranged in size from pebbles to boulders. The clasts are supported
by a tuffaceous to sandy matrix.
In the vicinity of the Matacla Dome, a fault-bounded microdiorite dike, called the
Rangas microdiorite (Rm), has metamorphosed the adjacent Suminandig Volcanics
(Reyes, 1985). Hence, the unit is considered part of the Suminandig Volcanics.
Fluviatile materials, mixed with pyroclastic rocks, travertine, calcareous siltstone and
sandstone clasts, are found in the vicinity of Osiao and Matacla Done. The rocks
are named as Rangas conglomerate (Rc), which were eroded from the saddle of
Mt. Rangas. These rocks are perhaps the debris that were deposited during
periods of volcanic quiescence.
No absolute age is available for the Sgv, but they were perhaps erupted
concurrently with or following the volcanic activity of Malobago volcano. Hence, an
age of Early to Middle Pliocene is proposed. This unit is the oldest in the EPM.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 4

1d.

Pangas Volcanics (Psv)


Pangas volcanics (Psv) is a thick series of dominantly andesitic rocks in the EPM.
The unit is named after Mt. Pangas, a faulted dome which, together with Botong
Dome, is interpreted to constitute the core of a large strato-volcano referred to as
the Pangas volcano. Fumaroles and steam-heated waters are present at Pangas
Dome.
A K-Ar date of the Osiao Dome yielded a minimum age of 1.5 Ma (Bruinsma, 1983).
Hence, the Pangas volcanics are considered to be Middle Pliocene to Early
Pleistocene in age.
In the Cawayan area, gabbroic to dioritic dikes or sills occur below +500 mRSL.
The intrusives are spatially and mineralogically related to the Pangas volcano, and
thus are named as the Pangas Intrusives (Pi). The timing of hypabyssal intrusions
is poorly known, but it is believed to be a separate event from the one that produced
the Rangas microdiorite.

1e.

Lison volcanics (Lnv)


The extrusives consist of voluminous tuff breccias, laharic breccias, and minor lavas
and pyroclastic breccias and agglomerates. Most of these are exposed along river
valleys; lavas are usually found as vertical cliffs along ridges. A good section is
observed near the highly eroded peak of Mt. Ticolob, where about 60m of columnar
jointed and sheeted lavas grade vertically into monolithologic tuff breccias. This unit
is the most widespread volcanic deposit in the Western Pocdol Mountains (WPM),
2
covering an area of about 25 km .

1f.

Kayabon Volcanics (Knv)


This unit is comprised dominantly of basaltic andesites exposed in the WPM. The
rocks are mostly tuff breccias and minor lavas, and are bounded by Buto and
Manitohan Rivers where most of the good sections (<20m) are found. Slumping of
upper slope materials formed inter-montane debris piles.
The upper boundary rocks, i.e., tuff breccias and minor lavas outcropping along the
Manitohan River, are unconformably underlain by lahars, volcanic breccias, laharic
breccias and volcaniclastic materials of the Cawayan volcanics.

1g.

Cawayan Volcanics (Cnv)


Named after the Cawayan crater in the EPM, this unit is heavily cut by faults
commonly marked by thermal seepages and hydrothermally-altered outcrops. The
rocks cap variably altered eruptives of the Pangas volcanics.
A recent K-Ar date of a lava sample from the Cawayan crater yielded a maximum
age of <40,000 years B.P., and a similar K-Ar age was also obtained from a crystal
lithic tuff sample from Mt. Pulog. Since no contact relationship between these rocks
was observed, their relative stratigraphic position is based on the degree of erosion.
It appears that Cawayan volcanism pre-dated Mt. Pulog eruptions by perhaps
10,000-100,000 years.
In the near-vent region, voluminous lavas, tuff breccias and minor lahars occur.
These rocks grade into moderately gently-dipping unwelded and poorly sorted tuff
breccias and laharic breccias some 6-10 km north-northwest of the crater at

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 5

Balabagon area. From here, the deposit almost imperceptibly grades into
unconsolidated and poorly sorted mudflows consisting of volcanic detritus near
Manito.
1h.

Pulog Volcanics (Pgv)


Pulog volcanics are named after Mt. Pulog, the least eroded volcanic cone in the
Pocdol Mountains. The summit region is occupied by a well-preserved crater
adjacent to a dome-shaped protrusion (1032 mRSL) which has steep margins down
to the western flanks of the volcano. In contrast, the eastern slopes show
moderately-dipping tuff breccias and lavas.
Abundant oxidized basaltic bombs are found in the summit area. Several of these
occur as subangular to subrounded clasts, mostly in the heterolithologic tuff
breccias exposed downstream. The pyroclastic flows are valley-filling deposits,
showing even tip surfaces consisting mostly of poorly to moderately sorted and
unwelded lithic crystal-rich tuffs. Juvenile lapilli clasts are usually subangular to
subrounded and several of these are vesicular. The rocks grade imperceptibly
downslope into indurated volcanic breccias usually enclosing large (>1m)
subangular to subrounded blocks.

2.

Structures

The San Vicente-Linao Fault (SVLF) is a major fault structure bisecting the Pocdol
Mountains (Figure 2.1.1-1). This appears to be related to movements along the
Philippine Fault. The trace of the SVLF in the BGPF is a 5-km wide sheared zone
referred to as the Bacman Fault Zone (Panem and Alincastre, 1985). A detailed structural
map of the BGPF is shown in Figure 2.1.1-9.
The trends of the regional faults were discussed in detail in the BACMAN-II Resource
Assessment Report (PNOC-EDC, 1989). The following discussions were lifted from the
report:
E-W Fault Sets: E-W-trending faults form a 5-km wide zone of criss-crossing faulting
across Bacman. The fault zone was interpreted as a displaced extension of the SVLF.
The SVLF was the site of late Pleistocene to Recent volcanism in the study area and is
now characterized by block-faulted topography.
Alternatively, the SVLF can be
interpreted as a dextral wrench fault, and its inception is probably associated with the
Malobago volcanism in Early Pliocene.
NW and NE Fault Sets: The NW fault set is generally oriented between 310-320 fault
trends. These faults bisect the SVLF at acute angles. No horizontal displacement has
been observed; slickensides suggest dominantly vertical movements. These faults
apparently control the deep south-eastward flow of geothermal fluids. Conjugate NE fault
sets trending 040-050 are present, but are relatively few in numbers.
N-NNE Fault Sets: The preferred orientation of the N-NNE fault sets lies between 010020. These faults have characteristic long surface traces bisecting the SVLF. This trend
is regional in extent and is observed across Southern Luzon (Ferrer et al., 1986) and on
Leyte Island (Delfin and Tebar, 1986). These faults are mostly exposed at West Bacman,
where vertical displacements are dominant and horst and graben features are common.
The 1:50,000 scale map shows the detailed fault data in the study area by Panem and
Alincastre (1985).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 6

3.

Geology of the Tanawon Area

Several volcanic centers of varying compositions namely, Tanawon, Rangas and Matakla
dome were identified in the sector (Figure 2.1.1- 7). An intrusive body and sedimentary
rock units are exposed within the area covered by the Rangas volcanics. The intrusive
body is associated with skarn-like and hornfels alteration at the contact between the
intrusive and Rangas volcanics.
Geomorphological and stratigraphic evidences suggest that the Tanawon eruptive center
is relatively older than those of Pangas, Botong domes and the Cawayan volcanics. On
the other hand, the Rangas volcanics appear to be coeval with the Tanawon volcanics.
Faults that cut Tanawon and Rangas volcanics have preferred orientations of NW-SE and
nearly N-S. These fault trends were also observed in Pangas and Botong. Thermal
manifestations found in the area are closely associated with these structures.

D.

Geomorphology

Major geomorphic features of the Pocdol Mountains are presented in Figure 2.1.1-10. The
morphology of the area is typical of a slightly to moderately eroded volcanic region. Here,
closely spaced eruptive vents still display their distinctive crater-like structures. In cases where
they are heavily eroded, hydrothermal activity is sometimes present.
Figure 2.1.1-3 shows the map of the BGPF based on hillshading technique. This covers the
Tanawon development block and the existing BGPF block. The regional drainage system of the
area is mainly dendritic to sub-dendritic. However, a closer analysis of its drainage segments
suggests an angular drainage system probably associated with a NW- and NE-trending fault
system. The latter anomalous drainage pattern can also be ascertained from the radial drainage
pattern mainly pronounced around major volcanic centers.
Topographic data shows a terrain accentuated by volcanic craters or depressions. The highest
peak of ~1080 mASL is exhibited by Mount Pangas, which is located to the northeast of the
Tanawon-Damoy area. The homogeneous character of the volcanic terrain at BGPF mainly
influences the drainage pattern. A digital elevation model of the BGPF is shown in Figure 2.1.111.
The Pocdol Mountains may be subdivided into two broad sectors (Tebar, 1988; Figure 2.1.110). These are:

1.

Western Pocdol Mountains (WPM)

This sector is defined by intensely-eroded volcanic flow units, particularly within the region
of the San Vicente-Linao Fault (SVLF) zone. Several collapse features are present in the
vicinity of Lison Dome, but hydrothermal manifestations are minimal. To the north of the
WPM are the Manito Lowlands, a low undulating and hummocky terrain, typical of lahar
fields (Neall, 1976).

2.

Eastern Pocdol Mountains (EPM)

This area is formed by clusters of heavily dissected multiple-vent composite cones and
domes. Of these, the highest is Mt. Pangas (1082 masl). Majority of the thermal features,
as well as present and future geothermal developments, are confined in this sector.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 7

E.

Geophysics

Results of the Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) defined the BGPF resource as
having relatively low to intermediate resistivity values of <50 ohm-m, which is bounded in the
north, east-southeast and south by high resistivity blocks (Figure 2.1.1-12).
Two areas were identified to have good potential of yielding additional resource. These are
located south of Tanawon volcanic center and within Rangas. The re-contoured data in
Tanawon adds an area of about 1 km2 and the conductive zone centered at Rangas volcanic
center is about 3 km2. The total area of 4 km2 excluded the area 500 m beyond the bottom zone
of CN-3D and OP-3D.
With the drilling success of CN-3D, a review of resistivity and vertical electrical sounding data
within the areas of Tanawon and Rangas volcanic centers resulted in the recontouring of the 50
ohm-m bottom layer resistivity south of Tanawon. This moved the 50 ohm-m contour line about
1 km to the south from the previous interpretation. The new data opened possibilities for further
expansion to the south. Hence, the Tanawon geothermal development.
In 1997, Los Baos and Olivar updated the regional and microgravity model of the BGPF.
Figure 2.1.1-13 shows the Bouguer anomaly map. The prominent feature is the broad gravity
high enclosed by gravity values of >54 mgals. This anomaly is elongated in an east-west
direction. The Bacman Fault Zone lies within the southern tip of this gravity anomaly. Gravity
lows, interpreted to be related to the sedimentary deposits in the area, were also noted in the
vicinity of Sorsogon and Bo. Buenavista, Manito. The regional Bouguer anomaly maps point to
an increase in gravity values in a northwest direction towards Albay where outcrops of the
metamorphic basement consisting of schist, metavolcanics and altered metasediments have
been mapped.

F.

Geochemistry
1.

BGPF

Based on the geochemistry of surface manifestations, the upflow of the geothermal


resource at BGPF is inferred beneath Mt. Pangas, where fumarolic activities and steamheated waters are mapped. The apparent lateral extent of the system is indicated by the
distribution of chloride springs at low elevations towards Inang Maharang to the northwest
and towards the southwest. The radial distribution of natural thermal manifestations
around Mt. Pangas supports the model of a high relief, volcanic arc-related geothermal
system.
Deep wells drilled in the area confirmed the BGPF resource model. The Botong-Pangas
sector has been identified as the center of the resource. The model was supported with
the use of chemical field trends (i.e. Iso-Cl, TSiO2, SO4TD, CO2TD and the ratios Cl/B,
Cl/SO4, CO2/H2S). Cl-H diagram, gas equilibria, gas geothermometers and isotope data
were used to deduce the different reservoir processes.
The deep liquid reservoir upflows near well OP-4D at a temperature of >320C, with
salinity of ~8000 mg/kg Cl and gas content of 2% by weight (Figure 2.1.1-14). Fluids in
the Botong sector have the highest gas content (CO2, H2S and residual gases) among
other sectors, suggesting close proximity to the heat source. This is consistent with
isotope data, where Botong waters are the most 18O shifted, especially that of OP-6D and
OP-3D. It is probable the Botong fluids have significant contribution from a highly 18Oshifted deep-seated parent water, inherent in a high temperature geothermal system. The
high temperature, water-dominated reservoir extends to the vicinity of wells OP-3D, Pal8D, Pal-10D, Pal-11D, Pal-14D and Pal-13D. Beyond this high temperature perimeter,
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 8

the fluid starts to loose vapor and gases as it moves towards the west, southwest and
northwest directions along natural hydraulic gradients and geologic structures towards the
lowlands.
Downhole geochemistry data and extensive stable isotope analysis of water, gas and
solid samples showed that the acid-SO4 fluids encountered in some wells (e.g. CN-1, CN2D, Pal-2D, Pal-9D) are formed from near surface oxidation of H2S. Acid fluids percolate
down to greater depths through faults and structures. There is no evidence on the
presence or role of SO2 and elemental S in the acid fluid formation. Likewise, gas
geochemistry interpretation confirms the absence of active magmatic component in the
system.

2.

Tanawon area

Except for the dilute warm springs and altered grounds to the north and south of the
Rangas and Tanawon areas, no major thermal manifestation was found in Tanawon.
Outside Rangas, there are impressive travertine spring deposits southeast of the BGPF
resource. The springs are secondary, characterized as dilute neutral Na-Ca-SO4-HCO3
waters but with warm temperatures ranging from 32 to 37 C. The neutral-pH and spring
chemistry indicate neutralization of the shallow steam-heated acidic aquifer fluids by
limestones in the area. Hence, solute water-based geothermometers cannot be applied to
these waters.
For Tanawon, the deep reservoir temperature can be approximated by using the data
obtained from CN-3D. No primary spring was found in this sector. Surface manifestations
are the cold acid-SO4 springs and the cold gas seepages found in Damoy. The gas
geothermometers are shown in Table 2.1.1-2.
The TDAP temperatures of Damoy approximate the minimum reservoir temperature in the
Cawayan sector, which is adjacent to the Tanawon area. The values are too low
compared to actual temperatures encountered. Hence, TDAP may represent shallower
acid-SO4 reservoir.
The chemical and stable isotopic composition of Alinao, Palhi, Bucal-bucalan springs and
Puting Bato creek (perennial surface waters) are comparable to that of cold meteoric
waters (Buenviaje and Solis, 1992).

3.

Reservoir Geochemistry

The typical discharge chemistry of well CN-3D may be used to characterize reservoir
geochemistry of the Tanawon sector. The discharge chemistry of well CN-3D is
characterized by neutral pH, gas depleted single-phase fluid with a reservoir chloride of
6000 mg/kg. It has a reservoir sulfate of 14-19 mg/kg, a moderately high quartz
temperature of 272C, and a mean NCG content of only 0.1% by weight at target depth or
0.6% at 0.7 Mpaa. Field temperature contours are shown in Figure 2.1.1-15.

G.

Seismicity

Figure 2.1.1- 16 shows the spatial distribution of seismicity in the Philippines from 1608 to 1997
(Philvolcs, 1997). Considering only the significant earthquakes in the Philippines having
magnitudes of 6.5 from 1608-1996, there were two earthquake epicenters in Southern Luzon
within a 100 km-distance from the BGPF. These earthquakes happened in 1865 (magnitude 7.9)
and 1877 (magnitude 6.9). There was no significant earthquake (M>6.5) near the area in the
1900s.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 9

PNOC-EDC conducts baseline seismological studies prior to the operation of a new geothermal
plant. This is to monitor changes, if any, in the level of seismicity that may be brought about by
fluid extraction and localized events associated with injection in new sectors. An array of analog
seismographs was set up in the field before BACMAN I and II were tested and commissioned in
1993 (Rigor, 1995). All stations are equipped with a 1.0 Hertz vertical seismometer. Time
synchronization is either through a portable clock or a radio output injected into each recorder
every two days. The seismic monitoring with a total of seven stations were operated for six
weeks from November to December 15, 1993.
There were recorded microearthquake swarms in 1993 at the BGPF. Some of the events were
most likely induced events that coincided with the geothermal operation while the others were
attributed to natural events. In Palayang Bayan sector, this relationship is supported by the
coincidence of the injection experiment in Pal-3RD and the fluctuation in its wellhead pressures
coupled with the sudden increase in its capacity. The largest recorded event has a magnitude of
Ms 2.3, although it could not be determined if the event was due to natural or injection-induced
events. The average depth of focus is 2.0 km (Rigor, 1995).
At present, one analog seismograph located at the BGPF administration complex monitors the
time and number of seismic events in the area. To date, there has been no recorded significant
seismic activity (Ms>5.0) that has affected the field (Layugan, 2001 pers. comm.).

1.

Tectonic Earthquake

The Philippine Trench, located about 400 km east of the BGPF, is the possible source of
tectonic earthquake in the area. Additionally, the Philippine fault close to the area may
also produce minimal vibrations in the project site when accumulated stresses are
suddenly released.
The SVLF, which is possibly related to the Philippine Fault characterized by a 5-km-wide
sheared zone, is also a potential hazard in the project area. The N-S-trending faults area
also potential source of minor earthquakes, as they are the youngest structures present in
BGPF.

2.

Volcanic earthquake

Because of the distance of active volcanoes Mt. Mayon (19 km to the northwest) and Mt.
Bulusan (21 km to the southeast) to the project site, the seismic effect, if any, is projected
to be insignificant. Past volcanic activities of the two volcanoes have not significantly
affected the project site. High-magnitude (>Ms 6.5) earthquake may attenuate to the
project site, but with a g factor of around 0.24 for the hard rocks, ground movements may
not be devastating.

H.

Peak Horizontal Acceleration Factors (g Factors)

Ground peak horizontal acceleration baseline data for the Philippines was established by
Thenhaus (1995). Figs. 2.1.1-17 and 2.1.1-18 show the contour maps of g for rocks and
medium soils, respectively. Based on the maps, the BGPF could be designated a g value of
0.38 for medium soils and 0.24 for rocks.
The Effective Peak Acceleration (EPA) is defined as the average Spectral Acceleration (SA)
from 0.1 to 0.5 second. SA is the maximum response of a single degree of freedom (SDOF)
structure with 5% damping subjected to ground motion. The ground motion (i.e., due to
earthquakes) is dependent on local soil conditions, earthquake magnitude and its epicentral

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 10

distance from the project site. The calculated EPA of 0.3 g (for medium soils) is based on Ms =
7.0 at an epicentral distance of 70 km from Tanawon area.
Considering the EPA for the Tanawon sector, a standard value was adopted by the PNOC-EDC
Engineering Design group for the horizontal seismic factor in the design of buildings, pipe
supports for the FCDS and power plants. The values range from 0.25 g and 0.6 g for the pipe
supports and power plants, respectively (Gagto, 2001 pers. comm.). For buildings and other
infrastructures, figures between 0.1 g to 0.4 g are used. The seismic factor is dependent on the
type of soil present in the study area.
The residual soil within Tanawon is only about 1-2 meters thick, most are products of alteration
and weathering of the underlying volcanics or pyroclastic materials. Hence, most of the
foundation of the structures to built in Tanawon will be founded on solid bedrock.
The site-specific Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) within Tanawon was calculated using the
attenuation relation for Japan developed by Fukushima and Tanaka (1990) since Japan and the
Philippines have similar geotectonic setting. The formula is: Log10A = 0.41M Log10
(R+0.032*100.41M) 0.0034R + 1.30 where A is the mean peak acceleration (cm/sec2), R is the
shortest distance between the site and the fault rupture (km) and M is surface wave magnitude.
Shown in Table 2.1.1-3 are the results of the calculations assuming different earthquake
scenarios from different possible earthquake sources.
The magnitude assigned for the San Vicente-Linao Fault is a conservative values since there is
no historical data that would quantify the magnitude that the fault is generated. Assuming that
the fault could generate a magnitude of Ms 7.5, the g value in Tanawon is about 0.33 for hard
rocks and 0.48 hard-medium soils. Possible Ms 8.0 earthquakes from the Philippine Fault and
Manila trench would generate minimal ground shaking in Tanawon.
Hence, the values used by EDCs Design group in foundation designs are sufficient to
accommodate ground hazards that are associated with the three possible earthquake
generators.

I.

Natural Hazards
1. Mass Movements
a. Existing Minor and Major slides/slope failures and potential
forms of mass movement
Shown in Figure 2.1.1-18a are the mass movements observed along the road leading
to Tanawon Pad C. These movements are:
a.1 Slip failure (Anthropogenic)
Increase in pore pressure due to excessive rainfall combined with steep slope
resulted to the development of a slip plane which later on led to failure. The slide
material, which is no more than a few cubic meters in volume, is composed of
highly weathered pyroclastic materials. The slip failure is about 2 meters wide and
3 meters long resulting to the formation of a small gully. This observed mass
movement is very localized along the road leading to pad C.

a.2 Creep (Natural)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 11

Creep is an imperceptibly slow, more or less continuous downward and outward


movement of slope-forming soil or rock. The movement is essentially viscous
under gravity-induced shear stress sufficient to produce permanent deformation
but too small to produce shear failure.
Creep usually happens in areas denuded by forest cover. Except near the banks
of rivers and volcanic depressions, the occurrence of creep in the BGPF is
unlikely since the area is covered mostly by forest. Reforestation projects by the
PNOC-EDC EMD group addresses such issues when the need arises.
The leaning orientation of trees and shrubs within a 6 m2 area along the upper
slope of the road leading to pad C suggests a creep that have resulted to minor
slides. This condition may further be aggravated specially during high rainfall
events.
a.3

Slumping (Anthropogenic)

Slumping is the downward slipping of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material of


any size, moving as a unit, usually with backward rotation on a more or less
horizontal axis parallel to the slope from which it descends.
In Tanawon, relatively steep slope and poorly to slightly consolidated pyroclastic
materials have resulted to minor slumping along a portion of the road to pad C.
This resulted to the formation of a small gully along the road cut. However, the
slope appears to have stabilized as the angle of repose became less steep.
There is a potential that over-saturation during high rainfall may still widen the
slump area.
a.4

Rockfall (Natural/Anthropogenic)

Rockfall is defined as the relatively free-falling of newly detached segment of a


bedrock of any size. The triggering mechanism for a rock to fall in areas of steep
slopes, cliffs and ravines like road cuts and river channels are large magnitude
earthquakes and strong typhoons. This would probably occur on steep slopes
road cuts on volcanic lava deposits in the area.
In Tanawon, the steep road cuts through relatively fresh lava flows; rockfalls can
occur during extreme rainfall accompanied by high wind velocities and
earthquakes. The expected rockfalls may vary from pebble to boulder sizes,
depending on the intensity of typhoon and degree of ground shaking that may
occur in the area.
a.5

Landslide

Landslide is the general term used for the downward movement of earth materials
(rocks and soils) caused by several factors such as tectonic and volcanic
earthquake-induced ground shaking, unstable slopes, and oversaturation with
water during extremely high rainfall events.
The vegetated areas identified as having moderate to steep slopes (>40 slope
angle) are stable, but the occurrence of high magnitude earthquakes and typhoon
may render these slopes to be unstable. Unstable areas along road cuts and
other PNOC-EDC facilities were stabilized using ripraps and retaining walls
combined with replanting of vegetation. Potential landslide hazard areas in BGPF
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 12

were identified by Bien in 1999 and protective measures had been implemented
since.
a.6

Rockslide

Rockslide is the downward and usually rapid movement of newly detached


segments of the bedrock sliding on bedding, joint, or fault surfaces or any other
plane of separation.
Natural and man-made disturbances such as high magnitude earthquakes, strong
typhoons, road and pad developments and forest denudation could trigger
rockslides. Slope protection are implemented by PNOC-EDC on steep slopes like
rip-rapping and construction of retaining walls, except on areas where the roads
are cut through relatively fresh and stable volcanic deposits.

2.

Erodibility of the slopes

Factors that contribute to natural erosional processes are the type of lithology, vegetation,
steepness of slope, permeability of the soil or rock and geologic structures. These
processes are normally induced by external factors such as abnormally heavy
precipitation, typhoons and ground shaking due to tectonic or volcanic-related
earthquakes.
Within the Tanawon area the surface lithology is composed of highly altered pyroclastic
deposit (tephra) having a thickness of about 10 meters. This pyroclastic material is
underlain by about 1800 meters-thick volcanics. Minor erosions have already started to
occur on the road cut leading to pad C, but these have already been mitigated and poses
no impending danger. A drainage system for surface runoff was properly constructed on
the periphery of the pad and along the road.

3.

Hydrologic hazard - creek/river scouring

Rivers naturally scour its banks, especially during periods of high water stages brought by
high rainfall events. Since the project area is located at the headwaters of the Cawayan
and Rizal Rivers, scouring is unlikely to occur since the volume of river discharge is
minimal compared to downstream sections. Additionally, the relatively fresh volcanics in
the area are not prone to erosion.

4.

Volcanic eruption

The active volcanoes near the BGPF are the Mayon volcano to the northwest and Mt.
Bulusan to the southeast. These are located about 19 and 21 km aerial distance from the
project, respectively (Figure 2.1.1- 1). Depending on predominant wind directions during
volcanic activities and the height of the volcanic column, the potential hazards in the
BGPF would come mainly from volcanic ash falls.

J.

Engineering Geology

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 13

1. Geotechnical Parameters
Using the CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) Geomechanics
Classification of jointed rock masses (after Bienawski, 1974), two outcrops were evaluated
for field geotechnical parameters. These areas are at pad C and along the road to pad C
The observed rock characteristics are shown in Table 2.1.1-4.
The data indicates that rock exposures along the road to pad C are generally andesitic
volcanic lava flows that vary in the degree of alterations but considered good as slope
material. Except for extreme cases of strong typhoons, earthquakes and volcanic
eruptions, the slopes along the road are relatively stable.

2. Preliminary Global and Local Slope Stability Analysis


In relation to slope stability, the general criteria adopted by PNOC-EDC in the design of
cut and fill batters for well pads, pipe corridors and road construction are as follows:
0.25H: 1V

- for fresh to moderately weathered rock cuttings of any height

0.50H: 1V

- for cuttings in highly weathered rock and soil up to 6m high

1.0H: 1V

- for cuttings greater than 6m high or in hydrothermally altered


areas

1.5H: 1V

- for fill batters

Unless otherwise determined through site inspection that specific soil conditions be
considered, the above design slopes are followed.

a. Preliminary Global
Considering that the general slope condition in the geothermal field ranges from 18o to
greater than 50o, a criteria for cut slopes higher than 6m was established to aid in the
construction of pilot roads, temporary pipe corridors and well pads.
A typical 10-m high slope was considered appropriate in the preliminary investigation
and result of the slope stability suggests a cut-batter of 1H: 1V using conservative soil
parameters. This cut-batter being adopted on all pilot works of PNOC-EDC
geothermal projects. Below is a summary of slope stability computations using the
Fellenius method of slices.
Factor of Safety
Potential Failure
Plane No.

Static Condition

1
2
3

2.0 (safe)
1.60 (safe)
1.87 (safe)

Pseudo-static Condition
@ 0.12g
@0.15g
1.64 (safe)
1.57 (safe)
1.29 (safe)
1.23 (safe)
1.48 (safe)
1.41 (safe)

b. Local

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 14

Slope stability analyses were conducted on the existing opened areas of the project
site, particularly on the typical sections of wellpad C-1 and the road going to the said
pad. Soil parameters used in the analyses were derived from the exposures on the
new road cut and pad excavation.
b.1 Well Pad C-1
As-built pad configuration exhibited an average slope batter of 1.77H: 1V. With its
typical clayey material of medium to high plasticity fines, stability factors computed
using the Fellenius method of slices ranged from 2.36 to 3.75 for both static and
pseudo-static conditions. Below is the result of the stability analysis conducted on the
pad-slope for three (3) potential failure planes.
Potential Failure Plane
No.

Factor of Safety
Static Condition

1
2
3

3.75 (safe)
3.24 (safe)
3.65 (safe)

Pseudo static Condition


@ 0.12g
@ 0.15g
2.95 (safe)
2.50 (safe)
2.73 (safe)

2.79 (safe)
2.36 (safe)
2.56 (safe)

b.2 Road to Pad C-1


With the roads steep slope of 0.50H: 1V, computed slope stability factors ranged from
1.02 to 1.50, with its clayey type of soil. This type of road section is very common on
pilot roads where the cuts/excavations are made just to provide access to the rig
equipment.
Potential Failure Plane
No.

Factor of Safety
Static Condition

1
2
3

1.50 (safe)
1.27 (unsafe)
1.49 (unsafe)

Pseudo static Condition


@ 0.12g
@ 0.15g
1.31 (safe)
1.07 (unsafe)
1.23 (safe)

1.26 (safe)
1.02 (unsafe)
1.18 (safe)

Appendix H presents the computations for global and local slope stability analysis.

K.

Petrological analysis of surface rocks

The Modal compositions of both the Western Pocdol Mountains (WPM) and the Eastern Pocdol
Mountains (EPM) are shown in Tables 2.1.1-5 and 2.1.1-6. Figure 2.1.1- 19 shows the location
map of the selected sampling stations pertinent to the Tanawon area.
WPM lavas are holocrystalline and are largely porphyritic with total phenocryst (>0.2 mm)
contents ranging from 44 to 61 volume percent. Plagioclase is the most abundant (27-35%),
followed by clinopyroxene (2-7%), orthopyroxene (trace-5%) and rare amphibole (trace-4%);
clinopyroxene phenocrysts are consistently more abundant than orthopyroxene phenocrysts.
There is poor correlation of plagioclase to total Fe-Mg silicate ratios from basalt to andesite in
WPM lavas. This ratio is expected to increase with increasing acidity, due to decreasing
abundance of Fe and Mg in the melt as SiO2 increases. The preponderance of plagioclase
phenocrysts and the common occurrence of titanomagnetite inclusions within olivine crystals,

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 15

and the rare cases where the olivines are in turn included within augite megacryst indicate a
crystallization sequence of titanomagnetite-olivine-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-amphibole,
concurrent with plagioclase. The disappearance of olivine in basaltic andesites and andesites of
the WPM lavas suggests final olivine crystallization in liquid compositions of <52 weight % SiO2,
where it is replaced by orthopyroxene.
The EPM lavas comprise basaltic andesite to dacite, but the majority are andesites (n=16).
These rocks range from strong to weakly porphyritic. Groundmass textures vary from pilotaxitichyalopilitic to microgranular. Plagioclase feldspar is the most dominant phase (21-45%) and is
typically more abundant than mafic minerals. Rare K-feldspars (trace amounts) are present as
microphenocryst and matrix phases in andesites and dacites. Nearly 50% of samples contain
opacite-rimmed hornblendes, which are most abundant in rocks containing >60% SiO2.
Alternatively, the ratio of plagioclase to total Fe-Mg silicate phases has poor correlation with
increasing silica, as observed in WPM lavas. Olivines are not found in the EPM, which may
have been completely replaced by orthopyroxenes. Subhedral to anhedral titanomagnetites
vary from 1 to 7% and occur as microphenocrysts, groundmass components, and inclusions
within plagioclases and pyroxenes. The ubiquity of plagioclases and titanomagnetite, which are
both included in pyroxenes and amphiboles, indicates an order of crystallization of
titanomagnetite-pyroxene-amphibole, accompanied by plagioclase.

L.

Geochemical Analysis of surface rocks

In retrospect to the two groups of lavas, they are clearly differentiated on the basis of the silica
versus potash diagram (Figure 2.1.1- 20), to wit:
(1)

The WPM series consists of medium-K high alumina basalt to high-K basaltic andesite to
medium- and high-K andesite, which lie entirely in the field of calcalkaline series (Jakes
and Gill, 1970), and

(2)

The EPM series comprises of low-K basaltic andesite to medium-K andesite to medium
dacite, and rocks containing <56% SiO2 plot in the field island arc tholeiitic series but the
bulk of EPM rocks (57.3-64.6 % SiO2) plots within the transition zone between calcalkaline and island-arc tholeiitic series.

Similarly, pronounced variations in the abundance of high field strength (HFS) ions and large-ion
lithophile (LIL) elements are apparent between WPM and EPM series lavas.
Table 2.1.1- 7 shows the representative major element composition of EPM and WPM series
lavas. Locations of selected sampling stations are indicated in Figure 2.1.1-10.

1.

Major Elements

Silica values of volcanic rocks in the field range from 50 to 65%. Hence, the rocks belong
to the basalt-andesite-dacite suite common in island arc settings. Most rocks have silica
contents between 57 and 62%; this reflects the predominance of andesites in the sample
population.

2.

Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, Total Iron, Titanium and


Phosphorous

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 16

Aluminum content is high in all rocks, ranging from 16.65 to 20.46%. Some EPM lavas
exhibit constant Al2O3 values with increasing silica content, which is different from usual
negative trend.
Calcium behaves similarly to Al2O3, and ranges from 6.05-9.37% in WPM lavas and 4.769.62% in EPM lavas. The trend is a strong indication that clinopyroxene and plagioclase
fractionation occurs in both WPM and EPM lavas.
Magnesium contents are consistently lower in WPM (4.69-2.75%) than in EPM (5.562.34%) lavas. EPM rocks also show more scatter and a greater decrease with increasing
silica than WPM lavas, which probably reflect the greater abundance of modal pyroxenes
in EPM rocks.
Total iron also behaves similarly to MgO, and ranges from 4.6-8.7%. The total FeO is
comparable to CaO, typical of calcalkaline volcanic suites.
Titanium contents of WPM (0.61-1.08%) and EPM (0.50-0.98%) lavas are generally low
(<1.3% TiO2) and are typical of rocks at convergent plate margins. EPM lavas exhibit
more scatter than WPM lavas, particularly in the basaltic andesite range. This probably
reflects the extreme modal contents of titanomagnetite (1.0-6.5%) in these rocks.
Similarly, there is an indication that TiO2 peaks at 54% SiO2, possibly suggesting
titanomagnetite precipitation.
Phosphorous contents in orogenic andesites are typically low, between 0.05-0.30%.
Values reported here vary from 0.11-0.40% P2O5. EPL lavas have generally lower P2O5
contents (0.11-0.20%) which remains almost constant, and then decrease in bulk rocks
>62% SiO2. In contrast, WPM lavas have higher P2O5 values (0.12-0.40%) showing
considerable scatter particularly in andesites. This observed feature indicates apatite
precipitation, but this mineral was not observed in these lavas.

3.

Alkalies

In both WPM and EPM lavas, K2O correlates positively with SiO2. This implies that
potassium is strongly incompatible through the entire compositional range. Sodium is
constrained in plagioclase (0.5-7.5% Na2O) and hence, is more compatible than
potassium. WPM lavas are more strongly correlated with SiO2 than with EPM lavas. This
condition may reflect the narrow modal proportions of plagioclase (26-38 volume %) in
WPM rocks compared to wider variations in EPM lavas (15-50 volume %).

M.

Trace Elements

Table 2.1.1-8 shows the trace elements composition on selected sampling stations shown in
Figure 2.1.1-18.

1.

Rubidium, Barium and Strontium

The abundance of these large-ion lithophile (LIL) elements is consistently higher in WPM
than EPM lavas, usually by 1.5 to 2.0 times.
Rubidium and Barium show almost identical patterns to K2O. Both EPM andesite and
dacite trends are still present. The scatter in the andesite range of both Rb and Ba in
WPM lavas is associated with large modal variations of clinopyroxenes (2-7%) and
orthopyroxenes (1.5-5.5%).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 17

Strontium trends are opposite Rb and Ba because Sr, being a compatible element,
preferentially goes to plagioclase feldspars. The Sr scatter in the basaltic andesite range
(EPM andesite trend) defines considerable variations in modal plagioclase (30-50%),
orthopyroxene (1-6%) and clinopyroxene (2-8%); whereas the constant slope at >61%
SiO2 (EPM dacite trend) corresponds to increasing modal plagioclase (20-37%) and
hornblende (7-12%), and decreasing clinopyroxene (4%-trace) and orthopyroxene (7-2%).

2.

Zirconium

Zirconium, an incompatible high field strength (HFS) cation, has behavior similar to Rb
and Ba.

3.

Vanadium, Nickel and Chromium

Abundance of the ferromagnesian elements in both lava series is characteristically low,


i.e., in WPM lavas (V, 30`-145 ppm; Ni, 21-7 ppm; Cr, 25-5 ppm) and in EPM lavas (V,
220-109 ppm; Ni, 30-6 ppm; and Cr, 39-5 ppm). These concentrations are too low for
liquid in equilibrium with mantle peridotite (Gill, 1981).

N.

Integrated Hydrogeochemical Model with Resistivity Contours

The hydrological model for the BGPF, as shown in Figure 2.1.1-21, is typical of the major
geothermal systems known in the Philippines wherein the center of the resource is identified by
the presence of fumaroles and steam-heated waters at high elevations. The lateral extent of the
system is indicated by the distribution of chloride springs at low elevations (Solis et al., 1994).
The center of the geothermal reservoir is postulated beneath Mt. Pangas as indicated by
fumarolic activity at Pangas crater and the presence of cold acid-sulfate springs and warm
bicarbonate springs. The deep liquid reservoir upflows near well OP-4D with an initial salinity of
8000 mg/kg Cl and gas content of 2% by weight. Based on measured stable well temperatures,
the hottest (>300C) portion lies beneath Mt. Pangas and reveals a major outflow direction
towards Puting Bato where altered grounds, a kaipohan and the other acid-sulfate spring exist.
Further west in the Inang Maharang area, acid-sulfate-bicarbonate hotsprings, steaming ground
and hot bubbling pool can be observed. The outflow extends towards the north where the warm
HCO3-springs are found. Decreasing isotherm contours and the presence of bicarbonate springs
indicate a minor outflow towards the east and south-southeast sector of Mt. Pangas. Likewise,
another minor outflow zone was also identified towards the south-southwest as indicated by the
presence of altered grounds, kaipohan, cold gas seepages and acid-sulfate springs at
Cawayan and Damoy.
Based on results of Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES), the geothermal resource
in BGPF is defined by a relatively low to intermediate resistivity values of <50 ohm-m and is
bounded in the north, east-southeast and south by high resistivity blocks (Layugan, 1986).
While there is a current lack of surface evidence, subsurface data like reservoir chemistry,
temperature, pressure and permeability show that Rangas and Tanawon are still part of the
main upflow zone located in the eastern Palayang Bayan-Pangas area. However, the Tanawon
area may be at the edge of the main upflow zone as inferred from resistivity anomaly,
geochemical and reservoir field contours. There is no significant temperature decline towards
the south of OP-3D. No significant pressure declines are seen south of CN-3D and OP-4D.
Cawayan is shown to lie within the perimeter of the upflow zone with upflowing fluids reaching
CN-3D.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 18

The subsurface geology data of OP-3D also indicates promising results in terms of elevated
temperatures and neutral-pH alteration suite. The well bottom lies southeast of the Botong
Dome and taps the Botong-Pangas upflow fluids. The re-contouring of the 50 ohm-m contour
may be justifiable in view of the success of CN-3D drilled beneath the Tanawon volcanic crater.
The new sectoral distribution of BACMAN II, including Tanawon blcok, are summarized as
follows (Figure 2.1.1-22):
Sector C + I
Sector G
Sector K
Sector L
Sector H
Sector M
Sector D
Sector E/F

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Cawayan
Botong
Tanawon
Rangas A/B
M & R for Cawayan/Botong
RI sector for Cawayan
RI sector for Botong
M & R for BACMAN I

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 19

TABLE 2.1.1- 1
STRATIGRAPHY OF POCDOL
MOUNTAINS
(CorellDraw)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 20

Table 2.1.1-2: Calculated gas geothermometry of Damoy gas seepages


Sources

Temperature (C)

TDAP (Baltasar, 1981)


(Lovelock, 1984)
TARN (Baltasar, 1981)

229
177
300

TDAP = DAmore and Panichi (1980)


TARN = Arnorsson et al. (1982)

Table 2.1.1-3: Calculated Peak Ground Acceleration values


Possible Earthquake
Source

San Vicente-Linao Fault


Philippine Fault
Philippine Trench

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Possible earthquake
Magnitude

7.5
8.0
8.0

Distance
(km)

4
43
240

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

Calculated PGA (g) values


Rock

Hard-Medium Soil

Soft Soil

0.33
0.16
0.01

0.48
0.23
0.02

0.78
0.37
0.03

p. 2.1.1- 21

Table 2.1.1-4: Observed Rock Characteristics of Two Outcrops at Tanawon Area


Parameter
Strength of Intact Rock material
Rating
Rock Quality Designation (RQD)
Rating
Spacing of Joints
Rating
Condition of Joints

Rating
Groundwater
Rating
Strike and Dip orientation of joints
Ratings
As foundation
As slope
Cohesion
Friction Angle
Unit Weight
Overall Rating
As foundation
As slope
Class no.
Description

Pad C
1 - 2 MPa
4
50%
13
0.3 1m
20
Slightly rough surface, Joint
separation <1mm,
Soft joint wall rock
12
None, though material
slightly moist
10
Favorable

Road to pad C
4 - 8 MPa
12
75%
17
0.3 1m
20
Slightly rough surface, Joint
separation <1mm, Hard joint wall
rock
20
None

-2
-5

-2
-5

150 200 MPa


35o 40o

200 - 300 MPa


40o 45o

57
54
III
Fair rock

77
74
II
Good rock

10
Favorable

Table 2.1.1-5: Modal compositions of WPM series lavas taken from a minimum of 500
points (Tebar, 1988)
Field Number
Lithologic Unit
Phenocryst mode (Volume % ;
500 counts)
Plagioclase
Clinopyroxene
Orthopyroxene
Hornblende
Olivine
Iron Oxide

12
Lnv

14
Mgv

39
Lnv

32.6
2.4
1.4
1.2
2.4

35.4
2.4
0.2
3.4
2.2

33.4
6.2
5.2
0.2
2.0

59.8

56.4

53

87

86

74

Groundmass
Plg/(Plg+Px+Hb)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 22

Table 2.1.1- 6: Modal compositions of EPM series lavas taken from a minimum of 500 points (Tebar, 1988).
Field Number
Lithologic Unit
Phenocryst mode (volume %; 500
counts)
Plagioclase
Clinopyroxene
Orthopyroxene
Hornblende
Iron Oxide

22
Cnv

29
Psv

25
Cnv

32
Psv

40
Pgv

39.4
8.2
3.2
3.2

35.6
2.6
2.6
3.0

24.6
5.0
3.8
2.4

21.4
0.2
0.2
7.0
2.2

44.5
8.0
2.8
6.6

46.0

56.2

64.2

69

37.8

78

42

74

74

81

Groundmass
Plg/(Plg+Px+Hb)

Table 2.1.1-7: Representative major element composition of WPM and EPM series lavas.
Major
Oxide
(wt. %)

N
SiO2
TiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na2O
K2O
P2O5

WPM
High-Al
basalt

WPM
High-K
basic
andesite

WPM
MediumK
andesite

WPM
High-K
andesite

EPM Low-K
basic
andesite

EPM MediumK
basic
andesite

EPM LowK andesite

EPM
Medium-K
andesite

EPM MediumK dacite

(1)
50.58
1.08
20.46
2.03
6.77
0.13
4.69
9.37
3.36
1.12
0.40

(1)
54.30
0.79
18.94
1.75
5.83
0.13
4.09
8.94
3.24
1.61
0.36

(4)
58.8
0.64
18.06
1.51
5.04
0.12
3.11
7.07
3.55
1.84
0.22

(1)
60.86
0.62
17.44
1.27
4.23
0.10
2.75
6.05
3.72
2.68
0.28

(3)
54.03
0.77
19.53
1.99
6.46
0.18
4.64
8.79
3.00
0.46
0.13

(2)
53.69
0.78
19.56
1.94
6.46
0.14
4.82
8.82
3.02
0.63
0.14

(1)
60.36
0.58
18.73
1.40
4.67
0.10
2.65
6.66
3.86
0.84
0.15

(15)
59.81
0.66
17.89
1.49
4.97
0.12
3.30
6.86
3.52
1.35
0.15

(1)
64.56
0.50
16.65
1.13
3.77
0.10
2.34
5.56
3.69
1.59
0.11

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 23

Table 2.1.1-8: Major and trace element concentrations and CIPW norm of selected EPM
series lavas
Field Number
Lithologic unit
Major elements
(weight %)

1
Cnv

22
Cnv

29
Psv

25
Cnv

SiO2
TiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
MgO
CaO
Na2O
K2 O
P2O5

60.47
0.64
17.58
1.37
4.57
0.10
2.91
6.69
3.84
1.68
0.15

58.46
0.74
17.75
1.58
5.27
0.14
3.34
7.52
3.74
1.31
0.16

59.14
0.63
18.05
1.55
5.17
0.12
3.17
7.23
3.52
1.22
0.19

59.15
0.78
17.42
1.60
5.35
0.13
3.19
7.14
3.72
1.31
0.20

LOI
Sum

0.76
100.23

-1.67
98.35

-0.12
100.35

-1.17
99.09

49
2.00

49
2.00

48
2.07

47
2.13

10.93
9.75
31.98
25.41
5.26
12.68
1.95
1.19
0.33

8.46
7.63
31.28
27.48
6.95
14.22
2.25
1.40
0.35

10.92
7.16
29.60
29.64
3.98
15.34
2.22
1.19
0.42

10.05
7.69
31.19
26.7
5.91
14.5
2.29
1.48
0.44

34
422
453
5
14
25
27
4
24
116
6
185
9
8
55
18
410
0.08

26
317
430
6
8
22
23
2
23
105
8
179
7
9
61
19
418
0.06

25
314
524
9
9
23
18
3
22
100
5
175
7
9
62
17
405
0.05

26
375
404
7
9
30
27
2
28
121
8
178
5
6
66
19
418
0.06

Mg Number
FeO/MgO
CIPW
norms
(mol%)
Q
Or
Ab
An
Di
Hy
Mt
Il
Ap
Trace Elements
(ppm)
Rb
Ba
Dr
Pb
La
Ce
Nd
Th
Y
Zr
Nb
V
Cr
Ni
Zn
Ga
K/Rb
Rb/Sr

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1- 24

Eas
tL
Tro uzon
ugh

Northern Luzon

60

Kilometers

Ph
il
Tr ipp
en in
ch e

Central
Luzon

Pocdol
Mountains

Southern
Luzon
M
ila
an

Bi
co
lA
rc

e
Tr
h
nc

47

Explanation

49

Trench
Fault - inferred
Fault - trace
Active volcano

Fig.2.1.1-1 Major tectonic features and Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism in the Central Philippines.
Filled circle denotes active volcanoes; open circles, inactive volcanoes; Numbers refer
to volcanoes (e.g. 47-Mayon volcnoe; 49-Mt. Bulusan). (After, 1988)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-24

592,000 E

BMGPSorwatershedsJEAC D-16

600,000 E

608,000 E

Tanawon Development Block Coordinates


Hologan

Kawit

Pawa

1,450,000 N

4.0

MANITO (Itba)

Balabagon

MO-2

Kabit

KM
Buyo

Nagotgot

LEGEND:
D

on R

nit

Buyo River

bag

Ma

g
on
ay

EASTING

NORTHING

EASTING

605,550
600,000
599,550
599,500
604,110
604,150
604,150
604,150
603,830

J. 1,438,800
K. 1,439,450

603,460
603,565

L. 1,439,620
M. 1,440,010
N. 1,440,010
O. 1,440,200
P. 1,440,350
Q. 1,440,350
R. 1,441,600

603,600
603,110
603,410
603,410
603,620
605,500
605,550

SUGOT BAY

oh

Malobago

BGPF

sR

Geothermal Well

an

Osiao
R
.

R.

Tanawon Development
block

Gayong

Balasbas

Tinapian
Reservation
Boundary

Bala

MO-3

Banban

ba
las
Ba

Sto. Nino

MO-1

NORTHING
A. 1,442,560
B. 1,442,650
C. 1,442,050
D. 1,437,700
E. 1,437,700
F. 1,438,550
G. 1,438,750
H. 1,439,010
I. 1,439,010

Ba
di

Prop. Cawayan watershed


reservation
MT. KAYABON

1RD
4RD

2D

1,442,000 N

ALBAY
ON
SORSOG

Lanao
Lake

PB-1A

8D

12D
7D

MAN-1

5D
3RD
2RD

Sto. Domingo

Del Rosario

Pulog
Lake

BACON

4D

MT. RANGAS

3D

Ra
MT. TANAWON

Pi
li R
i ve

Du magd agan R.

z
Ri

San Juan

R.
Bu
ca
l-b
uc
al

1,434,000 N

wR

Bulabog
Capuy
Barayong

San Isidro

Tugos
Penafrancia

SORSOGON

Bibingkahan

ha

Bucalbucalan

Pangpang

Ticol

R.

Makabug
Guinlajon

Sn. Ramon

a
An

Rizal

palo c

.
R.

Buenavista

Basud

Tublijon

Sn. Roque

Sn. Pascual

ol

LA UNION

Balete

Sn. Isidro
S am

San Isidro
Panlayaan

Cabarbuhan

sR
.

Sn.Jose

Tic

n R.
Ca uaya

Menito R.

ng
a

Q
O
N M
L NPC MINI HYDRO
K I H
J
G
Power
House F

R.

RIZAL

GEOTHERMAL RESERVATION BOUNDARY


Salvacion

al

Rawis

Sta. Cruz

5D

Cawayan PP

BASE CAMP

Buragwis
Lake

San Juan

1RD

13D
15D
10D
4D
3D 7D
6D
5D
9D
3D

CN

R.

OP
7D

MAN-2

Botong PP

16D
14D

6D

INANG
MAHARANG

Cawayan

2D

Bacman-1 PP

IM-1

Tiris

Osiao
Lake

R.

lan

o
Osia

3RD
2RD

Sibu

ADMIN.

Balogo

SORSOGON

Cabid-an
Buhatan

Cambolaga

BAY
Gimaloto

Pamurayan

Fig.2.1.1-2 Bacon-Manito
Geothermal
Production
Field andField
Tanawon
Block. (Modified
from: PNOC-EDC EMD, 2000)
Fig.2.1.1-2
Bacon-Manito
Geothermal
Production
andDevelopment
Tanawon Development
Block.
(Modified from: PNOC-EDC EMD, 2000)
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-25

Figure 2.1.1-3: CLASSIFIED SLOPE MAP OF BGPF (Digital topo extracted from NAMRIAs 1:20,000 scale map)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-26

Legend:
(0-45)
(45-90)
(90-135)
(135-180)
(180-225)
(225-270)
(270-315)
(315-360)
Volcanic craters
Existing Road
Existing BGPF Bdry
Tanawon Devt. Block
PNOC-EDC Buildings
Power Plants
Fig 2.1.1-4. Classified slope direction (aspect) map of BGPF (Digital topo extracted from NAMRIAs 1:20,000 scale map)
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-27

Legend:
Concave slope
Convex slope
Straight / Flat slope
Volcanic craters
Existing Road
Existing BGPF Bdry
Tanawon Devt. Block
PNOC-EDC Buildings
Power Plants
Figure 2.1.1-5. Classified slope shape of BGPF (Digital topo extracted from NAMRIAs 1:20,000 scale map)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-28

Kilometers

Pocdol
Mountains

Fig.2.1.1-6
Geology
of Pocdol
Mountains
and Vicinity
Fig.2.1.1-6 Generalized
Generalized Geology
of Pocdol
Mountains
and Vicinity
(Modified from
Tebar,
1988).
(Modified
from
Tebar,
1988).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-29

596,000E

604,000E
PAR
NAG
BAL
BUG
PAW
BAL
MAL
MO-2
MO-3
BAD
MBP
INA

PAR
Parong
MANITO PAW
Pawa

PARONG
NAGHASO
BALABAGON
BUWANG
PAWA 2
BALASBAS
MALANGTO
MO-2 WELL DISCHARGE
MO-3 DOWNHOLE
BALADING
MALANGTO BUB. POOL
INANG MAHARANG

SUGOT

LEGEND:
Altered Grounds / Kaipohans
Solfataras
Springs deposits outflow
Rivers
Dome

BAY

NAG
Naghaso

BUG

BAG

Balabagon

MAL

Malangto

BAL

BAD

~
Sto. Nino

OSI
1,446.000N

TIN

BAN

Osiao

Banao

CAL
San Juan
Sagpon

INA
Palayang
Bayan Crater

INA

Kayabon

Osiao Dome

MAP

INA

Calpi

LOS

Matanga
Dome

PAG

Inang Maharang

LRAN

LDATicolob

Pangas
Dome

Cawayan

PUT

SAV

CAW

Pulog

DAM
Magaho

SAC

Botong

SAL

1,438.000N

Damoy
Tanawon

Rangas
San Lorenzo
Matacla

MAT
Dome
Suminandig

ALI
Alinao

PAL

BUC

Buenavista
SORSOGON
BAY

RIZ

KM

Fig.2.1.1-7 Geologic Map of Pocdol Mountains (Modified from Panem and Alincastre, 1985)
Former eruption centers are indicated as bold (with single hachure) dashed where inferred.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-30

Pgv
Cnv

Pulog Volcanics
Cawayan Volcanics

Psv
Sgv

Pangas Volcanics
Suminandig Volcanics

Cawayan Crater
Solfatara

Buong Springs
Neutral Cl

Pgv

Cnv

Inang Maharang
Springs
Mixed

Mt. Pulog

Pangas Dome
Solfatara

Psv
Psv

Sea Level

Lateral Out
flow

Fluid mixing and


mineral deposition

Sgv
Boiling and gas
separation

Sgv

Convecting

Cooling
Intrusive

250
C

300C

20
0
C

250C

a
ch
re
ric

rg
e

Fluids

300C

eo
Met

Geothermal

C
0
0
2
M

ic
or
e
et

Fig.2.1.1-8
CrossSection
Section
from
toacross
east across
Inang(Looking
Maharang
Fig.2.1.1-8 Cross
from
westwest
to east
Mt. PulogMt.
andPulog
Inang and
Maharang
north)(Looking north)
Modified after
Tebar,
1988).
(Modified
after
Tebar,
1988).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-31

g
ar
h
ec

596,000E

604,000E
EXPLANATION:

SU

GO

T B
AY

DU

D
U

Fault dashed where inferred


Possible extension of fault
Fault showing dip
Fault showing upthrown and
downthrown side
Bacman Fault zone
Volcanic vent / Crater
Collapse / Depression / Slump
BGPF
Tanawon development block
Proposed Cawayan watershed

F.

D
U

Balasbas

U
D

D
U

UD

Sampaloc F.
n
la

F.

bu
Si

U
D
D
U

Botonga F.
Pulog F.

ak

ab

Anahao F.

N. F.

ug

F.

Rock F
.

Bulab
og

F.

an

F.

F.
Riz al

Ca
wa
y

U
DU

D
U

F.
jon
inla
Gu

.
yF
mo
Da

1,438,000N

Osiao
F.

U
D

Rangas
F.
Tanawon
Banga F.

UD

U
D

Ba
Madanan F.
Pi ya n
gs So
Mi
ab u
na
a n th
tur
ga
on
nF
F.
.
Ma
sak
Ra
r
o
nga t F.
Put
sS
ing
out
Bat
h
oF
.

UD

DU

Ubas-u
bas F.

U
D

D
U

DU

Du m
adla
n ga
n F.

1,446,000N

D
U

Tic
al F
.
F.

l
ca

jon

Bu
F.

bli
Tu

0
SORSOGON
BAY

KM

Fig.2.1.1-9 STRUCTURAL MAP OF BACON MANITO GEOTHERMAL PRODUCTION FIELD (BGPF)


Fig.2.1.1-9
STRUCTURAL
MAP OF
BACON MANITO GEOTHERMAL PRODUCTION FIELD (BGPF)
(After
Panem and Alincastre,
1985)
(After Panem and Alincastre, 1985)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-32

Figure 2.1.1-10. Two-dimensional Geomorphic Map of BGPF

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-33

Osiao

Damoy

Pangas
Botong

Tanawon

Pulog
Rangas

Legend:
Volcanic Crater

Drainage

Fig.2.1.1-11:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Three -dimensional geomorphic view of BGPF (looking NNW)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-34

Legend:
MT station

Manito

fault

Palayang
Bayan
Crater

Palayang
Bayan

Pangas
Crater
Cawayan
Crater

Botong

Pulog
Crater

Mt. Rangas
Mt. Tanawon

Sorsogon

Fig. 2.1.1-12. Isoresistivity map at 700 m rsl (After Los Baos, et al., 2000)
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-35

1454

Legend
52

1452

Bouguer anomaly
contour (mgals)
Gravity station

Manito

Well

1450

P01

Profile line

1448

Northing (km)

1446

1444

1442

Pal. Bayan
Botong
Bacon

Cawayan

1440
1438

1436
Rizal

Sorsogon

1434
1432
1430
580

CFLB
PNOC-EDC
DEC. 1997

582

584

586

588

590

592

594

596

598

600

602

604

606

608

610

612

614

Easting (km)
Fig. 2.1.1-13 Bouguer anomaly map of BGPF (After Los Banos and Olivar, 1997)
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-36

PAL4RD

PAL1RD

PAL3RD
PAL2RD

OP2RD

IM-1

PAL1

1,444,000 mN

PAL12D

PAL6D

PAL14D

PAL8D

20
00

PAL2D
PAL11D
PAL4D

30
00

PAL13D
PAL15D
PAL10

30 00

MAN1

CN2D

PB1A

40
00

PAL3D
OP-6D

PAL5D

MAN2

OP1RD

OP-4

PAL7D

50
00

PAL9D
OP-5D

CN-1

OP-3D
70
00
0

604,000 mE

602,000 mE

80
0

00
70

00

CN-3D

6500

60

200

50 00
400 0
300 0
20 00
10 0 0
5 00
400
300

100

600,000 mE

CN2RD

60
00

80
00
605,000 mE

CN3RD

1,442,000 mN

Fig.2.1.1-14 Iso-chloride (mg/kg) field contours at BGPF. (Modified from PNOC-EDC, 1992)

Fig. 2.1.1-14 Iso-chloride (mg/kg) field contours at BGPF. (Modified from PNOC-EDC, 1992)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-37

1446000

260

1445000

PAL1

PAL14D

PAL6D

PAL8D

1444000

PAL2D

PAL13D
PAL15D
PAL10D

PAL4D

OP1RD

OP4D

1443000

PB1A

PAL5D
PAL9D
CN-1

0
30

0
29

NORTHING

0
28
0
27

OP3D

1442000

270
1440000
598000

599000

600000

601000

290

28
0

1441000

602000

603000

604000

605000

606000

EASTING
0

Fig.2.1.1-15
Geothermal
Production
Field temperature
( C) contours (-1600
mRSL)
Fig.
2.1.1-15Bacon-Manito
Bacon-Manito
Geothermal
Production
Field temperature
(C) contours
(-1600 mRSL)
(Source:
PNOC-EDC,
1992)
(Source: PNOC-EDC, 1992)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-38

BGPF

Fig.2.1.1-16Historical
Historical
significant
earthquakes
in the Philippines
Fig.2.1.1-16
significant
earthquakes
in the Philippines
(1608-1997) (1608-1997)
(Source: PHILVOLCS,
2001)
(Source:PHILVOCS,
2001)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-39

120E

118E

122E

124E

126E

20N

18N

0.20
16N

25
0.

0.2
5

0.2 0.10
0
0.2
5

14N

12N

20
0.

0
0.2

10N

8N

0.
20

0.2
0

6N

4N
Fig.2.1.1-17 Map
Showing
PeakPeak
Horizontal
Acceleration
Magnitudes
in Rocks for the
Philippine
Fig.2.1.1-17
Map
Showing
Horizontal
Acceleration
Magnitudes
in Rocks
forRegion.
the Philippine
Acceleration
Values
have
a
10
percent
probability
of
exceedance
in
50
years.
Region. Acceleration Values have a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years.
Contours are
of Acceleration
to gravity
(g).
Contours
areininterms
terms
of Acceleration
to gravity
(g).
(Adopted
from
Thenhaus
al.,1995)
1995)
(Adopted
from
Thenhaus
etetal.,

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-40

120E

118E

122E

124E

126E

20N

0
0.4

18N

0.20
16N

0.20
14N

0.4
0
12N

0.20

20
0.

0
0.2

10N

0.40

0
0.1

0 .2
0

8N

6N

4N
Fig.2.1.1-18Map
Map
Showing
Horizontal
Acceleration
Medium
Soil for
the
Fig.2.1.1-18
Showing
Peak Peak
Horizontal
Acceleration
MagnitudesMagnitudes
in Medium Soilinfor
the Philippine
Region.
Values have aValues
10 percent
probability
of exceedances
in 50ofyears.
Contours are in
Philiipipine Acceleration
Region. Acceleration
have
a 10 percent
probability
exceedances
Thentaus
et al.,
1995)
of Acceleration
to gravity
(g). (Adopted fromto
in 50 years.terms
Contours
are in terms
of Acceleration
gravity
(g).
(Adopted from Thenhaus et al., 1995)
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-41

1,442,000N

EXISTING ACCESS
ROAD

1x20 MWe
EXTG POWER PLANT
(EL=840m)

Slumping

SPOIL
DISPOSAL
AREA

1,441,500N

Creep
Slumping
Sheet failure
SU
P

SU

MP

602,000E

601,500E

601,000E

600,500E

1,441,000N

Fig.
minor
slidesslides
at Tanawon
road leading
to leading
pad C
Fig.2.1.1-18a
2.1.1-18aExisting
Existing
minor
at Tanawon
road
to pad C

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-42

596,000E

604,000E
PAR
NAG
BAL
BUG
PAW
BAL
MAL
MO-2
MO-3
BAD
MBP
INA

PAR
Parong
MANITO PAW
Pawa

PARONG
NAGHASO
BALABAGON
BUWANG
PAWA 2
BALASBAS
MALANGTO
MO-2 WELL DISCHARGE
MO-3 DOWNHOLE
BALADING
MALANGTO BUB. POOL
INANG MAHARANG

SUGOT

LEGE
ND:
Wells
Alkali Chloride Spring
Altered
Grounds
/ Kaipohans
Acid SO4
Waters
Solfataras
Acid CI-SO4
Waters
Springs
deposits
outflow
Mixed Waters
Rivers
Surface Waters
Dome
12 Sample number/location

B AY

NAG
Naghaso

BUG

BAG

Balabagon

MAL

Malangto

BAL

BAD

~
Sto. Nino

1,446.000N

OSI
TIN

BAN

Osiao

Banao

CAL

San Juan
Sagpon

INA
Palayang
Bayan Crater

INA

Kayabon

MAP

INA

Inang1Maharang

Calpi

LOS
32 Osiao Dome

Matanga
Dome

PAG
25

LDATicolob

Pangas
Dome

Cawayan
PUT

SAV

CAW
14

22

Pulog

SAC

DAM Botong

Magaho

1,438.000N

LRAN
40

29

SAL

Damoy
Tanawon

Rangas
San Lorenzo

39

Matacla

MAT
Dome
Suminandig

ALI
Alinao

PAL

BUC

Buenavista
SORSOGON
BAY

RIZ

KM

39

Fig.2.1.1-19 Location Map of Selected Sampling Stations for Petrology and Geochemistry Analysis
Former eruption centers are indicated as bold circle (with single hachure)dashed where inferred.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-43

Bonakite
High-K
Dacite

3.5
Shoshonite

High-K Andesite

3.0

K2O (wt %)

Absarokite
2.5
High-K
Basaltic andesite

2.0

Dacite
Andesite

1.5
Basaltic andesite

1.0
Basalt

Low-K

0.5

52

54

Dacite

Low-K Andesite

Low-K
Basaltic andesite
56

58

60

62

64

SiO2 (wt. %)
Fig.2.1.1-20
Chemical
nomenclature
of volcanic
according
Peccerillo and
(1976),and
as modified
by Ewart as
(1982).
Filled symbols
Fig. 2.1.1-20
Chemical
nomenclature
of rocks
volcanic
rockstoaccording
to Taylor
Peccerillo
Taylor (1976),
modified
by
denote WPM rocks: Malobogo (circle), Kayabon (square), and Lison Volcanics (diamond); and open symbols, EPM lavas: Pulog
Ewart (1982).
Filled symbols denote WPM rocks: Malobago (circle), Kayabon (square), and Lison Volcanics (diamond);
(cirlce), Pangas (square), Cawayan (diamond), and Suminandig volcanics (triangle).

and open symbols, EPM lavas: Pulog (circle), Pangas (square), Cawayan (diamond), and Suminandig volcanics (triangle).
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-44

596,000E

604,000E

SU
Parong
Manito

GO

BA

Pawa
Naghaso

LEGEND:
Wells
Alkali Chloride Spring
Acid SO4 Waters
Acid CI-SO4 Waters
Mixed Waters (HCO3/HCO3-SO4)
Surface Waters
Altered Grounds / Kaipohans
Solfataras
Springs deposits outflow
Isoresistivity in Ohm-m
at about 500-800m below surface
Isotherms at -1600 mRSL
Direction of outflow

Palabagon
Malangto

1,446.000N

~
Sto. Nino

Banao

Osiao

50

Sto. Nino

NORTHERN HIGH RESISTIVITY


BLOCK

Calpi

290

280
270
260

30
0

280
0

27

26
Inang Maharang

290

Palayang
Bayan Crater

Botong

S
RE OUT
SI HE
ST A
IV ST
IT H
Y IG
BL H
OC
K

50

Cawayan

50

1,438.000N

Damoy

SO
UT
Tanawon
H H DUM
IGH ADL
RE ANG
SIS
A
TIV N
ITY
BL
OC
K

San Lorenzo

50

Alinao

SORSOGON
BAY

1
KM

3
CFLB/mzt/12'97

Fig.2.1.1-21
BGPF
HYDROLOGICAL
MODEL WITH
ISO-RESISTIVITY
CONTOURS AND ISOTHERMS
Fig. 2.1.1-21
BGPF
HYDROLOGICAL
MODEL
WITH ISO-RESISTIVITY
AT -1600M
ELEVATION
(Adopted
Los Banos
et al., 2000)
CONTOURS
AND
ISOTHERMS
ATfrom:
-1600M
ELEVATION
(Adopted from: Los Banos et al., 2000)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-45

1446000

M&R SECTORS
BACMAN 1
PAL16D

A
1444000

PAL6RD

PAL12D

PAL2D

MASAKROT
NORTHING

Palayang Bayan

INANG MAHARANG
Inang
PAL1
REGION
Maharang

PAL14D

PB1A

PAL17D

CN-1

RE
IN
J
SE ECT
CT IO
OR N

CAWAYAN SECTOR

OP5D

600000

BOTONG SECTOR

OP3D

S
GA ?
N
RA
RANGAS B

CN3D

TANAWON SECTOR
?
?

1440000

OP1RD

PAL9D

CN2RD

OSIAO PANGAS

OP6D

CN3RD

1442000

OP4D

PAL3D

PAL5D

MAN2

PROPOSED
REINJECTION
WELLS

PAL8D

PAL11D PAL13D
PAL15D
PAL4D
PAL10D

PAL7D
CN2D

598000

OP2RD

PAL2RD

PAL3RD

PAL1RD
PAL4RD

602000

604000

606000

EASTING

Fig.2.1.1BGPF
sectoral
distribution
(Modified
from PNOC-EDC,
1992)
Fig.2.1.1-2222BGPF
sectoral
distribution
(Modified
from PNOC-EDC,
1992)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Geology)

p. 2.1.1-46

2.1.2.1 PEDOLOGY
2.1.2.1 Summary Of Results and Conclusions
The area within the Tanawon block is overlain by Annam Clay Loam soil type, characterized by
its clay loam texture at the surface, clay loam to clayey at the subsoil, and gravelly to strong clay
at the substratum.
Exploratory boreholes drilled within the Tanawon development block show that the area is
dominated by thick overburden of clayey soils. The hardness or softness of the soils (N-value
is 3 to 27) ranges from soft to hard. The estimated allowable soil bearing capacity for design
purposes is equal to 50 kPA at a minimum founding level of 1.0 meter below the natural grade
line.
Soil taken at the subsurface boreholes also indicated a clayey soil texture. However, random
soil samples at existing road cuts exhibited a sandy-silt characteristic in some areas within the
Tanawon block. From these separate investigations, inconsistencies in soil characteristics were
observed to be highly variable, and this is typical of volcanic regions such as Tanawon.
Slope within the Tanawon block ranges from 18% to over 50%. Erosion within the Tanawon
block is slight to severe at the northern area which is mostly forested, and moderate to severe in
the southern portion where agricultural areas abound.
Concentrations of arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium of undisturbed forest soils is within
naturally occurring levels; lead was naturally high.

2.1.2.2 Methodology
A. List of EIA Study Team
Sampling of soils for physico-chemical analysis was undertaken from Nov. 28 to Dec. 3, 2000 by
Ms. Teresa Peralta (Biologist), and Mr. Conrado Orcena (Environmental Technician) of PNOCEDCs Environmental Management Division (EMD). The group was assisted by EMD Forest
Guards Mr. Jerry Ferrer and Mr. Vic Tubio, both of whom are local residents familiar with the
survey areas.
Geotechnical investigation through subsurface borehole logs in the Cawayan-Tanawon area
was conducted by PNOC-EDC contractor (Geotechnica Corporation) in 1991, and supervised by
PNOC-EDC Engineers.
Samples for soil classification using ASTM standards were collected by Jeff Caranto (Geologist),
Ernie Gagto (Civil Engineer), and Gina Pascual (Hydrologist) on May 31, 2001.

B. Location, Area and Scope of Study


Soil investigations were confined to the 2,460-hectare Tanawon geothermal development block,
being the area directly to be impacted by the project. Open slopes and areas along existing
facilities (pads and road) were studied and randomly sampled for soil classification. Soil
sampling stations were sited in areas representing the potential facilities and the different
watersheds.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 1

C.

Study Parameters

Soil characteristics studied include soil type, textural grade, water holding capacity, hydraulic
conductivity, and soil metal analysis.
In the subsurface borehole logs within the Cawayan-Tanawon area, core recovery, N-value and
Atterberg limits were determined. The data served as basis in the classification of soils using
the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), and in defining the recommended foundation
level. Cohesion and particle size distribution were also analyzed. Supplemental sampling of
soil was likewise undertaken randomly along open slopes near the existing road and Tanawon
pad C for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, and soil classification.

D. Methods/Procedures
1. Soil sampling for physico-chemical characterization
A composite sampling method was done for surface soil characterization. In each station, soil
was taken in 4 to 5 random points, at three different depths: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm.
Soils taken at the same depth were combined in one bag. Duplicate sampling was undertaken.
One bag was brought to the University of the Philippines at Los Baos Soil Science for analysis
of physical parameters, while the other bag was sent to the PNOC-EDC laboratory for chemical
analysis.
Analysis for hydraulic conductivity (HC), water holding capacity (WHC), and textural class were
conducted by the UP Los Baos laboratory. HC was analyzed using the Falling Head method,
while textural class was determined using various sizes of sieves.
Chemical analysis of the soils was undertaken at PNOC-EDC laboratory using the following
methods: Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method (for arsenic), Carmine method (for boron), and
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer or AAA (for cadmium, chromium and lead).

2.

Subsurface boreholes for soil parameters

The methods used in advancing boreholes are (a) wash boring, and (b) rotary core drilling.
Wash boring involves the application of up-and-down chopping and twisting motion to the drill bit
(or chopping bit) attached to the end of the drill rods while simultaneously circulating pressurized
drilling water through the bit to carry the soil cutting to the surface. Rotary core drilling is usually
resorted to when hard strata, boulders, and/or bedrock were encountered. A double-tube core
barrel with a diamond drill bit attached to its tip is utilized.
This method is used alternately with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) wherein a 49.7mm
(outside diameter) split barrel sampler is driven into the ground by means of dropping a 63.5-kg
hammer through a free fall of 762 mm. The number of blows by the hammer to push the
sampler 150 mm into the ground for three successive 150 mm penetration is then recorded and
the last 300 mm of penetration is taken as the N-value of SPT blow count.
For each borehole, various geotechnical parameters were studied including N-value, sieve
analysis, and Atterberg limits. The depth of each borehole is 10 meters.
The N-value is the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow count. The value refers to the
hardness or softness of soils. For example, an SPT conducted on a rock formation will yield
high N-value (N>50) or refusal, while an SPT conducted on soft layer of clay will yield a very
low N-value possibly 2 or less. The SPT is described in ASTM D1586.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 2

The USC/Sieve Analysis is conducted in the laboratory according to ASTM D2487, while the
Atterberg limit test is based in ASTM D4318.

E. List of Study Sources


Sources of primary data include actual field investigations using subsurface borehole pits, soil
sampling, and observations along cut slopes. Secondary data sources include maps and survey
profiles from the Department of Agriculture- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (DABSWM), and NAMRIA.

2.1.2.3 Results and Discussion


1. Soil Type
Based on soil texture, the Bureau of Soils- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BOSBSWM) classifies the area within the Tanawon block under only one soil type called Annam
Clay Loam (Figure 2.1.2-1). The profile characteristics of this soil shows a surface soil (depth
0-40 cm) with clay loam texture, brown to reddish brown color, granular to blocky structure,
slightly sticky to plastic when wet and friable when dry. The subsoil (depth 40-85 cm) is clay
loam to clayey in texture, reddish brown to chocolate brown in color, coarsely granular and
blocky to columnar in structure, moderately sticky and plastic when wet. It is also crumbly,
slightly hard and compact when dry. The substratum (depth 85-110 cm) is gravelly to strong
clay, brown to dark brown, mottled red with a mutty structure. The prevailing dominant land use
in the area for this type is forest land.
The characteristic relief for this type is rolling to hilly and mountainous. Internal drainage is poor
while external drainage is good to excessive thus easily prone to erosion.
This is a crumbly loose soil type highly susceptible to erosion. Slopes beyond 50% if interacting
with the soil type factor can nullify the effects of a healthy vegetation and its root binding
strength. This critical slope is found only at certain portions which are more pronounced at the
upper reaches of Ticol and Rizal watersheds.

2. Slope and Elevation


Based on the DA-BSWM slope map (Figure 2.1.2-2) and as extracted from a topographic map
of NAMRIA (refer again to Figure 2.1.1-3 in Geology module), the Tanawon geothermal block
is occupied by various slope classes ranging from 18% slope and greater.
The northern to central portion of the block, where existing facilities of the Cawayan sector are
found, are dominated by two slope classes: 18-30% or considered as rolling to hilly, and 3050% or steep hills and mountains. These slopes are bisected by >50% slope in major gullies. A
swampy portion of the northeastern area of the block has a 3-8% slope.
The southern
downslope portion of the block is generally described as steep hills and mountains (30-50%
slope).
Slopes greater than 18% are generally occupied by a secondary forest. Agricultural areas
consisting mainly of coconut and abaca occupy the gentler slopes (<30%).
Slope is one of the major erosion-inducing factors. Thus, the design of site-specific slope
stabilization measures shall take into consideration these slope classes in order to prevent or
control soil erosion.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 3

3. Soil Characteristics
During the development of the Cawayan sector in BGPF (which is in the same area as
Tanawon), exploratory boreholes were studied in 1991, the location of which are shown in
Figure 2.1.2-3. The results of the subsurface borehole logs, particle size distribution, and soil
classification tests are found in Figures 2.1.2-4a to 4c, Figures 2.1.2-5a to 5c, and Figures
2.1.3-6a to 6d, respectively.
The results of exploratory boreholes drilled in the area show thick overburden of clayey soils
and this characteristic appears to dominate the Tanawon sector. The N-value is within the
range of soft to hard; that is, N=3 to 27 with an estimated allowable soil bearing capacity for
design purposes equal to 50 kPA at a minimum founding level of 1.0 meter below natural grade
line.
N-value is related to soil bearing capacity (SBC), which is the maximum load or pressure the soil
can resist. The foundations of pipeline and other structures are designed based on this SBC.
Soft soils will mean large footings or foundations.
In any of the boreholes, the bedrock was not reached at the pre-determined drilling depth.
Attaining the bedrock during borehole sampling is not necessary since foundations are
engineered based on the actual soil conditions. Borehole depth is usually pre-determined
considering the influence of foundation pressure on soil layers. In the Tanawon sector, the
borehole depth is 10.0 meters.
The subsurface logs also indicate a recommended foundation depth of 2.5 to 5.5 m at the
sampled areas. Field tests on cohesion indicate that the soils are of the clay type (refer again to
Figures 2.1.2-4a to 4c). This signifies that the soil is impervious to water, and thus generally
resistant to land slips.
As indicated in the particle size distribution curve (refer again to Figures 2.1.2-5a to 5c), soils
taken within the same borehole are generally fine-grained.
Based on the Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D2487), soils randomly sampled along
open slopes (refer again to Figures 2.1.2-6a to 6d) indicate a sandy-silt characteristic of the
soil. The top soil in the existing Tanawon pad (surface to ~2 ft) is classified as SM which is a
yellowish brown silty sand. The lower layer (from 2 ft to ~12 ft exposure at the existing Tanawon
pad) is classified as MH, or a mottled light brown sandy clastic silt. The same MH soil was
found at the Cawayan pad area.
The result is quite inconsistent to the clay type observed in the subsurface boreholes. This
inconsistency in soil characteristics is typical of a volcanic area due to historical geologic events
which may have caused surface alterations, and thus varying soil characteristics.

4.

Soil Erosion

Erosion involves the detachment of particles of soil, surficial sediments and rocks through
hydrological (fluvial) processes and through mass wasting. Erosion is generally greatest where
soil is poorly developed and vegetation provides little protection. In activities which cause soil
disturbance, erosion may increase above natural rates.
Erosion is strongly modified by human activities such as land clearance, agriculture,
construction, excavation, and urbanization. The susceptibility of soil to erosion by water is
related to a number of soil factors. Chief among them are runoff and slope; as both or any of
the two increases, so does the erosion hazard. The slope angle above which instability occurs
depends on local conditions of water and sediment distribution and on particle size of the
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 4

sediment subject to transport. Because runoff is closely related to infiltration, and infiltration is
closely related to texture, erodability can be judged from a knowledge of the texture, and
infiltration of the surface horizon and the slope of the soils. Of all the soil texture types, the
medium textures especially silt loam are the most erodible. This is because the size of silt
particles is optimum for detachment and transportation by water moving over the soil surface.
Sand particles are too big to easily dislodge and move, while clays are so small that they are
easily dislodged. Vegetation and climate are not soil factors, but they do influence the erosion
hazard. Natural forest provides the best erosion protection because the organic litter has very
high rates of infiltration and permeability.
Many of the streams around the Tanawon area have channels that are down cut by a few
meters into the surrounding pad. The streams cut down through the volcanic rocks and the
deep alluvial soils which are easily eroded by water. The main channels are often steeply
inclined with very rare occurrence of toe erosion and back undercutting and caving. Large flow
events could cause rapid bank erosion. Smaller flows may erode the toe of unstable vertical
banks and cause significant erosion over time. There is less potential for erosion in areas where
the channel bank is sloped or flat and where the slopes are heavily vegetated. Heavily
vegetated banks withstand higher velocity flows. Streambank stability on this stream type with
volcanic parent material is expected to be similar to those found under natural conditions (i.e.,
where geothermal development or similar human disturbance is absent). Based on their
hydrological and channel morphology features, the rivers in the Tanawon geothermal block
would not be overtopping into the surrounding areas except probably in the areas near the
coast. Impacts resulting from channel erosion and streambank instability are expected to be
very limited. In areas identified as unstable and/or currently eroding, means to improve
streambank stability are provided.
The Erosion Map (Figure 2.1.2-7) of the Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soil and Water
Management (DA-BSWM) shows that the erosion class within the northern to central portion of
the Tanawon geothermal project area is generally slight to severe. These areas are presently
occupied by a secondary forest stand. Areas downslope, now occupied by agricultural areas,
are moderate to severely eroded.
In the Tanawon area, soil erosion and mass movements are localized only on the roadcut
leading to pad C. Mass movements identified are slumping, sheet slide and slip failure. A bank
erosion along the road developed due to heavy rainfall but this was already mitigated by
riprapping. Rills and minor gullies were also observed along the road cut. Erosion is also
evident at the lower elevations of the Tanawon block where agricultural areas consisting of
coconut and abaca are found.

5. Physico-chemical Analysis of Soils


Physical analysis of the surface soil shows that the Water Holding Capacity ranges from 87 to
159 cm/hr. Hydraulic conductivity of soils from Cawayan and Rizal watershed is moderate at 5
to 7 cm/hr, indicative of the loam to sandy-loam nature of the soil. On the other hand, WHC at
Manitohan soil is low at >3 cm/hr due to its clay loam soil texture (Table 2.1.2-1).
Chemical characterization of undisturbed forest soils from the surface up to 30 cm depth shows
a generally acidic nature of the soil. Heavy metals such as arsenic, boron, cadmium, and
chromium are within naturally occurring levels for global forest soils. Lead was noticeably
above the normal global concentration. Table 2.1.2-2 presents the laboratory results for heavy
metals.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 5

Table 2.1.2-1: Physical Analysis of Forest Soils at Tanawon*


Water Holding Capacity

Textural Grade

105.61
103.83
99.64

Hydraulic Conductivity
(cm/hr)
8.03
7.76
8.00

TN-PP1 0-10 cm
TN-PP1 10-20 cm
TN-PP1 20-30 cm

104.86
87.76
90.31

6.35
6.60
5.16

Loam

TN-PP2 0-10 cm
TN-PP2 10-20 cm
TN-PP2 20-30 cm

99.74
96.19
101.23

3.22
3.57
3.81

Clay loam

TN-PP3 0-10 cm
TN-PP3 10-20 cm
TN-PP3 20-30 cm

121.80
89.70
106.19

7.53
5.40
6.70

Sandy loam

TN-PP4 0-10 cm
TN-PP4 10-20 cm
TN-PP4 20-30 cm

144.09
159.32
156.91

6.35
7.03
7.25

Sandy loam

TN-PP5 0-10 cm
TN-PP5 10-20 cm
TN-PP5 20-30 cm

130.72
118.09
108.85

6.83
6.90
6.56

Loam

TN-PP6 0-10 cm
TN-PP6 10-20 cm
TN-PP6 20-30 cm

125.05
134.81
114.63

6.74
7.25
7.57

Sandy loam

Station
TN-SDA 0-10 cm
TN-SDA 10-20 cm
TN-SDA 20-30 cm

Sandy loam

* Analysis by University of the Philippines at Los Baos- Dept. of Soil Science

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 6

Table 2.1.2-2:

Chemical Analysis of Forest Soils at Tanawon *


(units in ppm, except for pH)

Station

Date

pH

As

Cd

Cr

Pb

1.3
<0.10
0.76

<0.10
0.51
<0.10

1.1
1.0
0.89

9.4
8.3
5.0

20
20
15

TN-SDA 0-10 cm
TN-SDA 10-20 cm
TN-SDA 20-30 cm

12/3/00

5.85
5.26
6.88

TN-PP1 0-10 cm
TN-PP1 10-20 cm
TN-PP1 20-30 cm

12/1/00

6.19
4.62
5.22

<0.10
3.3
1.6

<0.10
<0.10
<0.10

0.89
0.77
0.77

3.3
7.5
4.0

14
13
14

TN-PP2 0-10 cm
TN-PP2 10-20 cm
TN-PP2 20-30 cm

12/3/00

4.44
4.35
4.09

1.2
0.89
1.1

<0.10
<0.10
<0.10

<0.10
0.59
0.65

2.9
3.6
4.0

16
16
16

TN-PP3 0-10 cm
TN-PP3 10-20 cm
TN-PP3 20-30 cm

12/3/00

6.68
6.43
6.73

1.6
0.99
1.6

1.5
0.35
<0.10

0.59
<0.10
1.2

5.6
5.2
6.3

15
11
15

TN-PP4 0-10 cm
TN-PP4 10-20 cm
TN-PP4 20-30 cm

12/3/00

6.18
6.46
6.39

3.3
3.8
3.9

2.7
5.5
8.0

1.1
1.1
1.1

4.4
3.6
3.5

13
14
12

TN-PP5 0-10 cm
TN-PP5 10-20 cm
TN-PP5 20-30 cm

12/3/00

5.92
4.49
4.09

1.6
1.5
0.54

5.8
2.9
2.1

1.1
1.5
1.4

3.6
4.8
4.4

14
16
16

TN-PP6 0-10 cm
TN-PP6 10-20 cm
TN-PP6 20-30 cm

12/1/00

4.74
5.76
6.44

3.9
1.1
4.4

5.7
4.2
1.2

1.4
1.5
1.4

7.5
6.7
7.1

14
16
16

0.1-7.0

200

10

Global range**

5.0

* Analysis by PNOC-EDC EMD Laboratory


**Hawkes (1962); Allaway in Brady (1974)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Pedology)

p. 2.1.2- 7

2.1.3 HYDROLOGY
2.1.3.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions
The ten (10) major river systems or catchments covered in this module include (1) Manitohan,
(2) Menito, (3) Rizal, (4) Bucal-bucalan, (5) Bulabog, (6) Capuy, (7) Ticol, (8) Cawayan, (9)
Anahaw and (10) Osiao. Except for Bulabog, Capuy, Anahaw and Osiao, the headwaters of the
other drainages originate within the proposed 2,460-hectare Tanawon Geothermal Development
Block. In terms of discharge points, Manitohan River and Osiao River exit into Poliqui Bay and
Sugot Bay (Albay Gulf), respectively. The rest of the rivers discharge their load into Sorsogon
Bay.
The sampling stations established during the survey were classified either as impact or control.
As part of the baseline study, spot river discharge measurements using a pipe-suspended
current meter were conducted on December 5 to 8, 2000 and on June 6 to 7, 2002. The on-site
3
flow measurements ranged from a minimum of 0.01 m /s (BMGP-132, Anahaw River) to a
3
maximum of 4.46 m /s (BMGP-35, Cawayan River).
Some of the headwater tributaries are reportedly used for drinking by some of the local residents
passing through the area. River water, however, is not used as a major source of drinking
water. In general, the mid- to downstream portions of most of the rivers are used primarily for
domestic purposes (bathing and washing) and sustenance fishery. Irrigation dams/intake canals
are located in Manitohan, Capuy, Ticol, Cawayan, Anahaw and Osiao. The 230-kW
hydroelectric NPC mini-dam located along Cawayan River is presently non-operational and is
proposed for rehabilitation. The river mouths, on the other hand, are used for fishing and
transport purposes. Dumping of domestic garbage by nearby residents was observed in most of
the lowland rivers. Backyard or non-commercial pigpens were also observed along the mid and
lower sections of Anahaw and Osiao Rivers, respectively.
Within the survey area, the main sources of drinking water are cold springs and water wells. The
springs outcrop either in fractured volcanics (lava flows or pyroclastics) or between lithologic
contacts. The Sorsogon Water District (SWD) is currently tapping seven (7) springs (Anahaw 1
and 2; Matacla 1, 2 and 3; and Alinao 1, 2 and 3) as part of its water supply sources. These
spring outcrops are located along Anahaw watershed at elevations ranging from 180 450
masl, immediately north of a large alluvial fan. These springs have a combined discharge of
66 to 80 liters per second (Sorsogon Water District, 1997). In addition to the springs, the SWD
is also operating five (5) deepwells located in Bgys. Baribag, Bibincahan, Cabid-an, Guinlajon
and Pangpang. The depths of the wells range from 50 to 132 meters. The discharges vary from
3
3
a minimum of 18-20 m /hr (Cabid-an well) to a maximum 60-70 m /hr (Guinlajon well). The total
3
discharge of the five (5) wells range from 250 to 280 m /hr (70 to 78 LPS).
Outlying barangays not served by distribution systems (Level III) use either shallow wells with
depth of less than 20 meters or low-capacity springs. Aside from its use as the main drinking
water source, groundwater is also used for other domestic purposes (bathing and washing).
The major hydrogeologic units in the area are composed of Recent alluvial sediments (Qal),
Quaternary volcanics (QV), and Quaternary pyroclastic and clastic sedimentary rocks (Qvp).
The groundwater systems within the Qvp and Qal occur either as water table or leaky artesian
aquifers.
Based on the 1997 SWD studies, the city water demand is projected to increase to 57,320
3
m /day by the year 2030. From modeling simulations done by their LWUA consultants, the
recoverable groundwater was conservatively estimated at 93,000 m3/day by using Visual
Modflow. Thus, the projected 2030 water demand can be readily addressed by drilling

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 1

additional wells. At the time of the study, the SWD was operating only 2 deepwells and the
springs. To date, the SWD had already drilled 3 additional wells and is currently drilling the 6th
well. Some of the untapped springs with potentially high water flows are also being considered
as additional water sources by the SWD.

2.1.3.2 Methodology
A.

EIA Study Team


1. Date of Survey
The baseline survey for the hydrology module was conducted on December 5 to 8, 2000
and on June 6 to 12, 2002, together with the water quality and freshwater biology modular
surveys.

2. Members of Study Team


All members of the Water Study Team are staff of the in-house Environmental
Management Department (EMD).
Mr. Dionie Tayam (BGPF site sampler), Rading Orcena and Albert Batalla (Environmental
Technicians) assisted Gina Pascual (Hydrologist) during the baseline survey. The other
members of the Water Module Team are Mr. Van Capalungan (Chemist/Water Quality
Module), Nick Rubio (Chem. Lab Technician/Water Quality Module), Jo Tuyor
(Limnologist/Fresh Water Biology Module) and Norreen Gerona (Marine Biologist/Marine
Ecology Module).

B.

Location, Area and Scope of Study


1. Location and Area
A total of ten (10) watersheds are covered in this study. These include (1) Manitohan, (2)
Menito, (3) Rizal, (4) Bucal-bucalan, (5) Bulabog, (6) Capuy, (7) Ticol, (8) Cawayan, (9)
Anahaw, and (10) Osiao. Except for Manitohan, which belong to Albay province, all the
surveyed watersheds are within Sorsogon City. The proposed Tanawon Geothermal
Development Block, which covers a total area of 2,460 hectares, is located within the
headwaters of most of the identified watersheds.

2. Scope of Study
The hydrology study involved both primary and secondary data gathering on rivers and
groundwater sources in the study area. The environmental profiles generated during the
data-gathering phase are considered as baseline levels in this report and were
subsequently used in the impact assessment portion and in formulating the environmental
management and monitoring plans for the proposed project.

C.

Study Parameters/Components
1. Preparatory Activities
Before conducting the baseline survey, the following table survey activities were done:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 2

a. Manual delineation of watershed divides on a 1:20,000 scale topographic base


map;
b. Identification and selection of river and groundwater sampling stations; and
c. Coding of selected sampling stations, i.e., river water stations were designated as
BMGP-# and groundwater stations as BMGW-#.
[Note: The station coding of sampling points presented in this module is
consistent with the ones presented in the Water Quality Module.]

2. Criteria used in Station Selection


The following factors were considered in establishing the river stations for baseline
purposes:
a. The likelihood of specific tributaries within identified watersheds to be potential
impact areas or receptors with respect to project-related activities within proposed
facilities (e.g. access roads, drill pads, pipeline routes, power plant and control
center sites, disposal areas/waste management facilities and other areas for
support facilities);
b. The critical river use(s)/significance; and
c.

Accessibility and terrain.

It is important to note that the selected river stations were not confined solely within the
limits of the proposed development block. Rather, for the purpose of establishing a
relatively good profile of the surface water bodies along their entire course or length, the
stations were selected starting from the headwaters down to the estuarine areas. In
addition, stations were established and sampled as control points in tributaries that will not
be affected by any geothermal-related activity.
For groundwater, the primary consideration in selecting the stations was based on the
importance of existing springs or wells as sources of drinking water, either as Levels II or
III systems, or as representative point sources (Level I) in barangays that are not served
by any distribution system.
The map of the sampling stations is shown in Figure 2.1.3-1. The corresponding location
descriptions for river and groundwater stations are indicated in Tables 2.1.3-1 and 2.1.32, respectively.

D.

Methods/Procedures
1. Field Activities
During the river survey proper, the following primary data collection activities were
undertaken:
a. Actual siting of pre-selected stations in the field with the use of an altimeter and
Brunton compass;
b. Measurement of channel dimensions and stream discharges with the use of a
current meter and a calibrated wading rod;

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 3

c.

Observation of the physical descriptions or morphological characteristics of


identified catchments; and

d. Determination of river uses through observations and local interviews.


For groundwater stations, the survey involved the following:
a. Actual siting of stations in the field with the use of an altimeter and Brunton
compass;
b. Estimation of water discharge (where possible);
c.

Observation of the physical description of water sources and associated


structures;

d. Determination of major uses through observations and local interviews.

2. Measurement of River Discharges


In determining the volumetric discharge of a particular river station, a suitable transect
location is selected. In general, it is ideal to select a transect where the river is most
consistent across its width, in terms of depth and flow rate, since this section is easier to
measure and would normally provide a more accurate result.
After selecting the transect, the width of the river channel is divided into 1-meter sub-units.
For each sub-unit, a calibrated rod is used to measure the corresponding depth of the
water column, in meters (Plate 2.1.3-1). The current meter is then submerged in an
upright position at the designated river point, at a depth of at least 40-60% from the top of
the water column. As the cup assembly attached at the end of the submerged rod rotates,
the corresponding linear velocity is measured by counting the number of signals or beeps
per minute. Each beep signifies one full rotation. The number of beeps is then divided by
60 to derive the current velocity per second. The equation below is used to compute the
linear velocity per sub-unit.
V = 0.11193*N + 0.02723
Where V = linear velocity
N = number of signals per second
The velocity (in m/s), width (in m), and depth (in m) of each sub-unit are multiplied
together and the summation of all increments is then taken. The final value (expressed in
3
m /s) is taken as the river discharge for that particular station.

3. Data Interpretation
After the baseline survey, the field data for both surface and groundwater were collated
and interpreted. Secondary data through literature research were also used to supplement
the primary data.
The environmental profiles generated were then used in assessing the potential project
impacts, in formulating appropriate mitigating measures and enhancement plans, and in
designing the proposed monitoring program.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 4

E.

Study Sources
The following data and reports were used in this module:

1. Primary data:

On-site river flow measurements (Dec. 5-7, 2000 and June 6-7, 2002);
Physical observations on drainage characteristics and groundwater sources; and
Interviews on river and groundwater uses.

2. Secondary data:

Topo map analyses on drainage configurations;


EMD historical river flow data from 1997-2000 (PNOC-EDC internal data);
Internal PNOC-EDC reports (a) Water Sources Inventory of BGPF and Surrounding
Areas (August 18, 1998); (b) Post-sampling Report on Selected Groundwater Sources
(October 15, 1998);(c) Hydrogeology of BGPF (July 5, 1999); (d) Vertical Electrical
Sounding Measurements in BGPF (July 1993);
Groundwater Resources Development Plan, 1997-2030 for Sorsogon Water District
(October 1997; prepared by Test Consultants, Inc.);
Water Supply Improvement and Expansion of Sorsogon Water District, Final Report
(December 1997; prepared by LWUA-SWECO);
Rapid Assessment of Water Supply Sources of the Province of Sorsogon, NWRB
(May 1982); and
NWRB River Flow of Cawayan Data (1957-1970).

2.1.3.3 Results and Discussion


A.

Surface Water
1. Physical Description of Major Drainage Systems Surrounding the
Project Area
The physical evolution of a drainage basin is generally influenced by the flow of matter
(e.g. precipitation) and energy (e.g. solar radiation) entering the system (or catchment)
vis-a-vis the overall resistance of the topographical land surfaces exposed to such
vectors. The resistance of topographical surfaces, on the other hand, is affected by a
combination of factors, namely, altitude; presence of vegetation and soil overburden; type
and nature of underlying geological materials; existence of major geological structures;
and magnitude of physical processes like erosion, weathering, and mass movements that
occurred and/or are occurring in a particular area.
In the field, it is possible to deduce the qualitative aspects of terrain characteristics based
on the following observations:
a. Current physical characteristics of drainage system and associated sub-catchments
such as channel configuration/gradient, bedload, and stream order or degree of
stream dissection;
b. Drainage pattern which gives an idea of the lithological homogeneity of geological
materials; and

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 5

c.

Catchment slope or degree of topographical steepness which reflects the level of


resistance of materials to erosional processes.

To supplement the field observations, an evaluation of various terrain characteristics of


the drainage systems within the study area was carried out thru a topographic map
analysis. Results of the analysis are shown in Table 2.1.3-3.
Catchment Size
The number of associated tributaries draining into the main trunk basically influences
the size of a catchment or drainage area. In general, larger areas are geologically
more mature and have higher capacities to contain more surface runoff, especially
during high rainfall events.
In terms of catchment size, the largest rivers in the study area are Manitohan (38
km2), Cawayan (27 km2) and Menito (25 km2). On the other hand, the smallest rivers
are Bulabog (3 km2) and Capuy (2.6 km2).
Topography
With respect to drainage elevation, the highest headwaters are found in Osiao (1060
masl), Rizal and Bucal-bucalan (both 900 masl). Osiao headwater is actually outside
of the delineated block (north of Mt. Pangas, also known as the Rock Dome). Rizal
and Bucal-bucalan headwaters are found within the eastern portion of the block.
Other notable drainage elevations are those of Ticol (860 masl), Cawayan (820 masl)
and Manitohan (800 masl). Except for Osiao, Bulabog, Capuy and Anahaw, the
headwaters of the other rivers are within the development block.
Stream Order
The stream order or number of stream segments per drainage system was
determined using Hortons stream segment classification. First order streams are
assigned to the smallest elongated depressions that have the capacity to organize
runoff (i.e., have an elementary channel) and are not connected to any upstream
tributary. In short, it is the smallest unbranched tributary. Second-order streams are
initiated by the confluence of two 1st-order streams. Third-orders are initiated by the
confluence of two 2nd-orders, and so on. The highest order, in turn, is assigned to the
main trunk. It follows, therefore, that rivers with more upstream tributaries have higher
stream order at the main body.
Drainages with high stream orders indicate well-dissected systems. In the analysis,
these rivers are Manitohan and Cawayan (6th order), followed by Menito (5th order).
The least-dissected drainages are Bucal-bucalan, Bulabog and Anahaw (3rdorder),
and Capuy and Ticol (2nd order).
River Length
The river length was measured on the base map with the use of a curvimeter. The
distance was taken from the uppermost headwater tributary down to the main river at
the estuary.
The longest rivers among the surveyed watersheds are Manitohan (16 km), Cawayan
(12 km) and Ticol (10 km). The shortest, on the other hand, are Capuy (3.5 km),
Bucal-bucalan and Bulabog (both 3 km).
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 6

Relief Ratio
The relief ratio is defined as the ratio of the highest basin elevation to river length. It is
a relative measure of the overall steepness of the basin. Conversely, it is an
indication of the intensity of slope erosion (i.e., the steeper the slope, the less intense
the erosion).
Among the catchments, the highest ratios were derived for Bucal-bucalan (0.30) and
Rizal (0.22), both located along the southwestern portion of the block. The high relief
ratio of Bucal-bucalan is due to its high headwater elevation and relatively short river
length. Cawayan and Anahaw (both 0.06) and Manitohan (0.05) have the smallest
ratios. These ratios indicate a relatively mature drainage system compared to the
rest.
Bedload and Discharge Points
Among the rivers, only Cawayan carries significant bedload materials. In fact, sand
and gravel quarrying was observed along the lower portions of Cawayan, near the
national highway. This river follows a meandering course typical of floodplain rivers
with loads ranging from fine sediments to gravels and boulders.
Except for Manitohan and Osiao, which exits into Poliqui Bay and Sugot Bay (Albay
Gulf), respectively, the rest of the river systems discharge their load into Sorsogon
Bay.
Drainage Pattern
Except for a portion of Manitohan River, all drainages exhibit a dendritic or pinnate
pattern. This type of pattern is indicative of insequent streams flowing across rocks
with relatively uniform resistance to erosion.
The Inang Maharang Valley portion of Manitohan River, which is located at an
elevation of around 300 meters, demonstrate a rectangular or lattice pattern indicating
the presence of prominent faults or joint systems that break the underlying rocks into
rectangular blocks.
Overall Assessment of Physical Parameters
Based on the parameters presented in the previous discussions, the largest river
systems consist of Manitohan, Cawayan and Menito. Osiao is considered as a
medium-sized system. The rest of the watersheds are classified as small drainage
systems (Rizal, Bucal-bucalan, Bulabog, Capuy, Ticol and Anahaw).
Photos of the surface water stations are shown in Plates 2.1.3-3 to 2.1.3-19.

2. Modes of Surface Water Movement


Two (2) modes of surface water movement are important in transporting sediments,
especially the fine-grained particles such as clays and silts, from highlands down to lowlying areas. These are the overland or non-concentrated flows and the channel or
concentrated flows. The following is a brief discussion of the two modes.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 7

a. Overland (non-concentrated) flow


Surface runoff (also called the net rainfall excess or net precipitation) is actually a
residual of precipitation after abstractions in the form of interception, depression
storage and initial infiltration have occurred. During precipitation events, rainwater
falling on land surfaces does not immediately flow into well-defined drainage systems
or channels. Instead, water flows initially over the ground as a sheetwash.
As precursors to surface erosion, overland flows can occur either as rills or gullies.
These flows normally travel for short distances before they collect into channels.
Water temporarily stored in the overland flow is sometimes called detention storage,
which may evaporate to some extent during the period of runoff.
b. Concentrated (channel) flows
Watersheds or catchments can be viewed physically as well-defined systems wherein
sediment transport occurs from topographic highs to areas of lower elevation,
generally along major channels or conduits such as rivers and creeks. The sediments
may be modified while in transit, either physically, chemically or both. Depending on
various conditions associated with channel flow like water velocity, gradient, drainage
shape (linearity or sinuosity), and size of materials being transported, some of the
load may be deposited along drainage routes or channels, or may be resuspended
and remobilized at a later time.
During the field survey, the river discharges in selected sampling stations were
measured. These data are presented in the next section.

3. Discharge Data
As part of the baseline survey, spot discharge measurements were conducted in
December 5-8, 2000 and June 6-7, 2002. The results of discharge measurements are
indicated in Table 2.1.3-4.
River systems with notable flows include mid-Cawayan at BMGP-35 (4.46 m3/s), mid-Rizal
at BMGP-79 (2.16 m3/s), upper Menito at BMGP-107 (1.15 m3/s), lower Bucal-bucalan at
BMGP-111 (1.02 m3/s), mid-Ticol at BMGP-127 (0.97 m3/s), and mid-Osiao at BMGP-64
(0.60 m3/s).
Rivers with low flows are mid-Capuy at BMGP-121 (0.32 m3/s), lower Bulabog at BMGP116 (0.20 m3/s), upper Anahaw at BMGP-133 (0.11 m3/s), upper Osiao at BMGP-72 (0.03
m3/s) and mid-Anahaw at BMGP-132 (0.01 m3/s).
No flow reading was taken from Manitohan (BMGP-12 and BMGP-71) due to extremely
high water currents as a result of continuous heavy rains at the time of sampling.
Likewise, no reading was taken in Ticol (BMGP-126), Rizal (BMGP-104 and BMGP-103)
and Menito (BMGP-80) because of heavy rains.
It should be emphasized that the baseline measurements presented herein are true only
for the time that the readings were taken. Thus, for purposes of presenting a more
realistic flow data, the in-house historical monitoring data on Manitohan, Cawayan, and
Rizal were incorporated to supplement the baseline levels. The historical data were
collected by the companys in-house Environmental Field Operations Department (EFOD)
and are shown in Table 2.1.3-5.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 8

Based on Table 2.1.3-5, the minimum and maximum historical of the three (3) rivers can
be summarized as follows:
RIVER
Cawayan (BMGP-35)
Rizal (BMGP-79)
Manitohan (BMGP-71)

MIN. FLOW (m3/s)


0.23
0.09
0.85

MAX. FLOW (m3/s)


5.68
2.40
3.51

From the above table, it can be seen that the baseline flow levels are within the historical
ranges and are actually near the high end. The large discharges are a result of the heavy
rains experienced during the December 2000 sampling.
Among the river systems that were surveyed, only Cawayan has a long-term record of
discharge measurements from NWRB (Table 2.1.3-6). The gauging station, which is at
present non-operational, was located in Bgy. Basud about 1 km upstream of the LegaspiSorsogon National Highway. This station is downstream of the PNOC-EDC monitoring
station in Cawayan (BMGP-35). The data, which cover the years 1954 to 1970, indicate
that the minimum and maximum monthly mean discharges were 0.66 (July) and 2.76 m3/s
(January), respectively. The average monthly flow was 1.3 m3/s. The minimum annual
average reading was 0.25 m3/s (1969), while the maximum annual average was 2.19 m3/s
(1963). The lowest and highest readings were 0.08 m3/s (July 1969) and 8.10 m3/s
(December 1954), respectively.

4. River Uses
The river waters within the study area are tapped primarily for domestic purposes like
bathing and washing (Class B), sustenance fishery (Class C), and for irrigation and
livestock watering (Class D). Some of the local residents are also reportedly using the
headwater tributaries for drinking (Class A). But in general, surface water is not used
extensively as a drinking water source. Dumping of domestic garbage was observed
along the downstream portion of most rivers (Plate 2.1.3-2), while backyard pigpens were
observed in lower Osiao and mid-Anahaw Rivers. The major river uses are presented in
Figure 2.1.3-2.
Although Cawayan River and the other bigger rivers contain significant streamflows even
during dry season, the water cannot be utilized for drinking without resorting to expensive
physical treatment (Sorsogon Water District Reports, 1997).
From among the rivers covered in this study, Cawayan is the most widely used. A 230
kW-hydroelectric NPC power plant (Plate 2.1.3-20), now abandoned, was previously
operating along the mid-section of Cawayan (elevation 300 masl). Also, a considerable
portion of lower Cawayan is used for sand and gravel quarrying.
To date, only Cawayan River has been officially classified by DENR-EMB as Class C. A
separate investigation report on Manitohan River by DENR-EMB 5 (1990) recommended
its temporary classification to Class C. The other rivers have not been officially classified
by the DENR.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 9

B.

Hydrogeology
1. Hydrogeologic Units
Based on the hydrogeologic map prepared by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau
(MGB), the major hydrogeologic units in the area can be classified as follows:
(a) Quaternary lava flows (QV);
(b) Quaternary pyroclastics and clastic sedimentary rocks (Qvp); and
(c) Recent alluvial sediments (Qal).
Below is a discussion of the three (3) hydrogeologic units. The hydrogeologic map is
shown in Figure 2.1.3-3.

a. Recent Alluvium (Qal)


The recent alluvial deposits are confined mostly within the narrow flat coastal plains
and along the floodplains of major drainages. These materials can also be found
along the fan deposits located immediately south of Mt. Alinao (or northwest of
Sorsogon City).
The alluvial deposits consist of unsorted to fairly sorted
unconsolidated sand, silt, clay, gravel and coral fragments. Some of the materials are
the weathering products of older rocks in the area.

b. Quaternary Volcanic (QV)


These volcanic rocks, which occupy a large portion of the study area, are generally
lava flows of andesitic origin. The lava flows are usually massive. However, at the
foothills of Mt. Alinao, these rocks are heavily fractured which explains the presence
of several springs in the area. In particular, the spring sources of the Sorsogon Water
District are coming out of this formation.

c. Quaternary Pyroclastic and Clastic Sedimentary Rocks (Qvp)


The pyroclastics and clastic sedimentary rocks can be found along moderately sloping
to rolling grounds at the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Alinao. The pyroclastics
are composed of tuff, agglomerate and volcanic breccia. The clastic sedimentary
rocks, on the other hand, are made up of tuffaceous sandstone, shale, siltstone and
conglomerate with layers of unconsolidated sand and gravel.
The tuffaceous sandstone layers, in particular, are semi-consolidated, medium to
coarse in texture, highly porous and permeable. Thus, the tuffaceous sandstone is
considered a good aquifer.

2. Composition, Extent and Depth of Aquifer System


In the Tanawon area, groundwater manifests mostly in the form of springs. Along the
headwaters, these springs are the ones feeding the stream discharges, especially during
dry season. The springs outcrop in fractured volcanics and pyroclastics, unconsolidated
breccias and along contacts between the volcanics and the alluvial fan.
In the lowlands, the aquifers are composed of sediments and recent alluvial deposits and
are tapped mainly through wells. The thickness of the unconsolidated deposits may vary
from a few meters to more than 180 meters. A certain 183-meter depth test well drilled

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 10

by the Sorsogon Water District, for example, taps a thick section of the sediments. In the
absence of a deeper well, the depth of the clastic aquifer is currently not known.
In general, the lowland sedimentary deposits possess primary porosity and permeability at
the upper layers, and thus are considered as a very good water table aquifer. In fact,
even the shallow wells around Sorsogon with depth of less than 20 meters show good
discharge capacities. At deeper levels, a multi-aquifer system exists in places where clay
layers are intercalated with permeable formations. This multi-system apparently has a
deeper water table (described as alluvial sediments containing layers of sand, silt and
occasional gravel lenses) and a deeper confined leaky artesian system composed of
clastic sedimentary rocks (Sorsogon Water District, 1997). Free flowing wells exist when
these sources intercept the artesian groundwater system. These artesian wells are found
mostly within the city proper.
Based on the groundwater map of Sorsogon published by NWRB in its Rapid Assessment
of Water Supply Sources Report (May 1982), the province of Sorsogon can be divided
into difficult areas, deep well areas and shallow well areas. Applying these categories to
the study area, we can derive the following generalizations:
(a) The Tanawon Geothermal Development Block and the entire BGPF are located within
difficult areas. Difficult areas are described as zones where groundwater supply is
generally minimal.
Hence, the probability of encountering non-productive
groundwater boreholes is quite high. Exceptions to this condition are heavilyfractured areas where groundwater discharges, mainly in the form of springs, may
abound (e.g., along the foothills of Mt. Alinao). Recharge or replenishment of
groundwater in these areas occurs mainly through rock fissures, cracks and crevices
(or secondary permeabilities) found within the Quaternary Volcanics.
(b) The moderately sloping, rolling and flat-lying areas with pyroclastics and clastic
sedimentary rocks are classified as deep well areas. These areas are characterized
by aquifers having depths of more than 20 meters below ground level (mbgl). Both
water table and artesian aquifers are found in these areas. The deeper leaky artesian
aquifer system found within the city proper is being tapped by the Sorsogon Water
District as one of its major sources of groundwater supply.
(c) Shallow well areas are found along flat coastal plains and floodplains of major
drainages. The thickness of the water table aquifers is generally less than 20 meters.
Groundwater discharges from wells drilled in these areas may range from low to
moderate. Thus, these sources are generally not sufficient for urban water supply.
Instead, this type of aquifer is best developed for Level I (point source) and Level II
(public faucet) projects.

3. Transmissivity and Hydraulic Conductivity


Based on published hydrogeologic reports of the study area, the transmissivity of the
sedimentary aquifers was calculated to be 0.005 m2/s. Dividing the transmissivity value
by the aquifer thickness (which in this case was taken to be 183 meters or the deepest
depth drilled so far), the calculated hydraulic conductivity would be 2.7 x 10 5 m/s. This
hydraulic conductivity is typical of a slightly silty sandy aquifer (or the semi-artesian multiaquifer system).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 11

4. Groundwater Level
Near the coastal plains, the elevation of the groundwater ranges from close to the ground
to around 50 meters above sea level (masl) going inland. In the upland areas, the
elevation is said to roughly follow the contour elevation.
In the vicinity of the project area, groundwater levels are generally assumed to be parallel
to the topography. Near the coastal area, groundwater fluctuations are likely to be
affected by tidal changes in the water level of Sorsogon Bay.

5. Georesistivity Data
An internal georesistivity investigation was conducted by PNOC-EDC in 1993 for the
Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF). Results of the study revealed three
shallow resistivity layers. The topmost layer is composed of fresh volcanics with a
thickness of about 10 meters having resistivity values of 300 to 700 ohm-meter. These
resistivity values were correlated to dry volcanics and pyroclastics.
The next layer is a 10 to 50 m-thick low resistivity zone with resistivity values of 50 to 150
ohm-meters. This low resistivity zone is interpreted as the shallow fresh groundwater
zone present in the Upper Pocdol Volcanics, while some areas having resistivity values of
< 10 to 50 ohm-meter may be due to hydrothermal alteration. The water table is
interpreted to be around 10 meters.
The lower zone has resistivity values of 300 to 1000 ohm-meters having a thickness of
about 100 meters. This zone is correlated to slightly altered and/or fresh lava that serves
as an aquitard.
The three zones, however, are present only in the upper part of the Pocdol Mountains
where BGPF is located, and are either non-existent or present as thin zones in other
areas. Table 2.1.3-7 shows the general resistivity structure and correlation of the
resistivity values in BGPF.

6. Inventory of Existing Spring and Well Sources in the Surrounding


Communities
An extensive in-house inventory and sampling activities of groundwater sources within
BGPF and the surrounding communities were conducted by the Geoscientific Department
of PNOC-EDC in March to September 1998. From the said investigations, the same
department prepared a hydrogeological report in July 1999.
For the purpose of presenting the extent of groundwater development in the downstream
communities (i.e., from Bgy. Rizal in the west to Bgys. Bibincahan/Cabid-an in the east),
relevant groundwater sources were selected from the Geoscientific inventory.
From among the groundwater sources included in the inventory, representative sources
were chosen and sampled as part of the EIS baseline survey conducted in December
2000 and June 2002 by the in-house Hydrologist and Chemist. Results of the physicochemical sampling/analysis are discussed in the Water Quality Module. The list and
location of groundwater sources included in the baseline survey were shown earlier in
Table 2.1.3-2 and Figure 2.1.3-1.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 12

Based on Table 2.1.3-2, it can be seen that most of the sources found within the vicinity of
the project area are springs that discharge at elevations ranging from 180 450 masl
(Sorsogon Water District springs) to below 150 masl (other point-source springs). These
springs were observed to effuse along cracks or fissures in the lava flows, pyroclastic
rocks, and unconsolidated breccias. The capacities of springs range from low to high
(less than 1 LPS to greater than 30 LPS). The springs that have medium to high
capacities have concrete impoundment/boxes and distribution pipelines. The spring
waters are typically piped to barangays and sitios where residents access the water either
through public faucets (Level II) or household connections (Level III).
The Alinao,
Matacla and Anahaw springs located along Anahaw River are part of the water sources
developed by the Sorsogon Water District (SWD) to supply the requirements of Sorsogon
City and outlying barangays.
The wells (either dug or drilled) can be found at the lowlands, mostly along the national
road and in areas where no or few spring sources exist. The depth of the wells ranges
from 5 to 132 meters. The deeper wells are operated by the SWD. The SWD wells in the
study area are located in Bgys. Baribag, Binbincahan, Cabid-an, Guinlajon and
Pangpang. The rest of the wells are either public or privately owned and are utilized
primarily for drinking and other domestic purposes. A review of available stratigraphic
logs of wells in Sorsogon indicates the predominance of sandy-clayey and/or tuffaceous
layers with intercalations of volcanic breccias/boulders within the sandy layers. These
water-bearing units are normally found at depth below 25 meters.
A detailed description of the inventoried groundwater sources is presented in the
succeeding pages. Photos of groundwater sources are shown in Plates 2.1.3-21 to 45.

a. Basud spring, BMGW-11 (Plate 2.1.3-21)


This is one of the sources of drinking water in Bgy. Basud. The spring, which is found
near the Basud irrigation intake upslope of Cawayan River, has two (2) concrete boxes.
The spring outcrops from tuff/andesite boulders (part of the Qvp unit) at a flow of
approximately 2 LPS.

b. Guinlajon well, BMGW-54 (Plate 2.1.3-22)


This artesian well is located along the national highway in Bgy. Guinlajon, across the
Iglesia Ni Cristo Church. The local residents living near the well use this free-flowing
source for drinking. The well has a 6 diameter casing with a 1 diameter outlet, from
which water flows freely at a rate of 0.04 LPS. From local interviews, the depth of this well
is not known. Based on the hydrogeologic map, the aquifer tapped by this well may
consist of alluvium at the upper layer; if deep enough, it is likely that the Qvp unit may
have also been encountered.

c. Ticol well, BMGW-56 (Plate 2.1.3-23)


This 30-foot deep well has a 4 diameter casing and is provided with a jetmatic pump.
The water is not potable and is used only for washing. The rusty taste of the water
apparently comes from the corroded casing. As the well is relatively shallow, the main
aquifer tapped by this well is most likely alluvium.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 13

d. Palhi, Capuy spring, BMGW-55 (Plates 2.1.3-24 to 25)


Multiple springs with medium to high flows were observed along the fractured pyroclastics
found near the footslopes, some 8.5 km west of the city proper. The total discharge from
observed seepages is estimated to be greater than 10 LPS. This spring is one of the
stronger water sources in the study area. In fact, the Water District considers this source
as the most promising among the potential springs inventoried in 1997. The reported
discharge in July 1990 was 37 LPS.
The spring is being used for drinking, bathing, washing and for recreational purposes.
Two (2) swimming pools across the springs are being fed by the said sources.

e. Bucal-bucalan, BMGW-52 (Plates 2.1.3-26 to 28)


As with Palhi spring, Bucal-bucalan spring is actually made up of a cluster of springs with
very strong flows (> 10 LPS) issuing out of tuff and andesite boulders. The area has a
large man-made pool that is used by the local residents for swimming, bathing and
washing. From the cluster, a separate spring source was isolated/piped and is used as
drinking water point source.

f. Daan Tinampo dug well, BMGW-53


The water from this 2 meter-diameter dug well is not potable. The main uses are for
bathing and washing. According to the local residents, the source was excavated during
the 1940s and reportedly does not dry up, even during summer months. The aquifer
intercepted by this dug well is alluvium.

g. Ticol spring, BMGW-57 (Plate 2.1.3-29)


This spring has a concrete box and a Level III distribution system. A number of large
seepages were observed outcropping along the sides of the spring box. The spring flows
out of pyroclastics at an observed rate of 1 LPS.

h. Tublijon spring, BMGW-51 (Plate 2.1.3-30)


The source can be found near the PC detachment along the junction going to the project
site. Although the discharge was not measured, the flow is inferred to be moderate since
two spring boxes were constructed in the area. The spring flows out of andesite lava
boulders.

i. BaseCamp spring, BMGW-8 (Plate 2.1.3-31)


The spring water comes out of pyroclastics. The source is provided with 1.5 & 2.5 HP
pumps. According to the pump tender, the spring is perennial and consistent (i.e., the
discharge does not decrease even during dry months). The project nurse regularly
collects water for bacteriological tests. Water from this source is potable and is piped to
the adjacent basecamp facility.

j. NPC spring source, BMGW-40 (Plate 2.1.3-32)


This perennial source can be found along the project road going to the Admin. office of
BGPF. The spring has two (2) interconnected spring boxes (intake & reservoir) and is
being used by NPC as their source of project water. The spring flows out of pyroclastics.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 14

k. Sorsogon Water District Sources:

Water Wells (Plates 2.1.3-33 to 37)

As of June 2002, the Water District is operating five (5) deepwells or pumping
stations. The sixth well is being drilled at Bgy. Abuyog at the time of survey. The five
(5) wells are located in Bgy. Baribag, Bibincahan, Cabid-an, Guinlajon and Pangpang.
The depth ranges from a minimum of 50+ to 132 meters. The combined discharges
vary from 250 280 m3/hr (69 78 LPS).
Anahaw Springs (Plate 2.1.3-38)
The Anahaw springs (Anahaw 1/Filtration Basin and Anahaw 2) are part of the
drinking water sources tapped by the Water District. Anahaw 1 is located at an
elevation of 338 masl, while Anahaw 2 is at 450 masl. The springs come out of
cracks within the volcanic rocks. The discharges measured by the water district are
8.9 LPS and 2.0 3.5 LPS, respectively. All the SWD springs are provided with
concrete boxes as intake structures.
Matacla Springs (Plates 2.1.3-39 to 40)
Matacla 1 & 2 and Matacla 3 lie approximately 0.7 km NE of Alinao Springs at
elevations of 300 and 320 masl, respectively. Water District records indicate
discharges ranging from 15 18.4 LPS and 4.0 9.8 LPS, respectively. Matacla 1 &
2 has the second strongest discharge among the sources. Water from Matacla 1 & 2
comes out of a small alluvial fan of Matacla creek. Matacla 3, on the other hand,
outcrops from the loose materials of a talus deposit and from the superficial fractured
layer of the volcanic rocks.
Alinao Springs (Plates 2.1.3-42 to 44)
The Alinao springs are located at elevations ranging from 180 to 250 masl,
outcropping immediately along the contact of the alluvial fan drained by Anahaw River
(southern slopes of Mt. Alinao) and the quaternary volcanics to the north.
The Sorsogon Water District reported that in 1997, Alinao 1 (elev. 180 masl), Alinao 2
(elev. 220 masl) and Alinao 3 (elev. 250 masl) have a reported discharge of 5.7-7.8
LPS, 1.8 LPS, and 28.9 29.5 LPS, respectively (or a combined discharge of 36.4 39.1 LPS). Alinao 3 has the strongest discharge among the SWD spring sources.
Alinao 2, on the other hand, has the weakest flow.
It should be noted herein that most of the SWD springs cited above are located at the
foothills, where there is an abrupt change in hydraulic gradient from upland to lowland.
The occurrence of these springs is due to the interception of the upland water-table
aquifer by the less permeable layers in the lowlands.

l. San Juan Springs (Plate 2.1.3-45)


The San Juan springs form a series of groundwater discharges outcropping at an
elevation of 150 masl, 1.2 km southwest of San Juan Poblacion. There are a number of
spring boxes in the area and the water is piped to San Juan and to Bacon. The flows
were observed to be moderate to strong.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 15

Relevant data on the said sources are presented in Table 2.1.3-8.

7. Groundwater Movement and Flow Direction


The groundwater flow along the uplands is generally from north to south, due to direct
recharge into coarse pyroclastics and andesitic lava. In the lowlands, the flow generally
follows the course of the rivers towards Sorsogon Bay. The elevation of groundwater
level in the plain ranges from sea level to 50 masl; in the uplands, it is inferred to reach
higher than 500 masl. The groundwater divides generally coincide with river basin
boundaries. The Sorsogon Water District study reports a hydraulic gradient of 1.4% in the
plains to greater than 10% in the upland areas. Based on the direction of groundwater
flow and possible groundwater contour lines, river or drainage inputs from rivers into the
adjacent shallow aquifers are possible.

8. Groundwater Budget
a. Recharge
Groundwater recharge, which is basically the downward flow of water into the
groundwater reservoir, can be classified into two types:
(1) direct recharge or the result of direct percolation of precipitation; and
(2) indirect recharge or the percolation to the groundwater system from inland surface
water bodies such as ponds, lakes and rivers.
Recharge of the shallow, water table aquifer occurs directly from rainfall and
percolation from inland water bodies like rivers and lakes. In addition to rainfall and
seepage inputs, the deeper artesian aquifer in the lowlands can also be recharged by
the inflow of water from the water table aquifer within the uplands. The water flows
into the confined aquifers at the foothills where a semi-confining layer occurs.
In the study area, recharge is of great importance not only to the geothermal system
but also to the surrounding groundwater reservoirs in the lowlands. Based on
topography, geology (contact between the alluvial sediments and volcanics) and
structures, the recharge areas of the lowland groundwater sources located south of
the Tanawon sector are inferred to be along Cawayan River at an elevation of about
100 masl, near the contact of the volcanics and alluvial fan deposits.
On the east, recharge could be coming mainly along the Rangas river system at an
elevation of about 200 masl at the contact of the Young Pulog Volcanics (PoV3) and
the alluvial sediments (Rd2).
On the north-northeastern part of the study area, four major river systems recharge
the aquifer at an elevation of 100 to 200 masl, and on the south-southwest, mainly the
Manitohan, Rizal and the Buyo river contributes to the aquifer at an elevation of 300
masl at the contact of the Tanawon volcanics (TwV1) and the Old Cawayan Volcanics
(CVp). Recharge may also occur at higher elevations through highly fractured
volcanics.
The map of inferred recharge areas is shown in Figure 2.1.3-4.
The numerous springs and artesian or free-flowing wells in the lowlands, especially
within Sorsogon city proper are inferred to be recharged by the direct inflow of water

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 16

from water table aquifers in the uplands. These recharge areas are most probably
along the contact of the different formations and soil types as well as within the vicinity
of highly fractured areas.
The Sorsogon Water District (1997) calculated the groundwater budget for Cawayan
River Basin (CRB) by using the Auto-Regressive-Moving-Average Hydrologic Model
(ARMA). For a drainage area of about 152 km2 and an annual rainfall of 3,717 mm,
the groundwater recharge is approximately 8.9%, evapotranspiration = 32.3% and
direct runoff = 59% of the annual recharge. The study further reported an estimated
groundwater throughput along Sorsogon Bay of 1.54 m3/s, which is equivalent to 48.6
million m3/year (using T=0.005 sqm/s, I=1.4%, aquifer width=22,000 m as input
parameters).

b. BaseFlow
The term recession refers to the decline of natural output in the absence of input (i.e.
precipitation). The baseflow component of streams represents the withdrawal of
groundwater from storage and is termed as groundwater recession (Domenico and
Schwatrz, 1990). Baseflow is generally determined from stream hydrographs. The
hydrograph is separated into its component parts consisting of overland flow
(discharge) and baseflow. The recession period starts at the peak of the discharge
until the next rainy season starts.
During recession, there is contribution of groundwater to the river discharge. After
recession, the main component of river discharge comes primarily from precipitation.
Less groundwater contribution to the river discharge (less baseflow) means that more
recharge occurs to the groundwater system. Hence, maximum recharge of the
groundwater system occurs during maximum precipitation periods.
Quantitatively, the baseflow can be determined by calculating the volume of total
potential discharge (Qtp) and the actual discharge:
Qtp = Q0t1
--------

2.3
Qtd = Q0t1 Q0t1/2.3
------ ---------2.3
10t/t1
where Q0 is the initial discharge value at the start of recession, t1 is the duration of
recession and t is the duration of the entire recession for the particular set of data
points over a period of time.
This method was applied to Cawayan River, which is biggest drainage system found
south of Tanawon sector. Figure 2.1.3-5 shows the hydrograph of Cawayan
indicating the baseflow and overflow components. The Cawayan flow data (19951998) generated by the in-house Environmental Field Operations Department were
used in the calculation. Based on Fig. 2.1.3-7, the total baseflow is 4.81 x 106 m3 or
3.5% of the river discharge during the recession.
It should be noted, however, that these calculations were made based on limited data
and should be verified when more data become available.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 17

9. Groundwater Uses
Most of the groundwater sources are potable, and thus are used for drinking by the
local residents. Wells that are not potable are used for other domestic purposes (i.e.,
washing and bathing).

10. Water Supply and Demand Projections


The Groundwater Resources Development Plan (1997-2030) prepared for the
Sorsogon Water District by LWUA-SWECO in October 1997 reported that the total
potable water demand of Sorsogon City (then a municipality) is projected to increase
from 11,112 m3/day (1997) to 57,320 m3/day by year 2030. This figure is equivalent
to 366 liters per capita per day (l/c/d), consistent with estimates for similar LWUA
development projects.
The total water demand can be further broken down as follows: (a) Level III = 56,520
m3/day; and (b) Levels II and I = 1,060 m3/day. Bulk of the Level III service areas are
found within the city proper and adjoining barangays from Pangpang in the west to
Abuyog in the southeast. The rest of the barangays that are not served by Level III
systems are classified as Levels I and II areas.
In 1997, the water district was serving 24,075 people by utilizing 4,954 m3/d (or 57
LPS) of water from two (2) wells and several springs. It was further estimated that
around 11,864 people within the urban portions of Sorsogon are using 1,209 m3/d of
groundwater thru public and private wells (approximately 750 units). The rest of the
population was assumed to be using groundwater at a rate of 4,494 m3/d, the sources
of which were unknown at the time of study.
Based on the water districts initial modeling results (using Visual Modflow), the
average groundwater recharge was estimated at 132,000 m3/day. However, the
recoverable groundwater was set by LWUA-SWECO at 93,000 m3/day only. This
estimate is quite conservative considering that this represents only around 70% of the
total groundwater flow. Based on the recommended management strategy, the
remaining 30% must be allowed to discharge freely into the sea to prevent saltwater
intrusion. Another recommendation then was to drill future production wells further
inland at elevation of at least 60 masl. This recommendation has been partly
implemented since the water district has since drilled three (3) more wells and is now
on their sixth pumping station (as of June 2002).
The groundwater modeling results further indicate that the projected withdrawal may
cause a general drawdown in the artesian aquifer of over 2 meters in the city proper
and along the western part of their study area. The maximum drawdown of 18 meters
was projected at an area 1.5-km northwest of the city proper. This means that point
sources (i.e., Level I wells) with depth less than the computed drawdown may
eventually become dry. Hence, the District recommended that population tapping
Level I sources in areas that may be affected in the future should be connected to
water district.
3
Based on their groundwater evaluation, the projected water demand of 57,320 m /day
by year 2030 can be readily supplied by drilling additional wells. However, the District
emphasized that the wells should be properly sited, designed, and constructed in
order to maximize the volume of water that can be pumped, as well as to prevent
significant drawdown that may occur due to well interference. The supply can also be
supplemented by tapping other high-capacity springs found in the locality.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 18

Table 2.1.3-1 River Water Sampling Stations

Station Name

Catchment

Description

Northing, m

Easting, m

Elevation, m

BMGP-98

Cawayan

100 m d/s from junction of creek draining Pad BB and 3 minor


tributaries originating from Pad BA and Pulog Lake area

1,442,060

604,250

580

BMGP-24

Cawayan

300 m u/s of western tributary of Dalipay Creek near the


Cawayan Sector

1,442,300

601,700

660

BMGP-35

Cawayan

50 m u/s of Basud irrigation dam

1,437,200

603,800

50

BMGP-127

Ticol

100 m u/s of Ticol irrigation dam in Purok 6, Bgy. Ticol about 300
m upstream from Legaspi-Sorsogon National Road

1,436,350

602,700

20

BMGP-126

Ticol

20 m u/s of Delgado Bridge in Bgy. Pocdol

1,434,750

601,600

BMGP-121

Capuy

30 m u/s from barangay road leading to Palhi spring/swimming


pools

1,435,500

603,450

10

BMGP-116

Bulabog

50 m u/s from Legaspi-Sorsogon National Road

1,435,650

600,250

10

BMGP-111

Bucal-bucalan

50 m u/s from Legaspi-Sorsogon National Road

1,435,700

599,100

20

BMGP-104

Rizal

200 m from the river mouth at the back of National High School

1,435,350

597,800

BMGP-79

Rizal

5 m u/s of spillway leading to BGPF

1,437,100

598,400

100

BMGP-103

Rizal

20 m downstream of area draining Sitio Fatima & Tanawon block

1,437,700

598,750

240

BMGP-107

Menito

100 m u/s of Gate # 1 of BGPF BaseCamp

1,440,950

599,100

600

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 19

Table 2.1.3-1 River Water Sampling Stations (continuation)

Station Name

Catchment

Description

Northing, m

Easting, m

Elevation, m

100 m u/s of Legaspi-Sorsogon National Road

1,436,950

599,300

50

BMGP-80

Menito

BMGP-12

Manitohan

100 m d/s of spillway in Puting Bato Creek

1,442,950

598,800

350

BMGP-71

Manitohan

50 m d/s of damaged steel bridge in Sitio Banao leading to


Barangay Balasbas

1,448,750

597,900

120

BMGP-133

Anahaw

5 meters u/s of box culvert and from Sorsogon Provincial


Hospital

1,435,910

607,030

40

BMGP-132

Anahaw

10 meters u/s of bridge

1,434,730

607,600

15

BMGP-131

Anahaw

River mouth

BMGP-72

Osiao

Labug Creek, 50 meters from OP-D, east side (Rock Dome)

1,443,940

604,800

500

BMGP-64
BMGP-66

Osiao
Osiao

A few meters u/s of Osiao communal irrigation intake


River mouth

1,447,050
1,448,530

605,340
605,710

60
5

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 20

Table 2.1.3-2 Groundwater Monitoring Stations

Station
Name
BMGW-54

Catchment

Type

Guinlajon, (east
of Cawayan)

Well (free
flowing)

BMGW-11

Cawayan

Spring

BMGW-56

Ticol

Well

BMGW-57

Ticol

Spring

BMGW-55

Capuy

Spring

BMGW-52

Bucal-bucalan

Spring

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Description of
Location
Baribag, Guinlajon,
Sorsogon

Northing, m

Easting, m

Flowrate

Elev.
(masl)
40

Use

Remarks

1,436,120

604,540

Low to
medium

Drinking

85

Drinking

10

Domestic

Across
Iglesia ni
Cristo Church
2 adjacent
springs, with
concrete
spring box
30-ft deep

Basud, Sorsogon; 1
km north of
Sorsogon National
Road
Ticol, Sorsogon;
along roadside south
of Sorsogon
National Road
Purok 6, Ticol,
Sorsogon; 1 km
north of Sorsogon
National Road
Palhi, Capuy,
Sorsogon; about 300
m north of Sorsogon
National Road
Bulabog, Sorsogon,
200 m south of
Sorsogon National
Road

1,437,050

603,600

Medium

1,435,760

602,760

1,436,700

603,020

Strong

30

Drinking

With concrete
spring
box/pipe

1,435,350

601,610

Strong

10

Recreation,
domestic,
drinking

With pool; no
intake box

1,435,130

598,950

Strong

Recreation,
domestic
drinking

With pool; no
intake box

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 21

Table 2.1.3-2 Groundwater Monitoring Stations (continuation)

Station
Name
BMGW-53

Catchment

Type

Bulabog

Dug well

BMGW-51

Menito/San
Isidro

Spring

BMGW-8

Menito/San
Isidro

Spring

BMGW-40

Manitohan

Spring

BMGW-58

Osiao

Spring

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Description of
Location
Daan Tinampo,
Bulabog,
Sorsogon; about
50 m south of
Sorsogon
National Road
Tublijon,
Sorsogon; about
150 m west of
road linking
Sorsogon
National Road to
project site
PNOC-EDC
BaseCamp;
Bonga, Sorsogon
At BGPF, along
road between
PNOC-EDC
basecamp &
Admin complex
Bgy. Osiao

Northing, m

Easting, m

Flowrate

1,435,180

600,040

Low to
medium

1,437,080

598,160

Medium

1,440,620

599,400

1,441,960

1,447,885

Use

Remarks

Washing,
bathing

Not potable;
does not dry
up even
during
summer

140

Drinking

With concrete
spring box

Medium to
high

600

Drinking

600,540

Medium

700

NPC water
source

With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe

606,915

Medium

80

Drinking

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 22

Elev.
(masl)
5

With concrete
spring
box/pipe

Table 2.1.3-2 Groundwater Monitoring Stations (continuation)

Station
Name
BMGW-59

Catchment

Type

BMGW-62

East of
Sampaloc
East of
Sampaloc
East of
Sampaloc
Anahaw

SWD well # 4

BMGW-63

Anahaw

SWD well # 5

BMGW-64

Anahaw

SWD spring
(Anahaw 2)

BMGW-65

Anahaw

SWD spring
(Matacla 3)

BMGW-66

Anahaw

BMGW-67

Anahaw

SWD spring
(Matacla 1 &
2)
abandoned
SWD spring
(Mejeda)

BMGW-60
BMGW-61

Northing, m

Easting, m

Flowrate

SWD well # 1

Description of
Location
Baribag

1,437,566

609,710

SWD well # 2

Bibincahan

1,436,851

SWD well # 3

Sea Breeze
Homes, Cabid-an
Guinlajon

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Villa Alegre
homes,
Pangpang
West of Mt.
Alinao peak, near
tributary
150 meters
northwest of
Matacla 1 &2
Southeast of
Matacla 3
Immediately
south of Matacla
1&2

Use

Remarks

High

Elev.
(masl)
40

Drinking

609,745

High

40

Drinking

1,435,160

610,765

Medium

Drinking

1,435,525

606,000

High

40

Drinking

1,436,015

607,150

High

40

Drinking

55-meter
deep
132-meter
deep
50+ meter
deep
130-meter
deep
125-meter
deep

1,439,650

606,240

Medium

450

Drinking

1,439,400

606,040

Medium

325

Drinking

1,439,250

606,050

High

300

Drinking

1,439,150

606,070

Medium

290

Abandoned;
high in iron

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 23

With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
No box;
remaining
discharge
pipe

Table 2.1.3-2 Groundwater Monitoring Stations (continuation)

Station
Name
BMGW-68

Catchment

Type

Description of
Location
North of Alinao 2

Northing, m

Easting, m

Flowrate

Use

Remarks

High

Elev.
(masl)
250

Sampaloc

SWD spring
(Alinao 3)

1,438,815

606,620

Drinking

606,710

Low

220

Drinking

1,438,610

606,850

Low to
medium

180

Drinking

1.2 km from San


Juan

1,443,845

608,915

Medium to
high

150

Drinking

Bacon spring

1.2 km from San


Juan

1, 443,845

608,915

Medium to
high

150

Drinking

Sta Cruz
spring

800 meters from


Sta Cruz

1,442,460

609,380

High

150

Drinking

With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe
With concrete
spring
box/pipe

BMGW-69

Sampaloc

SWD spring
(Alinao 2)

30 m above
Alinao 1

1,438,650

BMGW-70

Sampaloc

SWD spring
(Alinao 1)

South of Alinao 2

BMGW-71

San Juan

San Juan
spring

BMGW-72

San Juan

BMGW-73

Sta. Cruz

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 24

Table 2.1.3-3 Summary of Physical Attributes of Drainage Systems


RIVER
SYSTEM

Manitohan
Menito
Rizal
Bucal-bucalan
Bulabog
Capuy
Ticol
Cawayan
Anahaw
Osiao

CATCHMENT
AREA
(km2)
37.70
24.76
7.35
4.46
3.11
2.65
9.70
26.97
7.44
16.20

HIGHEST
DRAINAGE
ELEVATION
(masl)
800
700
900
900
540
430
860
820
500
1060

STREAM
ORDER

RIVER
LENGTH
(km)

RELIEF
RATIO

6
5
4
3
3
2
2
6
3
4

16
5
4
3
3
3.5
10
12
7.5
6.5

0.05
0.14
0.22
0.30
0.18
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.07
0.16

*Highlighted data refer to the highest figure for that attribute.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 25

Table 2.1.3-4 River Flow Baseline Data


Station Name
BMGP-107
BMGP-79
BMGP-111
BMGP-116
BMGP-121
BMGP-127
BMGP-98
BMGP-24
BMGP-35
BMGP-133
BMGP-132
BMGP-72
BMGP-64

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Catchment

Date of Reading

Menito
Rizal
Bucal-bucalan
Bulabog
Capuy
Ticol
Cawayan
Cawayan
Cawayan
Anahaw
Anahaw
Osiao
Osiao

12/07/00
12/05/00
12/06/00
12/06/00
12/06/00
12/06/00
12/05/00
12/05/00
12/05/00
06/06/02
06/06/02
06/07/00
06/07/00

Discharge Reading
(m3/s)
1.15
2.16
1.02
0.20
0.32
0.97
0.40
0.80
4.46
0.11
0.01
0.03
0.60

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 26

Table 2.1.3-5 Historical River Flow Data (mean monthly discharge in m3/s)
*Source EMD Monitoring Records

Month/Year

Cawayan River (BMGP35)

April 1995
May 1995
June 1995
August 1995

1.05
1.05
1.05
1.93

May 1996
July 1996

2.66
2.22

Rizal River
(BMGP-79)

Manitohan River
(BMGP-71)

1995

1996

1997
February 1997
March 1997
April 1997
June1997
July 1997
August 1997
October 1997

3.51
3.51
1.65
0.85
0.98
1.50

1.48
1.28

1998
February 1998
March 1998
April 1998
May 1998
June 1998
July 1998
August 1998
September 1998
November 1998
December 1998

1.46
0.98
0.39
0.34
0.32
0.23
0.24
0.31
0.92
3.09

February 1999
March 1999
April 1999
May 1999
June 1999
July 1999
August 1999
September 1999
October 1999

3.49
1.82
1.20
0.96
0.90
0.75
1.19
0.93
3.00

April 2000
May 2000
June 2000

5.68
0.64
0.72

2.82
0.22
0.16
0.25
0.15
0.09
0.25
0.31
0.37
1.77
1999
1.63
0.81
0.57
0.60
0.46
0.46
0.61
0.52
1.35
2000

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

2.40
0.34
0.50

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 27

Table: 2.1.3-6 Mean Monthly Discharge of Cawayan River (in m3/s)

Year
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Mean
Std. Dev.

Jan
1.55
7.11
1.30
5.88
1.92
6.32
1.51
2.36
1.49
4.32
1.37
5.69
1.57
0.83
0.68
0.22
2.76
2.28

Feb
1.16
0.69
3.09
2.27
1.92
5.12
1.21
1.76
1.45
5.32
1.48
1.59
1.05
0.32
0.65
0.18
1.83
1.51

Note: - Indicates missing data


Location
:
Drainage Area
:
Latitude
:
Longitude
:
Status
:

Mar
2.71
0.56
2.69
1.15
2.76
3.36
1.04
1.37
1.16
3.34
1.36
0.91
0.89
0.33
0.70
0.15
0.95
1.50
1.05

Apr
0.67
0.45
1.88
1.20
0.98
0.78
0.75
1.27
0.72
2.05
1.58
0.81
0.89
0.24
0.65
0.12
0.95
0.94
0.52

May
0.50
0.36
1.11
0.64
0.68
0.53
0.82
0.94
2.09
1.98
1.62
0.74
0.55
0.21
0.61
0.07
0.82
0.84
0.57

Jun
0.39
0.30
0.89
0.52
0.51
0.39
1.62
0.83
2.02
2.04
1.10
0.60
0.52
0.20
0.44
0.03
0.75
0.77
0.60

Jul
0.32
0.36
0.96
0.55
0.53
0.39
0.50
0.87
1.97
1.28
0.67
0.58
0.24
0.41
0.08
0.79
0.66
0.46

Aug
0.31
0.34
1.01
0.57
0.53
0.34
0.47
0.69
2.52
1.50
0.94
0.58
0.68
0.20
0.46
0.15
0.71
0.59

Bgy. Basud, Sorsogon, Sorsogon


15.0 km2
12 5920
123 570
abandoned

*Source: NWRB

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 28

Sept
0.30
0.35
1.46
0.58
0.64
0.29
0.47
0.74
2.51
0.83
0.87
0.57
0.62
0.24
0.29
0.77
0.72
0.57

Oct
0.31
1.98
1.42
0.63
2.48
0.33
3.27
0.62
1.83
0.81
0.82
0.63
0.60
0.22
0.18
0.29
0.86
1.02
0.89

Nov
1.03
1.98
1.43
1.22
6.21
3.17
1.41
2.29
0.89
1.78
0.88
0.75
0.85
0.21
0.28
0.92
1.58
1.45

Dec
8.10
2.30
3.94
1.10
3.89
3.38
2.92
1.09
2.40
1.20
4.32
1.19
0.98
0.64
0.24
1.19
0.10
2.29
2.01

Table 2.1.3-7 General Resistivity Structure of the Bacon--Manito Geothermal Production Field
(After Layugan and Los Banos, 1993)

RESISTIVITY
LAYERS
(ohm-m)

THICKNESS OF
RESISTIVITY
LAYERS (m)

HYDROLOGICAL
CORRELATION

300 700

<5 20
generally 10 m

Zone of
Aeration/overburden

50 150

10 50
generally 20 m

Ground Surface
Generally dry volcanics/
pyroclastics; generally
resistive
Unconfined to semiGenerally water-saturated volcanics;
confined aquifer
intermediate to moderate resistivity

300 1000

60 200
generally 100 m

Aquitard or confining
stratum

<10 50

Infinity (about 1000


m based on drilled
wells)

Leaky or confined aquifer

100 300

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

INTERPRETATION/ LITHOLOGICAL
CORRELATION

Relatively less altered to fresh lava;


moderately to highly resistive
Altered part of the Middle Pocdol
Volcanics due to hydrothermal
alteration; generally conductive
Less altered part of the Middle
Pocdol Volcanics; most likely not
disturbed by hydrothermal fluids;
relatively moderately resistive

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 29

REMARKS

Generally occurs in the


upper part of the Pocdol
mountains; absent or thin
at Cawayan, Putting Bato,
Inang Maharang and
Manito lowlands.
Upper
Pocdol
Volcanics

Middle
Pocdol
Volcanics

Generally occurs within


the upflow and outflow
regions
Generally occurs within
the Sto. Nino North
(Matanga), Dumadlangan
South (South Tanawon),
and Pulog Southeast
(Pulog), high resistivity
blocks

Table 2.1.3-8 Summary of Sorsogon Water District Well Data

Well/
PS #
1

Location
Baribag

Station
Code
BMGW-59

Elev.
(masl)
40

Depth
(m)
55

Pump
Capacity
15 HP
turbine

Discharge
(m3/hr)
60 - 65

Casing
Diameter
12

Screen
Diameter
12

Date
Drilled
1979

Date Oprn.
Started
1982

Bibincahan

BMGW-60

40

132

30 HP
submersible

60 65

12

1995

1996

Sea Breeze
Homes,
Cabid-an

BMGW-61

50+

7.5 HP
submersible

18 20

No data

No data

No data

No data

Guinlajon

BMGW-62

40

130

30 HP
submersible

60 70

12

10

1997

1999

Villa Alegre
Homes,
Pangpang

BMGW-63

40

125

25 HP
submersible

50 60

10

2000

2001

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 30

MAN IT O (Itba)
MO- 2
MO- 1

4 .0

MO- 3

KM
SUG OT BAY

MANITOH AN RIVER
CATCHMENT

B
OSIAO RIVER
CATCHMENT

A
BUYO RIVER
CATCHMENT

Bac ma n-1 PP
Bo ton g PP

GAYONG
RIVER
CA TCHMENT
BACON

C a waya n PP

CAUAYAN RIVER
CATCHMENT
R IZAL
R IV ER
CATCH MENT

SORSOGON

SORSOGON

BAY

Figure 2.1.3
2.1.3-4:
6 Inferred
Recharge
Areas
Based
onon
Isotope
and
Geo logy
Figure
Inferred
Recharge
Areas
Based
Isotope
Geology

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3 -34

Figure 2.1.3-5 Streamflow Hydrograph of Cawayan River


(1995-1998)
3,5

3 / s

2,0

Precipitation

1,5

1,0

a r

2,5

3,0

Overflow

i s

0,5

Baseflow

Baseflow

0,0

Jan

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Feb

Mar

Apr

Mai

Jun

Jul

Aug

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

p. 2.1.3 -35

Plate 2.1.3 -1:


River Flow Measurement Using Flow Meter.

Plate 2.1.3 -2:


Domestic garbage dumped by nearby residents along
creeks/ rivers.

Plate 2.1.3 -3:


BMGP 35 (Cawayan River midsection)
River flow = 4.46 Elevation = 50 masl

Plate 2.1.3 -4:


BMGP 127 (Ticol River midsection)
River flow = 0.97 m 3/s; Elevation = 20 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 36

Plate 2.1.3 5:
BMGP 126 (Downstream Ticol River)
Elevation = 5 masl

Plate 2.1.3 6:
BMGP 121 (Capuy River, downstream section)
Elevation = 10 masl; Flow = 0.32 m 3/s

Plate 2.1.3 7:
BMGP 116 (Bulabog River, downstream section)
Elevation = 10 masl; Flow = 0.20 m 3/s

Plate 2.1.3 8:
BMGP 111 (Bucalbucalan River, downstream section)
Flow = 1.02 m 3/s; Elevation = 20 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 37

Plate 2.1.3 -9:


BMGP 104 (Rizal River) Elevation = 240 masl; Flow not
measured due to high water level.

Plate 2.1.3 -11:


BMGP 103 (Rizal River, near river mouth)
Elevation = 5 masl; Flow not measured due to high water level.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Plate 2.1.3 -10:


BMGP 79 (Rizal River, along spill way going to project site)
Flow = 2.16 m 3/s; Elevation = 100 masl.

Plate 2.1.3 -12:


BMGP 107 (Rizal River, near gate to BGPF site)
Flow = 1.15 m 3/s; Elevation = 600 masl.

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 38

Plate 2.1.3 -13:


BMGP 80 (Menito River, 100 m u/s of National Road)
Elevation = 40 masl; Flow not measured due to high water
level

Plate 2.1.3 -14:


BMGP 12 (Manitohan River/ Puting Bato Creek)
Elevation = 350 masl; Flow not measured due to high
water level

Plate 2.1.3 -15:


BMGP 71 (Manitohan River, Sitio Banao)
Elevation = 120 masl; Flow not measured due to high water
level

Plate 2.1.3 -16:


BMGP 24 (Cawayan head water)
River flow = 0.80 m 3/s; Elevation = 660 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 39

Plate 2.1.3 17:


BMGP-133 (Anahaw River, near Sorsogon Provincial Hospital)
Elevation = 40masl
River Flow = 0.11 m3/s

Plate 2.1.3 18:


BMGP-132 (Anahaw River, 10 m u/s of bridge)
Elevation = 15 masl
River Flow = 0.01 m3/s

Plate 2.1.3 19:


BMGP-72 (Osiao headwater/ Labug Creek)
Elevation = 500 masl
River Flow = 0.03 m3/s

Plate 2.1.3 20:


NPC Mini-Hydroelectric Dam at Cawayan River

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 40

Plate 2.1.3 21
BMGW 11 (Basud Spring) Used for drinking;
Elevation = 85 masl

Plate 2.1.3 22
BMGW 54 (Guinlajon Artesian) Used for drinking;
Elevation =40 masl

Plate 2.1.3 -23


BMGW 56 (Ticol Well) Not potable; Elevation = 10 masl

Plate 2.1.3 -24:


BMGW 55 (Palhi Spring) Used for drinking, bathing and
washing. Elevation = 10 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 41

Plate 2.1.3 -25:


2 swimming pools fed by Palhi spring

Plate 2.1. 3 -26:


BMGW 52 (Bucalbucalan spring) used for drinking, bathing,
and washing. Elevation = 5 masl

Plate 2.1.3 -27:


BMGW 52 (Bucalbucalan Spring) used for drinking, bathing and washing. Elevation = 5 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 42

Plate 2.1. 3 28:


BMGW 52 (Bucalbucalan Spring) used for drinking;
Elevation = 5 masl

Plate 2.1. 3 29:


BMGW 57 (Ticol Spring) used for drinking;
Elevation = 30 masl

Plate 2.1.3 30:


BMGW 51 (Tublijon Spring) used for drinking;
Elevation = 140 masl

Plate 2.1.3 31:


BMGW 8 (Basecamp Spring) used for drinking;
Elevation = 700 masl

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 43

Plate 2.1.3 -32:


BMGP 40 (NPC Spring) used for drinking;
Elevation = 700 masl

Plate 2.1.3 -33:


BMGW 59 (SWD well #1)

Plate 2.1.3 -34:


BMGW 60 (SWD well #2)

Plate 2.1.3 -35:


BMGW 61 (SWD well #3)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3-44

Plate 2.1.3 36:


BMGP 62 (SWD well #4)

Plate 2.1.3 37:


BMGP 63 (SWD well #5)

Plate 2.1.3 38:


BMGP 64 (Anahaw 2 Spring)

Plate 2.1.3 39:


BMGP 65 (Matacla 3 spring)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.13- 45

Plate 2.1.3 40
BMGP 66 (Matacla 1 & 2 spring)

Plate 2.1.3 41:


BMGP 67 (Mejeda Spring)

Plate 2.1.3 42:


BMGP 68 (Alinao 3 Spring)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 46

Plate 2.1.3 43:


BMGP 69 (Alinao 2 Spring)

Plate 2.1.3 44:


BMGP 70 (Alinao 1 Spring)

Plate 2.1.3 45:


BMGP 71 and 72 (San Juan Springs)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Hydrology)

p. 2.1.3- 47

2.1.4

WATER QUALITY

2.1.4.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions


Water quality assessment was conducted in ten (10) watersheds in Sorsogon City and Manito
municipality, as well as in the coastal waters of Poliqui Bay, Sorsogon Bay and Albay Gulf
(specifically Sugot Bay). These watersheds or river systems draining the project area are as
follows : Manitohan River, Menito River, Rizal River, Bucal-bucalan River, Bulabog River, Capuy
River, Ticol River, Cawayan River, Anahaw River and Osiao River. Of these, four (4)
catchments, namely Bulabog, Capuy, Anahaw and Osiao Rivers originate from outside the
geothermal block.
A total of 70 water and sediment sampling stations have been established to serve as
subsequent monitoring stations for the project. These sites were carefully selected based on
probable effects on water quality during the various project phases. These stations are
composed of 21 river water and sediment stations, 26 groundwater stations, and 23 marine
water and sediment stations. From the marine stations, in-situ measurements of physicochemical parameters were undertaken for the oceanography module at 34 points.
In general, the physical and chemical quality of freshwater samples were within the National
Water Quality Criteria for Class AA waters, with the exception of TSS which are relatively high
(mean value =228 ppm) due to frequent and intense rain, steep slopes and loose soil. This
suggests the prohibitive use of the rivers for drinking, bathing and primary contact recreation
especially during rainy days occurring 21 days per month. Two sites namely, BMGP-131
(Anahaw River mouth) and BMGP-66 (Osiao River mouth ) obtained high values for TSS, TDS
and TS. Possible contributors to the murky state of these sites include sea water intrusion,
siltation, and noticeable amount of domestic refuse coming from nearby households. In addition,
Dalipay Creek (the western headwater of Cawayan River) , naturally contained arsenic of 0.08
ppm which is slightly above the 0.05 ppm limit for Class AA, A, B and C surface waters.
The physical and chemical properties of coldsprings and water wells were generally within the
Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water; except for BMGW-60 and BMGW- 61 (East of
Sorsogon City proper) which naturally contained Boron at 0.38 and 0.81 ppm respectively. Such
an occurrence can be attributed to their locations (5 masl ) where the tendency of this dissolved
element is to concentrate at these lower regions. Similarly, the cold springs showed freshwater
characteristics because of their low chloride concentrations. Sorsogon Bay, Poliqui Bay and
Albay Gulf coastal waters contained As, Cd and Hg within Class SA water quality criteria. In
some coastal water samples the total Cr levels slightly exceeded the 0.10 ppm limit for Class SB
waters. In many of the stations Pb levels exceeded the 0.05 ppm limit. River and coastal
sediments appeared to have similar contents of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb.

2.1.4.2 Methodology
A.

Study Team

Members of the study team in this module were Vanderleaf C. Capalungan (chemist), Regina
Victoria Pascual (hydrologist), Josefo B. Tuyor (limnologist), Nick S. Rubio II (laboratory
technician), Conrado N. Orcena (technician), and Dione Tayam (site sampler), who worked
together in the river and groundwater survey. The coastal water surveys were separately
conducted by Norreen Gerona (marine biologist) for water and sediment sampling, and Dr. Paul
Rivera (oceanographer), assisted by Moises P. Catipon (technician), for in-situ measurements.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 1

B.

Study General Coverage and Approach

The sampling program for this module covered surface water, groundwater, coastal water, river sediments
and marine sediments, within and around the geothermal development block. The survey was conducted
in Nov. 29 Dec. 8, 2000, and again on Jun 7-8, 2002 along with the survey on hydrology, freshwater
biology, oceanography and marine biology. The following were the primary factors in deciding the scope
and conduct of this baseline water quality investigation:
1.
2.

use of data project impact assessment, formulation of mitigation measures and


design of monitoring programs, and
field accessibility and safety.

The study involved the following tasks:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

C.

identification of potentially affected water bodies through table survey


designation of possible sampling stations through table survey
selection of water/sediment quality parameters
field validation of sampling stations
in-situ measurements of some water quality parameters
sample collection, treatment and laboratory analysis, and
data processing and interpretation

Identification of Water Bodies

The survey covered water bodies that are possible pathways of contaminants or those that have
hydrological or public importance. These water bodies are:

D.

1.

rivers or creeks and tributaries which are possible recipients of pollutants

2.

cold springs and water wells tapped for public consumption which require protection
from physical destruction or from potential underground migration of geothermal
fluids;

3.

coastal waters which serve as sinks of pollutants migrating through river channels,
and are of economic importance

Selection of Sampling Stations

The location and number of sampling stations varied accordingly with the type of waterbody,
usage, sources of pollution, location of water biological sampling stations and accessibility.
Establishment of additional stations may become necessary during the course of the project.
Location of sampling stations were validated with the use of altimeter, landmarks, GPS for
marine surveys or information from guides and local residents.
Surface sampling stations were established at the:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

headwater usually not subjected to human activity,


confluence of the main river channel and its tributary,
upstream of nearby irrigation intakes,
lower reach of the main river channel , and
coastal area.

Groundwater sampling stations were selected as those used for drinking, recreational or
domestic purposes. Coastal water sampling stations coincided with the sampling stations for
marine module and oceanography module.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 2

E.

Water Quality Parameters

Water quality parameters were selected based on project activities and the possible
contaminants that the activity would generate that could have an impact in the quality of the
water body. As listed below, these parameters characterize the inorganic nature of substances
generated from construction, drilling, well testing and geothermal operations:
Temperature, pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids,
dissolved oxygen (DO), oil and grease (O & G), color, chloride (Cl), arsenic (As), boron
(B), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), lithium (Li), iron
(Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and manganese (Mn).
The more important parameters in Philippine geothermal projects, however, are pH,
temperature, conductivity, suspended solids, oil and grease, As, B, Cl, Cr, Pb and Hg. However,
Cr, Pb and Hg may become relevant only during sludge generation from the cooling tower
blowdown of the power plant due to concentration of this element by evaporation of circulating
condensed steam, and make-up water .
Table 2.1.4-1 shows the applicable parameters for each type of geothermal-related byproducts/ waste. Table 2.1.4-2, on the other hand shows the environmental relevance of each
parameter. The absence of heavy industries in the area would suggest non-detectable or low
concentrations of oil and grease in the river systems, if there is any. At the lower reaches and
populated areas, oil and grease could be present. Moreover, samples for oil and grease analysis
will be analyzed prior to extensive drilling activities.

F.

Sampling Procedure and Analytical Methods

Samples were collected by grab sampling method. Acid-washed clean polyethylene bottles were
used for storing water samples, labeled with station code, sampling date and sampling time.
Bottles were rinsed at least 3 times with water of interest before collection of final samples.
Samples of river water, coastal waters were collected at the surface. For groundwaters, samples
were taken at the source or collection concrete boxes. For the laboratory analysis of dissolved
constitutents, groundwaters and river waters were filtered prior to treatment with reagent-grade
nitric acid. A digital field-calibrated water quality checker (Horiba U-10 model) was used to
measure several on-site parameters such as pH, conductivity, temperature and dissolved
oxygen. River and marine sediments were collected into labeled cloth bags then dried, sieved
at 80-mesh and analyzed. Methods of analysis are presented in Table 5.1.4-3.

2.1.4.3 Results and Discussion


A. Selected Waterbodies and Sampling Stations
Field investigations covered the areas within Sorsogon City and Manito town. A total of ten (10)
river systems were covered.. Six (6) of these drain the project block as follows: Manitohan
River, Menito River, Rizal River, Bucal-bucalan River, Ticol River, and Cawayan River. Four (4)
other rivers in Sorsogon were also investigated: Bulabog, Capuy River, Anahaw and Osiao
Rivers. These are actually outside of the Tanawon block. Although these two rivers are unlikely
recipients of surface discharges from the project, baseline information may be used to address
future environmental issues, if any.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 3

A total of 21 river sampling stations, 26 groundwater sampling stations, and 23 coastal stations
were established. From the coastal stations, in-situ measurements for physico-chemical
analysis were undertaken in 34 points. Due to accessibility constraints, only the lower reaches
were investigated for Ticol, Capuy and Bulabog Rivers. A total of 23 stations were selected for
coastal water chemical analysis and 34 for in-situ measurements. Table 2.1.4-4 shows the
inventory of all sampling stations.; while Tables 2.1.4-5 to 2.1.4-7 describe the location of these
stations. Please refer to the Hydrology module - Figure 2.1.3-1 for the map of sampling
stations and Plates 2.1.3-1 to 3.1.3-45 for the photographs of river and groundwater sampling
stations.

B.

Stream Water Quality

Results of stream water analysis are shown in Tables 2.1.4-8 and 2.1.4-9. The water quality
criteria provided in DENR Administrative Order (DAO) 90-34 are presented for comparison. The
general trend in the baseline stream water quality of the 10 river systems investigated are
summarized, as follows:
1.

Total suspended solids (TSS), in most water samples, exceeded the 50 ppm limit for Class
A water quality criterion (supply for drinking water with treatment). TSS averaged 228 ppm,
ranging from as low as 15 ppm to as high as 2,516 ppm. BMGP- 131 ( Anahaw River
mouth ) obtained the highest value of 2,516 ppm largely due to seawater intrusion and
introduction of debris coming from domestic refuse along the river banks. Water quality
criteria are set for Classes A, B, C and D, at a maximum of 25 ppm and 50 ppm
respectively with 30 % increase.. Capuy River and Bulabog Rivers have lower TSS
contents perhaps due to their shorter length, smaller area and consequently lower volume
of erodable soil. The definitions of Classes of waters are provided in Table 2.1.4-10.
High TSS in stream waters can be attributed to the natural causes such as high rainfall
intensity and frequency (21 days/month), loose soil type and steep slope at the upper
reaches. Stream water frequently appearing brown may not be suitable for bathing and
primary contact recreation. The situation is further aggravated by anthropogenic sources
especially in unpaved open areas, improper disposal of domestics wastes at the river
banks, soil run-off from in rice farms, and local quarrying activities (specific to lower
Cawayan River).

2.

Dissolved elements of health significance (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) were found
to have
concentrations within Class AA to D water quality criteria, except for arsenic at BMGP-24 in
Cawayan River upstream of Cawayan pad area. That station registered 0.08 ppm As which
is slightly above the 0.05 ppm limit for Class AA to C waters. Such elevated As
concentration can be considered as natural occurrence and not indicative of geothermal
brine discharge level due to its location ( upstream of pad ) and low concentrations of other
geothermal-associated elements such as Cl, B, and Li levels. Again, BMGP-131( Anahaw
River mouth ) had high concentrations of B ( 3.0 ppm ), Cl ( 13,500 ppm), Cd ( 0.04 ppm )
and Pb ( 0.44 ppm ) due to seawater intrusion and noticeable dumping of domestic waste
along the river banks;

3.

Compared to other stations, conductivity and concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Na, SiO2. were
relatively high in BMGP- 131 (Anahaw River mouth ) and BMGP-66 ( Osiao River mouth ).
These two sites had conductivities of 16,200-45,000 uS/cm while the rest of the rivers had
8-653 ppm. No standards have been set for these parameters mentioned, but they may
contribute to water aesthetics and may provide understanding of the local hydrology;

4.

Dissolved elements such as B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Zn were found to have concentrations
which either were not detected, low, or within DENR Water Quality Criteria for its current

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 4

use and the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (1993) ; except for BMGP131 and BMGP-66.
5.

Water temperatures were relatively lower than the atmospheric temperatures from 21 oC to
33 oC, even during mid-day measurements; and

6.

pH and dissolved oxygen levels in all sampling sites were within DENR Class AA water
quality criteria, ranging from 6.5-7.5 and 8.7-9.4 ppm, respectively, except for BMGP- 131.

C. Groundwater Quality
The quality of groundwater samples in all the 26 stations is generally within the Philippine
National Standards for Drinking Water (Tables 2.1.4-11 and 2.1.4-12) . Thus, these waters are
potable in terms of the measured parameters ( pH, As, B, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na and
Zn) except for BMGW- 60 and BMGW- 61 ( Lower east of Sampaloc ) wherein the Boron
concentration determined were at 0.38 ppm and 0.81 ppm respectively. Such an occurrence is a
natural phenomenon since these two stations are located in lower elevations where the
tendency of such dissolved element is to concentrate at the lowest area, such as BMGW- 61 ( 5
masl ). BMGP- 67 (abandoned SWD spring in Anahaw ) naturally contained 0.03 ppm which is
slightly above the 0.01 ppm level set for drinking waters.
Groundwater samples from Guinlajon, Ticol, Capuy, and Bulabog had strikingly higher contents
of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na, than that of the rest of the stations. These are all located at lower
elevations (5-140 mASL). A water well in Ticol (BMGW-56) had the highest content of the
parameters mentioned. Stations at higher elevations (600-700 mASL) in Manitohan catchment
(BMGW-40) and Menito catchment (BMGW-8) had lower conductivities and dissolved elements.
This could be due to shorter distance of the stations from the recharge areas which results to
shorter interaction time of the groundwater with the rock formation. This in turn results to less
quantities of elements carried by the groundwater. Groundwater at lower elevations could have
longer interaction with the rock formation, hence would tend to have higher conductivities and
higher concentrations of dissolved elements.
Selected groundwater stations, which were part of the PNOC-EDC Hydrogeology Study of
Bacon Geothermal Production Field (1998-1999), were plotted in a piper diagram using the
Rockware Utilities V.4 program (Figure 2.1.4.-1).
The piper plot indicates that the groundwater system in the study area is mainly of the
bicarbonate type. The anions ternary plot shows that the water sources have a distinct
carbonate composition (HCO3+CO3). However, no dominant type exists in terms of cations. The
cations plot shows that the Ca, Mg and Na + K are relatively of equal proportions. These
chemical compositions are typical of groundwater systems in the Philippines.

D. Coastal Water Quality


The coastal water quality analysis (Table 2.1.4-14) covered Sorsogon Bay, Poliqui Bay and
Albay Gulf (specifically Sugot Bay). In-situ measurements of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen,
conductivity and salinity were done along with the conduct of on-field oceanographic survey in
December 7-8, 2000 and June 7-8, 2002. A total of 34 measuring points were identified each
with a surface, mid-depth and bottom measurements for the 28 stations initially sampled. For
the remaining 6 stations only surface measurements were made since no significant variations
on the above-mentioned parameters had been observed.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 5

Measurements in Sorsogon Bay (27 stations) covered a wide area from Menito coast to Anahaw
coast; similarly, measurements in Poliqui Bay (4 stations) covered the areas of Manito coastal
area; while 3 stations were covered in Albay Gulf specifically along Osiao coastal area.
Minimal variations in the temperature profile were noted during separate sampling periods : (a)
Sorsogon Bay : 26-27oC in December, 2000 (horizontal and vertical profile )and 31oC ( mean
surface temperature ) (b) Poliqui Bay:24-28 oC ( horizontal and vertical profile )and (c) Albay
Gulf, 32oC in June 2002 ( mean surface temperature ) . Dissolved oxygen levels and pH for the
three coastal regions were within the water quality criteria of at least 5 ppm and 6.5 - 8.5 units,
respectively for Class SA waters. pH values ranged from 7.9 - 8.9 units while DO measured 610 ppm. Conductivity ranged from 29,000 to 52,000 uS/cm with lower values at the surface
largely due to rains during the survey period ( Dec 7-8, 2000 ). Salinity ranged from 1.6 3.7%.
Water samples for laboratory analysis were collected during the marine biology module survey (
November 29 - December 3, 2000) and ( June 7-8, 2002 ). Ten sampling stations were
established in Poliqui Bay , 10 stations in Sorsogon Bay and 3 stations in Albay Gulf ( Osiao
coastal area ). Laboratory analyses (Table 2.1.4-15) showed all samples contained As and Hg
at levels within the water quality criteria. In some stations Cd and total Cr levels slightly
exceeded the 0.01 ppm and 0.10 ppm limits, respectively, for Class SB waters. In many of the
stations Pb levels exceeded the 0.05 ppm limit.

E. River Sediment Quality


The chemistry of sediments varied widely (Table 2.1.4-16). Arsenic content of
sediments ranged from <0.1 72 ppm; Cd, 0.9 2.5 ppm; Cr, <0.5 14; Hg,
<0.0001 0.10 ppm; and Pb, 9 20 ppm. Arsenic levels appeared to increase from
upstream to downstream as in the case of Cawayan River, Rizal River and
Manitohan River.
F. Coastal Sediment Quality
In general, the concentration of elements in coastal sediments (Table 2.1.4-17) are similar with
that of the river systems. Arsenic ranged from <0.1 2.1 ppm; Cd, 0.9 1.8 ppm; Cr, 2.8 7.2
ppm; Hg, 0.05 0.16 ppm; and Pb, 6.8 18 ppm.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 6

Table 2.1.4-1

Parameter

Checklist of Some Relevant Geothermal Parameters

Earth Spoils

pH

Excess Mud
& Additives

Geothermal
Brine

Temperature

Steam
Condensate

Boron

Chloride

Arsenic

Suspended
Solids

Oil and
Grease
Color
(Apparent)

Cooling
Tower
Sludge

Color (True)

Chromium

Lead

Lithium

Mercury

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 7

Table 2.1.4-2.

Significance of parameters measured

PARAMETER

SIGNIFICANCE

Arsenic (As)

Severe poisoning can arise from the ingestion of as little as 100 mg arsenic and chronic
effects can appear from its accumulation in the body at low intake levels. It may occur in
water as a result of mineral dissolution, industrial discharge or application of pesticides.

Boron (B)

Although it is an element essential for plant growth, Boron in excess of 2 mg/L in irrigation
water is deleterious to certain plants and some plants may be adversely affected by
concentrations as low as 1 mg/L or even less in commercial green-houses. Boron may
occur naturally in some waters or may find its way into a watercourse through cleaning
compounds and industrial waste effluents. Sea water contains approximately 5 mg/L and
this element is found in saline estuaries in association with large amounts of boron can
affect the central nervous system. Protracted ingestion may result in a clinical syndrome
known as borism.

Cadmium (Cd)

Cadmium is highly toxic and has been implicated in some cases of food poisoning. Minute
quantities are suspected of being responsible for adverse changes in arteries of human
kidneys. It may enter water as a result of industrial discharge or deterioration of galvanised
pipe.

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium contributes to the total hardness of water. Chemical softening treatment, reverse
osmosis, electro dialysis or ion exchange is used to reduce calcium and the associated
hardness. Small concentrations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) combat corrosion of metal
pipes yet appreciable calcium salts break down on heating to form harmful scales in boilers,
pipes and cooking utensils.

Chloride (Cl)

In potable water, the salty taste produced by chloride concentration is variable and
dependent on the chemical composition of water. Some waters containing 250 mg/L may
have a detectable salty taste if the cation is sodium (Na). On the other hand, the typical
salty taste may be absent in waters containing as much as 1000 mg/L when the
predominant cations are calcium and magnesium. The chloride concentration is higher in
wastewater than in raw water because sodium chloride is a common article of diet and
passes unchanged through the digestive system. Along the sea coast, chloride may be
present in high concentrations because of intrusion of salt water into the river system and
coastal aquifers.

Chromium (Cr)

Chromium salts are used extensively in industrial processes and may enter a water supply
through discharge of wastes. Chromate compounds frequently are added to cooling water
for corrosion control as well as in drilling fluids.

Color

Color in water may result from the presence of natural metallic ions (iron and manganese),
humus and peat materials, planktons, weeds, and industrial wastes. Color is removed to
make a water usable for general and industrial applications. Colored industrial wastewaters
may require color removal before discharge into the watercourses.

Copper (Cu)

Copper salts are used in water supply systems to control biological growths in reservoirs
and distribution pipes and to catalyse oxidation of manganese.

Dissolved
Oxygen (DO)

Dissolved oxygen levels in natural and wastewaters depend on the physical, chemical and
biochemical activities in the water body. The analysis for dissolved oxygen is a key test in
water pollution and waste treatment process control.

Iron (Fe)

Some groundwaters and acid surface drainage may contain considerable iron. In filtered
samples of oxygenated surface water, iron concentrations seldom reach 1 mg/L. Iron in
water can cause staining of laundry and porcelain. A bittersweet stringent taste is
detectable by some persons at levels above 1 or 2 mg/L. Iron oxide particles sometimes
are collected with a water sample as a result of flaking of rust from pipes.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 9

Table 2.1.4-2.

Significance of parameters measured (cont)

PARAMETER

SIGNIFICANCE

Lead (Pb)

Lead is a serious cumulative body poison. Natural waters seldom contain more than 20
mg/L although values as high as 4000 mg/L have been reported. Lead in water supply may
come from industrial mine and smelter discharges or from dissolution of old lead plumbing.

Lithium (Li)

A minor constituent of minerals, Li is present in fresh water in concentrations below 10


mg/L. Brines and thermal waters may contain higher lithium levels. The use of lithium or its
salts in dehumidifying units, medical waters, metallurgical processes and manufacture of
some types of glass and storage batteries may contribute to its presence in waters.

Magnesium (Mg)

Important contributions to the hardness of water, magnesium salts break down when
heated, forming scales in boilers. Concentration greater than 125 mg/L can also exert a
cathartic and diuretic action. Chemical softening, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis or ion
exchange reduces the magnesium and associated hardness to acceptable levels.

Manganese (Mn)

Although rarely present in water in excess of 1 mg/L, manganese imparts objectionable and
tenacious stains to laundry and plumbing fixtures. The low manganese limits imposed on
an acceptable water stem from these, rather than toxicological considerations. Special
means of removal often are necessary such as chemical precipitation, pH adjustment,
aeration and use of special ion-exchange materials. Manganese occurs in domestic
wastewater, industrial effluents and receiving stream.

Mercury (Hg)

Occurrence of mercury may arise naturally through erosion and weathering and
anthropogenically through mining, refining, electronic industries, agriculture practice and
geothermal plants. It can be taken up in the body through air, water and food.

pH

One of the most important and frequently used tests in water chemistry is the measurement
of pH. Every phase of water supply and wastewater treatment is practically

Potassium (K)

Its concentration in most drinking waters seldom reach 20 mg/L. However, occasionally,
brines may contain more than 100 mg/L.

Solids

Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or wastewater. Highly mineralised


waters are unsuitable for many industrial applications. Waters high in suspended solids
may be aesthetically unsatisfactory for such purposes as bathing.
2-

Sulfate (SO4 )

Mine drainage wastes may contribute large amounts of sulfate through pyrite oxidation.
Sodium and magnesium sulfate exert cathartic action.

Temperature

Elevated temperatures resulting from discharges of heated water may have significant
ecological impact.

Zinc (Zn)

Zinc is an essential and beneficial element in body growth. Concentrations above 5 mg/L
can cause a bitter stringent taste and an opalescence in alkaline waters . Zinc most
commonly enters the domestic water supply from deterioration of galvanised iron and
dezincification of brass. In such cases, lead and cadmium also may be present because
they are impurities of zinc used in galvanising. Zinc in water also results from industrial
waste pollution. The standard methods of analysis/instruments were used for the
determination of the above parameters.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 9

Table 2.1.4-3. Methods of Analysis

Parameter

Method of Analysis

pH

Glass electrode method

Temperature

Thermistor method

Dissolved oxygen

Membrane electrode method

Conductivity

Electrode Method (4 electrodes)

Suspended, dissolved, total solids

Gravimetry

Oil and Grease

Gravimetry (Petroleum Ether Extraction)

Arsenic

Silver diethyldithiocarbamate (colorimeteric)

Boron

Carmine Method (colorimetric )

Cadmium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Calcium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Chloride

Argentometry

Chromium (hexavalent)

Diphenyl carbzide colorimetric method

Copper

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Iron

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Lead

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Lithium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Magnesium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Manganese

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Mercury (total)

Cold Vapor Technique (Mercury Analyzer)

Potassium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Sodium

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Zinc

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4-10

Table 2.1.4-4a. Inventory of River Water, River Sediment and Ground Water
Sampling Stations
River System

River Water

River Sediment

Groundwater

1. Cawayan River
2. Ticol River
3. Capuy River
4. Bulabog River
5. Bucal-bucalan River
6. Rizal River
7. Menito River
8. Manitohan River
9. Anahaw River
10. Sampaloc River
11. Sta. Cruz
12. San Juan
13. Osiao River
Total

3
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
0
0
0
3
21

3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
2
17

2
2
1
0
2
0
2
1
6
6
1
2
4
26

Table 2.1.4-4b Inventory of Marine Sampling Stations

Coastal Area

Coastal
Water

Coastal
Water

Coastal
Sediments [2]

(In-situ
measurement) [1]

(subjected to
laboratory
analysis) [2]

1. Sorsogon Bay

27

10

2. Poliqui Bay

10

3. Albay Gulf

34

23

Total

[1] Coincides with stations of the Oceanography Module


[2] Coincides with stations of the Marine Biology Module

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 11

Table 2.1.4-5 Location of River Water and River Sediments Sampling Stations
Station
Name

Catchment

BMGP-12

Manitohan

BMGP-71

Manitohan

BMGP-107
BMGP-80

Menito
Menito/ San
Isidro

BMGP-103

Rizal

BMGP-79
BMGP-104
BMGP-111
BMGP-116

Rizal
Rizal
Bucal-bucalan
Bulabog

BMGP-121

Capuy

BMGP-126

Ticol

BMGP-127

Ticol

BMGP-98

Cawayan

BMGP-24

Cawayan

BMGP-35

Cawayan

BMGP-133

Anahaw

BMGP-132
BMGP-131

Anahaw
Anahaw

BMGP-72

Osiao

BMGP-64
BMGP-66

Osiao
Osiao

Description

Northing, m

Easting, m

Elevation, m

100 d/s of spillway in Putting Bato creek


50 m d/s of damaged steel bridge in Sitio Banao leading to
Barangay Balasbas
100 m upstream of Gate # 1 of BGPF Base Camp

1, 442, 950

598, 800

350

1, 448, 750

597, 900

120

1, 440, 950

599, 100

600

100 u/s of Legaspi- Sorsogon National Road

1, 436, 950

599, 300

50

1, 438, 700

598, 750

240

1, 437, 100
1, 435, 350
1, 435, 700
1, 435, 650

598, 400
597, 800
599, 100
600, 250

100
_
20
10

1, 435, 500

603, 450

10

1, 434, 750

601, 600

1, 436, 350

602, 700

20

1, 442, 060

604, 250

580

1, 442, 300

601, 700

660

1, 437, 200

603, 800

50

1,435,910

607,030

40

1,434,730

607,600

15
5

1,443,940

604,800

500

1,447,050
1,448,530

605,340
605,710

60
5

20 m downstream of junction of creek draining Sitio Fatima


and Tanawon project block
5 m upstream of spillway leading to BGPF
200 m from river mouth back of national high school
50 m u/s from Legaspi- Sorsogon National Road
50 m u/s of Legaspi- Sorsogon National Road
30 m u/s from barangay road leading to Palhi spring/
swimming pools
20 m u/s of Delgado Bridge in Barangay Pocdol
100 m u/s of Ticol irrigation dam in Purok 6, Bgy. Ticol
about 300 m upstream from Legaspi- Sorsogon National
Road
100 d/s from junction of creek draining pad BB and 3 minor
tributaries originating from pad BA and Pulog Lake area
300 m u/s of western tributary of Dalipay Creek near the
Cawayan Sector
50 m u/s of Basud irrigation dam
5 m u/s of box culvert and from Sorsogon Provincial
Hospital
10 meters u/s of bridge
River mouth
Labug Creek, 50 meters from OP-D, east side (Rock Dome
)
A few meters u/s of Osiao communal irrigation intake
River mouth

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Table 2.1.4-6. Location of Groundwater Sampling Stations


Station
Name

Catchment

Northing, m

Easting,
m

Flowrate

Elevation,
mASL

Use

Type

Description of Location

1, 441, 960

600, 540

Medium

700

NPC water
source

BMGW-40

Manitohan

Spring

At BGPF, along road between


PNOC-EDC basecamp and
Admin complex

BMGW-8

Menito/ San
Isidro

Spring

PNOC-EDC BaseCamp;
Bonga, Sorsogon

1, 440, 620

599, 400

Medium
to high

600

Drinking

BMGW-51

Menito/ San
Isidro

Spring

Tublijon, Sorsogon; about


150 m west of road linking
Sorsogon National Road
linking to project site

1, 437, 080

598, 160

Medium

140

Drinking

BMGW-53

Bulabog

Dug well

BMGW-52

Bucal-bucalan

Spring

BMGW-55

Capuy

Spring

BMGW-56

Ticol

Well

BMGW-57

Ticol

Spring

BMGW-54

Guinlajon
( East of
Cawayan )

Well
( free
flowing )

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Daan, Tinampo, Bulabog,


Sorsogon; about 50 m south
of Sorsogon National Road
Bulabog, Sorsogon, 200 m
south of Sorsogon National
Road
Palhi, Capuy, Sorsogon;
about 300 m north of
Sorsogon National Road
Ticol, Sorsogon; along
roadside south of Sorsogon
National Road

1, 435, 180

600, 040

Low to
Medium

1, 435, 130

598, 950

Strong

1, 435, 350

601, 610

Strong

10

1, 435, 760

602, 760

10

With
concrete
springbox

Recreation,
domestic,
drinking
Recreation,
domestic,
drinking
Domestic

30- ft deep

Washing,
bathing

1, 436, 700

603, 020

Strong

30

Drinking

Baribag, Guinlajon, Sorsogon

1, 436, 120

604, 540

Low to
medium

40

Drinking

p. 2.1.4- 17

With
concrete
springbox/
pipe
With
concrete
springbox/
pipe

Not potable;
does not dry
up even
during
summer
With pool;
no intake
box
With pool;
no intake
box

Purok 6, Ticol, Sorsogon; 1


km north of Sorsogon
National Road

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

Remarks

With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
Across
Iglesia ni
Cristo
Church

Table 2.1.4-6. Location of Groundwater Sampling Stations (continuation)


Station
Name

BMGW-11

BMGW-59
BMGW-60
BMGW-61

Catchment

Cawayan

East of
Sampaloc
East of
Sampaloc
East of
Sampaloc

Type

Description of Location

Northing, m

Easting,
m

Flowrate

Elevation,
mASL

Use

Spring

Basud, Sorsogon; 1 km
north of Sorsogon
National Road

1, 437, 050

603, 600

Medium

85

Drinking

SWD well # 1

Baribag

1, 437, 566

609, 710

High

40

Drinking

SWD well # 2

Bibincahan

1, 436, 851

609, 745

High

40

Drinking

SWD well # 3

Sea Breeze Homes,


Cabid-an

1, 435, 160

610, 765

Medium

Drinking

BMGW-62

Anahaw

SWD well # 4

Guinlajon

1, 435, 525

606, 000

High

40

Drinking

BMGW-63

Anahaw

SWD well # 5

Villa Alegre Homes,


Pangpang

1, 436, 015

607, 150

High

40

Drinking

BMGW-64

Anahaw

SWD
Spring
(Anahaw 2 )

West of Mt. Alinao peak,


near tributary

1, 439, 650

606, 240

Medium

450

Drinking

BMGW-65

Anahaw

SWD spring
( Matacla 3 )

150 meters northwest of


Matacla 1 & 2

1, 439, 400

606, 040

Medium

325

Drinking

BMGW-66

Anahaw

SWD spring
( Matacla
1&2 )

Southeast of Matacla 3

1, 439, 250

606, 050

High

300

Drinking

BMGW-67

Anahaw

Abandoned
SWD spring
( Mejeda )

Immediately south of
Matacla 1 & 2

1, 439, 150

606, 070

Medium

290

Abandoned;
High in iron

BMGW-68

Sampaloc

SWD spring
( Alinao 3 )

North of Alinao 2

1, 438, 815

606, 620

High

250

Drinking

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Remarks

2 adjacent
springs,
with
concrete
spring box
55- meter
deep
132- meter
deep
50+ meter
deep
130- meter
deep
125- meter
deep
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
No box;
remaining
discharge
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Table 2.1.4-6. Location of Groundwater Sampling Stations (continuation)


Station
Name

Catchment

Type

Description of Location

Northing, m

Easting,
m

Flowrate

Elevation,
mASL

Use

BMGW-69

Sampaloc

SWD spring
( Alinao 2 )

BMGW-70

Sampaloc

SWD spring
( Alinao 1 )

South of Alinao 2

1, 438, 610

606, 850

Low to
medium

180

Drinking

BMGW-71

San Juan

San Juan
spring

1.2 km from San Juan

1, 443, 845

608, 915

Medium
to high

150

Drinking

BMGW-72

San Juan

Bacon spring

1.2 km from San Juan

1, 443, 845

608, 915

Medium
to high

150

Drinking

BMGW-73

Sta. Cruz

Sta. Cruz
spring

800 meters from Sta.


Cruz

1, 442, 460

609, 380

High

150

Drinking

BMGW-58

Osiao

Spring

Bgy. Osiao

1, 447, 885

606, 915

Medium

80

Drinking

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

30 m above of Alinao 1

1, 438, 650

606, 710

Low

220

Drinking

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Remarks

With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe
With
concrete
spring box/
pipe

Table

2.1.4-7

Station Name

Location of Marine Sampling Stations


General Location

Latitude

Longtitude

I. Oceanography and In-situ Measurement Stations


A. Sorsogon Bay
o

123 53 03.2

123 53 08.8

123 53 02.6

123 53 08.6

123 54 16.2

123 54 10.7

123 54 22.7

123 54 22.6

123 54 46.8

123 54 36.3

123 55 04.4

123 54 59.0

123 55 41.1

123 55 03.5

123 55 51.6

123 55 36.6

123 56 02.9

123 56 20.5

123 56 45.6

123 56 33.8

123 57 13.6

123 57 05.3

123 57 28.0

M1

Menito River coast

12 58 38.3

M2

Menito River coast

12 58 33.6

M3
M4
R1

Menito Rivercoast

12 58 38.3

Menito River coast

12 58 15.8

Rizal River coast

12 58 30.6

R2

Rizal River coast

12 58 26.1

R3

Rizal River coast

12 58 37.3

R4
B1
B2
B3

Rizal River coast

12 58 19.4

Bucal-bucalan River coast


Bucal-bucalan River coast
Bucal-bucalan River coast

12 57 40.2
12 57 35.9
12 57 40.6

B4

Bucal-bucalan River coast

12 57 28.0

T1

Ticol River coast

12 57 48.1

T2
T3
T4
G1

Ticol River coast

12 57 50.2

Ticol River coast

12 57 46.6

Ticol River coast

12 57 36.3

Gimaloto River coast

12 57 18.7

G2

Gimaloto River coast

12 57 21.7

G3

Gimaloto River coast

12 57 18.8

G4
C1
C2
C3

Gimaloto River coast


Cawayan River coast
Cawayan River coast
Cawayan River coast

12 57 10.6
12 57 11.0
12 57 13.1
12 57 05.9

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

C4

Cawayan River coast

12 56 54.2

123 57 13.3

A- 1

Anahaw River coast

A- 2

Anahaw River coast

A- 3

Anahaw River coast

13 07 37.8

123 51 45.9

123 51 22.2

123 51 20.8

13 07 18.0

123 51 17.8

B. Poliqui Bay
MN1
MN2
MN3
MN4

Manitohan River coast


Manitohan River coast
Manitohan River coast
Manitohan River coast

13 07 33.1
13 07 49.8

o
o
o
o

C. Albay Gulf
O- 1

Osiao River mouth

O- 2

Osiao River mouth

O- 3

Osiao River mouth

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Table

2.1.4-7

Station Name

Location of Marine Sampling Stations (continuation)


General Location

Latitude

Longtitude

II. Water and Sediment Sampling Stations


A. Sorsogon Bay
BMMW-46
BMMW-51
BMMW-56
BMMW-61

Rizal River, Sorsogon


Bucalbucalan, Sorsogon
Bulabog, Sorsogon
Ticol, Sorsogon

123 54 55.4

123 54 21.3

123 55 06.7

123 56 39.7

123 55 39.4

123 55 52.0

12 57 06.0

123 57 32.0

12 57 15.7
12 57 14.3
12 57 09.4
12 57 14.4

BMMW-65

Capuy, Sorsogon

12 57 38.5

BMMW-71

Gimaloto, Sorsogon

12 57 34.4

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

BMMW-76

Cawayan, Sorsogon

A- 1

Anahaw Rivber, Sorsogon

A- 2

Anahaw River, Sorsogon

A- 3

Anahaw River, Sorsogon

13 07 52.5

123 51 53.1

123 51 46.2

123 51 46.9

123 51 03.3

123 51 08.4

123 51 07.7

123 51 09.9

123 51 34.7

123 51 32.1

B. Poliqui Bay
BMMW-11
BMMW-12

Manito Refo Mangrove

13 07 34.6

BMMW-13

Buang, Manito Mangrove

13 07 17.2

BMMW-14

Nacio Reef, Manito

13 07 49.6

BMMW-15
BMMW-16
BMMW-17

Pinaculan Reef, Manito


Asias Reef, Manito

13 07 52.6
13 07 52.1

Balabag, Manito

13 07 23.7

BMMW-25

Buyo Mangrove, Manito

13 07 11.9

BMMW-26

Buyo north, Manito

13 07 07.0

BMMW-27

C.

Manito Rivermouth, Manito

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Buyo south, Manito

13 07 02.1

123 51 30.8

O- 1

Osiao River, Osiao

O- 2

Osiao River, Osiao

O- 3

Osiao River, Osiao

Albay Gulf

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 17

Table 2.1.4-8. Physico-chemical Characteristics of River Water Samples


WaterShed/

Date

Station Name

Time

Weather

Flow

Condition

m^3/sec

Temp
O
C

pH

page 1 of 2

DO

Cond

TSS

TDS

TS

ppm

uS/cm

ppm

ppm

ppm

Manitohan River
BMGP-12

12/06/2000

1330

Cloudy

7.31

53

15

72

87

BMGP-71

12/06/2000

1500

Drizzle

7.40

54

50

92

142

BMGP-107

12/07/2000

1000

Rainy

1.0

7.26

39

65

69

134

BMGP-80

12/06/2000

1545

Rainy

24.4

7.13

8.9

45

374

112

486
535

Menito River

Rizal River
BMGP-104

12/06/2000

1500

Rainy

24.2

7.01

8.9

55

431

104

BMGP-79

12/06/2000

1430

Rainy

2.16

23.9

6.86

8.9

54

109

82

191

BMGP-103

12/07/2000

0850

Cloudy

7.46

46

82

183

265

12/06/2000

1300

Rainy

1.02

24.6

7.01

8.6

50

150

113

263

12/06/2000

1200

Rainy

0.20

25.3

6.96

8.1

8.3

29

131

160

12/06/2000

1120

Cloudy

0.32

26.1

6.54

7.7

173

84

194

278

BMGP-127

12/06/2000

1000

Rainy

0.97

25.4

7.18

8.6

157

47

160

207

BMGP-126

12/06/2000

1045

Cloudy

25.9

7.35

8.0

162

118

175

293

BMGP-98

12/05/2000

1130

Rainy

0.40

21.9

6.70

8.1

46

117

99

216

BMGP-24

12/05/2000

1300

Rainy

0.80

21.1

6.42

9.4

17

52

27

79

BMGP-35

12/05/2000

1515

Cloudy

4.46

23.3

6.79

8.9

70

45

93

138

Bucal-bucalan
BMGP-111
Bulabog
BMGP-116
Capuy River
BMGP-121
Ticol River

Cawayan River

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 18

page 2 of 2

Table 2.1.4-8. Physico-chemical Characteristics of River Water Samples ( continuation )


WaterShed/

Date

Station Name

Time

Weather

Condition

Flow
m3/sec

Temp
O
C

pH

DO

Cond

TSS

TDS

TS

ppm

uS/cm

ppm

ppm

ppm

Anahaw River
BMGP-133

06/06/2002

1330

Cloudy

1.0

29.5

7.00

6.5

545

22

230

252

BMGP-132

06/06/2002

1420

Cloudy

0.10

29.7

6.88

5.2

653

32

244

276

BMGP-131

06/08/2002

0839

Sunny

30.6

8.26

4.7

45000

2516

24434

26950

06/06/2002

1045

Cloudy

0.31

23.6

6.21

7.1

277

18

156

174

Osiao River
BMGP-72
BMGP-64

06/07/2002

1110

Sunny

6.06

26.7

8.07

7.2

314

34

178

212

BMGP-66

06/07/2002

1325

Sunny

32.6

8.16

6.2

16200

396

5200

5596

1.45
1 45

25.8
25 8

7.14
7 14

7.7
77

3048

228

1531

1759

3 CO rise

6.5 - 8.5

5.0

25

500

Class A

6.5 - 8.5

5.0

50

1,000

Class B

3 CO rise

6.5 - 8.5

5.0

<30% rise

Class C

3 CO rise

6.5 - 8.5

5.0

<30 ppm rise

Class D

3 CO rise

6.0 - 9.0

3.0

<60 ppm rise

1,000

Average
DENR Water Quality Criteria (maximum limits or range, as applicable)
Class AA

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 19

page 1 of 2

Table 2.1.4-9 Concentration (ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in River Water Samples


WaterShed/

Date

Station Name

Time

As

Ca

Cd

Cl

Cr

Cu

Fe

Hg

Li

Mg

Mn

Na

Pb

Zn

SiO2

Manitohan River
BMGP-12

12/06/2000

1330

0.05

<0.10

2.1

<0.01

6.2

<0.05 <0.02

0.27

<0.0001

0.74

<0.01

0.82

<0.02

3.6

<0.05 <0.01

12

BMGP-71

12/06/2000

1500

<0.01

<0.10

1.2

<0.01

5.4

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0001

0.86

<0.01

0.93

<0.02

4.0

<0.05 <0.01

12

Menito River
BMGP-107

12/07/2000

1000

<0.01

<0.10

0.43

<0.01

6.2

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0003

0.69

<0.01

0.80

<0.02

4.0

<0.05 <0.01

8.5

BMGP-80

12/06/2000

1545

<0.01

<0.10

0.76

<0.01

5.6

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0002

1.2

<0.01

0.97

<0.02

4.2

<0.05 <0.01

11

BMGP-104
BMGP 104

12/06/2000

1500

<0.01
0 01

<0.10
0 10

1.9
19

<0.01
0 01

6.6
66

<0.05
0 05 <0.02
0 02 <0.05
0 05

0.0002
0 0002

1.1
11

<0.01
0 01

1.2
12

<0.02
0 02

4.0
40

<0.05
0 05 <0.01
0 01

15

BMGP-79

12/06/2000

1430

<0.01

<0.10

1.6

<0.01

8.4

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0001

1.0

<0.01

1.1

<0.02

4.8

<0.05 <0.01

15

BMGP-103

12/07/2000

0850

<0.01

<0.10

1.0

<0.01

6.2

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0003

0.91

<0.01

0.74

<0.02

4.0

<0.05 <0.01

12

12/06/2000

1300

<0.01

<0.10

1.8

<0.01

6.4

<0.05 <0.02

1.10

0.0002

0.91

<0.01

1.4

0.29

4.0

<0.05 <0.01

14

12/06/2000

1200

<0.01

<0.10

3.0

<0.01

6.9

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0004

0.91

<0.01

2.4

<0.02

5.8

<0.05 <0.01

23

12/06/2000

1120

<0.01

<0.10

8.3

<0.01

7.8

<0.05 <0.02

0.30

<0.0001

2.4

<0.01

5.7

<0.02

9.8

<0.05 <0.01

33

BMGP-127

12/06/2000

1000

<0.01

<0.10

7.5

<0.01

7.8

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

<0.0001

2.4

<0.01

4.3

<0.02

11

<0.05 <0.01

33

BMGP-126

12/06/2000

1045

<0.01

<0.10

7.3

<0.01

6.9

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

<0.0001

2.2

<0.01

4.1

<0.02

11

<0.05 <0.01

26

BMGP-98

12/05/2000

1130

<0.01

<0.10

1.9

<0.01

6.7

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0004

1.1

<0.01

0.61

<0.02

4.0

<0.05 <0.01

10

BMGP-24

12/05/2000

1300

0.08

<0.10 <0.05 <0.01

<5

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

0.0002

0.52

<0.01

0.13

<0.02

1.9

<0.05 <0.01

<5

BMGP-35

12/05/2000

1515

<0.01

<0.10

5.9

<0.05 <0.02

0.0002

1.1

<0.01

0.89

<0.02

3.3

<0.05 <0.01

12

Rizal River

Bucal-bucalan
BMGP-111

Bulabog
BMGP-116

Capuy River
BMGP-121

Ticol River

Cawayan River

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

3.1

<0.01

0.27

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 20

page 2 of 2

Table 2.1.4-9 Concentration (ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in River Water Samples ( continuation )
WaterShed/

Date

Station Name

Time

As

Ca

Cd

Cl

Cr

Cu

Fe

Hg

Li

Mg

Mn

Na

Pb

Zn

SiO2

Anahaw River
BMGP- 133

06/06/2002

1330

<0.02

<0.10

45

<0.01

<5

<0.05 <0.02

0.06

<0.0001

2.0

<0.01

10

<0.02

12

<0.05 <0.01

BMGP-132

06/06/2002

1420

<0.02

<0.10

53

<0.01

<5

<0.05 <0.02

0.09

<0.0001

3.2

<0.01

11

<0.02

12

<0.05

0.43

20

BMGP-131

06/08/2002

0839

<0.02

3.0

320

0.04

0.14

<0.0001

250

0.10

910

0.03

8000

0.44

0.05

10

BMGP-72

06/06/2002

1045

<0.02

0.11

20

<0.01

9.7

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05

<0.0001

3.1

<0.01

2.9

<0.02

10

<0.05 <0.01

46

BMGP-64

06/07/2002

1110

<0.02

<0.10

21

<0.01

<5

<0.05 <0.02

0.10

<0.0001

2.2

<0.01

7.0

<0.02

11

<0.05 <0.01

30

BMGP-66

06/07/2002

1325

<0.02

0.68

48

<0.01

2720

<0.05

0.09

<0.0001

42

0.02

110

<0.02

1010

<0.05 <0.01

21

<0.02

0.18

27

<0.01

777

<0.05 <0.02

0.12

0.0001

14.4

<0.01

51.3

0.02

43.5

<0.05 <0.01

19.2

Class AA

0.05

0.01

250

0.05

0.002

0.5

0.05

Class A

0.05

0.01

250

0.05

0.002

0.5

0.05

Class B

0.05

0.01

0.05

0.002

0.05

Class C

0.05

0.01

350

0.05

0.05

0.002

0.05

Class D

0.1

0.75

0.05

0.1

0.002

2.5

0.2

0.5

13500 <0.05

0.03

30

Osiao River

Average

0.02

DENR Water Quality Criteria (maximum limits)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 21

Table 2.1.4-10 DENR Water Classification Table, DENR Administrative Order


(DAO) 90-34.
Type of
Water/Classification

Beneficial Use

1. Fresh Surface Waters


Class AA

Public Water Supply Class I. This class is intended


primarily for waters having watersheds which are
uninhabited and otherwise protected and which require
only approved disinfection in order to meet the National
Standards for Drinking Water (NSDW) of the Philippines.
Public Water Supply Class II. For sources of water
supply that will require complete treatment (coagulatoin,
sedimentations, filtration and disinfection) in order to meet
the NSDW.
Recreational Water Class I.
For primary contact
recreation such as bathing, skin diving, etc (particularly
those designated for tourism purposes)
1) Fishery Waters for the propagation and growth of fish
and other aquatic resources
2) Recreational Water class II (Boating, etc)
3) Industrial Water Supply Class I (For manufacturing
processing after treatment)
1) For agriculture, irrigation, livestock watering, etc
2) Industral Water Supply Class II (cooling, etc)
3) Other inland waters, by their quality, belong to this
class.

Class A

Class B
Class C

Class D

2. Coastal
Waters
Class SA

and

Marine
1)
2)

3)

Class SB

1)
2)

Class SC

1)
2)
3)

Class SD

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

1)
2)

Waters suitable for the propagation, survival and


harvesting of shell-fish for commercial purposes;
Tourist zones and national marine parks and
reserves designated under Presidential Proclamation
No. 1801, etc; existing laws and/or declared as such
by appropriate government agency.
Coral reef parks and reserves designated by law and
concerned authorities
Recreational Water Class I (bathing area regularly
used by the public)
Fishery Waters Class I (spawning areas Chanos
chanos or bangus and similar effects)
Recreational Waters Class II (e.g. boating, etc)
Fishery Waters II (Commercial and sustenance
fishing)
Marshy and/or mangrove areas declared as fish and
wildlife sanctuaries.
Industrial Water Class II (e.g. cooling, etc);
Other coastal and marine water, by their quality
belong to this classification

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 22

page 1 of 2
Table 2.1.4-11. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Groundwater Samples
Watershed

General

Station Name

Location

Manitohan
BMGW-40
Menito
BMGW-51
BMGW-8
Bucal-bucalan
BMGW-52
Bulabog
BMGW-53
BMGW 53
Capuy
BMGW-55
Ticol
BMGW-56
BMGW-57
Cawayan
BMGW-11
Guinlajon
BMGW-54

Date

Time

Temp
O
C

pH

DO

Cond

TSS

TDS

TS

ppm

uS/cm

ppm

ppm

ppm

BGPF

12/07/2000

1130

7.0

57

51

114

165

Tublijon
PNOC-EDC Base Camp

12/06/2000
12/07/2000

1400
_

26.6
_

5.7
5.9

6.6
_

93
53

56
68

207
88

263
156

Bulabog

12/05/2000

1730

25.5

6.2

8.9

158

14

192

206

Bulabog

12/05/2000

1800

26.3
26 3

5.9
59

8.4
84

314

148

185

333

Palhi

12/05/2000

1710

25.7

6.2

6.6

225

35

235

270

Ticol
Ticol

12/05/2000
12/06/2000

1650
0930

21.5
25.7

6.3
6.3

8.1
6.4

347
235

17
6

279
234

296
240

Basud

12/05/2000

1450

25.1

6.1

8.4

191

19

215

234

Baribag

12/05/2000

1615

25.1

7.0

9.0

344

20

291

311

6.5-8.5

500

Philippine Drinking Water Standard

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 23

page 2 of 2
Table 2.1.4-11. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Groundwater Samples ( continuation )
Watershed
Station Name
Anahaw
BMGW-62
BMGW-63
BMGW-64
BMGW-65
BMGW-66
BMGW-67
Sampaloc
BMGW-68
BMGW-69
BMGW-70
BMGW-59
BMGW-60
BMGW-61
Sta. Cruz
BMGW-73
San Juan
BMGW-71
BMGW-72

General
Location

Date

Time
H

Temp
O
C

pH

DO
ppm

Cond
uS/cm

TSS
ppm

TDS
ppm

TS
ppm

Guinlajon
Pangpang
West of Mt. Alinao peak
Northwest of Matacla 1& 2
Southeast of Matacla 3
South of Matacla 1 & 2

06/10/2002
06/10/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002

1352
1405
0947
0946
1013
1024

26.6
27.0
23.7
24.2
24.1
26.8

7.36
7.04
6.85
6.91
6.66
6.17

3.8
3.7
4.7
4.7
4.5
3.5

673
772
387
436
441
1000

24
38
12
14
24
60

254
306
160
164
196
598

276
344
172
178
220
658

North of Alinao 2
Alinao 1
South of Alinao 2
Baribag
Bibincahan
Cabid-an

06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/10/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002

1050
1012
1015
1410
1420
1433

25.7
27.7
25.9
26.6
27.0
26.3

6.86
7.42
7.12
7.36
7.33
7.31

4.8
4.7
4.7
3.8
4.7
4.5

660
621
536
673
502
920

16
24
22
42
34
58

240
242
204
192
244
516

256
266
226
234
278
574

Sta. Cruz

06/12/2002

0810

24.8

6.10

5.1

317

182

186

San Juan
San Juan

06/11/2002
06/11/2002

1433
1414

24.2
24.0

6.93
6.00

4.8
_

176
_

8
14

136
116

144
130

Bgy. Osiao

06/07/2002

1441

26.3
25.5

6.95
6.65

6.6
5.7

316
418

78
35

158
184

236
263

6.5-8.5

500

Osiao
BMGW-58

Average
Philippine Drinking Water Standard

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 24

page 1 of 2

Table 2.1.4-12 Concentration ( in ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in Groundwater Samples


WaterShed/
Station Name
Manitohan
BMGW-40
Menito
BMGW-51
BMGW-8
Bucal-bucalan
BMGW-52
Bulabog
BMGW-53
Capuy
BMGW-55
Ticol
BMGW-56
BMGW-57

Date

Time
H

As

Ca

Cd

Cl

Cr

Cu

Fe

Hg

Li

12/07/2000 1130 <0.005

<0.10

1.9

<0.01

5.6

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

12/06/2000 1400 0.005


12/07/2000
<0.005

<0.10
<0.10

3.2
2.2

<0.01
<0.01

12/05/2000 1730 <0.005

<0.10

8.0

12/05/2000 1800 <0.005

Mg

Mn

Na

Pb

Zn

SiO2

1.1

<0.01

1.1 <0.02

<0.05 <0.01

13

5.4
6.0

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001 3.2 <0.01


<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001 0.64 <0.01

3.2 <0.02
1.4 <0.02

6.0
3.6

<0.05 <0.01
<0.05 <0.01

41
12

<0.01

5.5

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

5.3

<0.01

5.3 <0.02

7.9

<0.05 <0.01

42

<0.10

14.0 <0.01

32

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

7.7

<0.01

7.7 <0.02

18

<0.05 <0.01

37

12/05/2000 1710 <0.005

<0.10

16.0 <0.01

7.3

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

8.4

<0.01

8.4 <0.02

11

<0.05 <0.01

42

12/05/2000 1650 <0.005


12/06/2000 0930 0.010

<0.10
<0.10

15.0 <0.01
13.0 <0.01

20
7.0

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001


<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

11
8.4

<0.01
<0.01

11 <0.02
8.4 <0.02

22
9.4

<0.05 <0.01
<0.05 <0.01

31
39

12/05/2000 1450 <0.005

<0.10

10.0 <0.01

7.6

<0.05 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

6.0

<0.01

6.0 <0.02

9.6

<0.05 <0.01

35

12/05/2000 1615 <0.005

<0.10

24.0 <0.01

6.3

<0.05 <0.02 0.70 <0.0001

8.8

<0.01

8.8

0.34

19

<0.05 <0.01

34

250

0.05

0.5

200

0.01

Cawayan
BMGW-11
Guinlajon
BMGW-54

Phil. Nat'l Standards for Drinking Water

0.01

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

0.3

0.003

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 25

page 2 of 2

Table 2.1.4-12 Concentration ( in ppm) of Dissolved Constituents in Groundwater Samples ( continuation )


WaterShed/
Station Name
Anahaw
BMGW-62
BMGW-63
BMGW-64
BMGW-65
BMGW-66
BMGW-67
Sampaloc
BMGW-68
BMGW 68
BMGW-69
BMGw-70
BMGW-59
BMGW-60
BMGW-61
Sta. Cruz
BMGW-73
San Juan
BMGW-71
BMGW-72
Osiao
BMGW-58

Date

Time
H

As

Ca

06/10/2002
06/10/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002

1352
1405
0947
0946
1013
1024

<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005

0.21
0.29
<0.10
0.16
<0.10
<0.10

38
31
29
37
33
130

06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002
06/10/2002
06/11/2002
06/11/2002

1050
1012
1015
1410
1420
1433

<0.005
0 005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005
<0.005

<0.10
0 10
<0.10
<0.10
<0.10
0.38
0.81

42
42
36
13
17
29

06/12/2002 0810 <0.005

<0.10

19 <0.002

06/11/2002 1433 <0.005


06/11/2002 1414 <0.005

0.14
<0.10

06/07/2002 1441 <0.005

Average
Phil. Nat'l Standards for Drinking Water

Mg

Mn

Na

Pb

Zn

SiO2

0.0001
7.5 0.02
0.0002
4.4 <0.01
0.0001 0.86 <0.01
<0.0001 0.88 <0.01
<0.0001 0.76 <0.01
<0.0001 4.7 0.02

11
14
7.9
9
12
80

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02

36
24
10
10
11
21

<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.03

<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01

32
34
26
27
24
44

<0.0001
0 0001
0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
0.0003
<0.0001

1.2
12
1.2
1.1
2.6
5.0
8.6

<0.01
0 01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.01
0.02

21
20
15
6.8
8.0
68

<0.02
0 02 12
<0.02 13
<0.02 11
<0.02 18
<0.02 39
<0.02 120

<0.01
0 01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
0 01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.03
0.02

24
24
24
38
39
41

<5

<0.01 <0.02 <0.05 0.0005

2.2

<0.01

6.4 <0.02

12

<0.01 <0.01

34

9.8 <0.002
11 <0.002

<5
<5

<0.01 <0.02 0.05 0.0001


0.06 <0.02 <0.05 <0.0001

1.4
1.4

<0.01
<0.01

2.3 <0.02
2.4 <0.02

8.1
7.7

<0.01 <0.01
<0.01 <0.01

30
31

<0.10

18 <0.002

<5

<0.01 <0.02 0.14 <0.0001

1.2

<0.01

7.7 <0.02

12

<0.01 <0.01

30

<0.005

<0.10

25 <0.002 5.5

<0.01 <0.02 0.42 <0.0001

4.3

<0.01 13.8 <0.02 18.8 <0.01 <0.01 31.8

0.01

0.3

0.05

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Cd

Cr

Cu

Fe

<0.002 <5
<0.002 5.2
<0.002 <5
<0.002 <5
<0.002 <5
<0.002 <5

<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02

0.05
0.15
<0.05
0.06
<0.05
8.8

<0.002
0 002 6.9
69
<0.002 <5
<0.002 5.4
<0.002 <5
<0.002 <5
<0.002 17

<0.01
0 01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.05
<0.01

<0.02
0 02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02

<0.05
0 05
0.10
<0.05
0.53
0.25
<0.05

0.003

Cl

250

Hg

Li

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

0.5

200

0.01

p. 2.1.4- 26

Table 2.1.4-13. Results of Analysis of Major Ions Composition of Selected Groundwater Stations (in mg/L)

Station

Catchment

Sampling Date

Description

Cl

SO4

HCO3

Na

Ca

Mg

BMGW-40

Manitohan

8/28/1998

NPC spring

4.6

5.25

20

4.79

0.39

2.25

2.14

BMGW-8

Menito

9/11/1998

Basecamp spring

5.8

7.12

38

5.23

<0.01

4.68

3.28

BMGW-52

Bucal-bucalan

9/1/1998

Bucalbucalan spring

6.5

83

9.59

2.32

14.7

6.6

BMGW-55

Capuy

9/1/1998

Palhi spring

6.9

10.4

140

14.4

2.43

23.8

9.14

BMGW-57

Ticol

9/7/1998

Ticol spring

5.3

7.25

146

12.6

2.2

21.7

8.91

BMGW- 54

Guinlajon

9/7/1998

Guinlajon artesian well

6.5

32.7

173

23.3

3.45

29.5

9.4

BMGW- 11

Cawayan

9/7/1998

Basud spring

8.8

25.2

100

13.3

2.66

18.4

9.18

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 27

page 1 of 4

Table 2.1.4-14: Physico-chemical characteristics of Coastal Water Samples [1] (In Situ)
Reference Station Location
Catchment Code
at Vertical
Manitohan
River

Menito
River

Date

Temp
O
C

pH

DO
ppm

Cond
uS/cm

Sal
%

MN1
MN1
MN1

S
MD
B

12/08/2000
12/08/2000
12/08/2000
Average

26.6
27.5
27.9
27.3

7.9
8.1
8.1
8.0

7.7
7.3
7.5
7.5

52,000
46,600
49,100
49,233

1.6
3.0
3.2
2.6

MN2
MN2
MN2

S
MD
B

12/08/2000
12/08/2000
12/08/2000
Average

27.4
27.7
28.0
27.7

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

7.4
7.3
7.3
7.3

41,000
48,300
49,300
46,200

2.6
3.2
3.3
3.0

MN3
MN3
MN3

S
MD
B

12/08/2000
12/08/2000
12/08/2000
Average

27.7
24.5
24.5
25.6

8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1

7.1
7.2
7.1
7.1

38,700
42,300
44,000
41,667

2.5
2.7
2.9
2.7

MN4
MN4
MN4

S
MD
B

12/08/2000
12/08/2000
12/08/2000
Average

24.2
28 0
28.0
28.1
26.8

8.1
81
8.1
8.1
8

7.4
72
7.2
7.2
7

38,000
48 500
48,500
50,100
45,533

2.5
32
3.2
3.3
3

M1
M1
M1

S [2]
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
27.0
27.0
26.7

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.8
7.6
6.5
7.6

44,000
48,600
49,000
47,200

3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2

M2
M2
M2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
27.0
27.0
26.7

8.0
8.0
7.9
8.0

8.0
7.2
6.3
7.2

33,000
46,000
49,000
42,667

1.9
3.1
3.2
2.7

M3
M3
M3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
27.0
27.0
26.7

7.6
8.0
8.0
7.9

7.9
7.7
6.8
7.5

19,000
45,000
49,000
37,667

1.1
2.9
3.2
2.4

M4
M4
M4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
27.0
27.0
26.7

8.0
8.1
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
7.2
7.7

33,000
40,000
50,000
41,000

2.1
2.7
3.3
2.7

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 28

page 2 of 4

Table 2.1.4-14 ( Continuation )


Reference Station Location
Catchment Code
at Vertical

Date

Temp
O
C

pH

DO
ppm

Cond
uS/cm

Sal
%

Rizal River R1
R1
R1

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

8.0
7.7
7.7
7.8

39,000
47,000
48,000
44,667

2.6
3.0
3.1
2.9

R2
R2
R2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
27.0
27.0
26.7

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

8.2
7.7
7.6
7.8

31,000
47,000
49,000
42,333

1.8
3.1
3.2
2.7

R3
R3
R3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.1
8.0
8.0

7.8
7.7
7.0
7.5

38,000
46,000
47,000
43,667

2.8
3.0
3.1
3.0

R4
R4
R4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.0
8.1

7.9
7.8
9.3
8.3

46,000
47,000
47,000
46,667

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.1

Bucal-bucalan
River
B1
B1
B1

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27 0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

81
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

10 1
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.1

47 000
47,000
47,000
47,000
47,000

31
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.1

B2
B2
B2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1

10.0
10.0
9.7
9.9

40,000
46,000
48,000
44,667

2.8
3.0
3.2
3.0

B3
B3
B3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

10.0
9.9
9.6
9.8

45,000
45,000
45,000
45,000

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

B4
B4
B4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.1
8.0
8.0

9.7
9.9
9.9
9.8

49,000
49,000
49,000
49,000

3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2

T1
T1
T1

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1

- [3]
-

43,000
47,000
47,000
45,667

2.6
3.1
3.1
2.9

T2
T2
T2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.0
8.1
8.0

44,000
46,000
46,000
45,333

2.8
3.0
3.0
2.9

Ticol River

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 29

page 3 of 4

Table 2.1.4-14 ( Continuation )


Reference Station Location
Catchment Code
at Vertical
Ticol River

Gimaloto
River

Cawayan
River

Date

Temp
O
C

pH

DO
ppm

Cond
uS/cm

Sal
%

T3
T3
T3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

46,000
46,000
46,000
46,000

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

T4
T4
T4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

47,000
48,000
49,000
48,000

3.1
3.1
3.2
3.1

G1
G1
G1

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

44,000
46,000
47,000
45,667

2.9
2.9
3.1
3.0

G2
G2
G2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1

43,000
45,000
48,000
45,333

2.8
2.9
3.2
3.0

G3
G3
G3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27 0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
81
8.1
8.1
8.1

45,000
47 000
47,000
50,000
47,333

2.9
31
3.1
3.3
3.1

G4
G4
G4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

44,000
44,000
47,000
45,000

2.9
2.9
3.7
3.2

C1
C1
C1

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

26.0
26.0
26.0
26.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

29,000
31,000
33,000
31,000

1.8
2.7
2.1
2.2

C2
C2
C2

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.0
8.1
8.1

35,000
48,000
49,000
44,000

2.6
3.1
3.3
3.0

C3
C3
C3

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

44,000
45,000
47,000
45,333

2.9
2.9
3.0
2.9

C4
C4
C4

S
MD
B

12/07/2000
12/07/2000
12/07/2000
Average

27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

8.1
8.1
8.0
8.1

47,000
50,000
51,000
49,333

3.0
3.3
3.4
3.2

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 30

Table 2.1.4-14 ( Continuation )


Reference Station Location
Catchment Code
at Vertical
Anahaw
River

Osiao
River

Date

Temp
O
C

pH

DO
ppm

Cond
uS/cm

Sal
%

S
S
S

06/08/2002
06/08/2002
06/08/2002
Average

31.1
31.3
31.3
31.2

8.4
8.5
8.4
8.3

5.9
5.7
5.8
5.7

48,600
48,400
48,500
48,500

3.2
3.2
3.7
3.3

AGO 1 S
AGO 2 S
AGO 3 S

06/07/2002
06/07/2002
06/07/2002
Average

31.7
31.7
31.9
31.8

8.5
8.4
8.6
8.7

7.1
6.7
7.1
7.0

46,500
29,000
48,200
41,233

3.2
1.8
3.2
2.7

maximum
3 Co rise
3 Co rise
3 Co rise
3 Co rise

6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.0-9.0

minimum
5
5
5
2

SBA 1
SBA 2
SBA 3

Water Quality Criteria (DAO 90-34)


Class SA
Class SB
Class SC
Class SD
[1] See Oceanogrphy module for description
[2] S= surface; MD = mid-depth; B = bottom
[3] DO sensor malfunctioned

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 31

page 1 of 2

Table 2.1.4-15 Concentration (in ppm) of Dissolved Elements in Coastal Water Samples
Station Name
Poliqui Bay
BMMW-11
BMMW-12
BMMW-13
BMMW-14
BMMW-15
BMMW-16
BMMW-17
BMMW-25
BMMW
25
BMMW-26
BMMW-27

General
Location
Manito River Mouth
Manito Refo Mangrove
Buang, Manito Mangrove

Nacio Reef
Pinaculan Reef
Asias Reef
Balagbag
Buyo Mangrove
Buyo, northside
Buyo , southside

Sorsogon Bay
BMMW-46
Rizal
BMMW-51
Bucal-bucalan
BMMW-56
Bulabog
BMMW-61
Ticol
BMMW-65
Capuy
BMMW-71
Gimaloto
BMMW-76
Cawayan
SBA- 1
Anahaw (50 m East of mouth)
SBA- 2
Anahaw (50 m front )
Anahaw (50 m West of mouth
SBA- 3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Date

Time
H

Lab
pH

As

12/02/2000
12/01/2000
12/01/2000
12/02/2000
11/29/2000
11/30/2000
11/29/2000
12/01/2000
11/30/2000
11/30/2000

1035
1405
1000
1346
0830
1453
0905
1146
0915

7.21
6.98
7.38
7.60
8.26
8.38
8.10
8.10
7.57
7.54

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
0.02
<0.02
<0.02

12/03/2000
12/03/2000
12/03/2000
12/03/2000
12/03/2000
12/03/2000
12/03/2000
06/08/2002
06/08/2002
06/08/2002

1630
1611
1530
1355
1420
1115
1135
0851
0857
0901

8.05
8.22
7.92
8.24
8.16
8.22
8.34
7.90
8.10
8.00

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
0.12
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02

Cd

Cr

Cu

Fe

Hg

Mn

Pb

Zn

TDS

TSS

<0.01 <0.05
<0.01 0.07
<0.01 0.09
<0.01 0.09
<0.01 0.12
0.05 0.13
0.04 0.12
<0.01
0.01 0.07
<0.01 0.08
<0.01 0.07

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
0.02
<0.02
<0.02

0.20
0.27
0.52
0.27
0.45
0.41
0.34
0.70
0.34
0.59

0.0007
0.0012
0.0013
0.0008
0.0008
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0008
0.0002

<0.02
<0.02
0.12
<0.02
0.16
0.16
0.14
0.12
<0.02
<0.02

<0.05
<0.05
0.53
0.58
0.75
0.75
0.75
<0.05
0.05
0.53
<0.05

0.03
0.03
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.11
0.13
0.07
0.10
0.04

771
2,489
17,996
24,924
32,318
32,763
31,587
6,391
15,921
4,648

107
212
1,674
1,981
3,819
3,885
2,098
1,389
1,628
1,239

<0.01 0.10
0.04 0.11
<0.01 0.09
<0.01 0.11
0.04 0.09
0.05 0.11
0.04 0.11
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05
<0.05 <0.05

<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
0.04
0.05
0.04

0.38
0.45
0.38
0.34
0.41
0.48
0.38
0.16
0.25
0.19

0.0009
0.0002
0.0013
0.0004
0.0007
0.0004
<0.0001
0.0002
<0.0001
0.0003

0.16
0.14
0.16
0.12
0.12
0.14
0.14
0.04
0.04
0.04

0.75
0.69
0.75
0.64
0.80
0.69
0.69
0.41
0.44
0.44

0.12
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.05
0.05
0.05

26,418
50,906
31,694
30,842
33,017
30,371
32,107
31,510
31,162
31,896

1,513
2,010
2,662
2,502
3,180
3,937
4,015
2,978
3,094
3,080

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4-32

page 2 of 2

Table 2.1.4-15 Concentration (in ppm) of Dissolved Elements in Coastal Water Samples ( continuation )
Station Name
Albay Gulf
AGO- 1
AGO- 2
AGO- 3

General
Location

Date

Time
H

Lab
pH

Osiao (50 m East of mouth)


Osiao mouth (50 m Front )
Osiao (50 m West of mouth)

06/07/2002
06/07/2002
06/07/2002

1605
1610
1615

7.70
7.70
8.20
8.12

Average
Water Quality Criteria (maximum limit except for pH)
Class SA
Class S
C
SB
Class SC
Class SD

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

6.5 - 8.5
65-8
6.5
8.5
5
6.5 - 8.5
6.0 - 9.0

As

Cd

Cr

Hg

Mn

Pb

Zn

TDS

TSS

<0.02 <0.05 <0.05 0.04 0.18


<0.02 <0.05 <0.05 0.02 0.12
<0.02 <0.05 <0.05 0.04 0.15

<0.0001
0.0003
0.0002

0.04
0.02
0.04

0.47
0.28
0.44

0.05
0.04
0.05

29,886
17,310
31,264

2,816
1,932
2,942

0.016 0.01 0.05 <0.02 0.34

0.0006

0.07

0.50

0.11

25,132

2,378

0.05
0 05
0.05
0.05
-

0.002
0.002
0
00
0.002
-

0.05
0.05
0
05
0.05
-

0.01 0.05
00 0
0.01
0.10
0
0.01 0.10
-

Cu

Fe

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 33

30% rise
30 pp
ppm rise
30 ppm rise
60 ppm rise

Table 2.1.4-16
WaterShed/
Station Name

River Sediment Chemistry


Date

Time
H

Lab
pH

As
ppm

Cd
ppm

Cr
ppm

Hg
ppm

Pb
ppm

12/06/2000
12/06/2000

1330
1500

7.12
6.62

1.8
2.4

1.6
1.4

4.2
2.8

0.0617
0.1027

14
13

12/07/2000
12/06/2000

1000
1545

7.75
7.45

<0.1
<0.1

1.8
1.2

4.8 0.0672
<0.5 0.0616

15
9.5

12/06/2000
12/06/2000
12/07/2000

1500
7.05 <0.1 0.93 <0.5 0.0604
1430
7.30
2.2
1.9 <0.5 0.0569
0850 no collectible sediments

9.5
15

12/06/2000

1300

7.02

2.0

1.6

8.6

12/06/2000

1200

7.15

0.7

2.5

10

0.0554

20

12/06/2000

1120

7.38

<0.1

1.4

3.8

0.0626

12

12/06/2000
12/06/2000

1000
1045

7.32
7.26

<0.1
<0.1

1.4
1.5

3.8 0.0558
<0.5 0.051

10
10

BMGP-98

12/05/2000

1130

6.80

<0.1

1.4

4.8

0.0652

11

BMGP-24

12/05/2000

1300

6.60

1.7

1.8

5.2

0.0919

11

BMGP-35

12/05/2000

1515

6.82

2.3

1.1

<0.5 0.0535

10

BMGP 133

06/06/2002

1330

8.20

24

0.42

14

BMGP 132

06/06/2002

1420

7.70

0.97

0.50

13

BMGP- 72

06/06/2002

1045

7.1

72

0.50

11

BMGP- 64

06/07/2002

1110

8.1

<0.20 <0.20

13

0.001

5.2

0.0526 11.2

Manitohan River
BMGP-12
BMGP-71
Menito River
BMGP-107
BMGP-80
Rizal River
BMGP-104
BMGP-79
BMGP-103
Bucal-bucalan
BMGP-111
Bulabog
BMGP-116
BMGP 116
Capuy River
BMGP-121
Ticol River
BMGP-127
BMGP-126
Cawayan River

<0.5 0.0974

Anahaw River
<0.0001 9.6
0.003

9.2

Osiao River

Average

7.26

6.2

1.3

<0.0001 6.2

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF) Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

8.8

p. 2.1.4- 34

Table 2.1.4-17: Coastal Sediment Chemistry


Date

Time
H

Lab
pH

As
ppm

B
ppm

Cd
ppm

Cr
Cu
ppm ppm

Buyo, southside

12/02/2000
12/01/2000
12/02/2000
12/01/2000
11/30/2000
12/01/2000

1340
1736
1500
0905
1400
0915

7.85
7.89
7.19
8.00
7 62
7.62
7.76

0.60
2.1
0.90
1.8
<0 10
<0.10
<0.10

3.1
9.7
6.7
8.5
62
6.2
7.0

0.93
1.4
1.8
1.4
16
1.6
1.5

3.8
3.8
6.2
4.4
62
6.2
7.2

BMMS-76

Cawayan

12/03/2000 0915

7.80

1.0

4.1

0.79

BMMS-77

Cawayan

12/03/2000 0945

7.76

<0.10

4.1

BMMS-78

Cawayan

12/03/2000 1000

8.20

0.29

7.92

0.2

Station Name
Poliqui Bay
BMMS-12
BMMS-14
BMMS-15
BMMS-25
BMMS-26
BMMS
26
BMMS-27

General
Location

Manito Refo Mangrove


Nacio Reef
Pinaculan Reef
Buyo Mangrove
Buyo northside
Buyo,

Fe
ppm

Hg
ppm

K
ppm

Li
ppm

Mn
Pb
Zn
ppm ppm ppm

13
48
54
56
54
46

16,000
26,000
36,000
28,800
35 500
35,500
49,300

0.0623
0.1015
0.1617
0.1011
0 0817
0.0817
0.0786

2,750
1,770
1,770
1,860
1 770
1,770
2,890

9.9
41
14
6.6
86
8.6
7.1

180
420
300
590
320
430

6.8
12
15
18
15
15

28
59
60
45
63
87

3.2

17

18,800

0.0517 2,720

2.9

180

7.7

25

0.93

2.8

18

16,000

0.0508 3,250

3.6

190

8.6

37

3.2

0.93

3.8

16

19,300

0.0683 3,190

5.4

210

9.5

37

3.8

0.883

3.27

17

18,033

0.0569 3,053

3.97

193

33

Sorsogon Bay

Average

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4-35

Figure 2.1.4-1

PIPER DIAGRAM
of Selected Water Sources at BGPF and Vicinity

80

l)
0

hlo
rid
e(C
6

)+C
O4

40

20

)
Mg
m( 2 0

Note: Station code as BMGW-#,


consistent with station coding
in Hydrology module.

20

SO4

O3 60
) +B
ic a
rbo 40
na
40
te(
HC

20

60

ium
(M
6 0 g)
Ma
gn
es
40

Ca
rbo 80
80
na
te(
C

20

20

%meq/l

40

HCO 3+CO3

O4

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Na+K

S
te(
lfa

CAT I O N S

20

60

80

Calcium (Ca)

Su

80

80

80

(K)
ium
ss
ota 6 0

Ca

60

40

)+P
40
Na
m( 40
diu

20

60

So

80

O3

Su
lfa
te(
S

s iu
ne
ag
) +M 4 0
Ca
m(
lciu 6 0
Ca

80

20

Mg

54
11
56
57
55
52
8
40

20

40

60

80

Cl

Chloride (Cl)

ANIONS

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4- 36

Plate 2.1.4-1:
In situ determination of pH, temperature, dissolved
oxygen and conductivity at BMGP-72 (Labug Creek
near Botong Power Plant)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Water Quality)

p. 2.1.4-37

2.1.5 METEOROLOGY/CLIMATOLOGY
2.1.5.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions
The project is located in a Type II climate region which is characterized by the absence of dry
season with a very pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January. The area receives
an annual rainfall of about 5,000 mm based on the 1996 - 1999 records of 3 rain gauging
stations in the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Reservation, at elevations 600 730 mASL. In July
1999 to October 2000, the weather station at the BGPF Administrative Complex (600 mASL),
registered a mean rainfall of 32.3 mm/day. The mean temperature was 26.6 oC while the mean
humidity was 83.6%. Wind speed was high at 4.5 m/sec on the average.
The nearest PAGASA station from the project (17 mASL), recorded a lower annual rainfall of
3,355 mm or 9.2 mm/day. The annual temperature is a slightly higher at 27.1 oC, while humidity
is slightly lower at 83%. The annual wind speed is lower at 3 m/sec with NE and SW winds
prevailing over the area, coinciding with the northeast and southwest monsoons, respectively.
The same PAGASA records, covering the years from 1961-1995, further shows the area
experiences 21 rainy days per month and 3 cyclones in every 2 years.

2.1.5.2 Methodology
A. Study Team
This module was prepared by Vanderleaf C. Capalungan (chemist) and Engellau F. Flores
(chemist), with the assistance of Conrado N. Orcena (technician).

B. Parameters
Meteorological data are basic and widely used information in planning and decision making for
the project such as in environmental impact assessment, developing environmental management
measures, siting of facilities, engineering design, risk assessment and hydrological studies. It
also provides explanation to observations gathered for the various environmental modules in this
EIS.
Selected parameters include climate type, rainfall intensity and frequency, temperature, relative
humidity, vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction and respective
frequencies, cloud cover, thunderstorm frequency, lightning frequency and cyclone frequency.

C. Selected Meteorological Stations


Meteorology of the project site was inferred from 3 PNOC-EDC rain gauging stations and from a
weather station, all in the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Reservation where the Tanawon Sector is
situated. The 3 rain gauging stations are located at elevations 600 730 mASL specifically at
the PNOC Basecamp in Manitohan Watershed, Botong FCRS Control Center in Osiao
Watershed, and Cawayan Sector FCRS area in Cawayan Watershed. The period of records
used in this report covered the years 1996 1999 which provides comparison with that of the
longer record of PAGASA. These stations and among others were established in different years
for some watershed management activities and hydrological studies. For years, some stations
have been decommissioned or reactivated and new stations established depending on the
developments in the reservation.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Meteorology)

p. 2.1.5-- 1

The weather station mentioned above is located at the Administration Complex of the BaconManito Geothermal Production Field at elevation 600 mASL, only a few kilometers from the
Tanawon Sector. It has a capability to measure rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and wind
speed. Data from July 1, 1999 and October 24, 2000 were made available.
Meteorological data for the project was also inferred from the 1961-1995 or 30-year records of
PAGASA weather station in Legaspi City, being more complete in parameters and longer period
of observation. The station is about 30 kms from the project site. Climatological extremes as of
1999 are also available.

2.1.5.3 Results and Discussion


The site is located in a Type II climate region of the Modified Coronas Classification, as shown
in Figure 2.1.5-1. The area has no dry season with a very pronounced maximum rainfall from
November to January. Table 2.1.5-1 shows the climatological normals, while Table 2.1.5-2
shows the climatological extremes. PNOC records are presented in Tables 2.1.5-3 and Figure
2.1.5-2.

A.

Rainfall

At the PAGASA station in Legaspi City, rainfall measures 3,354.7 mm annually at a frequency of
21 days per month. On the average, rainfall is at minimum in April at 146.8 mm; it is at maximum
in December at 515.6 mm. The highest 24-hr rainfall measured 484.6 mm, in November 3,
1967. Measurements at the rain gauging stations in the geothermal reservation show a higher
annual rainfall of approximately 5,000 mm. This is attributable to the location of the stations and
the proposed project in a mountainous region where low-lying clouds favorably accumulate and
condense.

B.

Temperature.

The mean annual temperature in Legaspi City is 27.1 OC while the mean minimum and
maximum are 23.4 OC and 30.7 OC, respectively. June is the warmest month with mean
temperature of 28.3 OC; while January is the coldest month with average temperature of 25.5
O
C. The highest temperature registered 37.7 OC on May 27, 1968; while the lowest temperature,
13.9 OC was recorded on December 28, 1971. At the reservation weather station, the mean
temperature recorded in July 1999 October 2000 was slightly lower at 26.6 oC.

C.

Surface Winds

Northeast winds prevail from October to May coinciding with the northeast monsoon; while
southwest winds from June to September during the southwest monsoon period. Monthly wind
speeds averaged 2-4 m/sec, lower in September and higher in January. The annual wind speed
is 3 m/s. Figure 2.1.5-3 shows the wind rose diagrams based on the 1961- 1995 wind data in
Legaspi City. Table 2.1.5-4 shows the monthly average of wind directions for each year from
1961-1995; while Table 2.1.5-5 shows the wind frequency data. The highest wind speed
recorded was 65 m/s at prevailing N winds, which occurred on November 25, 1987. The mean
wind speed recorded at the project was 4.5 m/s.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Meteorology)

p. 2.1.5-- 2

D.

Other Meteorological Data

Humidity at the weather station is high at 84% on the average. In Legaspi City, cloud cover
ranged from 5-6 octas. Thunderstorms occur 80 times annually; 11 times monthly from May to
Oct and 3 times monthly in other months. Lightning occurs 75 times annually with monthly
average of 11 times monthly from May to October and twice monthly from November to April.
The area is visited by 3 cyclones in every 2 years based on the Tropical Cyclone Map of the
Philippines shown in Figure 2.1.5-4. Sea level pressure is 29.4 mbs annually.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Meteorology)

p. 2.1.5-- 3

Figure 2.1.5-2:
Meteorological data at BGPF (Geoscie weather station)
July 01, 1999 to October 24, 2000

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Meteorology)

p. 2.1.5- 10

2.1.6

PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

2.1.6.1

Summary of Findings and Conclusion


The present observational and modeling study has shown that the study areas have moderate
to strong currents that varies in speed and direction according to the non-linear interaction
between the wind and the tide. Furthermore, the project impacts are mostly on water quality
and include an increase of suspended sediment concentration, accumulation of sediments in
rivers and estuarine areas and decrease in water transparency. These identified impacts are
negative in nature, temporary, reversible and moderate in magnitude. Mitigation measures
include the installation of sediment traps, settling ponds and other measures that will prevent
sediment loading to the marine environment. In addition to these measures, monitoring of the
levels of suspended sediment concentrations, sediment accumulation and water transparency
should be carried out to prevent worse conditions to occur.

2.1.6.2

Methodology
The present study makes use of accepted methods of observations and numerical modeling.
The observational study of water currents carried out in December 2000 made use of drifters.
Using drifters and a handheld compass, the current speed and direction were estimated in the
study areas.
Water temperature profiling was carried out using the Horiba water quality checker which is a
multi-sensor instrument. To determine the vertical profiles of temperature in the study areas,
measurements in at least three depths were undertaken. These include the near surface,
mid-depth and near the sediment bed.
Water transparency was determined using a Secchi disk (painted in white) with a diameter of
about half ( ) meter. This was tied to a rope and lowered with a weight (stone) to
compensate for its buoyancy.

A. EIA Study Team


Dr. Paul Rivera (Oceanographer) and Moises Catipon (Technician) conducted the baseline
survey for the Physical Oceanographic module last December 7 and 8, 2000.

B. Description of the Circulation Model


The current patterns in the coastal area of San Fernando were studied using a quasi-three
dimensional non-linear numerical model of the coastal zone. The oceanographic model for
the currents and sea surface elevation is essentially based on the modified circulation model
of Koutitas (1988) which was extended in the present study to include horizontal momentum
diffusion and a modification in the bottom friction formulation. The present formulation allows
the inclusion of the non-linear interaction between the wind and the tide. The governing
equations of the present coastal circulation model are written in the Cartesian coordinate
system as:

ay u
u
u
u
a u
sx
+u
+v
+ 0.2 u + x
+ 0.2 v +
= fvg
+
t
x
y
x h
40 x
40 y

(1)

u u
u 2

u + v 2 0.5 sx + Ah 2 +
k

h
y2
h
x
2

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 1

ay v
a v
v
v
v
sy
+ 0.2 v +
= f u g
+
+u
+v
+ 0.2 u + x
40 x
40 y
t
x
y
y h

sy
2v 2v
v 2
u + v 2 0.5 + Ah 2 +
k

h
y2
h
x

(u h) ( v h)
+
+
=0
t
x
y

(2)

(3)

where u and v represent the depth-averaged current components (m s-1) in the x and y-axes
respectively, is the sea surface elevation (m), f is the Coriolis parameter (s-1), g is the
gravitational acceleration (m s-2), s is the wind stress acting over the sea surface (N m-2), is
the seawater density (kg m-3), h is the water depth (m), k is a bottom friction coefficient, and Ah
is the horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient (m2 s-1). The variable a (m s-1) is related to the wind
stress as in (Koutitas 1988):

a=

sh

= 16.6 s

(4)

in which the fluid viscosity at the surface is assumed as a function of the surface stress and
the depth of the water column.
The surface stress term is assumed as a quadratic function of the wind W with components in
the x and y -axes given by

sx = a cd Wx W

, sx = a c d Wy W

(5)

where a is the air density, cd is a drag coefficient and Wx,y are the wind components in the x
and y-axes, respectively.
Equations (1) and (2) define the current accelerations in the x and y-axes respectively. The
first terms on the left of both equations represent the local change of the flow velocities. The
following terms on the left represent changes in the fluid acceleration due to advection of
momentum. The additional advective terms involving the stress variable a are corrections
imposed on advection to include non-uniformity in the vertical current profile. On the right
hand side of both equations (in the order written), effects due to earth's rotation (Coriolis
acceleration), sea surface elevation gradient, surface stress and bottom frictional effects, and
horizontal momentum diffusion provide the necessary physical factors affecting coastal
circulation. Basically, these equations represent conservation of momentum in the coastal
sea. Current velocities are predicted using these equations. On the other hand, Equation (3),
which is simply the equation of mass continuity, represents conservation of water mass. It
predicts the evolution of the water level or sea surface elevation from known current velocities
due to the wind and the tide. While written in two-dimensional forms, Equations (1-3) can be
used to assess the three-dimensional structure of the horizontal flow velocities. In its
derivation, it was assumed that the current profile in the vertical is a quadratic function of the
2
water depth, i.e. u(z) = az + bz + c, in which z is the vertical coordinate. With appropriate
boundary conditions, Koutitas (1988) derived the solution for the horizontal current profile to
be:

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 2

3 z

z
3
u ( z ) = a u 1 + a + 1

2 h
h
4

(6)

The circulation model is thus a quasi-three dimensional model in the sense that currents at
any depth can be estimated from model calculations using Equation (6). Based on this, the
use of the estimated (modelled) depth-averaged currents and the surface wind stress
contribution (from Equation 5) give a more realistic approximation of the horizontal current
profile in the vertical.

1. Boundary Conditions
The effect of the tide in the coastal circulation is included by the propagation of a long-gravity
wave at the open boundaries of the computational domain. The surface elevation field,
varying in time, is prescribed at the boundaries with an appropriate tidal forcing function
derived from tidal observations in the area. A truncated Fourier series of the form

( t ) = a 0 + a1 cos( 1 t p1 ) + a 2 cos( 2 t p 2 ) + a3 cos( 3 t p3 ) + a 4 cos( 4 t p 4 ) (7)


is used for this purpose, where (t) is the sea surface elevation due to the tide at the open
boundary as a function of time t, a's represent the amplitudes with ao as the mean value, 's
are the frequencies, and p's are the phases of each of the four tidal constituents (O1, K1, M2,
and S2 respectively). The estimated amplitudes and phases of the major tidal constituents in
the area are given in Table 2.1.6-2.
The current patterns in the area of study were predicted with the simultaneous solution of the
coupled partial differential equations (1-3). An explicit finite difference method was used in the
numerical calculations with a grid interval (equal in the x and y-axes) of 500 m for Sorsogon
Bay and 200 m for Poliqui Bay. The time interval used was limited to 10 seconds in both bays
due to a numerical stability constraint according to the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy stability
criterion. The different meteorological scenarios affecting the study areas are included in the
modeling works.
The lateral open boundaries of the computational domain were treated with the pseudoimplicit form of the Orlanski Radiation Condition as described in Rivera (1997). The method is
basically a wave-propagation technique which is known in oceanographic modeling as a nonreflecting boundary condition. Unknown current components and sea surface elevation in the
open boundaries were estimated using this method.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 3

C. Sediment Transport
Sediment transport in this study was simulated and predicted using a third-order accurate
numerical model as described in Rivera (1997). The model is based on the advectiondiffusion model solved using the QUICKEST numerical scheme which is now the basis of
many environmental models due to its efficiency and accuracy in predicting transported
environmental pollutants such as sediments. The sink or decay term is parameterized in
terms of the sedimentation flux. The sedimentation flux is assumed to be proportional to the
settling velocity of sediment particles, the concentration of sediments and the probability of
deposition. Two sediment fractions were assumed in this study to represent the coarse and
fine sediments discharged by the rivers. The settling velocities assigned to these sediment
fractions were obtained from the studies conducted by Rivera (1997) and are partly based on
laboratory experiments and on Stokes Law. The probability of sediment deposition is
dependent on the total shear stress induced by currents and waves. If the total shear stress is
above a critical shear stress for deposition, sediments may continue to be transported away
by the currents and do not settle on the sediment bed. However, if the total shear stress is
below the critical shear stress for deposition, settling of particles will occur in the marine
environment. The effect of salt flocculation has been implicitly included in the calibration of
the sedimentation flux.
Measurement of suspended sediment transport is difficult to undertake particularly in the
marine environment. An accurate determination of suspended sediment concentration and
the current velocity throughout the vertical dimension is required. The observed total
suspended solids concentration (TSS) can be used as a rough estimate of the suspended
sediment concentration.

2.1.6.3

Results and Discussion


A. Coastal Geometry and Bathymetry
1. Sorsogon Bay
Sorsogon Bay is a very shallow semi-enclosed bay located south of the proposed project
site. The axis of the bay is oriented east to west with its narrow mouth in the
southwestern part. It has a very irregular coastal geometry and its bathymetric contours
show increasing depths towards the western direction. The coastal geometry and
bathymetric map of Sorsogon Bay is shown in Figure 2.1.6-1. The narrow opening of the
bay suggests a tidally dominated marine environment.

2. Poliqui Bay
The Manitohan River which is a potential source of sediments from the project site drains
in Poliqui Bay. Poliqui Bay is larger than Sorsogon Bay and has an opening towards the
east into the Pacific Basin. Its bathymetry shows much deeper depths than Sorsogon Bay
with a sharp bathymetric gradient away from the river mouth. The coastal and depth
profile of a portion of Poliqui Bay is shown in Figure 2.1.6-2. While the tide may play a
secondary role in this marine environment, the action of the wind and the waves may
dominate the transport of sediments in this area.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 4

B. Wave Characteristics in Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays


Waves that are generally induced by the wind acting over the sea surface are dependent on
the speed of the wind, the fetch length and the water depth. The wind speed is measured at
anemometer level (i.e. 10 m above mean sea level) while the fetch length is measured in
terms of the area of wind generation as it blows in a sustained manner from the open sea.
Here, the coastline is a natural boundary where the fetch length ends and therefore limits the
wave propagation. The effect of the water depth is such that wind-induced waves have a
limited height due to frictional dissipation of wave energy caused by the sediment bed. It is
therefore evident that wind-induced waves can grow higher in deeper waters than in shallow
waters. Visual observations during moderate to strong winds confirm the strong tendency of
the waves to be depth-limited.
Measurement of wind-generated waves is not usually undertaken due to practical reasons
such as the lack of reliable sensors that can be bought at reasonable prices. Wave
instruments are generally very expensive. It is therefore the practice of many countries to
estimate the waves using the well-known wave relations of the Coastal Engineering Research
Center (CERC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. These wave formulations are semiempirical in nature and they usually give good estimates of the significant wave heights,
period and length. By definition, a significant wave height is the average height of the highest
third of the waves.
The estimation of the significant wave height, which is the most important factor to consider in
many applications, follows the general relation given by:
0.42

gF

0.0125 2
0. 75

W
0.283W 2

gh
Hs =
tanh 0.53 2 tanh

0
75
.
W
g

tanh 0.53 gh

W 2

where Hs is the significant wave height, W is the surface wind speed measured at
anemometer level, F is the fetch length, g is the gravitational acceleration and h is the mean
water depth.
Table 2.1.6-1 shows the estimated significant wave heights at different wind speeds and water
depths in the study areas. Due to its shallowness, the significant waves in Sorsogon Bay
could not grow enough. Significant wave heights of less than 1.5 m could be expected even
during stormy conditions. During ordinary conditions of winds from 1 to 5 m/s, significant
wave heights of about 0.02-0.48 m are estimated to occur in Sorsogon Bay. Partly, the semienclosed nature of the bay limits the propagation of greater wave heights.
In Poliqui Bay, waves could grow higher due its characteristic depths, which generally
exceeds 40 m. In addition, it is partly exposed to the propagation of often very high waves
from the deep Pacific basin. It is estimated that during stormy conditions with surface winds
ranging from about 10-20 m s-1, the whole area may experience violent waves with significant
wave heights reaching over 3 m in amplitude.
It should be noted that these figures represent the average of the highest third of all wave
heights (definition of significant wave height) and surface waves could be much higher in
actual heights.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 5

C. Tides
The study areas are both exposed to the tidal effects of the Pacific basin which generally
contributes to the semi-diurnal characteristics of the tide in many coastal areas in the eastern
and southern parts of the Philippine Archipelago. The tidal analysis carried out in this study
uses available in\formation of tidal heights and time of occurrences from the Tide and Current
Tables (2000) published by the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
(NAMRIA). Analysis of the 4 major tidal constituents namely, O1, K1, M2, and S2 tides was
carried out in this study. The characteristics of these tidal constituents are summarized in
Table 2.1.6-2.
The ratio of the diurnal to the semi-diurnal constituents (K1 + O1)/(M2 + S2) was determined in
this study. The result of the analysis showed a ratio of less than 1. This further confirms that
the tide in the area is predominantly semi-diurnal with two high and two low water levels
occurring in a day. The variation of the tide during the period of observation in December
2000 is shown in Figure 2.1.6-3.

D. Currents
1. Observed surface currents
Observations of surface currents in Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays were carried during a
stormy weather condition in December 7-8, 2000. Observations were carried using
drifters whose measurement principle is analogous to the conventional drogue. A drifter is
released from a known position and allowed to be transported away by the flow. The time
interval of release and the distance traveled were determined and the surface currents
were estimated. Furthermore, the current directions were taken using a hand-held
compass. There were 6 stations with 4 measuring sites each in Sorsogon Bay. On the
other hand, there were five stations in Poliqui Bay. The stations are referred again to
Figure 2.1.3-1 and the results of the field observations are shown in Tables 2.1.6-3 to
2.1.6-4. The observed surface currents in Sorsogon Bay showed values that range from
5-50 cm/s. Due to the strong discharge rate of a nearby river in Station 1, the maximum
surface current of about 50 cm/s was recorded there. The observations in Poliqui Bay
showed a higher range of surface currents. During the time of measurements (which is
generally representative of a stormy season), the surface currents in the area ranged from
7 to over 60 cm/s. The highest current speed of about 62.5 cm/s was recorded near the
mouth of Manitohan River.
While actual field measurements were undertaken, computer modeling and simulation
works are essential to have a complete picture of the behavior of currents in the areas
surrounding the project site. The results will become useful in assessing the possible
impacts of the project especially on the advection and dispersion of pollutants (sediments
in this case) discharged within the vicinity, their potential accumulation in the area and
their likely impact on the marine biota.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 6

2. Predicted current patterns


2.1 Sorsogon Bay
The currents in Sorsogon Bay are predominantly dictated by the tide. The result of the
circulation model in the area showed that tidal ebbing and flooding govern the transport of
sediments within and out of the bay. The circulation model which uses mean wind
conditions during the changing seasons showed that the ebb currents would rush towards
the mouth of the bay with a notable increase in magnitudes at the narrow channel at the
entrance of the bay. The maximum depth-averaged current simulated during ebb tide was
about 34.5 cm/s. During flooding, the currents would rush towards the head of the bay.
Slightly lower current magnitudes are simulated during the flooding period. The maximum
tidal current simulated by the model was about 30.7 cm/s. The results of the circulation
model are shown in Figures 2.1.6-4 to 2.1.6-5.

2.2 Poliqui Bay


Poliqui is apparently difference from Poliqui Bay in terms of prevailing current conditions.
The currents in the area are primarily dictated by the wind. The numerical model
simulated the variation of the circulation pattern in the area with the changing wind
conditions. The results of the numerical model are plotted in Figs. 2.1.6-6 to 2.1.6-7. It
can be seen that the circulation in the area is generally complex owing to the complex
coastal geometry and bottom topography in the area. The simulated current magnitudes
in the study area are comparable in magnitudes to Sorsogon Bay. A maximum depthaveraged current magnitude of over 30 cm/s has been estimated for both bays. Changing
circulation patterns generally result from the changing wind conditions in the area as
dictated by the northeast and southwest monsoon winds.

E.

Water Transparency

Due to the shallowness of Sorsogon Bay, sediments would be easily resuspended by the
action of wind and waves. The bottom of this bay is heavily silted and a slight wind and wave
action would generate suspended sediment concentration that hamper light penetration.
Additionally, there are more rivers discharging sediments in this area than Poliqui Bay. It is
therefore expected that the water transparency is low in this area.
Observations of water transparency in Sorsogon Bay was carried out during the storm in
December 7, 2000. A Secchi disk of about half a meter in diameter was used for this purpose.
The observed values showed very low water transparency that ranged from 0.33 to 2.2 m.
These values are quite low in a marine environment.
In contrast, observed Secchi depth values in Poliqui Bay showed higher water transparency
and therefore greater light penetration. The minimum recorded Secchi depth in the area
during the period of observation (December 2000) was about 0.8 m. During this period, lower
transparency values were recorded near the river mouths due to the sediments transported by
the tributary rivers.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 7

F.

Temperature Profile

The water temperature in both bays shows a weak stratification. The temperature were
measured near the surface, at mid-depth and near the bottom. The observed values in
Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays showed almost equal temperature values with increasing depth.
Observed water temperature showed a mean of about 27C during the period of observation
and hardly shows differences in locations. At most, the temperature in the vertical showed a
decrease of about 1C in both bays. The action of the wind and the waves during the period of
observation possibly governed a strong mixing in the water column preventing the occurrence
of strong stratification.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 8

Table 2.1.6-1

Estimated significant wave heights (m).

Surface Wind Speed (m s-1)


1-5
6-9
10-15
16-20
0.02-0.18
0.20-0.25
0.26-0.32
0.33-0.38
0.02-0.28
0.29-0.43
0.44-0.55
0.56-0.64
0.02-0.46
0.57-0.83
0.90-1.17
1.21-1.38
0.02-0.51
0.66-1.08
1.20-1.72
1.81-2.13
0.02-0.52
0.70-1.26
1.45-2.38
2.57-3.29
0.02-0.52
0.70-1.26
1.45-2.43
2.63-3.41
CERC (1984) equation was used to estimate the significant wave heights.

Depth (m)
1
2
5
10
50
100
Note:

Table 2.1.6-2

Major Tidal Constituents in the coastal areas of


Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays.

Tidal Constituent
Amplitude a (m)
Phase p (radian)
Period (hr)
Frequency (rad hr-1)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

O1
0.246972
-0.881695
25.82
0.243351

K1
0.223938
1.882844
23.93
0.262516

M2
0.432676
2.035695
12.42
0.505868

S2
0.296587
0.819782
12.00
0.523598

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 9

Table 2.1.6-3. Observed physical oceanographic characteristic in Sorsogon Bay in December 7, 2000.
Latitude
(N)
Station 1
MenitoBuenavista
Station 2
Rizal

Station 3
BucalBucalan
Station 4
PokdolCapuy
Station 5
Ticol

Station 6
Cawayan

Table 2.1.6-4.
Station ID
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3
Station 4
Station 5

Longitude
(E)

Depth
(m)

Secchi Depth
(m)

Temperature (C)

12 58 38.3
12 58 33.6
12 58 38.3
12 58 15.8
12 58 30.6
12 58 26.1
12 58 37.3
12 58 19.4
12 5840.2
12 58 35.9
12 58 40.6
12 58 28.0
12 57 48.1
12 57 50.2
12 57 46.6
12 57 36.3
12 57 18.7
12 57 21.7
12 57 18.8

123 53 3.2
123 52 8.8
123 53 2.6
123 53 8.6
123 5416.2
123 5410.7
123 5422.7
123 5422.6
123 5406.8
123 5406.3
123 5504.4
123 5459.0
123 5541.1
123 5503.5
123 5551.6
123 5536.6
123 5602.9
123 5620.5
123 5645.6

1.5
1.1
1.5
5.0
1.2
2.5
1.3
4.0
1.3
2.0
1.2
2.5
1.2
1.5
1.0
4.2
2.5
2.0
2.0

surface
26.1
26.0
26.0
26.0
27.0
26.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

12 57 10.6
12 57 11.0
12 57 13.1
12 57 05.9
12 56 54.2

123 5633.8
123 5713.6
123 5705.3
123 5728.0
123 5713.3

2.7
0.6
2.0
1.0
5.0

27.0
26.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

mid-depth
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
26.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

bottom
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
26.0
27.0
27.0
27.0

Current
Spd (cm/s)

Current
Dir (deg)

0.33
0.40
0.35
0.85
0.95
1.00
1.20
2.20
1.30
1.50
1.20
2.00
0.70
0.75
1.00
2.20
1.60
1.20
1.50

50.0
14.3
10.5
10.5
22.2
28.6
22.2
22.2
22.2
33.3
11.1
8.3
30.3
25.0
14.9
26.3
20.0
21.2
5.5

160
210
170
225
200
210
240
245
235
240
230
235
230
230
250
220
225
240
220

1.80
0.60
1.00
1.00
2.00

21.2
37.0
33.3
22.2
20.8

215
240
230
245
220

Observed physical oceanographic characteristic in Poliqui Bay in December 8, 2000.


Latitude
(N)
13 07 37.8
13 07 33.1
13 07 49.8
13 07 18.0
13 07 38.1

Longitude
(E)
123 5145.9
123 5122.2
123 5120.8
123 5117.8
123 5055.3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Depth (m)
1.75
15.80
19.00
1.80
35.00

surface
26.5
26.6
27.4
27.7
27.2

Temperature (C)
mid-depth
26.5
27.5
27.7
27.5
27.8

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

bottom
26.5
27.9
28.0
27.5
28.1

Secchi Depth
(m)

p. 2.1.6- 10

2.00
0.80
2.10
1.10
2.20

Current
Spd (cm/s)
62.5
22.2
7.4
30.3
20.0

Current
Dir (deg)
195
280
215
230
270

Pages 2.1.6- 11 to 17 :
Figures 2.1.3-1 to 7

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 11

14000

12000

N-S Distance (m)

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

E-W Distance (m)

Fig. 2.1.6-1.

Coastal geometry and bathymetry of Sorsogon Bay. Depths are given


in meters below Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 11

9000

8000

7000

N-S Distance (m)

6000

5000

POLI QUI BAY

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

E-W Distance (m)

Fig. 2.1.6-2.

Coastal geometry and bathymetry of Poliqui Bay. Depths are given in


meters below Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 12

2.0
1.5

Tide (m)

1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5

10 12 15 17 19 22 24 26 29 31

-1.0
Time (days)

Fig. 2.1.6-3.

Tidal heights (m) in the project site during the period of observation
in December 2000 (NAMRIA, 2000).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 13

6000

5000

4000

3000

SORSOGON BAY

2000

1000

0
0

1000

Fig. 2.1.6-4.

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Predicted currents in Sorsogon Bay during tidal ebbing.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 14

6000

5000

4000

3000

SORSOGON BAY

2000

1000

0
0

1000

Fig. 2.1.6-5.

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Predicted currents in Sorsogon Bay during tidal flooding.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 15

9000

8000

7000

N-S Distance (m)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

E-W Distance (m)


max. velocity = 0.43 m/s

Fig. 2.1.6-6.

Predicted currents in Poliqui Bay during the northeast monsoon


season.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 16

9000

8000

7000

N-S Distance (m)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

E-W Distance (m)

Fig. 2.1.6-7.

Predicted currents in Poliqui Bay during the southwest monsoon


season.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Oceanography)

p. 2.1.6- 17

2.1.7 AIR QUALITY


2.1.7.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions
2.1.7.2 Methodology
A.

EIA Study Team

The baseline air quality study for the proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project was
initiated on November 6-8, 2000 and finalized on June 6-8, 2002. Monitoring
conducted on November 2000 was performed by Engr. Antonio M. Ranara (BGPF
Environmental Officer), Engellau F. Flores (Chemist), and Vanderleaf Capalungan
(chemist) of PNOC-EDC. On June 2002, the baseline air quality survey was
resumed by Engr. Ronald S. Pahunang (Air Quality Consultant), assisted by Engr.
Antonio N. Ranara and Albert Batalla (technician) of PNOC-EDC.

B.

Location and Scope of Study

The proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project geothermal block is located south of


Botong and Bacman-I GPPs and covers a total land area of about 2,460 hectares.
Three existing main sources of air emissions have been identified in the area:
Bacman 1, Botong, and Cawayan geothermal power plants (GPP). Bacman 1,
which has a rated capacity of 110 MW, is the largest among the three power plants.
Bacman 1, however, has not been in operation since 2000 due to technical
problems. Botong and Cawayan GPPs, meanwhile, are operating with a power
capacity of 20 MW each. These power plants are all operated and maintained by
the National Power Corporation (NPC). PNOC-EDC supplies the steam energy
required by the three power plants.
Based on the existing and proposed type of emission sources and applicable air
quality regulations for the proposed project, the baseline data gathering focuses on
ambient H2S, total suspended particulates (TSP), and noise. In addition, monthly
monitoring data gathered from existing monitoring at BGPF are included in the
baseline survey.

C.

Study Parameters and Methods

Ambient Air Quality:


There are two types of Philippine air quality standards that regulate the air quality
emissions of a certain location. These are the Occupational Safety and Health
Standards (OSHS), which applies to workplace environment, and the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards of the DENR. The two air quality standards differ
mainly on the monitoring location and the exposure period. Workplace standards
are intended to prevent workers from being exposed to hazardous pollutants in their
workplace, while ambient air quality standards apply to people outside the industrial
premises and workplace environment.
A total of nine air sampling stations were considered for the proposed Tanawon
Geothermal Project during air sampling on December 2000 and June 2002. The
monitoring stations were chosen based on the size of the proposed geothermal
area, locations of existing and proposed and geothermal power plants, existing

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


1

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -1

PNOC-EDC air quality monitoring stations, prevailing wind conditions, and the
distance of the nearest residential area from the geothermal block. Monitoring
stations within the geothermal facility-work area (GFF-WA) are intended for the
protection of workers health while monitoring centers at population centers (PC) are
provided to determine baseline pollutant levels prior to the construction of the
proposed project.
Hydrogen sulfide was measured at the pre-determined stations using a Jerome H2S
analyzer. Measurements were done at different periods of the day (early morning,
daytime, and nighttime). For each station and sampling period, instantaneous
measurements were made within the 30-minute sampling period, the average of
which represents the H2S concentration.
A Staplex High Volume Sampler was used to collect TSP samples. The sampler has
an internal sampling pump which draws air at a constant flow rate through an 8
inches by 10 inches (8 x 10) fiber-glass filter paper. Filter paper samples stored in
sealed envelopes were brought to Ostrea Mineral Laboratory, Inc. for gravimetric
analysis. TSP concentrations were determined by dividing the total mass of
samples collected (final weight of filter paper less initial weight) with the corrected
volume of air sampled.

Ambient Noise Quality:


Noise refers to unwanted sounds, including random sound and sound generated as
a byproduct of other activities, such as transportation and industrial operations
(Wilson, 1989). Noise standards are established to protect the public and the
workers. The ambient noise quality standards are provided for in Memorandum
Circular No. 002 of the National Pollution Control Commission or NPCC) (NPCC
1981), while the noise standards in the workplace are stipulated in the OSHS
(DOLE, 1990).
The ambient noise level standards for the Philippine setting are stipulated in the
National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC) Memorandum Circular No. 002
Series of 1980. This circular amends Article I, (Noise Control Regulations), Chapter
IV (Miscellaneous Regulations), Rules and Regulations of the NPCC Series of 1979.
Noise level standards are provided for residential, commercial, light industrial and
heavy industrial areas (Table 2.1.7-1). Note that for areas directly facing a two-lane
road, the applicable noise standard is the correction factor of +5 dBA plus the
corresponding noise standard. This is to compensate the noise emanating from
vehicular traffic.
Noise standards for workplace are embodied in the Occupational Health and Safety
(OSHS) standards of the DOLE (DOLE 1990). Permissible noise exposure limits
vary from 15 minutes to eight hours with standards of 115 dBA and 90 dBA,
respectively. Under OSHS noise standards, no exposure in excess of 115 dBA is
allowed. OSHS noise standards apply to the total time of exposure per working day
regardless of whether it is continuous exposure or a number of short-term
exposures. Combined effect of noise exposure at two or three different short-term
exposures is calculated by adding the sum of the fractions of each exposure. This,
however, only applies to noise exposure higher than 90 dBA (DOLE 1990).
The Quest 2000 Noise Level Meter, which is manufactured by Quest Technologies,
Inc., can record instantaneous noise levels at different time intervals or by
continuous recording using a data logger. Measurement was done by recording
instantaneous noise levels that appear in the meter display every 10 seconds until

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


2

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -2

50 readings were recorded. The median of the seven maximum noise levels
recorded is compared with the NPCC noise standards and OSHS standards. The
average of the lowest 45th and 46th noise readings is sometimes called background
noise level (Wilson, 1989).

1.1.7.3 Results And Discussion


A.

Ambient Air Quality

Hydrogen Sulfide:
The emission data for the three existing geothermal power plants are shown in
Table 2.1.7-2. Cawayan power plant emits higher percentage of H2S (in NCG) at
3.5%, followed by Botong GPP at 2%, and Bacman GPP at 1.2%. Based on a
theoretical mass balance estimate, emission rates of Botong GPP (2074 tons per
year) and Bacman I GPP (2248 tons per year) are about three times higher than
those of Cawayan GPP (712 tons per year). In terms of carbon dioxide (CO2)
emission, Bacman I GPP emits the highest CO2 estimated at 185,000 tons per
year, followed by Botong GPP (101,000 tons per year), and Cawayan GPP (20000
tons per year).
Monitoring of H2S has been conducted at the existing Bacman geothermal block
since 1996. During the monitoring period, nine stations had been established, eight
of which were used for workplace compliance monitoring, while the remaining
station was for ambient air compliance monitoring (Figure 2.1.7-1). Based on Table
2.1.7-3, results of monitoring show compliance with the OSHS and NAAQS limits for
H2S. The maximum observed H2S was 0.08 ppm, which is well below the OSHSs
TLV of 10 ppm, while the maximum observed H2S at the nearest population center
was 6.1 ug/Nm3 or 0.0044 ppm. The average concentration from 1996 to May 2002
is 14.3 ug/Nm3 or 0.01 ppm. There was no record of exceedance during the sixyear monitoring period.
Hydrogen sulfide was measured in these stations using a Jerome H2S analyzer at
different times of the day. Results of the recent air quality sampling are shown in
Table 2.1.7-4, which shows that H2S levels range from below instrument detection
limit to 0.0097 ppm. These values are way below the applicable H2S standards.

Total Suspended Particulates:


Table 2.1.7-5 presents the observed one-hour average TSP concentrations at the
air sampling stations. Observed TSP ranged from 33.8 to 78.9 g/Nm3, which are
well within the DENR standard of 300 g/Nm3. These levels are typical background
levels of rural areas, which are normally source from wind blown dust and fugitive
emission from vehicular traffic. In general, particulate pollutant category is made up
of fugitive dusts, large ions or salts, metals, products of incomplete fuel
combustion, fumes, and various other solid or liquid particles.

B.

Ambient Noise Quality

The observed median noise levels are summarized in Table 2.1.7-6 and presented
as contours in Figure 2.1.7-2. Due to passing vehicles along the access road going
to the project site (Station 8), contour levels southwest of the geothermal block

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


3

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -3

register a high of 60 dBA and a low of about 50 dBA in Cawayan GPP area. Botong
GPP area also registers peak levels at 56 dBA. In the absence of passing vehicles,
noise levels at Station A7 are normalized to background level (Figure 2.1.7-3), but
Botong GPP area still registers peak noise levels at 56 dBA.
At night, noise levels are higher at NPC Cawayan Hydro power plant (not operating
during sampling) due to combined noise from birds, crickets, and generator at the
NPC hydro plant. In summary, background noise levels in the area are relatively
low, typical of pristine condition.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


4

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -4

Table 2.1.7-1.

Philippine Ambient Air Quality Standards

Category[1]
AA
A
B
C
D
[1]

[2]

Maximum Allowable Noise (dBA) by time periods[2]


Daytime
Morning/Evening
Nighttime
50
45
40
55
50
45
65
60
55
70
65
60
75
70
65

Class AA-

Class A Class B Class C Class D Morning Daytime Evening Nighttime -

a section of contiguous area which requires quietness, such as areas


within 100 meters from school site, nursery schools, hospitals and special
house for the aged
a section of contiguous area which is primarily used for residential area
a section of contiguous area which is primarily a commercial area
a section of contiguous area reserved as light industrial area
a section which is primarily reserved as heavy industrial area
5:00 A.M. to 9:00 AM
9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M.
6:00 P.M. to 10:00 P.M.
10:00 P.M. to 5:00 A.M.

Table 2.1.7-2. Emission Data of the Three Existing Power Plants


Parameter
Capacity (MWe)
Steam Flow (kg/hr)
%NCG in Steam (%)
% H2S in NCG (%)
% CO2 in NCG (%)
H2S emission rate (g/sec)
H2S emission rate (tons/year)
CO2 emission rate (kg/sec/Mwe)
CO2 emission rate (1000 tons/year)

Cawayan
20
154,800
1.5
3.5
96.5
23.0
712.0
0.031
20.0

Botong
20
197,280
6.0
2.0
97.0
66.0
2074.0
0.159
101.0

Bacman I
110
855,360
2.5
1.2
98.8
71.0
2248.0
0.053
185.0

Source: PNOC-EDC Geothermal Division (2002)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


5

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -5

Table 2.1.7-3. Summary of PNOC-EDC H2S monitoring results from


1996 to 2002 (in ppm)
STATION
Location
ID
1
PAD E

No. of
Readings
50

Min

Max

Ave

0.001

0.016

0.005

No. of
Exceedances
0

PAD H
PAL L

49
50

0.000
0.001

0.020
0.024

0.003
0.005

0
0

Hump Sta

35

0.001

0.014

0.005

Cawayan

34

0.001

0.006

0.003

6
7

Botong
Admin

47
36

0.000
0.000

0.062
0.022

0.019
0.002

0
0

Tublijon*

0.001

0.004

0.001

10

CN Sulfa

43

0.018

0.080

0.034

13

MO-2 (MGLP)

0.000

0.052

0.017

2
3

*STA 14: Naghaso Hotspring Brgy. Hulugan, Manito is inactive

Table 2.1.7-4. Observed H2S on June 6-7, 2002


Dec. 8, 2000
Station
No.

Location

Date/Time of Sampling

15

PNOC-EDC Base Camp

Admin

16

Bacman-I Power Plant

17

Pad BA

18
19

Maricrum Elementary School, San Jose Bacon


NPC Cawayan River Hydro Power Plant

Tublijon

20

NPC Cawayan Power Plant

21

Brgy. Ticol Elementary School

06 June 2002/3:58 PM
06 June 2002/10:03 PM
06 June 2002/5:31 PM
06 June 2002/9:30 PM
07 June 2002/9:22 AM
07 June 2002/2:32 PM
07 June 2002/8:41 PM
07 June 2002/8:00 AM
07 June 2002/1:51 PM
07 June 2002/8:00 PM
06 June 2002/1:03 PM
06 June 2002/2:00 PM
06 June 2002/7:57 PM
06 June 2002/3:00 PM
06 June 2002/8:36 PM
06 June 2002/5:03PM
06 June 2002/9:03 PM
08 Dec 2000/4:50 PM

H2S
(ug/Nm3)
0.001*
0.000*
0.002*
0.002*
0.009*
0.002*
0.0097*
0.001*
0.001*
0.002*
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.001*
0.001*
0.002

* Wokplace monitoring - applicable H2S standard = 15,000 ug/Nm3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


6

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -6

Table 2.1.7-5. Observed ambient TSP levels on July 11-12, 2002


Sta
No.

Location

Date/
Start of Sampling

15

PNOC Base Camp

Admin

16

Bacman-I Power Plant

17

Pad BA

18

Maricrum Elementary School, San Jose Bacan

19

NPC Cawayan River Hydro Power Plant

Tublijon

20

NPC Cawayan Power Plant

11 July 2002/
3:45 PM4:45 PM
11 July 2002/
11:26 AM12:26 PM
11 July 2002/
1:12 PM 2:12 PM
11 July 2002/
9:47 AM 10:47 AM
12 July 2002/
11:40 AM12:40 PM
12 July 2002/
2:00 PM3:00 PM
12 July 2002/
10:05 AM11:05 AM
11 July 2002/
2:31 PM3:31 PM

TSP
3
(g/ Nm )
78.9
33.8
73.6
66.4
62.6
66.9
61.0
76.0

Table 2.1.7-6. Observed noise levels on June 6-9, 2002 (in dBA)
Sta No.

Location

15

PNOC-EDC Base Camp

Admin

16

Bacman-I Power Plant

17

Pad BA

18

Maricrum Elementary School,


San Jose Bacan
NPC Cawayan River Hydro
Power Plant
Tublijon

20

NPC Cawayan Power Plant

19

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


7

Date/
Start of Sampling

Noise
(median)

Noise
(back-ground)

06 June 2002/3:58 PM
06 June 2002/10:03 PM
06 June 2002/5:31 PM
06 June 2002/9:30 PM
07 June 2002/9:22 AM
07 June 2002/2:32 PM
07 June 2002/8:41 PM
07 June 2002/8:00 AM
07 June 2002/1:51 PM
07 June 2002/8:00 PM
06 June 2002/1:03 PM

51.0
53.0
47.0
52.0
54.0
49.0
56.0
56.0
53.0
48.0
50.0

43.0
49.0
39.0
46.0
49.0
47.0
54.0
53.0
49.0
46.0
38.0

06 June 2002/2:00 PM
06 June 2002/7:57 PM
06 June 2002/3:00 PM
06 June 2002/8:36 PM
06 June 2002/5:03PM
06 June 2002/9:03 PM

51.0
64.0
60.0
50.0
49.0
50.0

48.0
62.0
44.0
48.0
46.0
46.0

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -7

3.2

FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS WITH THE PROJECT

3.2.1

Civil Works/Construction Phase


J. Generation of Air Suspended Particulates
Localized, infrequent and low intensity increase in air suspended particulates is
expected from excavation works, road leveling/grading, plant building construction, and
transport operations. This is due to high rainfall frequency of 221 days per year or 14 to
23 days per month that serves as continual dust-suppresant.
Potential areas of emissions are the proposed road network, drill pads, FCRS routes,
separator stations, power plant site, quarries and borrow pits and spoil disposal area. At
the work place, operators of bulldozer, grader, front-end loader could be exposed to air
suspended particulate over 1000 ug/m3. The DOLE sets the maximum allowable air
suspended particulate level at 2000 ug/m3. Moreover, communities are relatively far
(about 5 to 6 kms) from the project site and fugitive emissions could be filtered by
vegetation and irregular topography.
Increased number of passing vehicles due to transport of personnel leads to an increase
in air suspended particulates along unpaved roads.
Identified communities to
experience this situation are those residing near the unpaved road, which connects
Sorsogon National Road and the PNOC-EDC Base Camp. About three clusters of
houses are found in this area.
A brief study in the Leyte Geothermal Power Project (PNOC-EDC, 1993) suggests an
increase in suspended particulates of about 30 ug/m3 per passing vehicle, at about 5 to
10 m from a thinly accumulated dust on an unpaved road. This would mean that 8
passing vehicles for one-hour yields 240 ug/m3 suspended particulates which is below
the maximum allowable level of 300 ug/Ncm for a one-hour sampling. The frequency
would be low due to high incidence of rainfall in the area.

K.

Generation of Noise

The predicted noise levels from combined operation of construction equipment are made
on the basis of the type and usage factor of the equipment, and the location relative to
the nearest residential and other noise-sensitive areas. Typical noise levels of common
construction equipment are presented in Table 6.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


8

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -8

Table 6. Construction equipment noise levels at 15-m distance at


maximum power (Source: Wilson, C.E)
Equipment
a) Earth Moving
Backhoes
Front loaders
Dozers
Graders
Scrapers
Tractors
Trucks
b) Materials Handling
Concrete mixers
Concrete pumps
Movable cranes
Derrick cranes
c) Stationary
Pumps
Generators
d) Impact
Jack hammers and rock drills
Vibrators

Noise level, dBA


75-85
75-79
75-80
75-85
80-88
76-96
75-91
75-85
80-85
70-84
85-90
75-76
75-78
80-98
68-93

The type and assumed number of construction equipment during construction period are
presented in Table 6. Also shown is the distance of the equipment from the nearest
residential areas and the maximum noise levels 15 meters from the equipment.
Equipment usage is the proportion of time the equipment is operated during the entire
workday. Assumptions include work schedule from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM, with a total
working hours of 10 hours per day.
Using the noise prediction method introduced by Wilson (1989), the predicted equivalent
daytime and early nighttime noise levels from combined operation of construction
equipment located about 1.5 km from the construction site are 52.7 and 45.0,
respectively (Table 6). These values are within acceptable limits of 55 and 45 dBA,
respectively. It should be noted, however, that noise levels during construction period at
the nearest residential areas could be lower considering the presence of mountains or
hills surrounding the project site, which act as natural berm or noise barrier between the
receptor and the project site.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


9

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -9

Table 7. Predicted noise levels from combined operation of selected construction


equipment
Source

Number
Distance,
km
L, 15 meter
Usage
Leq
contr(15
m)
Leq (dBA)
Leq24(dbA
)
LeqD(dBA)
LeqN(dBA)

Front Bac Dozer Trac- Scra- Grade Truck Con- ConLoade kho s
tors pers rs
crete crete
r
e
Mixer Pump
s
2
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
2
1.5
1.5 1.5
1.5 1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

Back- Rock Jack Genehoe


Drills Ham- rators
mers
1
1.5

1
1.5

1
1.5

1
1.5

79
0.4
38.2

85
0.16
37.2

98
0.04
44.2

98
0.04
44.2

78
1
38.1

85 80
0.16 0.4
40.2 39.2

80
80
0.4 0.4
39.2 36.2

91
0.4
51.9

85
0.4
41.2

76
1
39.2

54.5 (equivalent noise level)


50.7 (24-hour equivalent sound level)
52.7 (daytime equivalent sound level)
45.0 (nighttime equivalent sound level)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


10 10

85
0.08
34.2

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

3.2.2

Well Drilling (Exploratory and Development)


F.

Possible Occasional Release of Small Amounts of H2S Gas

Small pockets of gas mainly H2S could be encountered during drilling. However, the
releases are minor in volume and occur only in short bursts, thus, limiting the effect to
the work area. Drilling crews are provided with safety devices and trained for emergency
cases.

D.

Increase in Dust Emissions

Fugitive dust emissions caused by movement of vehicles along paved or unpaved roads
could be modeled using emission factors developed by the U.S.EPA (1996). Estimating
emission factors require information on the percentage of silt in the road, type and
volume of vehicles, the vehicle mile traveled, and rainfall data. However, provisions are
made on neglecting or ignoring fugitive emissions when daily rainfall is greater than 0.01
inch or 0.254 mm (U.S.EPA, 1996). The period is considered wet days when rainfall
exceeds the aforementioned criteria.
Rainfall data gathered from PNOC-EDC Admin Complex from 2000 to 2001 shows that
days with rainfall less than 0.254 mm are 14 and 28 days, respectively. This represents
4 to 8% of the total number of days annually. This suggests that relatively higher rainfall
in the area could act as natural suppressant on fugitive emissions from unpaved roads.
Note also that rainfall in the area is relatively higher compared to the Philippines and
Luzon annual average rainfall.

E.

Increase in Noise

Rock drills at maximum power attenuate about 98 dB(A) at a distance of 15 m (Wilson


1989). With absorptive ground and under free-field conditions, the sound pressure level,
Lp, at a distance, r, from the source with sound power, Lw, is given by,

L P = LW 10 log(4r 2 )

Equation 1

This translates to sound pressure level of 58 dBA at 1.5 km from the source.
Considering correction factors such as adjustment of noise due to ground coverage (-5
dBA), meteorological effects, elevation corrections, barrier attenuation, and usage factor
of the equipment, and background noise level effects, the predicted sound level
presented above reduces to 45 dBA. This value is well within the ambient noise level
standards for residential areas. Thus, it can be seen that any rock drilling operation
could not pose nuisance to residents located 1 km or more from drilling site.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


11 11

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

3.2.1

Well Testing
A.

Vertical Discharge Testing

1.

Release of H2S

Vertical well testing is normally done to clear the production well of drilling mud. The
duration of the test ranges from five to 30 minutes. Pressure relief during this test
results in high velocity discharges of geothermal fluid composed mainly of geothermal
brine, steam with small fraction of non-condensible gas (NCG).
Based on Tanawon well data, the steam phase contains a maximum of 1.5% NCG
which in turn contains about 3.5% of H2S and 96% of CO2. This translates to H2S
emission rate of 11.0 g/sec. Owing to the extreme momentum during the release of
geothermal fluid estimated at 1589 m4/sec2, the predicted maximum GLC of H2S in a
worst case meteorological condition is 0.244 ppm located about 220 m from the well.
The predicted GLC is well below the DOLE workplace standard of 10 ppm.

B.

Horizontal Discharge Testing

1.

Release of H2S Gas

Horizontal discharge, undertaken after the vertical discharge test, is aimed at


characterizing the quality of steam and brine, and determine the wells power potential.
During the test, the geothermal fluids are discharged horizontally towards a separator or
silencer, which is used to separate liquid and gaseous components. Expected H2S
emission rate during horizontal test is 11 g/sec at velocity of 16 m/sec and at
temperature of 373 oK.
The dispersion of H2S during well testing is predicted using CTSCREEN, a screening
version of Complex Terrain Dispersion Model Plus Algorithms for Unstable Conditions
(CTDMPLUS). CTSCREEN is selected since it is recommended for use in complex
terrain applications and when hourly meteorological data is not available on-site. Highest
ambient ground-level concentrations are modeled by CTSCREEN during worst-case
meteorological condition. An overview of CTSCREEN model is provided in Section
3.2.5.
Table 8 presents the highest predicted H2S at each prevailing wind direction. It can be
seen the maximum predicted GLC (0.227 ppm) occurs when the wind blows from the
west-southwest during very stable condition (Figure 5). The location of the maximum
concentration, however, is still within the geothermal block and below the workplace
standard of 10 ppm. The 0.07-ppm contour follows closely the 600-m elevation of Mt.
Pulog. With this condition and assumed well location, no residents are situated at
locations where H2S exceed the 0.07-ppm contour.
Note that in the presence of complex terrain, maximum concentration occurs when the
wind blows toward complex terrain and during stable atmospheric condition. During
stable condition, two layers usually develop and flow in the lower layer deflects or moves
around the hill while the upper layer flow travels over the top of hill (Perry et., al, 1990).
Plume or pollutants, therefore, tend to follow closely contour elevations as shown in
Figure 5. The plume or pollutants tend to impact southwest of Mt. Pulog, the nearest
terrain downwind of the well, and farther deflects around Mt. Pulog.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


12 12

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Table 8. Highest predicted H2S at Prevailing Wind Directions.

2.

Prevailing Wind

H2S (ppm)

NE
NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

0.040
0.078
0.046
0.139
0.168
0.227
0.223

Generation of Noise

High noise levels are normally observed during well testing and noise strengths depend
on the wells generating capacity. Based on actual noise sampling at PNOC-EDCs
Southern Negros Geothermal Project, the average noise levels of five geothermal wells
at 5-m distance are shown in Table 7. Using the maximum average noise level from
Okoy-6, which is 94 dB (assumed dBA), the attenuated noise level at the southernmost
boundary of the project site is 34 dBA (Figure 6). With averaged daytime noise level of
51 dBA, the predicted noise along the boundary is 51.1 dBA. This value is well within the
OSHS and NPCC standards.

Table 7. Average noise levels of five geothermal wells (dB)


Geothermal Well

First 5 meters

Negros-3
81.6
Okoy-5
85.9
Okoy-6
94.0
Okoy-7
78.0
Okoy-8
84.0
Source: PNOC-EDC, 1983: EIA for Southern Negros Geothermal Project.

C.

Well Bleeding

Bleeding is done to prevent pressure build-up in the production wells while awaiting
tapping after drilling and well testing. This is done through a bleedline, a horizontal pipe
1 to 2 inches in diameter located near the ground. The steam discharge rate is about
3.2 kg/sec. Normally there is no effluent associated with the bleeding of a well.

1.

Release of H2S from Gas Bleeding

Gas bleeding is necessary to prevent pressure build-up at the wellhead Observations


of wells on bleed in Upper Mahiao Geothermal Project in Leyte (PNOC-EDC-1993)
ranged from 26 to 195 ppm of H2S. However, measurements around a well showed
H2S concentration of less than the maximum occupational limit of 10 ppm.

2.

Noise from Wells on Bleed

Noise generated by wells on bleed depends on well capacity. Monitoring around a


strong well in Upper Mahiao, showed noise levels of 71 to 76 dBA (PNOC-EDC, 1993).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


13 13

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

These levels attenuate to typical ambient levels within 120 meters from the well and
therefore, would have no effect beyond the project block.

3.2.2

Commissioning of the FCRS, Power Plant and Transmission Line


G.

Emission of Steam and NCG

During the flushing of the FCRS, all pressure release valves, steam traps and vents
shall be tested, resulting in minor and intermittent steam releases at various points of the
FCRS line. Others sources of emission include silencers and rock mufflers. Steam is a
major component of the emissions comprising 98.5%, while the balance of 1.5% is
composed of NCG fractions which are mainly CO2 (960 %) and H2S (3.5 %) and NH3,
N2, CH4 and H2 as trace gases.

H.

Generation of Noise

During testing of the entire system, noise is expected from the generator especially
during start-up, and while the generator is running. Noise will be localized within
immediate vicinity of the facility tested.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


14 14

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

3.2.5

Operations Phase
J.

Noise and Dust due to Traffic

With the significant reduction in the number of vehicles during operations, the impact of
noise and dust emissions due to traffic is within acceptable standards. Furthermore,
cementing of access road from the National Highway to the project site will significantly
reduce dust and noise emissions from vehicles.

K.

Release of H2S Gas

1)

The Regulatory Setting

Air impact analysis has been required on proposed projects that are covered by the
Philippine Environment Impact Statement (EIS) System. Also, the Philippine Clean Air
Act (CAA) of 1999 of RA 8749 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) (DAO
No. 2000-81) require air dispersion for the following:
a)

New sources and those existing sources located in attainment area that propose a
change on its process that may result in potential emissions greater than the
specified emission rate (Section 3, Rule X, Part III);

b)

Application for Authority to Construct (AC) of proposed or planned construction or


modification of sources that has the potential to emit 100 tons per year or more of
any of the regulated pollutants (Section 3, Rule XIX, Part VI);

c)

Application for a Permit to Operate wherein a statement of compliance or noncompliance with the ambient air quality standards shall be supported with
dispersion modeling data using modeling techniques approved by the DENR
(Section 5, Rule XIX, Part VI);

d)

For cases in which source sampling and analysis is not practical, actual ambient
air quality data could be used so long as the location and conditions of the testing
conform to the worst case scenario as demonstrated by air dispersion modeling
(Section 5, Rule XIX, Part VI); and

e)

Determining the location of sampling stations for compliance with the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Based on the above-cited provisions, it can be seen that air dispersion modeling can be
used as support for demonstrating compliance with the NAAQS and in determining
location of ambient air sampling stations. Dispersion modeling results cannot be used as
surrogate to the actual ambient monitoring required for any industrial establishment or
operation to determine compliance with the NAAQS.
It could, however, be used as basis on whether a new or existing source modified be
constructed if dispersion modeling results in exceedance of the National Ambient Air
Quality Guidelines (NAAQG) or the maximum allowable limits stipulated in Section 3,
Rule X, Part III of the IRR. The parameters cited, however, are those for PM10, SO2,
NO2, O2, CO and Lead. There is no specific provision for sources with H2S potential,
except as support for compliance with the NAAQS. On the other hand, air dispersion
modeling is an effective tool in determining the most appropriate location of a proposed
power plant from a number of pre-determined locations.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


15 15

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

The following presents the regulatory dispersion model used in this study, model input
parameters, recommended location of the proposed geothermal power plant,
comparison of predicted and observed ambient H2S, and environmental management
measures.

2)

The Dispersion Model Used

Although dispersion modeling has been required in the EIS and DAO No. 2000-81,
dispersion models for regulatory application has not been established by the DENR. In
the absence of local regulatory models, the World Bank (1998) recommends the
application of dispersion models of the United States Environmental Protection Agency
(U.S. EPA). U.S.EPAs dispersion models have undergone extensive peer reviews, have
meet minimum criteria, and extensive field validation studies (World Bank, 1998).
In this study, the expected dispersion of H2S from the proposed geothermal power plant
to the air environment is determined using CTSCREEN air dispersion model, a
screening version of Complex Terrain Dispersion Model Plus Algorithms for Unstable
Conditions (CTDMPLUS). CTSCREEN is selected since it is recommended for use in
complex terrain applications and when hourly meteorological data is not available onsite. Note that the proposed geothermal power plant is situated in complex terrain
(terrain higher than the stack top or cooling towers). The application of other wellestablished dispersion models such as the Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) in areas
with complex terrain may result in extreme over-prediction as demonstrated by the
U.S.EPA (2001).
CTSCREEN and CTDMPLUS are basically the same type of models, the main
difference is meteorological input data used. CTDMPLUS requires hourly actual
meteorological data while CTSCREEN uses an array of predetermined meteorological
data developed by Technology Transfer Group of the United States Environmental
Protection Agency. Unlike CTDMPLUS, CTSCREEN does not require meteorological
input data such as mixing height, Monin-Obukhov Length, and friction velocity. Under
the U.S.EPA air quality modeling guidelines (U.S.EPA 2001), CTDMPLUS is the
regulatory or preferred model when determining dispersion over complex terrain or
terrain higher than the height of the stack top.
CTSCREEN considers two layers when the nature is very stably stratified. The flow in
the lower layer deflects around the hill, while the flow in the upper layer travels over the
top of the hill (Perry, et. al, 1989). Conventional air dispersion models are based on the
basic Gaussian equation and still assume homogenous flow even when stratification
develops. These models, however, are recommended for use in flat or simple terrain
modeling (terrain below stack top). Study conducted by Pahunang (2002) showed that
air dispersion models using the two-layer concept provide results that are 5 to 10 times
lower than conventional models such as the widely used ISC3 model.

3)

Source Parameters

Sources of emission from the proposed project are the cooling towers of the power plant
where H2S are vented. Although the design and location of the power plant has yet to be
finalized, calculated H2S emission of geothermal power plants and several power plant
siting options have been considered for the purpose of air dispersion modeling. Table 7
shows the source emission parameters for the proposed Tanawon project under
minimum and maximum cases.

Table 7. Source emission parameters used in dispersion modeling


Parameter

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


16 16

Minimum Case

Maximum Case

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Capacity (MWe)
H2S emission rate (g/sec)
Gas exit velocity (m/sec)
Gas exit temperature (K)
Cooling tower height (m)
Cooling tower diameter (m)
Number of cells

4)

50
40
20
313.2
16
11
6

80
64
20
313.2
16
11
9

50
52
20
313.2
16
11
6

80
84
20
313.2
16
11
9

Power Plant Siting Options

Since the final location and the number of power plants have yet to be finalized, a total
of eight sites have been considered in locating the proposed power plant. From these
siting options, several modeling scenarios have been considered in this study. These
include model runs for 1 x 80 MW GPP on each siting option and a combination of a 1 x
50 MW 1 x 30 MW (Table 8). The predicted GLCs of H2S from the existing GPPs and
the cumulative impacts of existing and proposed GPPs are also being considered.

Table 8. Description of Modeling Scenarios


Scenari
o

Description

1
2

Existing three power plants (Bacman-1, Botong, and Cawayan)


Existing two power plants (excluding Bacman-1 which is currently not
operational)
Proposed one (1) 80-MW geothermal power plant at each siting option
1 x 50 MW and 1 x 30 MW GPPs

3
4

5)

Meteorological Input Data

Meteorological input data used in this study are predetermined sets of data designed for
CTSCREEN dispersion model. This data is based on USEPAs model sensitivity
analysis, typical distributions of meteorological conditions, and the ranges of conditions
associated with high concentrations in actual field monitoring sites (Perry, et.al., 1990).
CTSCREENs option of specifying discrete wind directions is chosen and nine prevailing
wind flows shown in Figure 7 are considered. As shown in the figure, the most
prevalent wind flows are northeast (40.3%) followed by east-northeast (14.1%) and
southwest (11.7%). The other wind directions are E (7.8%), W(6.7%), WSW(4.1%) and
NNE (2.1%).

6)

Receptors

With the aid of receptor generator software designed for CTSCREEN and CTDMPLUS
models, receptors are generated along selected contour intervals (Figure 8). The
number and distribution of receptors are selected to cover the area of study. Note that
predicted ambient GLCs of H2S are calculated at these receptors.

7)

Predicted Ground Level Concentrations

Scenario 1 and 2: Existing Power Plants:


The plot of maximum GLC from 3 GPPs during stable condition are shown in Figure 9.
The maximum GLC is 1.367 ppm located ESE 2.8 km from Botong PP. The 0.07-ppm

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


17 17

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

follows closely the 500-m contour elevation. No exceedances are found below 400-m
contour elevation. During unstable condition with 3 GPPs operating (Figure 10), the
maximum GLC is about five times lower than the predicted maximum GLC during stable
condition. The 0.07 ppm contour GLC follows closely the 700-m contour elevation.
The predicted maximum GLCs from the operation of Botong and Cawayan (minus
Bacman-1), shows no significant difference except when the prevailing wind flow is from
the west (Table 9)(Figures 11 and 12). With a westerly wind, the maximum GLC for the
3 and 2 power plants are 0.114 and 0.064 ppm, respectively. With 3 GPP, the maximum
GLC is located about 1.1 km SSW of Botong GPP while with 2 GPP, the maximum GLC
extends farther east at 2.5 km SE of Botong GPP. Emissions from the 2 GPP impacted
on a portion of Mt. Pulog.
Impact of plume on complex terrain usually occurs during stable atmosphere. This
happens because mixing within the atmosphere is restricted and that the flow tends to
travel around hill during very stratified flow. Thus, highest concentrations normally occur
during stable and neutral conditions in complex terrain modeling.

Table 9. Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S from 2 and 3


existing power plant (in ppm)
Wind

Existing
3 GPPs

Existing
2 GPPs

NE
NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

1.367
0.647
0.170
0.153
0.084
0.124
0.114

1.367
0.647
0.170
0.153
0.084
0.124
0.064

* For impact assessment, only the worst case (stable) NE wind direction is shown

Scenario 3: Proposed 1 x 80 MW GPP:


Figure 3.2.1-9 shows the locations of potential power plant siting options. The expected
GLCs of H2S arising from the operation 1 x 80 MW GPP at each power plant siting
option were modeled at various prevailing wind conditions. The model was run using the
minimum and maximum emission rates generated by 1 x 80 MW GPP. Results in
Tables 10 and 11 show that H2S as high as 3.121 ppm and as low as 0.0007 ppm are
predicted when the wind blows from WSW and ENE, respectively. Sparingly high levels
of H2S occur when plume impacted the two hills (900-m high) east of the geothermal
block. Highest GLCs of H2S occur during stable atmospheric conditions.
Based on the average predicted GLC, the most preferred plant option is Site 4 followed
by Site 3. It is not recommended to place the GPP at Site 8 because it is located too
close to the hill, which may produce high concentrations of H2S especially during very
stable condition (Figure 13).

Table 10. Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S (in ppm) from the proposed
1 x 80 MW Tanawon GPP emitting H2S at 84 g/sec
Wind

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Site 8

NE

0.089

0.183

0.005

0.009

0.056

0.232

0.182

0.352

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


18 18

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

0.099
0.051
0.011
0.319
0.271
0.183

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.273
0.369
0.281

0.014
0.000
0.000
0.273
0.192
0.162

0.000
0.007
0.007
0.158
0.140
0.098

0.065
0.183
0.222
0.187
0.190
0.187

0.066
0.519
0.448
0.570
1.164
0.675

0.254
0.398
0.371
0.545
0.585
0.207

0.780
0.351
0.457
0.803
3.121
0.723

Table 10. Predicted maximum GLCs of H2S (in ppm) from the proposed
1 x 80 MW Tanawon GPP emitting H2S at 64 g/sec
Wind

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

Site 6

Site 7

Site 8

NE
NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

0.068
0.076
0.039
0.008
0.243
0.206
0.140

0.140
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.208
0.281
0.214

0.004
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.208
0.146
0.123

0.007
0.000
0.006
0.005
0.120
0.107
0.075

0.042
0.050
0.139
0.169
0.142
0.145
0.142

0.177
0.051
0.395
0.341
0.434
0.887
0.514

0.139
0.193
0.303
0.283
0.415
0.446
0.158

0.268
0.594
0.268
0.348
0.612
2.378
0.550

Scenario 4: Proposed 1x 50 MW and 1 x 30 MW:


Geothermal steam produced on the smaller eastern geothermal block may not be
enough to supply steam for 1 x 80 MW GPP. Two separate power plants, one located
on each block, are also being considered. A total of 15 combinations are simulated
using 5 options in the western block and 3 options in the eastern block.
Table 12 shows the predicted GLC of H2S by two GPPS. The most preferred option
based on the least number of maximum GLC is a combination of Site 4 and Site 7 (1x 50
MW GPP located at Site 4 and 1 x 30 MW GPP located at Site 7) (Figure 14). The other
preferred options are Sites 4 and 7, and Sites 1 and 7. Note that Site 7 is the most
preferred site since it is located farther from the surrounding hill at the vicinity of the
proposed site. The worst case results occur during west-northwest wind and during
stable condition (Figure 15).

Table 12. Predicted GLC of H2S from 1 x 50 MW and 1 x 30 MW GPPs


Wind

Site 1
&
Site 6

Site 1
&
Site 7

Site 1
&
Site 8

Site 2
&
Site 6

Site 2
&
Site 7

Site 2
&
Site 8

Site 3
&
Site 6

Site 3
&
Site 7

Site 3
&
Site 8

NE
NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

0.087
0.066
0.194
0.168
0.214
0.438
0.286

0.079
0.095
0.149
0.139
0.226
0.342
0.113

0.132
0.292
0.132
0.172
0.311
1.177
0.278

0.135
0.025
0.194
0.168
0.214
0.441
0.308

0.152
0.095
0.149
0.139
0.222
0.270
0.174

0.211
0.292
0.132
0.172
0.314
1.178
0.311

0.087
0.025
0.194
0.168
0.214
0.438
0.260

0.068
0.095
0.149
0.139
0.218
0.328
0.100

0.132
0.292
0.132
0.172
0.310
1.176
0.276

Table 12 (cont). Predicted GLC of H2S from 1 x 50 MW and 1 x 30MW GPPs

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


19 19

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Wind

Site 4
&
Site 6

Site 4
&
Site 7

Site 4
&
Site 8

Site 5
&
Site 6

Site 5
&
Site 7

Site 5
&
Site 8

NE
NNE
ENE
E
SW
WSW
W

0.087
0.025
0.194
0.168
0.214
0.437
0.256

0.068
0.095
0.149
0.139
0.214
0.268
0.083

0.132
0.292
0.132
0.172
0.308
1.174
0.274

0.087
0.045
0.194
0.192
0.267
0.437
0.270

0.068
0.095
0.153
0.208
0.249
0.293
0.116

0.132
0.292
0.142
0.266
0.312
1.176
0.277

Cumulative Effect of Existing and Proposed GPPs:


The cumulative effect of the existing and preferred locations of the proposed GPPs is
also considered. Dispersion modeling results depicted in Figures 16 to 19 show
improbable effect of the proposed Tanawon GPP to the overall emission within the
geothermal block. The insignificant effect could be due to the distant locations among
existing and preferred location of the proposed Tanawon GPP. Figures 16 and 18 show
slight changes in the distribution of the predicted GLCs with the proposed Tanawon GPP
during stable condition. During unstable condition, however, such effect is not
noticeable as depicted in Figures 17 and 19.

8)

Comparison of Predicted and Observed Concentrations

Air dispersion models are conservative, that is, it provide results that are higher than the
observed concentrations.
The over-prediction could be traced back from the
assumptions inherent on each model. For example, screening models such as
SCREEN3 and CTSCREEN have inherent meteorological data that selects the worstcase meteorological condition, thereby producing very conservative results. Thus,
dispersion modeling results could not be used as surrogate to ambient air monitoring
since it could result to violation with ambient air quality standards.
Irwin (1996) demonstrated that observed and predicted values should not be directly
compared since it came from entirely two different populations. He recommended
separate treatment of the observed and predicted values prior to any comparison test.
Statistical test using Fractional Bias (AFB) is recommended by the U.S.EPA (1992) as
the first step in comparing predicted and observed values. FB determines whether a
model over-or under predict observations and is defined as,
Equation 2

OB PR
FB = 2

OB + PR
where OB and PR refer to the standard deviations of the observed and predicted values.
Values of FB equal to 0.67 are equivalent to overpredictions by a factor-of-two while
values that are equal to +0.67 are equivalent to underprediction by a factor-of-two.
To determine possible trend of predicted H2S from existing geothermal facilities and
observed H2S, selected data from monthly monitoring and baseline survey conducted on
2000 are compared with the modeling results (Table 13). This period is selected since
majority of the sampling stations is downwind of the prevailing northeast wind. Using
Equation (2), the calculated FB is 1.9. This means that there is an over-prediction by a
factor of about 4.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


20 20

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Thus, on the average the predicted values by CTSCREEN dispersion model could be
four times higher the observations. Consequently, actual observations considering the
preferred power plant siting options could possibly result to compliance with ambient air
quality standards. For example, with a 1 x 80 MW power plant located at Site 4, the
highest predicted GLC is 0.098 ppm, however, based on over-prediction by a factor of 4,
observations could be 0.0245 ppm, which is well below of 0.07 ppm. Hence, there is a
possibility that the proposed Tanawon GPP would not violate ambient air quality
standards during operation.

Table 13. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Ambient H2S


Station
Location.

Observed
(ppm)

Predicted
(ppm)

BM-1 Hump Station


Cawayan Pad
Cawayan Thermal Pond
Tanawon Pond
BM-1 Junction
Cawayan Power plant interface
Brgy. Bucalbucalan
Brgy. Ticol Elemantary School
Brgy. Bulabog
Station 17 (east of Mt. Pulog)
Average
Std Deviation

0.009
0.006
0.009
0.000
0.009
0.078
0.001
0.002
0.000
0.002
0.012
0.0236

0.216
0.072
0.216
0.180
0.288
0.108
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.005
0.113
0.1047

9) Compliance with Emission and Ambient Air Quality Standards


The estimated H2S emissions of the proposed Tanawon Power Plant are compared with
the source emission standards provided in DAO No. 2000-81. The estimated H2S
emissions for the 50 and 80 MW are 2882 and 3770 g/MW-Hr, respectively, which are
19 to 25 times higher than the H2S emission standard of 150 g/MW-Hr. This requires 95
to 96% H2S removal efficiency to meet the emission standard of 150 g/MW-Hr.
However, additional control facility or Best Available Control Technology (BACT) is
required to meet the 100 tons per year limit (Section 2, Rule X, Part III of DAO No. 200081).
For example, a 100-MW geothermal power plant that complies with the 150 g/GMW-hr
emission standard requires additional control facility to meet the 100 tons per year limit
(Table 14). Further, for a large GPP with capacity of 500 MW, 84% removal efficiency is
required to meet the 100 tons-per-year limit. Thus, an additional requirement to meet
emission limits has posed another problem in meeting current emission standards. It
should be noted that technologies developed abroad have not yet proven feasible on
geothermal gas facilities in the Philippines such as the Upper Mahiao Power Plant in
Leyte.

Table 14. Additional efficiency control requirement for a geothermal power plant
that complies with the 150 g/GMW-hr emission standard

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


21 21

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Power
Plant H2S
Emission H2S
Emission Additional
Control
Capacity
Rate
Rate
Efficiency Requirement for
(MW)
(g/GMW-hr)
(tons per year)
compliance with 100 tons
per year standard (in
percent)
80
85
100
200
300
400
500

150
150
150
150
150
150
150

100
106
125
250
374
499
624

None
6
20
60
75
80
84

Declaring whether a proposed power plant violates ambient air quality standards during
planning or permitting stage, and, consequently requiring it to install control facilities to
comply with the H2S ambient standard given the possibility of over-prediction, is against
protocol set for the NAAQS. As discussed earlier, air dispersion modeling is used only
as support for demonstrating compliance with the NAAQS. Dispersion modeling results
cannot be used as surrogate to the actual ambient monitoring required for any industrial
establishment or operation to determine compliance with the NAAQS. Preliminary
results presented above showed that during operation, the proposed power plant could
possibly comply with H2S ambient air standard given an over-prediction by a factor of 4.
Further, the model employed in this study is a screening model, which is found to predict
concentrations higher than refined models such as CTDMPLUS.
In summary, prior to installation of pollution controls to comply with emission standards,
it would be appropriate that the results of the model be validated with observations
including health study on residents at the vicinity of the BGFF geothermal block with the
current geothermal set-up. Results of the validation and health studies on the existing
BGFF power plants could be used as basis on whether compliance with ambient air
quality standards is sufficient in lieu of very stringent H2S emission standard. Note that
based on dispersion modeling, the existing power plants produce higher ambient GLCs
of H2S compared to the proposed proposed Tanawon power plant. Review and
amendment or addendum to emission regulations is necessary to suit site-specific
situations due to prohibitive abatement cost which can increase the production cost,
price of steam and consequently, cost of electricity. Moreover, the application of the
buffer zone concept on one the biggest geothermal project located in Leyte and on most
geothermal areas in the Philippines has significantly reduce environmental problems
associated with H2S emission.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


22 22

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

REFERENCES

Beychok, Milton R., (2001). Error Propogation in Air Dispersion Modeling. Irvine, California, USA,
1994. Newport Beach, California,USA.
Forte, Alfredo A., Gonzales, Marlon G., McCarthy, Matthew W., and Simon Conrad (1990). Air
and Waste Management Division. US. Environmental Protection Agency. Pp. 67-102.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, (1992). Protocol for Determining the Best
Performing Model, EPA-454/R-92-025, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
World Bank Group, (1998). Airshed Models, Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook.
World Bank Group.
Bulletin of American Meteorological Society (1978). Accuracy of Dispersion Models: A Position
Paper of the AMS 1977 Committee on Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion. Journal of
Applied Meteorology, Volume 59, No. 8, August 1978.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (2000). Implementing Rules and
Regulation (IRR) of the Philippine Clean Air Act. DAO 2000-Republic Act No. 8749, An
Act Providingfor a Comprehensive Air Pollution Control Policy and for Other Purposes.
Philippine Clean Act of 1999, July 27, 1999. Eleventh Congress. First Regular Session.
Metro Manila
Irwin, John S., (1999).
Statistical Evaluation of Centerline Concentration Estimates by
Atmospheric Dispersion Models, International Journal of Environment and Pollution,
Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
Pahunang, R. S., (2002): Intercomparison of Selected Point-Source Air Pollution Dispersion
Models, A Masters Thesis submitted to College of Science, University of the Philippines,
Diliman, Quezon City.
Paine, Robert J., (1988). Users Guide to the CTDM Meteorological Preprocessor (METPRO)
Program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), EPA/600/888/004), Atmospheric and Exposure Assessment Laboratory, Office of Research and
Development, U.S.EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.
Perry, Steven G., Burns, Donnna J., and Cimorelli, Alan, J, et. al., (1989). Users Guide to the
Complex Terrain Dispersion Model Plus Algorithms for Unstable Conditions (CTMPLUS)
Volume 1: Model Description and User Instructions, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, EPA/600/8-89/041, Atmospheric and Exposure Assessment Laboratory, Office of
Research and Development, U.S.EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.
Perry, Steven G., Burns, Donnna J., and Cimorelli, Alan, J., (1990). Users Guide to CTDMPLUS:
Volume 2 - The Screening Mode (CTSCREEN), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
(1990), (EPA/600/8-90/087), Atmospheric and Exposure Assessment Laboratory, Office of
Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1985). Guideline for Determination of Good Engineering
Practice Stack Height (Technical Support Document For the Stack Height Regulations
(Revised), EPA-450/4-80-023R, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning
and Standards, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, pp. 1-9.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1992a). Screening Procedures for Estimating the Air
Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, Revised, EPA-454/R-92-019, Office of Air and

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


23 23

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina, 27711.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, (1992b). Protocol for Determining the Best
Performing Model, EPA-454/R-92-025, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (1995c). SCREEN3 Model Users Guide, EPA-454/B-95004, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Emissions, Monitoring, and Analysis
Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711, pp. 2-11.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, (2001b). Guideline on Air Quality Models,
Appendix W to Part 51, 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1 (7-1-01 Edition).
Wilson, Charles E., (1989): Noise Control: Measurement, Analysis, and Control of Sound and
Vibration, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)


24 24

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7 -

21

Figure 2.1.7-1 Locations of Existing Geothermal Power Plants and Air Sampling
Stations. Residential areas are represented as dots.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7-8

.
21

Figure 2.1.7-2 Median of observed maximum


daytime noise levels

.
21

Figure 2.1.7-3 Daytime noise levels exceeding


90% of the time (L90)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Air Quality)

p. 2.1.7-9

2.2

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

2.2.1 TERRESTRIAL FLORA


2.2.1.1 Summary of Results and Conclusions
A total of 2,388 plants and forest trees represented by 205 genera and 108 families, most of
which belong to Lesser Known/Use Species (LKS/LUS),
were recorded from the nine (9)
sampling stations established (Tables 2.2.1-1 to 2.2.1-9). As commonly observed in a
secondary forest, only a few small dipterocarps and other timber producing species were
recorded. The predominance of very young vegetation growth indicates that the area was
heavily logged in the past 20-30 years. The absence of mother trees of dipterocarps and other
timber producing species also manifests that the area may have been clear-cut before. The
young dipterocarps recorded include Shorea negrosensis, S. contorta, S. palosapis, S.
squamata, Hopea acuminata and Anisoptera thurifera. The other timber producing species
recorded belong to the following families: Myrtaceae, Meliaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae,
Lauraceae Guttiferae, Magnoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Sapindaceae, Moraceae, Papilionaceae,
Casuarinaceae, Bignoniaceae, Combretaceae, Dilleniaceae, Ebenaceae and Mimosaceae
(Table 2.2.1-10). Numerous species from 48 families with aesthetic values for landscaping
were also noted (Table 2.2.1-11). Also, various species from 29 families with ornamental values
were recorded (Table 2.2.1-12). Species with medicinal value are represented by 8 families
(Table 2.2.1-13). On the other hand, very few species used for different other purposes, i.e.
cottage industry, were also noted (Table 2.2.1-14).
The inventory results show that there is no rare or endangered plant and forest tree species in
the area that could be affected by the project. The representative samples also show how
diverse the forest ecosystem is inside the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Reservation. The minimal
volume per hectare computed based on the data gathered revealed that the second growth
forest stands are quite young. The total volume computed for the 7 circular plots established in
the second growth forest is only 81.6 cu.m. or an average volume per plot equivalent to 11.6
cu.m. and an average volume per hectare of 93.3 cu.m. Further, forest inventory data reveals
that small diameter trees dominate the area where trees with DBH <30 cm accounts for 70% of
the total trees inventoried. Trees with DBH ranging from 40-50 cm DBH comprise 20%, while
trees of DBH >50% comprise only 10%.

2.2.1.2 Methodology
A.

EIA Study Team

The field study for the terrestrial flora was conducted from January 4 to 7, 2001 and October 1213, 2001. The terrestrial flora study team was composed of one (1) Forester (Mr. Erlito P. del
Rosario), one (1) Hired Plant Taxonomist (Mr. Blas Hernandez), Albert Batalla (Technician), a
Research Aide and four (4) forest guards of the Environmental Management Department of
PNOC-EDC based in BacMan.

B.

Location and Scope of Study

A total of nine (9) sampling plots at different elevations were established within the Tanawon
geothermal block, eight (8) of which are circular plots while one (1) is a transect where 4-2m x
2m plots were established in a purely grassland environment. An additional sample plot in a
secondary forest outside the Tanawon geothermal block was established in order to provide

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 1

comparison. This one is located near the mini-hydro project of NPC in Cawayan. The relative
location of the sample plots within the Tanawon Geothermal Block has earlier been presented in
Figure 2.1.3-1 (Hydrology module), while Plates 2.2.1-1 to 2.2.1-9 are pictures of the sampled
plots. The 8 circular plots within the block are established in secondary forest, which are
considered and identified as major impact areas where the power plants and pads may be
located. The sample plot in a grassland environment is also a potential power plant site.

C.

Study Parameters

The density, volume and use of the different plant and forest tree species were determined for
each sampling plot. The data was then used for statistical analysis.

D.

Methods and Procedures

Sampling in secondary forest was done using the standard circular plot method which is
commonly employed in conducting Continuous Forest Inventories (CFI). Each circular plot with
a diameter of 40 meters divided into 4 quadrants represents an area of one-eight hectare. In
each quadrant, a 100% inventory of all plants and timber-producing species were undertaken.

E.

Study Sources

The land use and classification information were gathered from secondary data such as maps
and policy guidelines/regulations from the DENR. The primary data, on the other hand, were
obtained during the actual survey of the area.

2.2.1.2 Results and Discussion


The 25,000-hectare Bacon Manito (BacMan) Geothermal Reservation which was proclaimed by
virtue of Presidential Proclamation No. 2036-A in 1980 consists of about 50% Alienable and
Disposal land (A/D), 50% public timberland (T/L) (Figure 2.2.1-1), and mostly second growth
forest (Figure 2.2.1-2). BACMAN I and II projects, which covered an area of more or less
3,826 hectares within the classified timberland, was issued an ECC in 1987.
The proposed Tanawon Geothermal Project/Block falls within the BacMan Geothermal
Reservation. The block embraces an area of around 2,460 hectares, about 70% of which falls
within the classified timberland at the northern sector, and about 30% within alienable and
disposal land at the southern sector.
The existing vegetation ranges from grasslands and agricultural areas in the lower elevations
(200-400 meters above sea level) to primary lowland dipterocarp forest in Taguman/ Mt. Rock
Dome range. Tanawon area is forested, but the forest cover is that of mid-montane forest
consisting of small trees of non-commercial stand. The summit of Mt. Tanawon is where the
RCPI-PTT tower antennae are located. The lower slopes of Tanawon are mainly logged over
areas with some second growth forest stand. Along the access road in the vicinity of the
Sulfatara area are cleared areas that have been reforested with Gmelina arborea, Acacia
mangium, Cacao (Theobroma cacao), and Coffee (Coffea robusta).
Plates 2.2.1-10 to 2.2.1-12 show the general land use at the southern sector of the Tanawon
block, mostly consisting of private abaca, coconut, and cacao plantations.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 2

The following presents the results of the vegetation analysis at eight (8) sample plots from
secondary forest and one (1) plot in a grassland environment. The raw data on the vegetations
sampled are presented in Appendix I-1 -- Tables 2.2.1- 1 to 2.2.1-9.

1.

Sample Plot # 1

This sampling station is beside the existing Cawayan Power Plant at an elevation of 780m ASL.
It is located at S53E from the DOTC tower in Cawayan. The area is a grassland environment.
Only two (2) species of trees were observed in the area. These include Gymnostoma
rumphiana and Acacia mangium. Perhaps, these trees are the survivors of the tree planting
activity undertaken by NPC to rehabilitate the power plant site.
The area is dominated by grasses and weeds belonging to the following families: Graminae,
Cyperaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Nepenthaceae, Polyaeaceae and Theaceae.
Instead of establishing a circular plot, four (4) 2m x 2m plots were established along the transect
line and a 100% inventory of the vegetation was undertaken. Results of the inventory are
presented in Appendix I-1--Table 2.2.1-1 while Table 2.2.1-1A presents the summary of uses
of the different species in sample plot # 1.

2.

Sample Plot # 2

This plot is located at S60W from the DOTC Tower in Cawayan. It is inside a secondary forest
near the road between the PNOC-EDC/BGPF Basecamp and the Admin Complex-Cawayan
junction. A circular plot with a radius of 20m was established and divided into four (4)
quadrants. A 100% inventory of the vegetation inside the sample plot was then conducted.
Results of the inventory are presented in Appendix I-1-- Table 2.2.1.
A total of 250 plants and forest trees were recorded, of which, 28 are timber producing species
represented by 4 families and 6 genera. These include Shorea negrosensis of the family
Dipterocarpaceae; Dysoxylum grandifolium of the family Meliaceae; Adina multiflora of
Rubiaceae; and Decaspermum spp. and Syzygium spp of the family Myrtaceae.
Majority of the vegetation observed in plot # 2 are species which can be used for landscaping
(116). This is represented by 20 families and 30 genera. A total of 54 species with ornamental
values were also recorded. This is represented by 11 families and 11 genera. Only a few
species with different economic values were noted, such as; for condiment, 1 species; for
cottage industry, 8 species; for soil erosion control, 9 species; for medicinal purposes, 1 species;
for ecological purposes, 18 species and for fiber, 1 specie. Table 2.2.1-2A presents the
summary of the different uses of the species observed in sample plot no. 2.
Plot # 2 could be described as a young second growth forest which is at an early stage of
regeneration and where only 2 storeys/canopy strata of a forest ecosystem are represented.
Being a very young second growth forest, the total volume computed for this plot is only 7.82
cu.m. (Table 2.2.1-15). The diameter at Breast Height (dBH) ranges from 10 to 70 cm with the
majority (78%) falling on the lower bracket of 10 to 20 cm. The merchantable height (MH) on
the other hand ranges from 1m to 8m with 85% of trees having MH ranging from am to 5m and
only 15% with MH of 6m to 8m.

3.

Sample Plot No. 3

Another example of a typical secondary forest, sample plot no. 3 is a circular plot located at
850m ASL, S25E from the DOTC Tower in Cawayan. The different forest canopy strata are

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 3

well represented and easily discernible, although the top-canopy layer is only about 10-12
meters high. Majority of the vegetation observed occupies the middle storey, the understorey
and the forest floor.
A total of 307 plants and forest trees were inventoried. The timber producing species recorded,
represented by seven (7) families and 9 genera, include the following: Dipterocarpaceae
(Shorea negrosensis and Hopea acuminata); Sapotaceae (Palaqium botanensis); Lauraceae
(Litsea luzonica and Litsea perrotettii); Myrtaceae (Syzygium nitidum, S. calubcob and
Decaspermum fruticosum); Guttiferae (Calophylum blancoi); Magnoliaceae (Michelia
platyphylla) and Rubiaceae (Adina multiflora).
Several species with different important values/uses were also noted. A total of 136 plants and
trees which has landscaping values/uses, were recorded. They are represented by 22 families
and 28 genera, the dominant species of which belong to the families Hypoxidaceae (30) and
Cyatheaceae (26). Plants with ornamental and aesthetic values total to about 90. They are
represented by 12 families and 16 genera. Thirty four (34) plants of ecological importance,
majority of which belong to the families Urticaceae and Selaginellaceae were also noted. On
the other hand, only a few species of plants with different other uses are observed, such as; for
soil erosion control (Schizostachyum diffusum); cottage industry (Calamus ornatus); medicinal
value (Leea philippinensis) and 3 species of weeds belonging to the families Cyperaceae and
Compositae. The summary of the different uses of species observed in Sample Plot # 3 is
presented in Table 2.2.1-3A.
The total volume of timber computed for this plot is only 7.03 cu.m. which is much lower than in
plot no. 2. The average dBH of trees is 21.9 cm while the average MH is 4m. Table 2.2.1-16
presents the timber volume computed for trees sampled in plot no. 3.

4.

Sample Plot # 4

This sampling plot is located at an elevation of 865m ASL, S35E from the DOTC Tower in
Cawayan. Similar to Sample Plots 2 and 3, three (3) canopy layers are observed in this young
second growth forest where the timber producing species has only attained an average diameter
of 25 centimeters and an average merchantable height of only 1.8 meters. The volume
completed for sample plot no. 4 is shown in Table 2.2.1-17.
A total of 208 plants and forest trees were recorded inside the sampling plot. The timber
producing species (66) which occupy the upper canopy is dominated by the family Myrtaceae
with 22 trees represented by 2 genera, namely; Syzygium and Decaspernum. Other timber
producing species observed belong to the families Lauraceae, Sapotaceae, Rubiaceae,
Meliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Guttiferae and Cunoviaceae. No dipterocarps were observed
inside the sampling plot. The middle storey is dominated by species used for landscaping (77)
and those for ornamental or with aesthetic value (38). The species used for landscaping is
represented by 17 families and 19 genera while those with aesthetic values is represented by 8
families and 13 genera. The under storey and the forest floor are occupied by numerous
species of vines, herbs, weeds and grasses and wildlings of shrubs and trees.
Table 2.2.1-4A presents the summary of uses of species in Sample Plot #4.

5.

Sample Plot # 5

This plot is another representation of a secondary forest. It is located at an elevation of 850m


Southwest (SW) of the existing Tanawon pad and S43E from the DOTC Tower in Cawayan. A
total of 342 plants and forest trees were recorded during the conduct of 100% inventory.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 4

There were four (4) canopy strata observed. The uppermost or the dominant canopy stratum is
occupied by very few species belonging to the families Mrytaceae, Sapotaceae, Rubiaceae,
Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae and Elaeocarpaceae. The co-dominant stratum is occupied
by species belonging to the families Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae,
Melastomataceae, Magnoliaceae, Cunoviaceae, Clethraceae, Lauraceae, Sapotaceae,
Mrytaceae, Guttiferae and Mimosaceae. The middle storey and understorey/forest floor on the
other hand, are occupied by wildlings of the species from the dominant and co-dominant layers
and numerous species of herbs, grasses, vines and weeds.
The inventory showed that no dipterocarps are thriving in the area. However, a total of 30
timber producing species were noted. These are represented by 5 families (Rubiaceae,
Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae, Magnoliaceae and Elaeocarpaceae) and 6 genera (Neonauclea,
Syzygium, Adina, Nephelium, Michelia and Elaeocarpus). Sample plot # 5 is dominated by
species which has ornamental or aesthetic values (184 spp.) and those that may be used for
landscaping (92 spp.). Very few species with different other uses were recorded, such as;
Medicinal (Sarcandra globera, Smilax bracheata, Ficus septica and Ficus guyeri); Cottage
industry (Calamus merrillii); Fiber (Musa textilis) and Soil erosion control (Schizostachyum
diffusum). Table 2.2.1-5A shows the different uses of species in Sample Plot # 5 while Table
2.2.1-18 presents the volume of trees in plot no. 5.

6.

Sample Plot # 6

Like sample plot #5, sample plot # 6 is just beside the existing Tanawon pad. It is southeast of
the pad and located at an elevation of 867m ASL, S55E from the DOTC Tower in Cawayan.
The plot is also within a secondary forest where three (3) canopy strata was observed. The
uppermost canopy layer with an average height of 12 meters is occupied by species from the
following families; Dipterocarpaceae, Rubiaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae,
Sterculiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae and Guttiferae. The
middle storey, on the other hand, is occupied by species from the families Proteaceae,
Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae,
Sapotaceae, Saxifragaceae, Sterculiaceae, Lauraceae and Elaeocarpaceae. The understorey
and the forest floor are occupied by vines, herbs, grasses, palms, weeds and wildlings of those
in the middle and upper canopy strata. The lower stratum are represented by species from the
families Araceae, Cyatheaceae, Lindsaeaceae, Orchidaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Lauraceae,
Hypoxidaceae, Sapindaceae, Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Apocynaceae, Graminae,
Lomariopsidaceae, Cunoviaceae, Oleandraceae, Athyriaceae, Saxifragaceae, Clethraceae,
Palmae, Proteaceae, Araliaceae, Chloranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Vitaceae, Selaginellaceae,
Aspleniaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Theaceae, Liliaceae, Pandanaceae, Zingiberaceae,
Polypodiaceae, Myrsinaceae, Gesneriaceae and Piperaceae.
A total a 206 species of plants and forest trees were recorded, of which, only 54 species are
timber producing. Only one (1) dipterocarp (Anisoptera thurifera) was recorded. The other
timber producing species observed are represented by the following families, namely:
Elaeocarpaceae (Elaeocarpus multiflorus); Rubiaceae (Adina multiflora and Neonauclea
calycina); Myrtaceae (Decaspermum fruticozum and Syzygium spp.); Sapotaceae (Palagium
botanensis and P. philippinense) and Guttiferae (Calophylum blancoi and Cratoxylum
celebicum). Similar to all other plots established; sample plot # 6 is dominated by species which
has aesthetic values as ornamental (61 spp.) and for landscaping purposes (62 spp.). The 61
species that could be used for ornamental purposes is represented by 18 families and 23
genera while those species for landscaping is represented by 20 families and 24 genera. A few
species with different other uses were also noted. These include Schizostachyum diffusum
(Graminae) for soil erosion control; Calamus merrillii and C. ornatus (Palmae) and Freycinetia
monocephala (Pandanaceae), for cottage industry; and Sarcandra glabra (Chloranthaceae) and
Smilax brancheata (Liliaceae), for medicinal purposes. Table 2.2.1-6A presents the summary of

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 5

the different uses of species recorded in sample plot # 6. The volume computed for this plot is
presented in Table 2.2.1-19.

7.

Sample Plot # 7

This sample plot is located at an elevation of 265m ASL near the NPC mini-hydro project in
Cawayan River. A total of 277 species of plants and forest trees were recorded. Being in a
lower elevation than the other sample plots in a second growth forest, a slight difference in
terms of species composition was noted.
Some species not found in the higher-elevation second growth forest sampled were observed.
These include Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae); Artocarpus sericicarpus (Moraceae);
Pterocarpus incidus (Papilionaceae); Leucaena leucocephala (Mimosaceae); and Toona
calantas (Meliacea), among others.
There are about 19 species of timber producing trees recorded in the sample plot represented
by 10 families and 11 genera. These include Papilionaceae (Pterocarpus indicus); Rubiaceae
(Neonauclea reticulata, N. vidalii and Hedyotis prostata); Guttiferae (Cratoxylum celebicum);
Dipterocarpaceae (Shorea contorta); Casuarinaceae (Gymnostoma rumphiana); Meliaceae
(Toona calantas); Bignoniaceae (Radermachera pinnata); Mimosaceae (Samanea saman);
Lauraceae (Litsea perrotettii); and Moraceae (Artocarpus ovatus).
Like all other sample plots in the secondary forest, sample plot # 7 is dominated by species
used for landscaping (125). These are represented by 27 families and 43 genera. Six (6)
species of plants with aesthetic values and can be used for ornamental purposes were
recorded. These are represented by 3 families and 3 genera. Those with medicinal values (31
spp.) are represented by 5 families and 8 genera. Species with different other uses observed
inside the plot include the following: for soil erosion control, Schizostachyum diffusum
(Graminae); fruit tree, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae); for green manure, Leucaena
leucocephala (Mimosaceae); for cottage industry, Miscanthus floridulus, Thysonalaena maxima
and Imperata cylindrica (Graminae) and Lygodium urcinatum (Schizaeaceae); and for poison,
Mucuna longipeduncuelata (Papilionaceae), Semecarpus cuneiformis (Anacardiaceae) and
Dioscorea hispida (Dioscoreaceae).
Table 2.2.1-7A presents the summary of the different uses of species sampled in Sample Plot #
7. The volume computed for this is presented in Table 2.2.1-20.

8.

Sample Pot no. 8 (Pad A Botong)

Sample plot no. 8 is located in Botong sector and is an identified Pad site. It is situated at an
elevation of 630m ASL inside a second growth forest. A total of 139 plants, shrubs and forest
trees were recorded, of which 57 are timber producing, 54 are for landscaping, 18 are
ornamental plants and the rest are for different other uses. The vegetation found in sample plot
no. 8 is represented by 51 genera and 37 families. The dominant and co-dominant timber
producing trees are represented by 20 species, 14 genera and 13 families, most of which
occupying the 2 upper canopy layers. These include species of the families Dipterocarpaceae,
Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Guttiferae, Rubiaceae, Combretaceae, Eleaocarpaceae,
Sapotaceae, Ebenaceae, Dilleniaceae, Sapindaceae and Marantaceae. Plants and trees for
landscaping purposes are represented by 24 species, 20 genera and 16 families. These include
species of the families Sauraniaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae, Palmae,
Celastraceae, Marantaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Proteaceae, Pandanaceae, Moraceae,
Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Saxifragaceae and Zingiberaceae. Those trees with
aesthetic/ornamental values are represented by 12 species, 12 genera and 12 families while
those with medicinal values are represented by 3 species, 3 genera and 2 families. Table
2.2.1-8A presents the summary of the different uses of the vegetation sampled in plot no. 8.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 6

Sample plot no. 8 has the largest volume computed for the entire study with 27.36 cu.m. (Table
2.2.1-21). This is so because of the numerous trees (93) found inside the sample plot, the
average dBH and MH of which is 21.64cm and 8m, respectively.

9.

Sample Plot No. 9 (Pad B Cawayan)

This sample plot is another representation of a very young second growth forest. It is an
identified Pad site in Cawayan sector situated at an elevation of 530m ASL. A total of 111
plants and forest trees were recorded, of which 14 are for timber, 65 for landscaping purposes,
12 are ornamental plants, 1 with medicinal values and the rest for fiber and cottage industry
purposes.. The timber producing trees are represented by 7 species, 7 genera and 5 families.
These include species of the families Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae, Eleaocarpaceae, Rubiaceae and
Dipterocarpaceae. Trees for landscaping are represented by 28 species, 22 genera and 19
families; majority of which belong to the families Euphorbia and Urticaceae. The ornamental
plants are represented by 8 species, 8 genera from 7 families. Those for fiber and cottage
industries are dominated by Kleinhovia hospita of the family Sterculiaceae. Only one (1)
species with medicinal value is recorded inside the plot, Sarcandra glabra of the family
Chloranthaceae.
This plot has the lowest volume computed for the entire study with only 5.79 cu.m. due to the
very young vegetation (Table 2.2.1-22). The average dBH and MH recorded is only 21cm and
2m, respectively. The forest strata is composed of only 2 layers, the forest floor and the
understorey.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1- 7

TABLE 2.2.1-1A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 1

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY
ECOLOGICAL
LANDSCAPING
ORNAMENTAL
TIMBER PRODUCING
WEED

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Imperata cylindrica

Graminae

280

Miscanthus floridulus

Graminae

101

Lycopodium cernum

Lycopodiaceae

93

Polygala

Polyaeaceae

12

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Eurya nitida

Theaceae

Nephentes ventricoza

Nepenthaceae

Gymnostoma rumphiana

Casuarinaceae

Acacia mangium

Mimosaceae

Machaerina sp.

Cyperaceae

18

510

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-8

TABLE 2.2.1-2A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 2

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY

ECOLOGICAL

FIBER
LANDSCAPING

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Calamus ornatus

Palmae

Calamus usitatus

Palmae

Cinnamomum mercadoi

Lauraceae

Lygodium merrillii

Schizaeceae

Miscanthus floridulus

Graminae

Procris frutescens

Cecropiaceae

Selaginella finixii

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella involvens

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella cumingiana

Selaginellaceae

Phaleria sp.

Thymelaeaceae

Acer laurianum

Aceraceae

10

Adenanthera intermedia

Mimosaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Boerlagiodendron trilobatrum

Araliaceae

Canarium barnesii

Burseraceae

Cleistanthus brideliaefolius

Euphorbiaceae

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

13

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea philippinensis

Cyatheaceae

Eurya nitida

Theaceae

Ficus subulata

Moraceae

Fissistigma rufum

Annonaceae

Freycinetia multiflora

Pandanaceae

Greeniopsis multiflora

Rubiaceae

Guioa koelrenteria

Sapindaceae

Homalanthus alpinus

Euphorbiaceae

Languas haenkei

Zingiberaceae

Lasianthus cyanocarpus

Rubiaceae

Litchi philippinensis

Sapindaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Livistona rotundifolia

Palmae

Medinilla involucrata

Melastomataceae

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Neolitsea villosa

Lauraceae

Pandanus basicularis

Pandanaceae

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Pinanga insignis

Palmae

10

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-9

IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 2 (cont)


USES
LANDSCAPING

MED
ORNAMENTAL

POISON
SOIL EROSION CONTROL
TIMBER PRODUCING

WEED

SPECIES
Palaquium sp.

FAMILY
Sapotaceae

DENSITY
1

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Sterculia oblongata

Sterculiaceae

13

Symplocos polyandra

Symplocaceae

Uncaria velutina

Rubiaceae

Weinmania luzoniensis

Cunorriaceae

Smilax brancheata

Liliaceae

Arachniodes amabilis

Dryopteridaceae

Asplenium tenerum

Aspleniaceae

Begonia aequata

Begoniaceae

Dicranopteris linearis

Gleicheniaceae

14

Diplazium cordifolium

Athyriaceae

Dipteris conjugata

Dipteridaceae

Freycinetia negrosensis

Pandanaceae

Heterospathe philippinensis

Palmae

Medinilla involucrata

Melastomataceae

Nephrolepis biserrata

Davalliaceae

Phaius sp.

Orchidaceae

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Sphaerostephanos heteiocarpus

Thelypteridaceae

Derris philippinensis

Papilionaceae

Derris scandens

Papilionaceae

Dalbergia ferriginea

Popilionaceae

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

Adina multiflora

Rubiaceae

Decaspermum microphyllum

Myrtaceae

Decaspernum frunticosum

Myrtaceae

Dysoxylum grandifolium

Meliaceae

Shorea negrosensis

Dipterocarpaceae

12

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp.

Myrtaceae

Scleria scrobiculata

Cyperaceae

11
248

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-10

TABLE 2.2.1-3A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 3

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY
ECOLOGICAL

LANDSCAPING

SPECIES
Calamus ornatus

FAMILY
Palmae

DENSITY
1

Alyxia concatenata

Apocynaceae

Elatostema podophyllum

Urticaceae

15

Elatostema viridiscens

Urticaceae

Piper arborescens

Piperaceae

Piper interruptum

Piperaceae

Selaginella cupressina

Selaginellaceae

11

Selaginella finixii

Selaginellaceae

Alyxia concatenata

Apocynaceae

Angiopteris palmiformis

Marattiaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia discolor

Melastomataceae

Astronia rolfei

Melastomataceae

Boerlagiodendron trilobatum

Araliaceae

Canarium barnesii

Burseraceae

Chisocheton pentandrus

Meliaceae

Cleistanthus

Euphorbiaceae
p

Clethra lancifolia

Clethraceae

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

14

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

13

Cyrtandra humilis

Generiaceae

Dicsonia mollis

Cyatheaceae

Eudia

Rutaceae

Ficus subulata

Moraceae

Freycinetia multiflora

Pandanaceae

Languas musaefolia

Zingiberaceae

Laurauia latibractea

Sauraniaceae

Levaria rufa

Annonaceae

Litsea albayana

Lauraceae

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Melicope triphylla

Rutaceae

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

30

Neolitsea villosa

Lauraceae

Pandanus basicolasis

Pandanaceae

Pinanga philippinensis

Palmae

Saurania latibractea

Sauraniaceae

Schefflera sp.

Araliaceae

Symplocas polyandra

Symplocaceae

Syzygium calubcob

Myrtaceae

Viburnum odoratissimum

Caprifoliaceae

Zingiber sylvaticum

Zingiberaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-11

IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 3 (cont)


USES
MEDICINAL
ORNAMENTAL

SOIL EROSION CONTROL


TIBER PRODUCING

WEED

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Sarcandra globra

Chloranthaceae

Leea philippinensis

Leeaceae

Alocasia zebrina

Araceae

Amydrium magnificum

Araceae

Araiostigia hymenophylloides

Dovalliaceae

Asplenium nidus

Aspleniaceae

Begonia incisa

Begoniaceae

Begonia oxysperma

Begoniaceae

Elatostema podophyllum

Urticaceae

Freycinetia multiflora

Pandanaceae

Heterospathe philippinensis

Palmae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Medinilla invalucrata

Melastomataceae

Medinilla trianae

Melastomataceae

Microsorium heterocarpum

Polypodiaceae

12

Nepholipis biserrata

Dovalliaceae

Pleocnemia macrodonta

Aspidiaceae

Polystichum horizontale

Dryopteridaceae

Pothos rumphu

Araceae

Spathiphyllum commutatum

Araceae

25

Sphaerostephanos lobatus

Thelypteridaceae

Schizostachyum diffunum

Graminae

Adina multiflora

Rubiaceae

Calophyllum blancoi

Guttiferae

Decaspermum fruticosum

Myrtaceae

Hopea

Dipterocarpaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Litsea perrototii

Lauraceae

Michelia platyphylla

Magnoliaceae

Polaquium batanensis

Sapotaceae

Shorea negrosensis

Dipterocarpaceae

Syzygium calubcob

Myrtaceae

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Blumea reparis

Compositae

Carex filicina

Cyperaceae

Scleria scrobiculata

Cyperaceae

11

320

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-12

TABLE 2.2.1-4A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 4

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY
ECOLOGICAL

LANDSCAPING

MEDICINAL
ORNAMENTAL

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Calamus merrillii

Palmae

Alyxia concatenata

Apocynaceae

Gnetum latifolium

Gnetaceae

Rubus pectebellus

Rosaceae

Selaginella cupressina

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella finixii

Selaginelllaceae

Smilax bracteata

Liliaceae

Tetrastigma loheri

Vitaceae

Uncaria velutina

Rubiaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia rolfei

Melastomataceae

Cleistassthus

Euphorbiaceae

Clethra lancifolia

Clethraceae

10

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea integra

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea
philippinensis
y
p pp

Cyatheaceae
y

10

Cyrtandra humilis

Gesneriaceae

Dicsonia mollis

Cyatheaceae

Euodia

Rutaceae

Ficus ampelos

Moraceae

Ficus obscura

Moraceae

Freycinetia multiflora

Pandanaceae

Garcinia dulcis

Guttiferae

Helicia cumingiana

Proteceae

Heterospatha philippinensis

Palmae

Homolanthus alpinus

Euphorbiaceae

Melicope triphylla

Rutaceae

Memecylon lanceolatum

Melastomataceae

Michelia platyphylla

Magnoliaceae

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

Symplocos polyandra

Symplocaceae

Zingiber sylvaticum

Zingiberaceae

Ficus septica

Moraceae

Alocasia heterophylla

Araceae

Alocasia zebrina

Araceae

Amydrium magnificum

Araceae

Asplenium indus

Aspleniaceae

Dendrochilum cobbianum

Archidaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-13

TABLE 2.2.1-4A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 4 (cont)

USES

SOIL EROSION CONTROL


TIMBER PRODUCING

WEED

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Dichrotrichum chorisephalum

Gesneriaceae

Eria philippinensis

Orchidaceae

Heterospathe microcarpa

Palmae

Heterospathe philippinensis

Palmae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Medinilla ternifolia

Melastomataceae

Pinanga geonomaeformis

Palmae

Pinanga philippinensis

Palmae

Rhaphidophora copelandii

Araceae

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Spathiphyllum commutatum

Araceae

Zingiber sylvaticum

Zingiberaceae

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

Adina multiflora

Rubiaceae

Aglaia sp.

Meliaceae

1
2

Alstoria macrophylla

Rubiaceae

Calophyllum blancoi

Guttiferae

Decaspermum fruticusum

Myrtaceae

Decaspermum microphyllum

Myrtaceae

Elaeocarpus

Elaeocarpaceae

Litsea albaya

Lauraceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

10

Palaquium

Sapotaceae

Palaquium philippinse

Sapotaceae

Syzygium calubcob

Myrtaceae

17

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Weinmania luzonensis

Cunoniaceae

Wendlandia luzonensis

Rubiaceae

Hypolytrum latifolium

Cyperaceae

213

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-14

TABLE 2.2.1-5A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 5

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY
ECOLOGICAL
FIBER
LANDSCAPING

MEDICINAL

SCIENTIFIC NAME
Calamus merrillii
Psychotria diffusa

FAMILY

DENSITY

Palmae
Rubiaceae

2
2

Rubus peatenellus

Rosaceae

Musa textelio

Musaceae

Alyxia concatenata

Apocynaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia meyeri

Melastomataceae

Caleus igolotorum

Labtiatae

Chisocheton pentandrus

Meliaceae

Cleistanthus sp.

Euphorbiaceae

12

Clethra lancifolia

Clethraceae

Coleus igolotorum

Lobiatae

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea philippinensis

Cyatheaceae

Dillenia philippinensis

Dilleniaceae

Discocalyx montana

Myrsinaceae

Dysoxylum arborescens

Meliaceae

Euodia sp.

Rutaceae

Eurya nitida

Theaceae

Garcinia dulcis

Guttiferae

Guiao koelreuteria

Sapindaceae

Guiao Scoelreuteria

Sapindaceae

Helicia cumingiana

Proteaceae

Homalanthus alpinus

Euphorbiaceae

14

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Melicope triphylla

Rutaceae

Neolitsea villosa

Lauraceae

Palaquium botanensis

Sapotaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Palaquium tenuipetiolatum

Sapotaceae

Pandanus sp.

Pandanaceae

Pinanga philippinensis

Palmae

Pithecellobium clypearia

Mimosaceae

Polyosna sp.

Saxifragaceae

Terminalia microcarpa

Combretaceae

Weinmania luzonensis

Cunoniaceae

Ficus septica

Moraceae

Sarcandra glabra

Chloranthaceae

19

Smilax bracheata

Liliaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-15

TABLE 2.2.1-5A

USES
ORNAMENTAL

SOIL EROSION CONTROL


TIMBER PRODUCING

WEED

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 5 (cont)
SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Amydrium magnificum

Araceae

Araiostegia hymenophylloides

Davalliaceae

Asplenium nidus

Aspleniaceae

Begonia aequrata

Begoniaceae

Begonia sp.

Begoniaceae

14

Catimbium specionum

Zingiberaceae

Crypsinus taematus

Polypodiaceae

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

15

Dendrochilum cobbianum

Orchidaceae

11

Dendrochilum tenellune

Ordridaceae

Dichrotrichum chorisephalum

Gesneriaceae

Elaphoglossum luzonicum

Lomariopsidaceae

12

Freycinetia multiflora

Pandanaceae

Freycinetia negrosensis

Pandanaceae

Heterospathe philippinensis

Palmae

1
7

Languas haenkei

Zingiberaceae

Lindsaea merrillii

Lindsaeaceae

Lindsaea obtusa

Lindsaeceae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

11

Medinella involucrata

Melastomataceae

Medinilla ternifolia

Melastomataceae

Melastomapolyanthum

Melastomataceae

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

21

Nephrolepis biserrata

Dovalliaceae

Oleandra colubrina

Oleandraceae

Polystichum horizontale

Dryopteridaceae

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Scleroglossum sp.

Grammitidaceae

Selaginella cumingiana

Selaginellaceae

14

Selaginella finixii

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella involvens

Selaginellaceae

14

Tapeinidium luzonicum

Lindsaeceae

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

Adina multiflora

Rubiaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Mechelia platyphylla

Magnoliaceae

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Neonauclea nitida

Rubiaceae

Nephelium ramboutan ake

Sapindaceae

Syzygium sp.

Myrtaceae

Hypolytrum latifolium

Cyperaceae

342

TABLE 2.2.1-6A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 6

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY

ECOLOGICAL

LANDSCAPING

MEDICINAL

SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Colamus arnatus

Palmae

Colamus merrillii

Palmae

Freycinetia monocephala

Pandanaceae

Alyxia concatenata

Apocynaceae

Piper interruptum

Piperaceae

Rubus pectinellus

Rosaceae

Selaginella finixii

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella involvens

Selaginellaceae

Tetrastigma loheri

Vitaceae

Alyxia contacenata

Apoaynaceae

Ardisia sp.

Myrsinaceae

Astronia rolfei

Melastomataceae

Chisocheton pentandrus

Meliaceae

Clethra lancifolia

Clethraceae

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea
philippinensis
ya a p
pp

Cyatheaceae
ya a a

Discocalyx montana

Myrsinaceae

Eurrya nitida

Theaceae

Garcinia dulcis

Guttiferae

Guioa koelreuteria

Sapindaceae

Helicia cumingiana

Proteaceae

Homalanthus alpinus

Euphorbiaceae

Itea macrophylla

Saxifragaceae

Languas haenkei

Zingiberaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Memecylon lanceolatum

Melastomataceae

Neolitsea villosa

Lauraceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Polyosma

Saxifragaceae

Psychotria

Rubiaceae

Psychotria sp.

Rubiaceae

Sterculia oblongata

Sterauliaceae

Strobilanthes pluriformis

Acanthaceae

11

Weinmania luzonensis

Cunoniaceae

Sarcandra glabra

Chloranthaceae

Smilax orachiata

Liliaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-17

TABLE 2.2.1-6A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 6 (cont)

USES
ORNAMENTAL

SOIL EROSION CONTROL


TIMBER PRODUCING

WEED

SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Alocasia zebrina

Araceae

Amydrium magnificum

Araceae

Asplenium cymbifolium

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium indus

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium tenerum

Aspleniaceae

Boerlagiodendron trilobatum

Araliaceae

Crypsinus taeniatus

Polypodiaceae

Dendrochilum cobbianum

Orchidaceae

Dichrotrichum chorisephalum

Gesneriaceae

Diplozium cumingii

Athyriaceae

Dryopteris sparsa

Dryopteridaceae

Elaphoglossum lozunicum

Lomariopsidaceae

Eria philippinensis

Orchidaceae

Freycinetia negrosensis

Pandanaceae

Heterospathe philippinensis

Palmae

Lindsaea merrillii

Lindsaeaceae

Mapania
apa a cuspidata
u p da a

Cyperaceae
yp a a

Medinella involucrata

Melastomataceae

Medinilla clementis

Melastomataceae

Medinilla trianae

Melastomataceae

2
3

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

Oleandra colubrina

Oleandraceae

Pinanga geonomoeformis

Palmae

Polystichum horizontale

Dryopteridaceae

Rhaphidophora monticola

Araceae

Schefflora sp.

Araliaceae

Sphaerostephanos lobotus

Thelypteridaceae

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

Adina multiflora

Rubiaceae

17

Calophyllum blancoi

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Decaspermum fruticosum

Myrtaceae

Decaspernum fruticosom

Myrtaceae

Dysoxylum grandiflorum

Meliaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

10

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Polaquium botanensis

Sapotaceae

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Syzygium sp.

Myrtaceae

Scleria scrobiculata

Cyperaceae

214
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2 0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p 2 2 1-18

TABLE 2.2.1-7A

USES
COTTAGE INDUSTRY

ECOLOGICAL

FRUIT CROP
FIBER
GREEN MANURED
LANDSCAPING

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7

SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Imperata cylindria

Graminae

31

Lygodium cercinatum

Schizaeaceae

Miscanthus floridulus

Graminae

Thysonalaena maxima

Graminae

Iodes philippinensis

Icacinaceae

Musa acuminata

Musaceae

Selaginella cupresena

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella delicatula

Selaginellaceae

12

Stenomerris dioscoreaefolia

Dioscoreaceae

Tetracera scandens

Dilleniaceae

Mangifera indica

Anacardiaceae

Colona serratifolia

Tiliaceae

Wikslroemia lanceota

Thymelaeceae

Leucaena leucocephala

Mimosaceae

Acalypha amenracea

Euphorbiaceae

Acer laurianum

Aceraceae

Angiopteris palmiformis

Marathiaceae

Artocarpus sericicarpus

Moraceae

2
1

Asplenium indus

Aspleniaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia meyeri

Melastomataceae

Blechnum orientale

Blechnaceae

Breynia cernua

Euphorbiaceae

Canarium hirsutum

Burseraceae

Cassia fistula

Caesalpiniaceae

Christella dendata

Thelypteridaceae

Cleistanthus brideliaefolius

Euphorbiaceae

Costus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

Cyathea integra

Cyatheaceae

Cyrpteronia cumingiana

Crypteroniaceae

Dolbergia ferruginea

Papilionaceae

Euodia confusa

Rutaceae

Ficus cumingii

Moraceae

Ficus minahassae

Moraceae

Ficus obscura

Moraceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-19

TABLE 2.2.1-7A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7 (cont)

USES

MEDICINAL

SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Ficus psendopalma

Moraceae

Ficus sp.

Moraceae

Freycinetia negrosensis

Pandanaceae

Greeniopsis multiflora

Rubiaceae

Guioa diptera

Sapindaceae

Guioa koelrenteria

Sapindaceae

Hedyotis prostrata

Rubiaceae

Homalomena philippinensis

Araceae

10

Horsfieldia merrillii

Myristicaceae

Kibatalia getingensis

Apocynaceae

Kolowratia elegans

Zingiberaceae

Leucosyke capitellata

Urticaceae

Macaranga bicolor

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Macrothelypteris polypodioides

Thelypteridaceae

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Melicope triphylla

Rutaceae

Micromelon minutum

Rutaceae

Microsorium scolopendria

Polypodiaceae

Musseanda philippica

Rubiaceae

Pandanus basiculasis

Pandanaceae

Paspalum conjugotum

Graminae

12

Phyllanthus reticulatus

Euphorbiaceae

Pleomele angustifolia

Agavaceae

Polyscias nudosa

Araliaceae

Rhaphidophora copelandii

Araceae

Sphaerootephanos unitus

Thelypteridaceae

Turpinia pomifera

Staphyllaceae

Aestonia scholaris

Apocynaceae

Ageratum conyzoides

Composite

Alstonia macrophylla

Apocynaceae

Crassocephalum crepedioides

Comporitae

Elephantopus tomentosus

Comporitae

Ficus septica

Moraceae

Mimosa pudica

Mimosaceae

Pseudelephantopus spicatus

Moraceae

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Varbenaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-20

TABLE 2.2.1-7A

USES

ORNAMENTAL

POISON

SOIL EROSION CONTROL


TIMBER PRODUCING

WEED

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7 (cont)
SCIENTIFIC NAME

FAMILY

DENSITY

Christella arida

Thelypteridaceae

Dischidia platyphylla

Asclepiadaceae

Laurentia longiflora

Camponulaceae

Neprolipis biserrata

Davolliaceae

Scindapsus hederaceus

Araceae

Dioscorea hispida

Dioscoreaceae

Mucuna longipedunculata

Papilionaceae

Senacarpus cuneiformis

Anacardiaceae

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

Artocarpus ovatus

Moraceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Gymnostoma rumphiana

Casuarinaceae

Hedyotis prostrata

Rubiaceae

Litsea perrotettii

Lauraceae

Neonauclea reticulata

Rubiaceae

Neonauclea vidulii

Rubiaceae

Pterocarpus indicus

Papilionaceae

Radermacheria pinnata

Bignoniaceae

Samanea saman

Mimosaceae

Shorea contorta

Dipterocarpaceae

Toona calantas

Meliaceae

Centotheca lappacea

Graminae

Cuphea cartaginensis

Lythraceae

Eragrostis pilosa

Graminae

Ludwigia hyssopifolia

Onagraceae

Ludwigia octavalvis

Inagraceae

Phyllanthus urinaria

Euphorbiaceae

Scleria scrobiculata

Cyperaceae

278

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-21

TABLE 2.2.1-8A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 8 (PAD A - BOTONG)

USES
TIMBER

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Decaspermum fruticosum

Myrtaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Syzygium simile

Myrtaceae

Dysoxylum grandifolium

Meliaceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Terminalia nitens

Combretaceae

Syzygium densinervium

Myrtaceae

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Syzygium densinervium

Myrtaceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Terminalia nitens

Combretaceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Dysoxylum grandifolium

Meliaceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Dysoxylum grandifolium

Meliaceae

Neonauclea Vidalii

Rubiaceae

Terminalia pellucida

Combretaceae

Dysoxylum grandifolium

Meliaceae

Neonauclea Vidalii

Rubiaceae

Neonauclea Vidalii

Rubiaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-22

TABLE 2.2.1-8A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 8 (PAD A - BOTONG) (cont)

USES

POISON

LANDSCAPING

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Nephalium ramboutan ake

Sapindaceae

Dillenia reifferschidia

Dilleniaceae

Dillenia sp.

Dilleniaceae

Neonauclea vidalii

Rubiaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Neonauclea vidalii

Rubiaceae

Diospyrus ahernii

Ebenaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Phynium philippense

Marantaceae

Shorea palosapis

Dipterocarpaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Dillenia sp.

Dilleniaceae

Litsea luzonica

Lauraceae

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

Syzygium densinervium

Myrtaceae

Shorea squamata

Dipterocarpaceae

Semecarpus cuneiformis

Anacardiaceae

Dendrochnide meyeniana

Urticaceae

Semecarpus cuneiformis

Anacardiaceae

Saurania latibractea

Sauraniaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Bridelia minutiflora

Euphorbiaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Sauraniaceae

Pinanga heterophylla

Palmae

Euonynus javanicus

Celastraceae

Phynuim philippinense

Marantaceae

Moleneria capitulota

Hypoxidaceae

Helicia cumingiana

Proteaceae

Freycinetia Vidalii

Pandanaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus botryocarpa

Moraceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus benguetensis

Moraceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Caryota rumphiana

Palmae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-23

TABLE 2.2.1-8A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 8 (PAD A - BOTONG) (cont)

USES

SPECIES
Pinanga maculata

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES

ORNAMENTAL

FAMILY
Palmae

DENSITY
1

Pinanga heterophylla

Palmae

Strobilanthes pachys

Acanthaceae

Phacelophrynium interruptum

Marantaceae

Molinenia capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

Freycinetia vidalii

Pandanaceae

Pithecellobium clypeoria

Mimosaceae

Alstonia macrophylla

Apocynaceae

Pithecellobium clypeoria

Mimosaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomaceae

Polyscias nodosa

Araliaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomaceae

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

Selaginella finixis

Selaginellaceae

13

Iteamacrophylla

Saxifragaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus botryocarpa

Moraceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Alstonia macrophylla

Apocynaceae

Saurauia latibractea

Saurauiaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus nota

Moraceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Helicia cumingiana

Proteaceae

Zingeber sylvaticum

Zingibraceae

Phrynuim philippense

Marantaceae

Molineria capitulata

Hypoxidaceae

16

Calamus discolor

Palmae

Musa textilis

Musaceae

Calamus discolor

Palmae

Donax cannaeformis

Marantaceae

Dichroa philippinensis

Saxifragaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-24

TABLE 2.2.1-8A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 8 (PAD A - BOTONG) (cont)

USES

SPECIES
Asplenuim tenerum

MEDICINAL

FAMILY

DENSITY

Aspleniaceae

Sellaginella finixis

Selaginellaceae

16

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Cositus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

Selaginella finixis

Selaginellaceae

Boerlagiodendron trilobotum

Araliaceae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Lindsaea merrillii

Lindsaeaceae

Medinilla trianae

Melastomataceae

Cyrtandra humilis

Gesneriaceae

Lomagramma pteroides

Lomariopsidaceae

Itea macrophylla

Saxifragaceae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Dichroa philippinensis

Escaloniaceae

Selaginella finixis

Silaginellaceae

16

Medinilla trianae

Melastomataceae

Mapania cuspidata

Cyperaceae

Cinnamomum mercadoi

Lauraceae

Chloranthus elatios

Chloranthaceae

Sarcandra glabua

Chloranthaceae

TOTAL

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

219

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-25

TABLE 2.2.1-9A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 9 (PAD B - CAWAYAN)

USES
TIMBER

LANDSCAPING

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Decaspermum fruticosum

Myrtaceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Syzygium nitidum

Myrtaceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

Elaeocarpaceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Polaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Neonauclea calycina

Rubiaceae

Shorea palosapis

Dipterocarpaceae

Decaspermum fruticosum

Myrtaceae

Palaquium philippense

Sapotaceae

Giranniera celtidifolia

Ulmaceae

Saurauia latibractea

Saurauiaceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Cratoxylum celebricum

Guttiferae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Greeniopsis multiflora

Rubiaceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus nota

Moraceae

Pinanga philippinensis

Palmae

Caryota rumphiana

Palmae

Spathiphyllum commutatum

Araceae

Cyrtandra humilis

Gesneriaceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Ficus minlahassae

Moraceae

Polyscias nodosa

Araliaceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-26

TABLE 2.2.1-9A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 9 (PAD B - CAWAYAN) (cont)

USES

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Homalanthus fastrosus

Euphorbioceae

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbioceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Phacelophrynium interruptum

Marantaceae

Phrynium philippense

Marantaceae

Spathiphyllum commutatum

Araceae

Areca camarenensis

Plamae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

Ficus irisana

Moraceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Polycias nodosa

Araliaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Villebrunea trinervis

Urticaceae

Angiopteris palmiformis

Marattiaceae

Ficus subulata

Moraceae

Pinanga philippinensis

Palmae

Caryota rumphiana

Palmae

Chisocheton cumingianus

Meliaceae

Cyathea callosa

Cyatheaceae

Macauanga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Gironniera celtidifolia

Ulmaceae

Macauanga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

Homalanthus fastuosus

Euphorbiaceae

Homalanthus fastuosus

Euphorbiaceae

Homalanthus fastuosus

Euphorbiaceae

Homalanthus fastuosus

Euphorbiaceae

Homalanthus fastuosus

Euphorbiaceae

Saurauia copelandii

Saurauiaceae

Freycinetia vidalii

Pandanaceae

Poikelospermum suaveaolens

Cecropiaceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-27

TABLE 2.2.1-9A

SUMMARY OF THE DIFFERENT USES OF SPECIES


IN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 9 (PAD B - CAWAYAN)(cont)

USES

FIBER

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES

ORNAMENTAL

RC
POISON

MEDICINAL

SPECIES

FAMILY

DENSITY

Acer laurianum

Aceraceae

Tetrastegma loheri

Vitaceae

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Kleinhovia hospita

Sterculiaceae

Musa textilis

Musaceae

Strombosia philippenensis

Olacaceae

Calamus ornatus

Palmae

Donax eannaeformis

Marantaceae

Calamus ornatus

Palmae

Asplenium persicifolium

Aspleniaceae

Bolbitis senuata

Lomariopsidaceae

Forrestia hispida

Commelinaceae

Asplenium persicifolum

Aspleniaceae

Bolbitis sinuata

Lomariopsidaceae

Lomagramma Pteroides

Lomariopsidaceae

Pectaria decurrens

Aspidiaceae

Rhaphidophova pinnata

Araceae

Cyrtandra humilis

Gesneriaceae

Forrestia hispida

Commelinaceae

Blechnum orientale

Plechnaceae

Bolbitis sinuata

Lomariopsidaceae

Dioscorea elmeri

Dioscoreaceae

Semecarpus gigantifolius

Anacardiaceae

Semecarpus gigantifolius

Anacardiaceae

Semecarpus gigantifolius

Anacardiaceae

Sarcandra glabra

Chloranthaceae

TOTAL

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

111

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-28

Table 2.2.1- 10

Family
Bignoniaceae
Casuarinaceae
Combretaceae
Cunoniaceae
Dilleniaceae
Dipterocarpaceae

Ebenaceae
Elaeocarpaceae
Guttiferae
Lauraceae

Magnoliaceae
Marantaceae
Meliaceae

Mimosaceae
Moraceae
Myrtaceae

Papilionaceae
Rubiaceae

Sapindaceae
Sapotaceae

List of Timber Producing Species Sampled

Species
Radermacheria pinnata
Gymnostoma rumphiane
Terminalia nitens
Terminalia pelucida
Weinmania luzonensis
Dillenia reifferschidia
Shorea negrosensis
Hopea sp.
Shorea contorta
Shorea palosapis
Shorea squamata
Diospyrus ahernii
Elaeocarpus multiflorus
Elaeocarpus
Calophyllum blancoi
Cratoxylum celebicum
Litsea albaya
Litsea luzonica
Litsea perrotettii
Mechelia platyphylla
Phyrium philippense
Dysoxylum grandifolium
Aglaia sp.
Toona calantas
Samanea saman
Acacia mangium
Artocarpus ovatus
Decaspermum fruticosum
Decaspermum microphyllum
Syzygium calubcob
Syzygium nitidum
Syzygium sp.
Syzygium densinervium
Pterocarpus indicus
Adina multiflora
Alstoria macrophylla
Hedyotis prostrata
Neonauclea calycina
Neonauclea nitida
Neonauclea reticulata
Neonauclea vidalii
Wendlandia luzonensis
Nephelium ramboutan ake
Palaquium botanensis
Palaquium sp.
Palaquium philippinse

Density
2
3
2
1
1
3
13
2
2
2
1
1
19
8
4
19
4
23
3
7
1
7
1
2
1
1
1
16
5
22
19
13
3
1
36
2
2
7
2
2
6
1
2
2
9
20

304

Table 2.2.1- 11

Family
Acanthaceae
Aceraceae
Agavaceae
Annonaceae
Apocynaceae

Araceae

Araliaceae

Aspleniaceae
Blechnaceae
Burseraceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Cecropiaceae
Celastraceae
Clethraceae
Combretaceae
Crypteroniaceae
Cunoniaceae
Cyatheaceae

Dilleniaceae
Euphorbiaceae

Gesneriaceae
Graminae
Guttiferae
Hypoxidaceae

List of Sampled Species for Landscaping

Species
Strobilanthes pluriformis
Strobilanthes pachys
Acer laurianum
Pleomele angustifolia
Fissistigma rufum
Levaria rufa
Alyxia contacenata
Kibatalia getingensis
Alstonia macrophylla
Rhaphidophora monticola
Homalomena philippinensis
Rhaphidophora copelandii
Spatiphyllum commutatum
Boerlagiodendron trilobatrum
Polyscias nudosa
Schefera sp.
Asplenium indus
Blechnum orientale
Canarium barnesii
Carnarium hirsutum
Cassia fistula
Viburnum odoratissimum
Poikelospermum suaveaolens
Eounynums javanicus
Clethra lancifolia
Terminalia microcarpa
Crypteronia cumingiana
Weinmania luzonensis
Cyathea callosa
Cyathea contaminans
Cyathea integra
Cyathea philippinensis
Dicsonia mollis
Dellenia philippinensis
Acalypha amenracea
Breynia cernua
Cleistanthus brideliaefolius
Cleistanthus sp.
Homalanthus sp.
Macaranga bicolor
Macaranga hispida
Phyllanthus reticulatus
Bridelia minutiflora
Cyrtandra humilis
Paspalum conjugotum
Garcinia dulcis
Cratoxylum celebicum
Molineria capitulata

Density
11
1
13
2
2
1
9
2
2
7
10
1
2
6
4
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
19
1
4
4
37
22
3
19
2
1
2
2
4
16
29
2
17
1
1
15
12
13
1
42

Table 2.2.1- 11
Family
Lauraceae

Lobiatae
Magnoliaceae
Marantaceae
Marathiaceae
Melastomataceae

Meliaceae
Mimosaceae
Moraceae

Myristicaceae
Myrsinaceae
Myrtaceae
Palmae

Pandanaceae

Polypodiaceae
Papilionaceae
Proteaceae
Rubiaceae

List of Sampled Species for Landscaping (cont)


Species
Litsea albayana
Litsea luzonica
Neolitsea villosa
Coleus igolotorum
Michelia platyphylla
Phacelophyrium interruptum
Phyrium philippense
Angiopteris palmiformis
Astronia cumingiana
Astronia discolor
Astronia meyeri
Astronia nolfei
Medinilla involucrata
Melastoma polyanthum
Memecylon lanceolatum
Chisocheton pentandrus
Dysoxylum arborescens
Adenanthera intermedia
Pithecellobium clypearia
Artocarpus sericicarpus
Ficus ampelos
Ficus cumingii
Ficus minahassae
Ficus obscura
Ficus psendopalma
Ficus sp.
Ficus subulata
Horsfieldia merrillii
Ardisia sp.
Discocalyx montana
Syzygium calubcob
Heterospatha philippinensis
Livistona rotundifolia
Pinanga insignis
Pinanga philippinensis
Pinanga heterophylla
Caryota rumphiana
Caryota cumingiana
Areca camarenensis
Freycinetia multiflora
Freycinetia negrosensis
Freycinetia vidalii
Pandanus basicolasis
Pandanus basicularis
Pandanus sp.
Microsorium scolopendria
Dolbergia ferruginea
Helicia cumingiana
Greeniopsis multiflora
Hedyotis prostrata

Density
1
6
9
5
1
2
3
5
43
2
3
8
4
17
3
5
1
3
4
2
1
1
2
5
3
14
7
2
1
6
1
4
2
10
13
3
1
2
1
12
1
3
4
4
1
2
2
7
9
2

Table 2.2.1- 11
Family

Rutaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapotaceae

Sauraniaceae
S if
Saxifragaceae
Selaginellaceae
Staphyllaceae
Sterauliaceae
Symplocaceae
Theaceae
Thelypteridaceae

Ulmaceae
Urticaceae
Vitaceae
Zingiberaceae

) p

List of Sampled Species for Landscaping (cont)


Species
Lasianthus cyanocarpus
Musseanda philippica
Psychotria
Psychotria sp.
Uncaria velutina
Euodia sp.
Euodia confusa
Melicope triphylla
Micromelon minutum
Guioa diptera
Guioa koelreuteria
Guioa Scoelreuteria
Litchi philippinensis
Palaquium botanensis
Palaquium philippense
Palaquium tenuipetiolatum
Palaquium sp.
Saurania latibractea
It macrophylla
Itea
h ll
Polyosma sp.
Selaginella finixis
Turpinia pomifera
Sterculia oblongata
Symplocos polyandra
Eurya nitida
Christella dendata
Sphaerootephanos unitus
Macrothelypteris polypodioides
Giranniera celtidifolia
Leucosyke capitellata
Villebrunea trinervis
Tetrastigma loheri
Costus speciosus
Dysoxylum arborescens
Kolowratia elegans
Languas haenkei
Languas musaefolia
Zingiber sylvaticum

Density
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
5
1
2
13
1
1
3
3
1
1
13
4
4
1
2
16
5
4
2
1
2
2
2
8
1
3
1
1
8
2
4

735

Table 2.2.1- 12

Family
Araceae

Araliaceae

Archidaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Aspidiaceae
Aspleniaceae

Athyriaceae
Begoniaceae

Blechnaceae
Campanulaceae
Commelinaceae
Cyatheaceae
Cyperaceae
Davalliaceae
Dipteridaceae
Dryopteridaceae

Gesneriaceae
Gleicheniaceae
Grammitidaceae
Hypoxidaceae
Lindsaeaceae

Lomariopsidaceae

List of Sampled Species with Ornamental Values

Species
Alocasia heterophylla
Alocasia zebrina
Amydrium magnificum
Pothos rumphii
Rhaphidophora copelandii
Rhaphidophora monticola
Scindapsus hederaceus
Boerlagiodendron trilobatum
Schefflora sp.
Spathiphyllum commutatum
Dendrochilum cobbianum
Dischidia platyphylla
Pectaria decurrens
Asplenium cymbifolium
Asplenium indus
Asplenium tenerum
Pleocnemia macrodonta
Diplazium cordifolium
Diplazium cumingii
Begonia aequata
Begonia incisa
Begonia oxysperma
Begonia sp.
Blechnum orientale
Laurentia longiflora
Forrestia hispida
Cyathea callosa
Mapania cuspidata
Araiostegia hymenophylloides
Nephrolipis biserrata
Dipteris conjugata
Arachniodes amabillis
Polystichum horizontale
Dryopteris sparsa
Dichrotrichum chorisephalum
Cyrtandra humilis
Dicranopteris linearis
Scleroglossum sp.
Molineria capitulata
Lindsaea merrillii
Lindsaea obtusa
Tapeinidium luzonicum
Elaphoglossum luzonicum

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Density
5
4
12
1
2
15
2
4
1
33
6
1
1
3
7
8
2
3
2
3
1
1
13
1
3
2
15
25
7
20
1
4
10
1
8
2
14
1
24
8
1
1
13

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora) p.2.2.1-33

Table 2.2.1- 12
Family

Melastomataceae

Nepenthaceae
Oleandraceae
Orchidaceae

Palmae

Pandanaceae
Polypodiaceae

Saxifragaceae
Selaginellaceae

Thelypteridaceae

Urticaceae
Zingiberaceae

List of Sampled Species with Ornamental Values (cont)


Species
Bolbitis senuata
Lomagrama pteroides
Medinella involucrata
Medinilla clementis
Medinilla involucrata
Medinilla ternifolia
Medinilla trianae
Melastomapolyanthum
Oleandra colubrina
Dendrochilum cobbianum
Dendrochilum tenellune
Eria philippenensis
Phaius sp.
Heterospathe microcarpa
Heterospathe philippinensis
Pinanga geonomaeformis
Pinanga philippinensis
Freycinetia multiflora
Freycinetia negrosensis
Crypsinus taematus
Crypsinus taeniatus
Microsorium heterocarpum
Dichroa philippinensis
Itea macrophylla
Selaginella cumingiana
Selaginella finixis
Selaginella involvens
Christella arida
Sphaerostephanos heteiocarpus
Sphaerostephanos lobatus
Elatostema podophyllum
Catimbium specionum
Languas haenkei
Zingiber sylvaticum
Cositus speciosus

Density
3
2
6
3
10
4
5
1
1
5
14
2
5
6
1
14
4
2
9
9
4
2
12
2
1
14
4
14
2
2
6
7
4
7
1
1

480

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora) p.2.2.1-34

Table 2.2.1- 13

Family
Apocynaceae
Chloranthaceae
Compositae

Lauraceae
Leeaceae
Liliaceae
Mimosaceae

Verbenaceae

List of Sampled Species with Medicinal Values

Species
Alstonia macrophylla
Alstonia scholaris
Sarcandra glabra
Chloranthus elatios
Elephantopus tomentosus
Ageratum conyzoides
Crassocephalum crepedioides
Cinnamomum mercadoi
Leea philippinensis
Smilax bracheata
Mimosa pudica
Ficus septica
Pseudelephantopus spicatus
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Density
4
1
29
1
2
4
3
1
1
5
6
7
6
3

73

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora) p.2.2.1-35

Table 2.2.1- 14

Family
Anacardiaceae

Apocynaceae
Cecropiaceae
Compositae
Cyperaceae

Dilleniaceae
Dioscoreaceae

Euphorbiaceae
Graminae

Gnetaceae
Icacinaceae
Inagraceae
Lauraceae
Liliaceae
Lycopodiaceae
Lythraceae
Marantaceae
Mimosaceae
Musaceae
Palmae

Pandanaceae
Papilionaceae

Piperaceae

List of Species for Different Other Purposes

Species
Mangefira indica
Semecarpus cuneiformis
Semecarpus gigantifolius
Alyxia concatenata
Procris frutescens
Blumea reparis
Carex filicina
Hypolytrum latifolium
Machaerina sp.
Scleria scrobiculata
Tetracera scandens
Stenomerris dioscoreaefolia
Dioscorea hispida
Dioscorea elmeri
Phyllanthus urinaria
Centotheca lappacea
Eragrostis pilosa
Imperata cylindria
Miscanthus floridulus
Schizostachyum diffusum
Thysonalaena maxima
Gnetum latifolium
Iodes philippinensis
Ludwigia octavalvis
Ludwigia hyssopifolia
Cinnamomum mercadoi
Smilax bracteata
Lycopodium cernum
Cuphea cartaginensis
Donax cuneiformis
Leucaena leucocephala
Musa textilis
Musa acuminata
Calamus merrillii
Calamus ornatus
Calamus usitatus
Calamus discolor
Freycinetia monocephala
Derris philippinensis
Derris scandens
Macuna longipedunculata
Piper arborescens
Piper interruptum

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Density
1
3
3
7
3
2
3
4
18
30
1
2
1
1
4
5
2
311
109
20
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
93
1
2
3
3
8
5
7
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
3

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora) p

Table 2.2.1- 14
Family
Popilionaceae
Polyaeaceae
Rosaceae
Rubiaceae
Schizaeaceae
Selaginellaceae

Sterculiaceae
Tiliaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Urticaceae

Vitaceae

List of Species for Different Other Purposes (cont)


Species
Dalbergia ferriginea
Polygala
Rubus pectebellus
Rubus pectinellus
Uncaria velutina
Psychotria diffusa
Lygodium cercinatum
Lygodium merrillii
Silaginella cumingiana
Selaginella cupresena
Selaginella delicatula
Selaginella finixii
Selaginella involvens
Kleinhovia hospita
Colona serratifolia
Phaleria sp.
Wiksiroemia lanceota
Elatostema podophyllum
Elatostema viridiscens
Dendrochnide meyeniana
Tetrastigma loheri

Density
2
12
3
1
1
2
1
1
2
18
12
17
12
11
2
1
1
15
3
1
4
796

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

Table 2.2.1-15

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 2

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Palaquium sp.

30

0.5655

Sterculia oblongata

13

0.0133

Sterculia oblongata

14

0.0154

Decaspermum microphyllum

24

0.1810

Syzygium nitidum

16

0.0603

Syzygium nitidum

18

0.1527

Decaspermum microphyllum

17

0.0454

Decaspermum microphyllum

14

0.1078

Eurya nitida

10

0.0079

Syzygium sp.

14

0.0616

Syzygium nitidum

15

0.0530

Astronia cumingiana

14

0.0154

Sterculia oblongata

13

0.0265

Adenanthera intermedia

10

0.0157

Syzygium nitidum

70

1.9242

Sterculia oblongata

12

0.0339

Adenanthera intermedia

14

0.0308

Sterculia oblongata

16

0.0402

Sterculia oblongata

13

0.0398

Litchi philippinensis

10

0.0236

Sterculia oblongata

18

0.1018

Shorea negrosensis

32

0.1608

Syzygium sp.

15

0.0530

Acer laurianum

12

0.0339

Shorea negrosensis

30

0.2827

Decaspermum microphyllum

40

1.0053

Shorea negrosensis

17

0.1135

Syzygium nitidum

50

0.9818

Syzygium nitidum

39

0.7168

Astronia cumingiana

14

0.0308

Sterculia oblongata

12

0.0226

Weinmania luzoniensis

18

0.1018

Adina multiflora

16

0.0804

Canarium barnesii

29

0.3303

Syzygium nitidum

14

0.0616

Litsea luzonica

16

0.0402

Freycinetia negrosensis

17

0.1816

Adina multiflora

19

0.0567

Adinanthera intermedia

14

0.0308

Shorea negrosensis

12

0.0226

TOTAL
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

7.8229
Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-38

Table 2.2.1-16

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 3

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Palaquium batanensis

18

0.1018

Litsea luzonica

30

0.2827

Litsea luzonica

20

0.0628

Syzygium nitidum

30

0.2827

Clethra lancifolia

12

0.0452

Syzygium calubcob

40

0.3770

Astronia nolfei

23

0.1246

Litsea luzonica

23

0.1246

Neolitsea villosa

14

0.0616

Syzygium nitidum

18

0.0763

Eudia sp.

13

0.0398

Calophyllum blancoi

19

0.1418

Michelia platyphylla

82

2.1124

Litsea luzonica

17

0.0227

Cleistanthus sp.

12

0.0113

Astronia rolfei

30

0.1414

Syzygium calubcob

18

0.0763

Cleistanthus sp.

13

0.0796

Adi multiflora
ltifl
Adina

17

0 0681
0.0681

Litsea albayana

13

0.0398

Schefflera sp.

17

0.0227

Syzygium nitidum

60

1.1310

Cleistanthus sp.

16

0.1005

Syzygium calubcob

23

0.1662

Shorea negrosensis

21

0.1732

Syzygium calubcob

10

0.0157

Hopea sp.

20

0.1257

Hopea sp.

19

0.1701

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0531

Syzygium calubcob

24

0.1810

Canarium barnesii

13

0.0531

Viburnum odoratissimum

17

0.0227

Adina multiflora

17

0.0681

Euodia sp.

20

0.1257

Adina multiflora

19

0.1418

Syzygium calubcob

20

0.0942

Litsea perrototii

17

0.1135

TOTAL

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

7.0310

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-39

Table 2.2.1-17

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 4

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

3
VOLUME (m )

Syzygium calubcob

13

0.0531

Garcinia dulcis

40

0.1257

Syzygium calubcob

10

0.0236

Decaspermum fruticusum

25

0.0982

Syzygium calubcob

11

0.0095

Clethra lancifolia

11

0.0285

Syzygium calubcob

17

0.0454

Decaspermum fruticusum

12

0.0452

Litsea albayana

11

0.0285

Ficus obscura

21

0.0346

Astronia cumingiana

11

0.0190

Syzygium calubcob

15

0.0530

Litsea luzonica

19

0.0851

Astronia rolfei

14

0.0462

Palaquium sp.

20

0.0942

Astronia rolfei

10

0.0236

Wendlandia luzonensis

29

0.1321

Aglaia sp.

13

0.0398

A t i cumingiana
Astronia
i i

15

0 0530
0.0530

Euodia sp.

17

0.0227

Garcinia dulcis

18

0.0763

Palaquium sp.

18

0.0763

Palaquium sp.

16

0.0804

Decaspermum fruticusum

20

0.1571

Elaeocarpus sp.

17

0.0681

Palaquium sp.

13

0.0531

Clethra lancifolia

10

0.0157

Elaeocarpus sp.

36

0.5089

Litsea luzonica

10

0.0157

Elaeocarpus sp.

16

0.0804

Polaquium sp.

16

0.0402

Elaeocarpus sp.

18

0.1018

Garcinia dulcis

14

0.0154

Decaspermum microphyllum

11

0.0380

Garcinia dulcis

10

0.0314

Syzygium calubcob

11

0.0380

Polaquium sp.

12

0.0452

Astronia cumingiana

12

0.0339

Syzygium calubcob

15

0.0530

Syzygium calubcob

12

0.0339

Astronia cuminguana

13

0.0531

Elaeocarpus sp.

36

0.4072

Elaeocarpus sp.

12

0.0339

Polaquium sp.

12

0.0339

Michelia platyphylla

24

0.2262

Astronia cumingiana

13

0.0265

Table 2.2.1-17

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 4(cont)

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m )

Syzygium calubcob

12

0.0113

Syzygium calubcob

10

0.0079

Polaquium sp.

18

0.1018

Adina multiflora

16

0.1206

Syzygium calubcob

20

0.1257

Syzygium calubcob

16

0.0402

Palaquium sp.

20

0.1257

Selaginella cupressina

0.0000

Adina multiflora

24

0.2262

Clethra lancifolia

11

0.0285

Clethra lancifolia

14

0.0308

Palaquium philippense

20

0.1885

Astronia cumingiana

15

0.0707

Syzygium calubcob

13

0.0265

Adina multiflora

11

0.0190

Cleistassthus sp.

17

0.0454

Clethra lancifolia

15

0.0177

Astronia cumingiana

10

0.0471

Litsea luzonica

14

0.0308

Litsea luzonica

17

0.0227

S
Syzygium
i
calubcob
l b b

11

0 0095
0.0095

Litsea luzonica

15

0.0707

Adina multiflora

12

0.0339

Elaeocarpus sp.

18

0.2036

Elaeocarpus sp.

14

0.0462
0.0804

Syzygium nitidum

16

Clethra lancifolia

16

0.0201

Syzygium calubcob

29

0.1321

Alstoria macrophylla

30

0.3534

Alstoria macrophylla

42

0.9698

Weinmania luzonensis

26

0.2655

Syzygium calubcob

13

0.0398

Adina multiflora

35

0.6735

Litsea albaya

20

0.0942

Litsea albaya

10

0.0314

Syzygium calubcob

16

0.0402

Clethra lancifolia

14

0.0462

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0398

Clethra lancifolia

15

0.0707

Litsea luzonica

16

0.0201

Clethra lancifolia

10

0.0157

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0531

Litsea luzonica

12

0.0339

Clethra lancifolia

16

0.0603

Homolanthus alpinus

20

0.0942

Litsea albaya

15

0.0530

Adina multiflora

19

TOTAL

0.0851

8.3285

Table 2.2.1-18

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 5
dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Neonauclea nitida

26

0.3186

Clethra lancifolia

10

0.0157

Homalanthus alpinus

11

0.0380

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Homalanthus alpinus

16

0.1005

Clethra lancifolia

16

0.0201

Syzygium sp.

26

0.2124

Astronia cumingiana

11

0.0190

Clethra lancifolia

11

0.0190

Polyosma sp.

13

0.0265

Garcinia dulcis

15

0.0177

Adina multiflora

12

0.0565

Garcinia dulcis

16

0.0603

Adina multiflora

20

0.2513

Nephelium ramboutan ake

12

0.0565

Astronia cumingiana

16

0.0402

Michelia platyphylla

15

0.0353

Adina multiflora

27

0.2863

Weinmania luzonensis

14

0.0924

Adina multiflora

21

0.2078

Cleistanthus sp.

10

0.0707

Adina multiflora

16

0.1810

Homalanthus alpinus

11

0.0380

Homalanthus alpinus

15

0.1060

Homalanthus alpinus

19

0.1134

Clethra lancifolia

12

0.0452

Homalanthus alpinus

11

0.0475

Homalanthus alpinus

15

0.0530

Adina multiflora

14

0.0616

Homalanthus alpinus

13

0.0531

Homalanthus alpinus

14

0.0462

Homalanthus alpinus

14

0.0616

Chisocheton pentandrus

13

0.0133

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

25

0.3927

Mechelia platyphylla

30

0.4948

Litsea luzonica

10

0.0157

Palaqium philippense

13

0.0531

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

40

0.8796

Palaqium botanensis

50

0.1964

Neonauclea calycina

60

2.5447

Astronia meyeri

19

0.1701

Palaqium tenuipetiolatum

19

0.2552

Homalanthus alpinus

21

0.2078

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-42

SAMPLE PLOT NO. 5 (cont)


SCIENTIFIC NAME
Elaeocarpus multiflorus

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

23

0.2908

Adina multiflora

16

0.1206

Neonauclea nitida

19

0.1985

Homalanthus alpinus

13

0.0796

Adina multiflora

16

0.1206

Garcinia dulcis

10

0.0157

Homalanthus alpinus

11

0.0285

Syzygium sp.

11

0.0380

Syzygium sp.

10

0.0236

Syzygium sp.

12

0.0113

Syzygium sp.

32

0.6434

Dysoxylum arborescens

10

0.0157

Dysoxylum arborescens

14

0.0770

Michelia platyphylla

20

0.1571

Mecihelia platyphylla

30

0.0707

Syzygium sp.

11

0.0380

Cleistanthus sp.

11

0.0380

Mechelia platyphylla

17

0.1816

Garcinia dulcis

40

0.7540

Cleistanthus sp.

12

0.0792

Neonauclea calycina

25

0.0982

Syzygium sp.

25

0.0982

Michelia platyphylla

45

1.1133

Euodia sp.

36

0.3054

Astronia cumingiana

11

0.0285

Cleistanthus sp.

12

0.0113

Cleistanthus sp.

17

0.0454

Cleistanthus sp.

14

0.0770

Cleistanthus sp.

14

0.0616

Cleistanthus sp.

13

0.0531

Cleistanthus sp.

15

0.0707

Astronia cumingiana

25

0.1964

Cleistanthus sp.

16

0.0603

Cleistanthus sp.

15

0.0530

Garcinia dulcis

13

0.0929

Pithecellobium clypearia

11

0.0380

Garcinia dulcis

19

0.0567

Astronia meyeri

16

0.0804

Cleistanthus sp.

14

0.0154

Syzygium sp.

10

0.0393

Garcinia dulcis

23

0.0831

Pithecellobium clypearia

15

TOTAL
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

0.1060

13.7410
Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-43

Table 2.2.1-19

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 6
dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Adina multiflora

12

0.0792

Adina multiflora

20

0.1571

Adina multiflora

19

0.1985

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

40

0.8796

Neolitsea villosa

14

0.0924

Adina multiflora

18

0.1527

Adina multiflora

18

0.1272

Helicia cumingiana

13

0.0265

Adina multiflora

22

0.1140

Helicia cumingiana

13

0.0265

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

18

0.1527

Decaspermum fruticosum

14

0.0616

Adina multiflora

25

0.1473

Syzygium sp.

19

0.1701

Syzygium sp.

25

0.2945

Sterculia oblongata

15

0.1237

Homalanthus alpinus

15

0.1060

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

10

0.0550

SCIENTIFIC NAME

D
ffruticosum
ti
Decaspernum

55

0 9503
0.9503

Chisocheton pentandrus

14

0.1232

Guioa koelreuteria

12

0.0792

Guioa koelreuteria

12

0.0339

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

10

0.0471

Decaspermum fruticosum

18

0.2036

Adina multiflora

27

11

0.6298

Adina multiflora

29

0.5945

Guioa koelreuteria

16

0.1005

Guioa koelreuteria

13

0.0796

Polaquium philippense

20

0.1257

Astronia rolfei

10

0.0236

Homalanthus alpinus

11

0.0475

Chisocheton pentandrus

11

0.0285

Adina multiflora

10

0.0393

Decaspermum fruticosum

14

0.0616

Litsea luzonica

16

0.1005

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0531

Garcinia dulcis

14

0.1078

Guioa koelreuteria

17

0.1135

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

20

0.2199

Garcinia dulcis

15

0.0353

Guioa koelreuteria

17

0.0454

Decaspermum fruticosum

20

0.2513

Syzygium nitidum

11

0.0190

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-44

Table 2.2.1-19

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PLOT NO. 6 (cont)

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Polaquium botanensis

13

0.0398

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

12

0.0679

Polaquium philippense

15

0.0707

Adina multiflora

19

0.1418

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

25

0.1964

Litsea luzonica

24

0.2714

Adina multiflora

11

0.0285

Polyosma sp.

15

0.0884

Sterculia oblongata

11

0.0475

Neonauclea calycina

14

0.0616

Polyosma sp.

14

0.1078

Syzygium nitidum

13

0.0265

Syzygium nitidum

16

0.0402

Litsea luzonica

12

0.0452

Polyosma sp.

10

0.0236

Syzygium nitidum

23

0.1246

Syzygium nitidum

32

0.1608

Decaspermum fruticosum

45

1.2723

f
Elaeocarpus multiflorus

14

0.0616

Homalanthus alpinus

14

0.0616

Homalanthus alpinus

13

0.0531

Decaspermum fruticosum

28

0.4310

Sterculia oblongata

20

0.1885

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

10

0.0236

Cratoxylum celebicum

12

0.0339

Cratoxylum celebicum

12

0.0339

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

13

0.0664

Palaquium philippense

30

0.2827

Syzygium nitidum

19

0.1134

Adina multiflora

18

0.1018

Adina multiflora

11

0.0380

Adina multiflora

15

0.0707

Adina multiflora

16

0.0804

Adina multiflora

12

0.0339

TOTAL

11.5679

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-45

TABLE 2.2.1-20

INVENTORY OF PLANTS WITHIN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7


LOCATED AT 265m, HYDRO, CAWAYAN, SORSOGON
278

HABIT

USES

ST

LA

Cyrpteronia cumingiana

ST

LA

Ficus obscura

Moraceae

ST

MED

Ficus septica

Moraceae

ST

LA

Acalypha amentacea

Euphorbiaceae

LT

LA

Artocarpus sericarpus

Moraceae
Anacardiaceae

LT

FC

LT

MED

LA

SCIENTIFIC NAME

DENSITY
4

FAMILY
Crypteroniaceae

Mangifera indica

Alstonia macrophylla

Apocynaceae

Costus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

MT

LA

Euodia confusa

Rutaceae

ST

GM

Leucaena leucocephala

Mimosaceae

LT

TM

Pterocarpus indicus

Papilionaceae

ST

LA

Greeniopsis multiflora

Rubiaceae

LI

SEC

Schizostachyum diffusum

Graminae

ST

LA

Musseanda philippica

Rubiaceae

MT

TM

Neonauclea reticulata

Rubiaceae

MT

TM

Cratoxylum celebicum

Guttiferae

LA

Homalomena philippinensis

10

Araceae

OR

Neprolipis biserrata

Davalliaceae

OR

Christella arida

Thelypteridaceae

EC

Selaginella delicatula

Selaginellaceae

MT

LA

Macaranga hispida

Euphorbiaceae

MED

MT

LA

Elephantopus tomentosus

Compositae

Astronia meyeri

Melastomataceae

LA

Angiopteris palmiformis

Maratthiaceae

LA

Paspalum conjugotum

12

Graminae
Dipterocarpaceae

LT

TM

Shorea contorta

ST

LA

Micromelon minutum

Rutaceae

Ludwigia octavalvis

Inagraceae

ST

LA

Phyllanthus reticulatus

Euphorbiaceae

LI

EC

Iodes philippinensis

Icacinaceae

MED

MED

MT

LA

Pseudelephantopus spicatus

Moraceae

Ludwigia hyssopifolia

Inagraceae

Ageratum conyzoides

Compositae

Canarium hirsutum

Burseraceae

Eragrostis pilosa

Graminae

MT

LA

Macaranga bicolor

Euphorbiaceae

MED

Crassocephalum crepedioides

Composite

Cuphea cartaginensis

Lythraceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-46

TABLE 2.2.1-20

HABIT

USES

INVENTORY OF PLANTS WITHIN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7


LOCATED AT 265m, HYDRO, CAWAYAN, SORSOGON (cont)
SCIENTIFIC NAME

DENSITY

FAMILY

MED

Mimosa pudica

Mimosaceae

ST

LA

Ficus cumingii

Moraceae

PO

Mucuna longipedunculata

Papilionaceae

ST

LA

Breynia cernua

Euphorbiaceae

LI

EC

Tetracera scandens

Dilleniaceae

ST

LA

Ficus pseudopalma

Moraceae

MT

LA

Kibatalia getingensis

Apocynaceae

LA

Rhaphidophora copelandii

Araceae

LA

Cyathea integra

Cyatheaceae

MT

LA

Horsfieldia merrillii

Myristicaceae

MT

LA

Cleistanthus brideliaefolius

Euphorbiaceae

ST

LA

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

LA

Blechnum orientale

Blechnaceae

COT

Miscanthus floridulus

Graminae

COT

Thysonalaena maxima

Graminae

LI

LA

Freycinetia negrosensis

Pandanaceae

MT

LA

Guioa diptera

Sapindaceae

LA

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

EC

Stenomerris dioscoreaefolia

Dioscoreaceae

LA

Asplenium nidus

Aspleniaceae

MT

TM

Gymnostoma rumphiana

Casuarinaceae

ST

LA

Leucosyke capitellata

Urticaceae

Centotheca lappacea

Graminae

MT

TM

Toona calantas

Meliaceae

EC

Selaginella cupressina

Selaginellaceae

MT

LA

Turpinia pomifera

Staphyllaceae

EC

Musa acuminata

Musaceae

MED

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Verbenaceae

LA

Microsorium scolopendria

Polypodiaceae

Phyllanthus urinaria

Euphorbiaceae

LA

Christella dendata

Thelypteridaceae

LA

Sphaerostephanos unitus

Thelypteridaceae

LA

Macrothelypteris polypodioides

Thelypteridaceae

ST

LA

Ficus sp.

Moraceae

MT

TM

Radermacheria pinnata

Bignoniaceae

LT

TM

Samanea saman

Mimosaceae

OR

Dischidia platyphylla

Asclepiadaceae

LA

Kolowratia elegans

Zingiberaceae

MT

LA

Astronia cumingiana

Melastomataceae

MT

LA

Acer laurianum

Aceraceae

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-47

TABLE 2.2.1-20

HABIT

USES

INVENTORY OF PLANTS WITHIN SAMPLE PLOT NO. 7


LOCATED AT 265m, HYDRO, CAWAYAN, SORSOGON (cont)
SCIENTIFIC NAME

DENSITY

FAMILY

OR

Scindapsus hederaceus

TL

LA

Pandanus basicularis

Araceae
Pandanaceae

ST

LA

Melicope triphylla

Rutaceae

Scleria scrobiculata

Cyperaceae

MT

TM

Litsea perrotettii

Lauraceae

COT

Imperata cylindria

31

Graminae

EC

Selaginella delicatula

Selaginellaceae

ST

FI

Colona serratifolia

Tiliaceae

ST

LA

Pleomele angustifolia

Agavaceae

MT

TM

Neonauclea vidalii

Rubiaceae

MT

TM

Hedyotis prostrata

Rubiaceae

LA

Hedyotis prostrata

Rubiaceae

FI

Wilksroemia lanceolata

Thymelaeaceae

COT

Lygodium cercinatum

Schizaeaceae

MT

LA

Guioa koelrenteria

Sapindaceae

LI

LA

Dolbergia ferruginea

Papilionaceae

ST

PO

Senacarpus cuneiformis

Anacardiaceae

TM

Artocarpus ovatus

Moraceae

MT

LA

Ficus minahassae

Moraceae

MT

LA

Cassia fistula

Caesalpiniaceae

LT

MED

Alstonia scholaris

Apocynaceae

LA

Cyathea contaminans

Cyatheaceae

ST

LA

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

MT

LA

Polyscias nudosa

Araliaceae

OR

Laurentia longiflora

Campanulaceae

LT

MED

PO

Alstonia macrophylla

Apocynaceae

Dioscorea hispida

Dioscoreaceae

Table 2.2.1-21

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PAD A BOTONG
dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Neonauclea calycina

23

0.2493

Decaspermum fruticosum

12

0.0452

Litsea luzonica

18

0.1527

Semecarpus cuneiformis

14

0.0154

Syzygium simile

13

0.0398

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Dysoxylum grandifolium

15

0.0530

Cratoxylum celebicum

38

12

1.3609

Saurauia lotibractea

17

0.1362

Terminalia nitens

38

0.6805

Dendrochnide meyeniana

14

0.0462

Astronia cumingiana

13

0.0796

Syzygium densinervium

14

0.0462

Neonauclea calycina

15

0.0707

Bridelia minutiflora

13

0.0265

Syzygium densinervium

14

0.0616

Astronia cumingiana

12

0.0226

Cratoxylum celebicum

24

0.3619

Cratoxylum celebicum

24

12

0.5429

Palaquium philippense

40

10

1.2566

Terminalia nitens

14

0.0924

Cratoxylum celebicum

30

15

1.0603

Cratoxylum celebicum

25

15

0.7363

Astronia cumingiana

15

0.0353

Neonauclea calycina

23

10

0.4155

Cratoxylum celebicum

20

15

0.4712

Saurauia lotibractea

16

0.0201

Astronia cumingiana

30

0.2121

Crataxylum celebicum

14

0.0616

Crataxylum celebicum

32

20

1.6085

Dysoxylum grandifolium

23

0.1662

Astronia cumingiana

18

0.0509

Crataxylum celebicum

24

20

0.9048

Crataxylum celebicum

30

20

1.4137

Ficus botryocarpa

13

0.0531

Crataxylum celebicum

18

12

0.3054

Dysoxylum grandifolium

24

0.0905

Neonauclea Vidalii

14

0.1232

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-49

Table 2.2.1-21

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PAD A BOTONG (cont)

SCIENTIFIC NAME

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Astronia cumingiana

12

0.0226

Ficus benguetensis

14

0.0308

Terminalia pellucida

13

0.0133

Dysoxylum grandifolium

12

0.0226

Ficus irisana

14

0.0154

Neonauclea Vidalii

24

10

0.4524

Neonauclea Vidalii

12

0.0226

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

25

0.3927

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

36

12

1.2215

Palaquium philippense

26

10

0.5309

Semecarpus cuneiformis

19

0.1134

Palaquium philippense

26

0.3186

Palaquium philippense

20

12

0.3770

Dithecellobium clypeoria

16

0.0402

Palaquium philippense

24

10

0.4524

Alstonia macrophylla

32

0.3217

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0531

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

20

0.0628

Pithecellobium clypearia

12

0.0226

Litsea luzonica

25

14

0.6872

Litsea luzonica

19

0.0851

Nephalium ramboutan ake

15

0.1414
0.4241

Astronia cumingiana

30

Dillenia reifferschidia

16

0.1206

Polyscias nodosa

15

12

0.2121

Astronia cumingiana

30

0.4241

Dillenia sp.

19

0.0567

Astronia cumingiana

14

0.0616

Neonauclea vidalii

25

12

0.5891

Litsea luzonica

25

0.0982

Astronia cumingiana

21

0.0346

Palaquium philippense

40

20

2.5133

Cinnamomum mercadoi

14

0.1232

Astronia cumingiana

12

0.0679

Neonauclea vidalii

14

0.0616

Diospyrus ahernii

16

0.0402

Litsea luzonica

13

0.0531

Palaquium philippense

48

1.4476

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-50

Table 2.2.1-21

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PAD A BOTONG (cont)
dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

Astronia cumingiana

24

0.2714

Ficus botryocarpa

11

0.0190

Astronia cumingiana

14

0.0308

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

11

0.0380

Astronia cumingiana

17

0.0681

Alstonia macrophylla

32

0.1608

Saurauia latibractea

30

0.1414

Astronia cumingiana

22

0.1521

Astronia cumingiana

22

0.2281

Dillenia sp.

20

0.1257

Ficus nota

60

0.2827

Litsea luzonica

19

0.1134

Cratoxylum celebicum

20

10

0.3142

Astronia cumingiana

17

0.0908

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Astronia cumingiana

24

0.1810

Syzygium
y yg u d
densinervium
u

19
9

0
0.1701
0

Shorea squamata

16

0.1206

Astronia cumingiana

13

0.0531

TOTAL

27.3582

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-51

Table 2.2.1-22

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PAD B CAWAYAN

SCIENTIFIC NAME
Giranniera celtidifolia

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

13

0.0265

Kleinhovia hospita

40

0.2513

Saurauia latibractea

17

1.5

0.0340

Polaquium philippense

10

0.0157

Decaspermum fruticosum

20

0.0628

Kleinhovia hospita

17

0.0227

Polaquium philippense

22

0.2281

Polaquium philippense

12

0.0452

Macaranga hispida

20

0.1257

Cratoxylum celebricum

22

0.1901

Macaranga hispida

16

0.0804

Macaranga hispida

12

0.0679

Syzygium nitidum

20

0.1885

Greeniopsis multiflora

12

0.0339

Astronia cumingiana

14

0.0308

Astronia cumingiana

12

0.0113

Ficus nota

14

0.0154

Syzygium nitidum

17

0.0454

Polaquium philippense

17

0.0227

Strombosia philippenensis

18

0.0509

Elaeocarpus multiflorus

40

0.1257

Macaranga hispida

24

0.1810

Macaranga hispida

19

0.1701

Ficus minlahassae

24

0.2714

Polyscias nodosa

15

0.1060

Macaranga hispida

23

0.0415

Macaranga hispida

20

0.0314

Macaranga hispida

24

0.0905

Macaranga hispida

18

0.1527

Macaranga hispida

13

0.0265

Homalanthus fastrosus

16

0.1206

Kleinhovia hospita

60

0.2827

Kleinhovia hospita

20

0.0628

Macaranga hispida

23

0.0831

Ficus irisana

18

0.0254

Ficus irisana

18

0.0254

Ficus irisana

18

0.0509

Ficus irisana

18

0.0509

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-52

Table 2.2.1-22

TIMBER VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM


SAMPLE PAD B CAWAYAN (cont)

SCIENTIFIC NAME
Astronia cumingiana

dBH(cm)

MH(m)

VOLUME (m3)

15

0.0707

Astronia cumingiana

17

0.0454

Ficus irisana

16

0.0402

Villebrunea trinervis

21

0.1385

Villebrunea trinervis

14

0.0308

Villebrunea trinervis

15

0.0353

Villebrunea trinervis

16

0.0201

Polycias nodosa

12

0.0679

Villebrunea trinervis

14

0.0308

Villebrunea trinervis

12

0.0226

Kleinhovia hospita

10

0.0079

Kleinhovia hospita

29

0.0661

Villebrunea trinervis

12

0.0226

Semecarpus gigantifolius

10

0.0314

Villebrunea trinervis

13

0.0531

Polaquium philippense

13

0 0265
0.0265

Polaquium philippense

19

0.1134

Kleinhovia hospita

30

0.0707

Macauanga hispida

19

0.1134

Gironniera celtidifolia

12

0.0113

Semecarpus gigantifolius

13

0.0398

Shorea palosapis

34

0.3632

Decaspermum fruticosum

18

0.0763

Macauanga hispida

20

0.1257

Homalanthus fastuosus

13

0.0531

Homalanthus fastuosus

39

0.1195

Homalanthus fastuosus

50

0.1964

Homalanthus fastuosus

18

0.1018

Homalanthus fastuosus

35

0.0962

Palaquium philippense

33

0.0855

Kleinhovia hospita

12

0.0226

Kleinhovia hospita

12

0.0226

Kleinhovia hospita

12

0.0226

TOTAL

5.7923

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestial Flora)

p.2.2.1-53

Plate 2.2.1 -1
Forest inventory at Plot 1

Plate 2.2.1 3
Forest inventory at Plot 3

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Plate 2.2.1 -2
Forest inventory at Plot 2

Plate 2.2.1 -4
Forest inventory at Plot 4

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1 -56

Plate 2.2.1 5
Forest inventory at Plot 5

Plate 2.2.1 6
Forest inventory at Plot 6

Plate 2.2.1 7
Forest inventory at Plot 7
(NPC hydro area)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p. 2.2.1 -57

Plate 2.2.1-8:
Sample Plot No. 8 (Pad A Botong)

Plate 2.2.1-9:
Sample Plot No. 9 (Pad B Cawayan)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p.2.2.1-58

Plate 2.2.1-10:
Reforestation species intermingled w/ sparse
secondary forest species within the Tanawon block

Plate 2.2.1-11:
Abaca plantation at the southern portion of the
Tanawon block

Plate 2.2.1-12:
Cacao plantation found at the southern flank of the
Tanawon block

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Flora)

p.2.2.1-59

2.2.2 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA


2.2.2.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions
A total of 118 species of wildlife was recorded from 19 transect lines established within the
primary and secondary impact areas of the Tanawon Geothermal Project. Of these, seven (7)
were amphibians, 15 were reptiles, 86 were birds and 10 were mammals. Birds were the biggest
group, which comprised 72.88% of the total number of species, followed by reptiles
12.71%>mammals 8.47%>amphibians 5.93%.
Based on their ecological status, majority of the species were endemic, with a total of 62
species, followed by residents with 45 species, migratory with 10 species and introduced
represented only by a single species. The species list, based on CITES II under the regulated
trade category, also included three (3) protected species such as the Malay monitor lizard
(Varanus salvator), the reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and the long-tailed macaque
(Macaca fascicularis), all of which were very common in forested areas of both primary and
secondary impact areas of the project. The list also included five (5) threatened endemic
species of birds such as the Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica), the bluenaped parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis), the Philippine horned-owl (Bubo philippinensis), the
Rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax) and the Tarictic hornbill (Penelopides panini). Added to
the threatened endemic were two (2) mammalian species such as the Golden-capped flying fox
(Acerodon jubatus) and the Philippine warty pig (Sus philippinensis). With the exception of the
Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon, all threatened endemic species can be found in all major islands in
the Philippines.
In conclusion, the relatively moderate to high species diversity indices in most of the transects
are indications of a rich and diverse wildlife species in the area covered by the Tanawon
Geothermal Project.

2.2.2.2 Methodology
A.

EIA Study Team

Terrestrial faunal survey, as part of this EIS, was conducted by Professor Pedro L. Alviola III of
University of the Philippines at Los Baos with the assistance of Mr. Alberto V. Batalla, Botany
Technician of PNOC-EDC.

B.

Location, Area and Scope of the Study

A total of nineteen (19) transect lines were established within the primary and secondary impact
areas of the project. Of these, 16 were established in the primary impact areas corresponding to
the locations of the proposed geothermal facilities, such as production well, re-injection wells,
power plant sites, and waste disposal area. The remaining three (3) transect lines were
established to represent habitats in the secondary impact areas, specifically located in the
Second Growth Forest below Mt. Tanawon. This was along the tributary of Cawayan River, and
in Taguman - Mt. Rock Dome range before the Botong Twin Falls. The relative locations of
transect lines are shown in Figure 2.1.3-1 (Hydrology module).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 1

C.

Study Parameters/Components

A species inventory and individual count for vertebrate wildlife species (birds, reptiles,
amphibians, and mammals) captured, seen, observed and/or heard during the survey were
conducted. From the inventory and species count data, biodiversity parameters, such as species
diversity index, dominance index and evenness index, were derived. In addition, the various
species recorded were evaluated in regards to their ecological status.

D.

Methods/Procedures

The Rapid Assessment Method was adopted for species inventory. This was performed with the
establishment of several transect lines. Transect lines measuring 500 meters were instituted
along established trails and roads, wherein visibility was beyond 50 meters. Inside the forest,
where visibility is less than 50 meters, transect lines used were at least one kilometer in length.
Observed wildlife species were recorded together with the number of individuals. Observations
were based on actual sightings, calls, nest, diggings, footprints, and faecal droppings.
Mist nets were also used to capture terrestrial animals. Nets employed were 35 mm, mesh
mono-filament, 12 meters in length and two meters in width. To be effective and productive,
strategic locations were considered upon establishment of the nets. They were hoisted across
established trails and streams, or at the edge of the forest clearings, and among fruit trees. The
same mist nets used for birds were utilized for bats.
Snap traps were also used to capture nocturnal mammals. Most of the traps were baited with
roasted coconut meat mixed with peanut butter and occasionally with live earthworm for
possible vermivore species around the area. These traps were also situated in areas suspected
to be most productive. All captured individuals from mist nets and snap traps were released
immediately after identification and processing.
Ethnobiological survey was also conducted. This was achieved by interviews with the PNOC
EDC forest guards and residents of communities near the project site, of the occurrence and
distribution of terrestrial wildlife species.

E.

Data Analysis

Biodiversity parameters derived from this study were as follows; Species Diversity Index,
Dominance Index, and Evenness Index. However, only the avifaunal data were used for this
purpose as these wildlife species are mostly diurnal and their observation records are less bias.
Other wildlife group has that built-in bias due to the limitations of capture using mist nets and
traps. The following formulae were used:
Species Diversity Index ( H ) = - ( ni/N ln ni/N )
Dominance Index ( C ) = ( ni / N )2
Evenness Index ( e ) = H / ln S
where ,

N = is the total number of individuals in all species observed/captured


ni = is the number of number of individuals per species
S = number of species per transect

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 2

2.2.2.3 Results and Discussion


A.

Species Inventory

A total of 118 species of wildlife was recorded at the project site. This consisted of seven (7)
Amphibians, 15 Reptiles, 86 Birds, and 10 Mammals (Table 2.2.2-1 and Appendix I-2 -Table 2.2.2-1). Birds were the largest group, of which comprised 72.88% of the total number of
species. The reptiles followed with 12.71%, then the mammals with 8.47%, and then amphibians
(frogs) with 5.93%.
Based on their ecological status, majority of the species were Endemic, with a total of 62
species. Of these, 47 were Common Endemics, of 39 species were birds, three (3) species
each were amphibians and reptiles, and two (2) species were mammals. Eight (8) species were
considered Rare Endemics and seven (7) species of birds and mammals as Threatened
Endemics. The threatened species were mainly birds and mammals, namely: Luzon bleedingheart pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica), blue-naped parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis), Philippine
horned-owl (Bubo philippinensis), Rufous hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), Tarictic hornbill
(Penelopides panini), Golden-capped flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), and Philippine warty pig
(Sus philippensis).
The next abundant group were the Residents, with a total of 45 species. This was comprised of
41 Common Residents, consisting of 24 species of birds, nine (9) reptiles, five (5) mammals,
and three (3) frogs. Other Resident species included three (3) Protected Residents, namely:
the Malay monitor lizard (Varanus salvator), reticulated python (Python reticulatus), and the
long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). A single Rare Resident bird species, the Malaysian
giant needle-tail swift (Hirundapus giganteus), was also recorded.
The less abundant group were the Migratory birds, with a total of right (10) species. This was
comprised of a single rare migrant species of warbler (Locustella lanceolata), and nine (9)
common migrants, namely: river kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), Arctic
leaf warbler (Phylloscopus borealis), grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), blue rock thrush
(Monticola solitaria), gray-spotted flycatcher (Muscicapa gresiesticta), chinese goshawk
(Accipiter soloensis), plaintive cuckoo (Cacomantis merulinus) and the common brown shrike
(Lanius cristatus).
The Introduced species were the least abundant group, consisting only of one (1) species, the
crested myna or martinez (Acrodotheres cristatellus).

B.

Threatened and Protected Species

Cites II includes species of wildlife that are protected with regulated trade category. At Tanawon
Geothermal Project site, three (3) species under this category were recorded, namely: Malay
monitor lizard, reticulated Python, and long-tailed macaque. These species, however, were very
common in forested areas both in the primary and secondary impact areas of the project.
In the secondary impact areas, where primary Lowland Dipterocarp Forests are still intact, the
species listing included five (5) endemic species of threatened birds, namely: Luzon bleedingheart pigeon, Blue-naped parrot, Philippine horned-owl, Rufous hornbill, and Tarictic hornbill,
and two (2) endemic mammalian species, namely: Golden-capped flying fox and Philippine
warty pig. With the exception of the Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon, these threatened species can
be found in all major islands in the Philippines. These wildlife are also true forest species found
only in Primary Lowland Dipterocarp Forest. Their presence in the forest habitats in the vicinity

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 3

of Tanawon Geothermal Project Site is in fact advantageous as PNOC maintains a regular


forest patrol within the jurisdiction of its geothermal reserve, with the aim of preventing illegal
logging activities in the area. The protection of these important forest habitats will ensure the
survival of threatened species.

C.

Biodiversity Parameters

The number of species recorded in each transect ranged from 8 bird species in Transect 1
at the C-1 Drill Site and Transect 6 at the proposed reinjection Well Site -1 to 28 bird species
in Transect 15 in Taguman Mt. Rock Dome area (Table 2.2.2-2 and Appendix I-2 -Table 2.2.2 -2). Four other transects had more than twenty species recorded and these were
Transect 11 in a tributary of Cawayan River, Transect 12 in Power Plant Site 6, and Transects
16 and 18 both in Cawayan Site B. The average species record per transect was 14.16
species. Those transects with the highest recorded number of species were located in forested
areas, while those with lowest recorded species were transects located in disturbed areas
(Transect 3 and Transect 6).
The Species Diversity indices of nineteen (19) transects ranged from H = 1.84192 in Transect 8
at the Power Plant Site-2 to H = 2.99733 in Transect 11 at the Cawayan River tributary. The
transects with High range (2.5000 - 3.2499) of Species Diversity Indices were Transects 11, 12,
15, 16 and 18, while the rest were within the Moderate range (1.7500 - 2.4999). Species
diversity encompasses the number, types, and distribution of species within an area or
ecosystem.
The Dominance Indices ranged from a Very Low value of 0.07445 in Transect 15, at Taguman Mt. Rock Dome, to the highest value of 0.20487 in Transect 8, at Power Plant Site - 2. Most of
the Dominance Indices were in the Low category. Dominance index shows the characteristic of
the most abundant species. Low and very low indices suggest that no certain species has the
advantage to control and affect the environment of all other species in a given habitat, which
also signifies that the environment is still in transition.
The Evenness Indices were all within the Very High range (0.7500 - 1.000), with the lowest at
0.79683 in Transect 4 - Re-injection Well Site - 2, while the highest was 0.93117 at Transect 11
in Cawayan River tributary (Table 2.2.2-2). Evenness index refers to the relative abundance of
members of each species. High index value indicates distribution of individuals per species is
very close to one another. The index also shows the stability and greater probability for habitat
recovery.
With these computed biodiversity parameters and indices, species diversity is relatively
moderate to high in most of the transects, which signifies a rich wildlife biodiversity composition
of the area. Furthermore, the presence of an intact primary Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in the
vicinity means that the wildlife species that are temporarily disturbed in the project site have a
sanctuary area where these species can take refuge to. As long as PNOC EDC maintains
regular patrol in their area of jurisdiction, these forests serving as sanctuary area of wildlife, will
remain protected.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 4

Table 2.2.2-1.

Summary of the Wildlife Species Inventory and Percentage


Frequency of Various Categories
Number of Species

Categories
(Ecological Status)
Amphibians
Introduced
Residents
Common
Rare
Protected
Migratory
Common
Rare
Endemic
Common
Rare or uncommon
Threatened
TOTAL
Percent, %

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Reptiles

Birds
1

Total

Percent, %

1
45

0.85
38.14

10

8.47

62

52.54

Mammal

3
-----

9
--2

24
1
---

5
--1

-----

-----

9
1

-----

3
1
--7

3
1
--15

39
6
5
86

2
2
10

5.93

12.71

72.88

8.47

118

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

100

p. 2.2.2 - 5

Table 2.2.2-2

Summary of Biodiversity Parameters of Various Transects established


in Tanawon Geothermal Project, Sorsogon, Sorsogon 2000 2002.

Transect Number and Location

No. of

Species Diversity

Dominance

Evenness

Species (S)

Index ( H )

Index ( C )

Index ( e )

C-1 Drill Pad, Tanawon

13 01.81N, 123 56.48E

10

2.05972

0.14956

0.89452

Power Plant Site - 5

13 01.59N, 123 56.43E

12

2.17605

0.13897

0.87571

Power Plant Site - 4

13 01.53N, 123 56.31E

1.86305

0.17520

0.89594

Re-injection Well Site - 2

13 01.70N, 123 55.53E

16

2.20928

0.17420

0.79683

Lower Sulphatara Area

13 01.64N, 123 55.59E

15

2.20742

0.16674

0.81513

Re-injection Well Site - 1

13 01.87N, 123 55.58E

1.87334

0.17580

0.90089

Waste Disposal Area

13 01.94N, 123 55.62E

10

2.01056

0.16818

0.87317

Power Plant Site - 2

13 02.05N, 123 55.78E

1.84192

0.20487

0.83829

Power Plant Site - 1

13 02.15N, 123 56.24E

13

2.28556

0.12109

0.89107

10

Cawayan Power Plant

13 02.34N, 123 56.28E

10

1.89027

0.16476

0.82093

11

Cawayan River Tributary

13 02.28N, 123 56.66E

25

2.99733

0.10323

0.93117

12

Power Plant Site - 6

13 01.89N, 123 56.58E

21

2.61855

0.11292

0.86.009

13

Tanawon Drill Site - B

13 01.89N, 123 56.33E

1.91545

0.17684

0.87176

14

Power Plant Site - 3

13 01.84N, 123 56.32E

10

1.88633

0.20073

0.81922

15

Taguman/Mt. Rock Dome

28

2.92910

0.07445

0.87903

16

Cawayan Site B

13 01.90 N,123 57.32 E

18

2.53370

0.10927

0.87660

17

Cawayan Site B

13 01.99 N,123 57.15 E

20

2.60219

0.10032

0.86863

18

Botong Site R.I.

13 02.42 N,123 57.88 E

14

2.23030

0.13750

0.84511

19

Botong Site R.I.

13 02.20 N,123 57.94 E

13

2.18335

0.15450

0.82153

14.16

2.22702

0.14775

0.86197

Moderate

Very Low

Very High

AVERAGE

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 6

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 - 1

Plate 2.2.2-1:
Philippine Pit Viper showing its back
stripes suggesting it is still a subadult

Plate 2.2.2-2:
Faecal droppings of Palm Civet Cat,
consisting of coffee beans

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Terrestrial Fauna)

p. 2.2.2 -7

2.2.3

AGRICULTURE

2.2.3.1 Summary Of Results and Conclusions


Around 20-30% of the Tanawon geothermal block is occupied by agricultural areas mainly
planted with coconut and abaca.
Lowland irrigated ricefields utilizing river water emanating from the Tanawon development block
total 609 hectares and are found along Capuy (50 has.), Ticol (87 has.) and Cawayan (472
has.) rivers. Other nearby irrigated ricefields are also found along Manitohan (142 has.),
Anahaw (~10 has.) and Osiao (~50 has.) rivers. Ricefields along Manitohan are found in two
general areas: at an upland plateau in So. Inang Maharang, Brgy. Nagotgot found 282 mASL,
and at the lowlands of Brgys. Balasbas, Bamban, Itba (Poblacion) and Pawa. These are
comprised of private or communal irrigation systems. In most farms, the average yield of rice is
4 metric tons (80 cavans) per harvest per year.
The textural grade of the lowland ricefield soils are generally loam to sandy loam. Soil nutrients
are generally sufficient.
The present levels of arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium and lead in soil and rice grains are
typical of lowland irrigated soils in other areas of the country.

2.2.3.2

Methodology
A. List of EIA Study Team
The survey and sampling for agriculture were undertaken from Nov. 28 to Dec. 3, 2000 and
again in June 2002 by Teresa Peralta, Henry Roy, Conrado Orcena and Alberto Batalla of
PNOC-EDCs Environmental Management Division (EMD). The group was assisted by EMD
Forest Guards Mr. Jerry Ferrer and Mr. Vic Tubio, both of whom are local residents familiar with
the survey areas.

B. Location, Area and Scope of Study


The survey focused on agricultural areas within the Tanawon geothermal block and ricefields
irrigated by rivers emanating or proximate to said block, as follows: Manitohan, Capuy, Ticol,
Cawayan, Anahaw and Osiao rivers. In each irrigation system, sampling was undertaken for
water, soil, and plant tissue analysis. Figure 2.2.3-1 presents the ricefields irrigated by the
above-mentioned rivers, along with the sampling stations.

C. Study Parameters
Area and yield parameters were determined for non-irrigated agricultural areas within the
Tanawon block.
For rice, study parameters focused on the profile of each irrigation system as follows: area
planted, number of farmers, and average yield. For the water, soil and plant tissue samples of
rice, laboratory analysis was undertaken by PNOC-EDC laboratory for various chemical
parameters such as metals and plant nutrients.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 1

D. Methods/Procedures
Agricultural areas were initially determined based on maps and field surveys. Data on irrigated
ricefields were secured from local offices such as the National Irrigation Administration (NIA),
City and Provincial Agriculltural Office, as well as barangay officials and the farmers themselves.
For each irrigation system, at least one sampling station as established using a composite
sampling method. In each station, soil was taken in 3 to 4 random points, at two different depths
of the root zone: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Soils taken at a particular depth were
combined in one bag. Duplicate sampling was undertaken as one bag would be for physical soil
parameters and the other would be for chemical analysis.
For larger systems such as the one fed by Cawayan and Capuy-Ticol rivers, about 2 to 3
stations were established at the first ricefield(s) fed by the irrigation water, and one or two at the
mid section of the irrigation system.
All stations have been labelled with a BM-AS# as the prefix. BM stands for BacMan, while AS
stands for Agricultural Station. The number (#) represents each irrigation water source , while
the last letter represents the station within that particular system.

E.

List of Study Sources

Primary information was gathered through actual surveys and sampling, complemented by
interviews with farmers and barangay officials. Secondary data was sourced from agricultural
profiles of the Municipal /City Agricultural Office in Sorsogon, National Irrigation Administration,
and the Sorsogon Planning office.

2.2.3.3 Results and Discussion


A. Agriculture Profile of Sorsogon City
Sorsogon City is mainly an agricultural area. There are three major crops grown in Sorsogon, namely
coconut, abaca and rice. The latest draft Sorsogon City profile (merging data from the former Sorsogon
and Bacon municipalities) indicates that coconut is the dominant crop, comprising about 10,712 hectares.
Rice ranks second (2,637 hectares), while abaca (1,876 hectares) is the third dominant crop (Table 2.2.31).
In terms of production, the annual production of abaca ranges between 50 and 600 kilos of fiber,
the large difference depending on planting density. Ricefields, 75% of which are said to be
irrigated, have a production rate of 80 cavans per hectare with an annual total of 10,200 metric
tons annually.
Livestock raised in the locality include cattle, carabao, hog, goat, chicken an other fowls. Most
of these are raised at small scale. Cattle is raised mainly for meat. Carabaos are mainly used
as farm animals.
Aquaculture is made evident by the presence of backyard fishponds (2.9 hectares) and brackish
water fishpond (118.5 hectares) cultured with shrimp, prawn, milkfish and crabs. Details on
fisheries are discussed under the Marine Biology section of this report (section 2.2.5).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 2

B. Profile of Irrigated Ricefields


Due to potential effects of river siltation or regulated discharge of geothermal brine, agricultural
surveys focused on irrigated ricefields fed by rivers emanating from the geothermal block.
These include ricefields at Capuy, Ticol, and Cawayan rivers totaling 609 hectares. Ricefields
fed by rivers proximate to the block were likewise studied.
In Sorsogon, rice is planted in two seasons. During the Wet Season, planting is done from June
to July, and harvesting is from September to October. During the Dry Season, planting
is
done from November to December, while harvesting is from March to April.
Irrigation systems are discussed per river system below.

1. Manitohan River
There are two major rice areas along Manitohan river: one area at an upland plateau in Inang
Maharang, Brgy. Nagotgot found about 282 meters above sea level (masl); and the other
general area is found towards the lower reaches of Manitohan river.
The Inang Maharang area is a flat extensive tract of rice area where several headwaters of
Manitohan river drain into. The total irrigated area is 108 hectares.
At the lower stretch of Manitohan river, there are about six (6) make-shift irrigation diversions .
The ricefields are rather scattered and are managed by private groups or individuals. The
aggregate area of irrigated ricefield total about 34 hectares, found in Brgy. Balasbas, Bamban,
Itba (Poblacion) and Pawa (Plates 2.2.3-1 and 2.2.3-2).

2. Ticol and Capuy River


Ticol and Capuy rivers are tapped for irrigation of about 87 hectares by a Capuy-Ticol
Communal Irrigation System at Brgy. Capuy, Ticol and So. Pocdol. There are two irrigation
diversion points, one along Ticol river, and other other along Capuy River. Water from one of
Ticol irrigation canals merges with the main Capuy irrigation canal to supply water to the rest of
the Capuy ricefields (Plates 2.2.3-3 to 2.2.3-6). Irrigation canals of both systems dissect
residential areas of the above-mentioned barangays. Along the Capuy irrigation canal, a lot of
garbage material was evident and was seen clogging the water path. Some of the garbage
even ended up in the ricefields.
There are 154 registered farmer-members in this system.

3. Cawayan River
Cawayan River is tapped by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) for communal irrigation
using a gravity-type system. There are two main diversion canals on both sides of the irrigation
dam, one leading southwest to the Right Main Canal at Brgy. Basud, and the other leading
southeast to the Left Main Canal towards Brgy. Guinlajon (Plates 2.2.3-7 to 2.2.3-8). The Right
Main Canal is a concrete structure and it services a bigger area of 376 hectares at Brgys.
Basud, Guinlajon, Ticol, and Sitio Pocdol. This service area is managed by a BGTP-IA (Basud,
Guinlajon, Ticol, Pocdol Irrigators Association) composed of 375 members.
The concrete structure of the Left Main Canal was damaged and washed out by floods during a
heavy storm/downpour several years ago. Ricefields in this side of Cawayan river now utilize a
make-shift canal adjacent to the previous one. The irrigated ricefields in this area are

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 3

approximately 90 to 96 hectares, administered by BBG-IA (Guinlajon, Barayong, Irrigators


Association). BBG-IA has 78 members.
Although not irrigated by the Cawayan river, a small patch of spring-fed ricefield (~0.25 hectare)
is found beside one of its headwaters at about 500-600 masl in Azupre, Sorsogon (Plate 2.2.39). The ricefield was said to be recently abandoned after it was sold. The last harvest yielded
an average of 30 sacks.
Further upslope of the small ricefield but still alongside the Cawayan river headwater, water from
another spring is diverted to a small fishpond (Plate 2.2.3-10). Few fish consisting mostly of
tilapia, and a few talangka and katang are grown for personal consumption.

4. Anahaw River
Ricefields with an aggregate area of about 10 hectares are irrigated by Anahaw river and are
found west of Sorsogon city proper. The three make-shift irrigation intakes are found in Brgys.
Pangpang and Tugos (Plates 2.2.3-11 to 2.2.3-12). Farmers interviewed in the area have
mentioned flooding and drought as one of their major problems.
Plate 2.2.3-13 is a panoramic aerial view of the lowland ricefields both rainfed and irrigated by
various rivers within Sorsogon City.

5. Osiao River
There are approximately 50 hectares of ricefields along Osiao river found within Brgy. Osiao
(Plates 2.2.3-14 to 15). The ricefield is found northeast of the project, and is administered by a
PNOC-assisted Osiao Farmers Association (OFA). The irrigation canal is a make-shift type
using rocks to impound the river water.

C. Physical and Chemical Analysis of Soil, Plant Tissue and Water


Samples
Sampling stations for each irrigation system are indicated in Table 2.2.3-2. Soil, water and plant
samples were taken for physical and chemical analysis.

1 . Soil Texture
Table 2.2.3-3 indicates that the agricultural soils generally have loam to sandy loam texture.
The sand component is high due to proximity of the ricefields to the rivers.

2. Soil Fertility
Agricultural soils are rather acidic in nature. Nitrogen is rather high in all stations, except for one
station at Manitohan (BM-AS15A) which registered low N. Phosphorus (P) varied from low to
high, while potassium (K) was mostly sufficient except for one station at Inang Maharang
irrigated by Madanan Creek. (BM-AS3A)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 4

3. Chemical Analysis of Soil and Rice Grains


The levels of arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium and lead in ricefield soils are within typical
levels in Philippine lowland irrigated soils (Table 2.2.3-4). Arsenic is quite high in one
Manitohan station. Although arsenic and boron are comparatively higher in the rice grains
(Table 2.2.3-5), the levels of these metals are within ranges of typical levels found elsewhere in
the Philippines. Plants usually have higher levels of nutrients or metals compared to levels found
in soil. Lead was found to be relatively high in one station along Osiao river.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 5

Table 2.2.3-1: Agricultural Area Planted and No. of Farmers


Crops
Coconut
Rice
Abaca
Total

Area (ha)
10,712
2,637
1,876

No. of farmers
696
3,165
7,334

15,225

14,195

Source: Draft Profile of the City of Sorsogon, 2002

Table 2.2.3-2: Agricultural Stations for Tanawon Geothermal Project


Water Source

Station Code

Station Description

Manitohan River

BM-AS 1A

First ricefield irrigated by Putingbato tributary of Manitohan river;


Inang Maharang area, Brgy. Nagotgot
First ricefield irrigated by Binodigahan tributary of Manitohan
river; Inang Maharang area, Brgy. Nagotgot
First ricefield irrigated by Madanan tributary of Manitohan river;
Inang Maharang area, Brgy. Nagotgot
Ricefield irrigated by two diversion canals along Manitohan river;
found across stn BM-AS10A; Sitio Marigong, Brgy. Balasbas
Ricefield using water from a leak in the freshwater pipeline of
Manito Drying Plant; water is from Manitohan river; Sitio Bunga,
Brgy. Pawa
Ricefield irrigated by Manitohan river; Sitio Bunga, Brgy. Pawa
Ricefield irrigated by second to the last irrigation diversion along
Manitohan river; Brgy. Itba (Poblacion); beside BM-AS 16A
Ricefield irrigated by the last irrigation diversion along Manitohan
river; Brgy. Itba (Poblacion); beside BM-AS 15A
First ricefield irrigated by Cawayan Left Main Canal; Brgy. Basud
First ricefield irrigated by Cawayan Right Main Canal; Brgy.
Basud
Ricefield irrigated by Cawayan Right Main canal found at the
midstream of the irrigation system; Brgy. Basud
Small patch of ricefield fed by a spring near a Cawayan
headwater; found 500-600 masl
First ricefield irrigated by Ticol river; behind Ticol school

BM-AS 2A
BM-AS 3A
BM-AS 8A
BM-AS 10A

BM-AS 11A
BM-AS 15A
BM-AS 16A
Cawayan river

BM-AS 60A
BM-AS 65A
BM-AS 65B

Cawayan spring

BM-AS100A

Ticol river

BM-AS 70A
BM-AS 70B

Capuy-Ticol
River
(combined)
Anahaw river

BM-AS 76A

BM-AS40A
BM-AS40B

Osiao river

BM-AS40C
BM-AS50A
BM-AS50B
BM-AS50C

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Ricefield irrigated by midstream of Ticol irrigation; along highway


beside Health Center/ waiting shed
One of the first few ricefields irrigated by a combination of
Capuy-Ticol river irrigation
First ricefield irrigated by the first water intake along Anahaw
river
First ricefield irrigated by the second water intake along Anahaw
river
Ricefield irrigated by the third water intake along Anahaw river
First ricefield fed by Osiao river
Ricefield found at the mid section of the Osiao ricefields
Another ricefield found at the lower portion of the Osiao ricefields

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 6

Table 2.2.3-3 Soil Texture and Fertility


Water Source

Station Code

pH

Textural Grade

Manitohan River

BM-AS 1A
BM-AS 2A
BM-AS 3A
BM-AS 8A
BM-AS 10A
BM-AS 11A
BM-AS 15A
BM-AS 16A
BM-AS 60A
BM-AS 65A
BM-AS 65B
BM-AS100A
BM-AS 70A
BM-AS 70B
BM-AS 76A

5.4
6
6
6
6
6
5.4
5.8
5.4
5.4-5.8
5.8

H
H
H
H
H
H
L-H
M-H
H
H
H

M
L
L
L-M
M
M-H
M
M
H
M-H
M-H

SAP
SAP
DAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP

L-SL
Lm
SLm
SLm
SLm
SLm
SLm
Lm
SLm
Lm-SLm
Lm-SLm

6
5.8-6.0
5.4-5.8

H
H
H

M
L-M
H

SAP
SAP
SAP

SLm
SLm
Lm

BM-AS40A
BM-AS40B
BM-AS40C
BM-AS50A
BM-AS50B
BM-AS50C

6.3-6.5
5.7-5.8
6.0-6.2
5.8
6.3-6.4
6.1

H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
M
H

SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP

Cawayan river

Cawayan spring
Ticol river
Capuy-Ticol
River (combined)
Anahaw river

Osiao river

Legend:
L- Low
Lm- Loam

M- Medium
H- High
SLm Sandy Loam

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

SAP Sufficient Available Potassium

DAP- Deficient Available Potassium

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 7

Table 2.2.3-4: Chemical Analysis of Agricultural Soils *


(units in ppm)
Water
Source

Station Code

Date

As

Cd

Cr

Pb

BM-AS 1A

12/3/00

2.0

<0.10

0.07

4.8

15

BM-AS 2A
BM-AS 3A
BM-AS 8A
BM-AS 10A
BM-AS 11A
BM-AS 15A
BM-AS 16A
BM-AS 60A

12/3/00
12/3/00
12/28/00
12/28/00
12/28/00
12/28/00
12/3/00
12/29/00

2.2
28.6
0.4
1.2
1.9
1.6
0.73

<0.10
<0.10
0.17
0.26
<0.10
0.35
0.19

0.89
0.77
0.94
0.77
0.77
0.77
0.77

5.6
5.4
6.7
6.7
4.4
4.4
4.6

15
14
15
16
16
16
15

BM-AS 65A
BM-AS 65B

12/29/00
12/3/00

0.66
1.4

0.49
0.26

<0.10
<0.10

4.4
5.6

11
12

Ticol river

BM-AS 70A
BM-AS 70B

12/29/00
12/29/00

<0.10
<0.10

<0.10
<0.10

<0.10
<0.10

6.7
5.6

12
12

Capuy-Ticol
River
(combined)
Anahaw
river

BM-AS 76A

12/29/00

0.68

<0.10

0.59

6.7

18

BM-AS40A

06/02

<0.10

<1.0

0.4-0.5

9.8-10

9.6

BM-AS40B
BM-AS40C
BM-AS50A
BM-AS50B
BM-AS50C

06/02
06/02
06/02
06/02
06/02

<0.10
<0.10
2.2-3.7
1.7-3.7
1.2-1.7

<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0

0.5
0.5-0.7
0.4-0.6
0.6-0.7
0.7

8.8
9-10
1.-11
11
10

9.2-9.6
11-30
10-12
11-210
17

Manitohan
River

Cawayan
river

Osiao river

* Analysis by PNOC-EDC EMD Laboratory

Table 2.2.3-5: Chemical Analysis of Rice Grains *


(units in ppm)
Water
Source
Manitohan
River

Cawayan
River

Station Code
Date

As

Cd

Cr

Pb

BM-AS 1A

12/3/00

3.68

1.7

<0.10

<0.50

<0.50

BM-AS 2A
BM-AS 3A
BM-AS 10A
BM-AS 60A

12/3/00
12/3/00
12/29/00
12/28/00

3.92
2.71
2.49
2.56

1.1
1.2
1.0
2.1

<0.10
<0.10
<0.10
<0.10

<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50

<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3- 8

Plate 2.2.3 - 1:
One of the make-shift irrigation diversions along Manitohan
River (stn. BMAS9)

Plate 2.2.3 - 2:
At the foreground is one of the ricefields (BM-AS11A) irrigated by Manitohan River. The area is just below the
existing Manitohan Drying Plant of PNOC-EDC

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-10

Plate 2.2.3-3:
Irrigation water from Ticol river (right horizontal canal) merges with waters from Capuy River (left vertical canal).
To the left is Capuy River. Note the turbid state of the river after a storm.

Plate 2.2.3 - 4:
Station BM-AS76A is a ricefield irrigated by Capuy-Ticol river.
Note the garbage at the ricefield
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-11

Plate 2.2.3-5:
Main irrigation canal tapping water from Ticol river

Plate 2.2.3-6:
Ricefield station BMAS70B is irrigated by Ticol River

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-12

Plate 2.2.3-7:
Irrigation dam along Cawayan River

Plate 2.2.3-8:
One of the first few ricefields fed by Cawayan Irrigation System
(stn. BM-AS65A)

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-13

Plate 2.2.3-9:
A patch of ricefield upslope of Cawayan headwater. Water is sourced from nearby spring. Elevation is 500-600 masl.

Plate 2.2.3-10:
A backyard type fishpond found upslope of a Cawayan tributary. Fish grown (mostly tilapia) are for household consumption.
Water is sourced from another spring along Cawayan river. The pond is located further upslope of the above ricefield.
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-14

Plate 2.2.3-11:
Irrigation diversion along Anahaw river

Plate 2.2.3-12:
Ricefield station BM-AS41B is irrigated by Anahaw river

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-15

Plate 2.2.3-13:
Panoramic view of the lowland ricefields irrigated by various rivers within Sorsogon City. Photo facing south of the Tanawon area towards
Sorsogon Bay

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-16

Plate 2.2.1-14:
Water from Osiao river is diverted for irrigation of ricefields at Brgy. Osiao

Plate 2.2.1-15:
Ricefield station BM-AS50B irrigated by Osiao river

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Agriculture)

p. 2.2.3-17

2.2.4 Freshwater Flora and Fauna


2.2.4.1 Summary of Findings and Conclusions
The biological survey of 18 sampling stations from nine (9) river systems to be potentially
affected by the Tanawon Geothermal Project resulted in the recovery of the following taxa: 38
phytoplankton, 13 zooplankton, 58 benthic fauna, eight (8) riverine fishes and three (3)
crustaceans.
The diatoms (Bacillariophyta) dominated in number in almost all stations, except in stations
BMGP-121, BMGP-107 and BMGP-12, which were dominated by the green algae
(Chlorophyta). The blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) and the euglenophytes (Euglenophyta) were
minor components in the surveyed river systems. Nitzchia, a genus, represented mostly by
tolerant and resistant species were recovered in great number at BMGP-127 and BMGP 132,
stations heavily influenced by the extensive ricefields along its riparian environment. Based on
the diversity index values of all stations, the phytoplankton species diversity was classified as
moderate to highly diverse.
The zooplankton were impoverished both in number of species and individuals. This, however,
is typical of a river system due to its unidirectional and fast-flowing nature, which are
unfavorable to zooplankton.
Benthic fauna in the surveyed rivers, based on diversity index values, were moderately to highly
diverse. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were the most dominant groups, both in number of species
and individuals. This was followed by trueflies (Diptera)>caddisflies (Trichoptera)>aquatic
beetles (Coleoptera). Generally, the dominance of mayflies with the presence of clean-water
indicators (e.g., Heptagenia sp. and Leptophlebiidae) and the poorness of trueflies may be an
indication of a relatively good quality of water in the surveyed rivers. This was, however,
expected due to the absence of major sources of pollution in the area, other than from
agricultural activities.
The dominant fish species in the surveyed rivers, based on interviews, was tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus), followed by freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.) and native catfish (Clarias batrachus). The
low species count in the surveyed rivers may not necessarily be factual, as comprehensive
inventory of fishery was not undertaken due to worst weather conditions brought by the typhoon
when the survey was conducted.

2.2.4.2 Methodology
A.

EIA Study Team

The freshwater biological survey for this environmental impact statement was conducted by Mr.
Josefo B. Tuyor, with assistance from EMD Field Technicians and local guides. The survey was
conducted from December 4-8, 2000.

B.

Location, Area and Scope of the Study

Fourteen (19) sampling stations from seven (9) river systems were surveyed to document their
present biological composition and conditions prior to the commencement of the project. The
selection of river systems for this study was based on the origin of their headwaters and/or
tributaries, i.e., within the 2,460-hectare geothermal block, and their likelihood to be directly or
indirectly affected by the project. For river systems known to be directly affected by the project,
at least three (3) sampling stations were established to represent the upstream, midstream and

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -1

downstream sections of the river. River systems that are outside of the block were also included
in the sampling to serve as control, but the number of station was reduced to only one (1).
The descriptions and mapping of stations are presented under the Hydrology module (see
Section 2.1.3 and Fig. 2.1.3-1).

C.

Study Parameters/Components

The community composition, relative density and ecological indices, such as richness, diversity
and evenness indices, were determined for phytoplankton and benthic fauna. For zooplankton,
only the community composition and the total number of individuals per sample were derived,
due to their poor representation in the samples. For fish, only partial listing of species was done,
as actual collection was almost impossible due to high river flow and flooding brought by the
typhoon rains when the survey was conducted.

D.

Methods/Procedures
1.

Plankton

Plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) were collected by filtering a 50-liter river water with a
standard Wisconsin-type plankton net, with a mesh size of 63 m. Water samples filtered by the
net were collected close to the river banks and, where depth allows, at the center of the river, to
maximize the collection. Two separate collections/filtration were done for each station, i.e., one
for phytoplankton and one for zooplankton. After each filtration, sample was emptied into a 500ml bottle and fixed with 5% formaldehyde. Samples were brought to the laboratory for
processing, identification and density count.
At the laboratory, samples were allowed to stand for at least a week to ensure that planktonic
organisms have settled. The overlaying water was carefully pipetted out until the sample volume
was about 250 ml. The samples were then transferred to a tall glassware and again allowed to
stand for a week. Again, the overlaying water was removed until the volume was about 50 ml.
These were then transferred to centrifuge tubes and the volume adjusted to 50 ml. For
zooplankton, a 1 ml aliquote was transferred to a counting chamber and observed under a light
microscope for identification and counting. For phytoplankton, a sub-sample was placed on a
hemacytometer and observed under a light microscope for identification to the lowest possible
taxa.
2.
Benthos
A modified kick sampling method was employed to collect benthic fauna. This was done by
disturbing the substrate, either by foot or by hand, enclosed by and upstream of the Surber
sampler with a frame area of 0.1 m2, to dislodge organisms and collect them into the net of the
sampler. Specifically, rocks and boulders enclosed by and upstream of the sampler were
scraped very slightly to dislodge the organisms clinging on them, while gravel, sand and all other
types of substrates enclosed by and upstream of the frame were disturbed. This exercise was
repeated several times across the river for each station to a total of 5 minutes to collect as much
as possible all range of benthic organisms from various types of substrates. Each sample was
emptied into a 1-liter bottle and fixed with 5% formaldehyde.
At the laboratory, samples were sieved using a net with a mesh size of 100 m. The sieved
samples were then examined under a stereomicroscope and organisms were identified up to the
lowest possible taxa and population density (in m2) calculated for each station.
3.

Fishery

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -2

Fish inventory was limited only at the three major river systems, namely Cawayan river, Rizal
river and Ticol river, due to flooding and turbidity of the river water brought by the typhoon rains.
Notwithstanding, visual observation was tried despite of the worst weather conditions. This was
done by standing very quietly for about 5 minutes per station and recording all the species seen.
In addition, interviews with the local inhabitants were also being conducted to determine the fish
species being caught in these major river systems.

E.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using the EcoStat (Ecological Statistics) program by Ludwig and
Reynolds (1988). Biological indices derived from the said program included Margalef Richness
Index (R1), Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index (H) and Evenness Index 5 (E5).
The following formulae were used:
R1 = S -1/ln (n)
where:
S = total no. of species
n = total no. of individuals
R1 = Margalef Richness Index
s
H = - [(ni/n) ln (ni/n)]
I=1

where:
ni = no. of individuals belonging to the ith of S species in the sample
n = total no. of individuals in the sample
H = Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index

E5 = N2-1/N1-1
where:
N1 = no. of abundant species in the sample
N2 = no. of very abundant species
E5 = Evenness Index 5

F.

Study Sources

All information and data contained and presented under this module were based on primary
sources, derived mainly from the survey conducted from December 4-8, 2000.

2.2.4.3 Results and Discussion


A.

Plankton
1.

Phytoplankton: Composition

Twenty six (38) genera from four (4) divisions of phytoplankton were represented in the
surveyed rivers (Table 2.2.4-1). The diatoms (Bacillariophyta) were the most represented, with
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -3

26 genera. This was followed by the green algae (Chlorophyta), with seven (7) and then the
blue-green algae (Cyanophyta), with three (3) and the euglenophytes (Euglenophyta), with two
(2). In terms of relative density (percent composition) per sample, the diatoms were the most
dominant in all stations, except in stations BMGP-121 (Capuy river), BMGP-107 (Menito river)
and BMGP-12 (Manitohan river), which were dominated by the green algae. The blue-green
algae and the euglenophytes, on one hand, were poor components in all rivers. The relative
density (cells/liter) in all station, with the exception of BMGP-127 (middle reaches of Ticol river),
was relatively low (i.e., <1000 cells/li) compared with other river systems sampled before by
PNOC (e.g., So. Leyte Geothermal Project). The only station, where density was extremely high
over the rest, was in BMGP-127 and BMGP 132 (Anahaw river), the bulk of which was Nitzchia
sp., which comprised about 54% and >99% of the total population. This is rather very interesting
considering that the genus, Nitzchia, is represented mostly by resistant and tolerant species to
various types and degrees of disturbance. They are particularly tolerant to eutrophication and
high amount of pesticides (Martinez-Goss, 2000). Incidentally, these stations receiving large
volume of irrigation water from extensive ricefields found along its riparian environment. This
may explain the dominance of Nitzchia in this station.
2.

Richness, Diversity and Evenness Indices

Table 2.2.4-2 shows the values of various ecological indices derived from each station using
the EcoStat program. Generally, the Shannon diversity index (H), whose value is normally used
to indicate the species diversity in a particular area, exceeded the value of one (>1) in all
stations. This may be interpreted to mean that all stations have moderately to highly diverse
phytoplankton communities. This was made possible by the high evenness indices in almost all
stations due to the absence of dominant species.
The lowest diversity indices were recorded at stations BMGP-12 (Manitohan river) and BMGP127 (Ticol river). The low index value for BMGP-12 can be attributed to its low richness index
(0.73) due to its poor species number (only 4 species). BMGP-127, despite of its high species
richness (1.68), had recorded the second lowest diversity index value because of the dominance
of Nitzchia sp., which accounted for about 54% of the total composition in the sample. The same
was observed in Anahaw river (BMGP 132) in which Nitzchia accounted for more than 99% of
the total plankton density. The diversity index value is presumed to reduce in polluted water
bodies due to the reduction in species number, as a result of both mortality and migration of
sensitive species to unaffected areas, and the proliferation of tolerant or resistant species
favored by the type of pollution.
3.

Zooplankton: Composition

A total of 13 taxa was recorded, excluding copepod molts, copepodites and nauplii of copepods,
which can not be identified to sub-order or lower levels (Table 2.2.4-3). The zooplankton were
represented by three groups, namely Rotifera with five (5) species, Cladocera and Copepoda
with four (4) species each. The number of species and individuals, like any other river system,
was very low. This, however, is typical of river systems due to their unidirectional and fastflowing nature which are unfavorable to plankton. Plankton are known to be largely at the mercy
of water currents for their movement, hence they tend to be more important in lakes and
stagnant water bodies, than in river systems, where there is always a continual drift downstream
to the sea (Payne, 1986).
Among the surveyed river systems, Ticol river had the highest number of species and
individuals, especially in station BMGP 126. This particular station is found at the lower reaches
of the river, with slow flowing water, a physical attribute favorable to zooplankton (Plate 2.2.4-1).
The two major river systems, namely Cawayan and Rizal, are next in ranks in terms of the
number of species. No zooplankton species was recovered from Bucalbucalan river, where
sampling was done at the riffles. This was, however, expected due to its fast-flowing water.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -4

There were no rare or endemic species recorded. Majority of the species were common, with
cosmopolitan distribution. The calanoids were not identified to a level lower than the suborder,
as only molts were collected and dissection was impossible. The same also for copepod molts.
Among copepods, harpacticoids were the most difficult group to identify because of their
complicated body morphology. In the absence of a good and reliable key, identification to lower
level proved to be very difficult.

B.

Benthic Fauna
1.

Composition

The species of benthic fauna recorded from various river systems are listed in Table 2.2.4-4.
The list included a total of 58 species, mostly aquatic insects from thirteen (13) families, with
Hydracarina (water mites), Tricladida and Nais sp., as minor components. Molluscs were not
recovered in the Surber sampler in any of the stations. However, based on visual observation at
the pool sections of Rizal river, the gastropods such as Stenomelania asperans, Melanoides
tuberculata, M. subplicata, Clithon bicolor, and even the golden apple snail or golden kuhol
(Pomacea canaliculata), were observed. The bivalve, Corbicula manilensis, was also observed
at Ticol river particularly at station BMGP 126, where sediment was sandy and with slow water
flow. Of the aquatic insects, mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were, by far, the most dominant groups
in all rivers in terms of number of species and individuals, with a total of eight species from three
different families and with overall percentage over the whole benthic population that ranges from
44.44% to 97.68%, respectively. These were mostly Baetid mayflies, with clean-water indicators
such as Heptagenia sp. and Leptophlebiidae as relatively minor components. The various
species of Baetidae were identified and separated from each other based on the sizes of their
lateral/spiracle wings, i.e., from tiniest to largest. The second most dominant group are the
Trueflies (Diptera), with seven (7) species. Other relatively important groups included the caddis
flies (Trichoptera) and the aquatic beetles (Coleoptera).
Of the river systems surveyed, Ticol and Anahaw rivers had the highest number of species.
These were closely followed by the smaller rivers such as Capuy and Bucalbucalan and the
bigger Osiao river The bigger rivers like Cawayan, Rizal and Manitohan exhibited lower number
of species. This, however, may not be factual as riffles and middle sections of these rivers were
not sampled due to high flow and flooding during the survey.
The population of polluted-water indicators (e.g., Nais sp. and Chironomus spp.) was negligible.
This may be an indication of a good quality of water of the sampled river systems.
2.

Richness, Diversity and Evenness Indices

Table 2.2.4-5 shows the richness, diversity and evenness indices of benthic fauna in river
systems being surveyed. All stations, with the exception of BMGP 71 of Manitohan river, had
Shannon diversity indices (H) of more than one (>1), which is an indication that these rivers
have moderately to highly diverse benthic fauna communities. Of these river systems, Ticol had
the richest species and the highest diversity index value. Other river systems with high richness
and diversity indices included the smaller ones such as Capuy and Bucalbucalan. The bigger
rivers such as Cawayan, Rizal and Manitohan have relatively lower number of species and
lower diversity indices. Again, these values may not be factual as sampling in these river
systems were limited only to the river banks and shallow sections. Riffles and middle sections of
these rivers were not sampled due to the high water level and flooding during the time of the
survey (see Plates 2.2.4-2 & 2.2.4-3).
The order of dominance, in terms of number of species and individuals, of major groups is as
follows: Ephemeroptera>Diptera>Trichoptera>Coleoptera. The dominance of Ephemeroptera
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -5

and the presence of clean-water indicators in these river systems (e.g., Heptagenia sp. &
Leptophlebiid mayflies) may be an indication of a relatively good river water quality. This is,
however, expected due to the absence of major polluters, especially in the upper and middle
reaches of the surveyed river systems.

C.

Fishery

As pointed out earlier, the fishery survey was limited only at the three major river systems
drained by the project. The survey in other river systems was hampered by the worst weather
conditions brought by the typhoon.
The list of riverine fish and crustacean species found at the three major river systems is shown
in Table 2.2.4-6. A total of 11 species, eight (8) of which were fish and three (3) were
crustaceans, was recorded. The list was based on visual observation and interviews with the
riparian inhabitants, who presumably have full knowledge on the types of fish caught in their
respective river systems. The list may not necessarily be a reflection of the fish diversity in these
rivers as survey was not extensive and was hampered by worst weather conditions. Actual
collection was not also done due to high water level and flooding of the said rivers.
In a previous survey conducted for the existing BacMan Geothermal Power Field as part of the
EIA process, fish species, other than those reflected in the list, were also reported. These
included the catfish eels (Plotosus anguillaris), the flatheads (Platycephalus spp.), Glossogobius
giurus, and species of Mugil and Ambassis. The first three species were probably not observed
during the survey because of their benthic habits and their preference for pool areas. These
types of environments were almost impossible to find due to high water level and flooding.
Mugil and Ambassis are estuarine species, thus they were not expected to be recorded in a
purely riverine environment.
Based on interviews, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proved to be the most common species in
the said rivers. This was followed by freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.) and native catfish (Clarias
batrachus).
1.

Occurrence of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in Fish

At this stage where project is not yet commencing, it would be important to mention that a
disease affecting freshwater fishes at the lower reaches of Ticol river (BMGP 126) was
reported by farmers in Sitio Pocdol. Based on farmers symptomatic descriptions of the
affected fish, it appears that the disease is similar to Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS)
caused by the fungus, Aphanomyces sp., which commonly attacks Asian fishes. Most
striking symptoms of the disease are internal bleeding and flesh ulcerations, which, to an
ordinary person, give an impresssion that a decomposing fish is swimming (lumalangoy
na bulok na isda as farmers described it). One of the farmers interviewed attributed the
disease to the drilling activities of PNOC at the Cawayan area. When asked if the disease
was already reported to and investigated by BFAR, the same farmer said yes and that
BFAR personnel attributed it to the dumping of garbage by the riparian communities into
the river.
It was explained to them that BFARs finding is partly true. The EUS disease is triggered
by enrichment of river water that favors the population of Aphanomyces fungus, the
causative agent. Enrichment may have been caused by garbage, but most importantly, by
agricultural activities in Ticol area. Ticol is highly agricultural and the river served as
recipient of all agricultural wastes, especially fertilizers, which may have greatly enriched
the river. This was indicated by the dominance of Nitzchia in Ticol river. It was noted that
the river water was slow flowing and shallow, thus flushing of wastes into the marine
environment is very slow and accumulation of nutrients would be high. Finally, it was

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -6

explained that the same phenomenon occurred in river systems drained by agricultural
areas, particularly irrigated ricefields (e.g., Carigara in Leyte and Hinundayan in So.
Leyte).

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -7

Table 2.2.4-1

List of phytoplankton and algal species recorded from river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal Project.

DIVISION/GENERA

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

I. CYANOPHYTA
Oscillatoria sp.
Spirulina sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
0
0.00

20
9.10

10

10

II. CHLOROPHYTA
Chlamydomonas sp.
Cosmarium sp.
Hydrodictyon sp.
Oocystis sp.
Tetraedron sp.
Trochiscia sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
30
33.30

III. EUGLENOPHYTA
Lepocinclis sp.
Trachelomonas sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
20
22.20

IV. BACILLARIOPHYTA
Achnantes sp.
Coconeis sp.
Cyclotella sp.
Cymbella sp.
Denticula sp.
Diatoma sp.
Gomphonema sp.
Gyrosigma sp.
Navicula sp.
Neidium sp.

BMGP
24

Ticol
River
BMGP
35
80
10
90
18.40

40
10

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

Capuy
River
BMGP
121

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111

Rizal
River
BMGP
79

BMGP
103

10
0
0.00

0
0.00

30

10
10
2.60

0
0.00

100
30

10
4.20

Menito
River
BMGP
104

BMGP
80

BMGP
107

Manitohan
River
BMGP
12

BMGP
71

10
0
0.00

20

10
6.70

0
0.00

10
10
6.70

0
0.00

0
0.00

10

40

50

10

10

20
13.30

10
60
120
38.70

10
30
90
60.00

30
40
66.70

10
10
30
23.10

30
30
20.00

10
10
3.20

30
30
20.00

10
10
16.70

10

10
40

10
10
10
30
13.60

0
0.00

10
10
10

50
10.20

10
20
60
2.60

20
20
9.10

10
50
30
220
56.40

30
30
6.1

10
10
0.40

30
30
13.60

20
50
70
17.90

10

150
60

20

10
70

20
100

30
30
8.30

10
30
60
25.00

40
20
60
31.60

80
80
22.20

40
40
16.70

30
10
40
21.10

20
10
20
30

20
10

10
10
10

10
10
60

20

10

10

10

10
7.70

30
10

10
10

10
10

90
80
50
10

130
10
510

40
10
50

30

40
10
20

50

10

10

30

30

30
10
40
20

10

20
30

Table 2.2.4-1 (contd.)


DIVISION/GENERA

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

Nitzchia sp.
Opephora sp.
Pinnularia sp.
Surirella sp.
Rhopalodia sp.
Fragilaria sp.
Subtotal
Percentage
TOTAL NO. OF SPECIES
RELATIVE DENSITY
(CELLS/LITER)

BMGP
24
80

Ticol
River
BMGP
35

BMGP
127
1,270
20
10

BMGP
126
40

Capuy
River
BMGP
121
30

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111
100

Rizal
River
BMGP
79
30

BMGP
103

10

40
44.40

170
77.30

320
65.30

10
2,270
97.00

7
90

9
220

12
490

14
2,340

Menito
River
BMGP
104
20

BMGP
80

BMGP
107

Manitohan
River
BMGP
12
10

BMGP
71
10

10
10

20

10

170
77.30

90
23.10

250
69.40

130
54.20

90
47.40

90
60.00

180
58.10

20
13.30

10
16.70

90
69.20

8
220

12
390

10
360

11
240

9
190

10
150

14
310

7
150

4
60

8
130

Table 2.2.4-1 List of phytoplankton and algal species recorded from river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal Project
DIVISION/GENERA

Cawayan River
BMGP
98

I. CYANOPHYTA
Anabaena sp.
Oscillatoria sp.
Spirulina sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
0
0

20
9.1

10

10

II. CHLOROPHYTA
Chlamydomonas sp.
Cosmarium sp.
Hydrodictyon sp.
Oocystis sp.
Tetraedron sp.
Spirogyra sp.
Trochiscia sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
30
33.3

III. EUGLENOPHYTA
Lepocinclis sp.
Trachelomonas sp.
Subtotal
Percentage

20
20
22.2

IV. BACILLARIOPHYTA
Achnantes sp.
Amphora sp.
Coconeis sp.
Coscinodiscus sp.
Cyclotella sp.
Cymbella sp.
Denticula sp.
Diatoma sp.
Gomphonema sp.
Guinardia sp.
Gyrosigma sp.
Lauderia sp.
Melosira sp.
Navicula sp.
Neidium sp.

BMGP
24

Ticol River

BMGP
35

80
10
90
18.4

40
10

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

Capuy
River
BMGP
121

Bucalbucalan
BMGP
111

Rizal River
BMGP
79

BMGP
103

10
0
0

0
0

30

10
10
2.6

0
0

100
30

10
4.2

Menito
BMGP
104

BMGP
80

River

Manitohan River

BMGP
107

BMGP
12

BMGP
71

20

BMGP
72

BMGP
64

7
640

10
0
0

Osiao River

10
6.7

0
0

10
10
6.7

0
0

0
0

10

40

50

10

10

647
9.3

Anahaw River
BMGP
66

BMGP
133

BMGP
132

3
17
0
0

20
6.8

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

20

37

10
10
50

10

10

10
30
13.6

50
10.2

20
60
2.6

20
20
9.1

30
220
56.4

0
0

30
30
6.1

10
10
0.4

30
30
13.6

20
50
70
17.9

10

150

10

40

10

10

10

30
30
8.3

30
60
25

80
80
22.2

40
40
16.7

10

20
60
31.6

20
13.3

60
120
38.7

30
90
60

30
40
66.7

30
10
40
21.1

30
30
20

10
10
3.2

30
30
20

10
10
16.7

10

10

233

10

20

10
30
23.1

233
3.4

10

10
7.7

0
0

30
70

60

20

10

40
890

10
10

10
70

20
100

20
30

20
10

10
10
10

10
10

20

10

37

23

10
10
10

10
10

90

130

40

40

80

10

10

10

50

10

30

10

20
5

10
7

60

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

50
10

510

50

30

20

10

30

30

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora and Fauna)

40
20

30

2,210

77

3
17
77

p. 2.2.4-8

60

Table 2.2.4-1 (contd.)


DIVISION/GENERA

Cawayan River
BMGP
98

Nitzchia sp.
Opephora sp.
Pinnularia sp.
Phaeodactylum sp.
Pleurosigma sp.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Skeletonema sp.
Surirella sp.
Thalassiosira sp.
Rhopalodia sp.
Fragilaria sp.
Subtotal
Percentage
TOTAL NO. OF SPECIES
RELATIVE DENSITY
(CELLS/LITER)

Ticol River

BMGP BMGP
24
35
80

BMGP
BMGP
127
126
1,270
40
20
10

BucalMenito River
Capuy
Rizal River
River
bucalan
BMGP
BMGP
BMGP
BMGP BMGP BMGP
BMGP
121
103
104
107
111
79
80
30
100
30
20

Manitohan River

Osiao River

Anahaw River

BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP


12
71
72
64
66
1,690
33
70
10
10

BMGP
133
2,620

BMGP
132
670

10

10
10

13
7

10

10
10
10

20

10

10

40
44.4

170
77.3

320
65.3

10
2,270
97

170
77.3

90
23.1

250
69.4

130
54.2

90
47.4

90
60

180
58.1

20
13.3

10
16.7

90
69.2

1,260
6,060
87.3

176
100.0

3
276
93.2

2,643
100.0

800
100.0

7
90

9
220

12
490

14
2,340

8
220

12
390

10
360

11
240

9
190

10
150

14
310

7
150

4
60

8
130

8
6,940

7
176

11
296

3
2,643

6
800

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (FreshwaterFlora and Fauna)

p. 2.2.4-9

Table 2.2.4-2 Richness, diversity and evenness indices of phytoplankton in river system around the Tanawon Geothermal Project

Biological Indices

Number of Species (N0)


Margalef Richness Index (R1)
Shannon Diversity Index (H')
Eveness Index 5 (E5)

Ticol
River

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

BMGP
24

BMGP
35

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

7
1.33
1.89
1.00

9
1.48
1.78
0.70

12
1.78
2.19
0.86

14
1.68
1.48
0.54

8
1.3
1.94
0.92

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Capuy BucalRizal
Menito
Manitohan
Osiao
Anahaw
River bucalan
River
River
River
River
BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP
121
111
79
103
104
80
107
12
71
64
66
72
132
133
12
1.84
2.25
0.81

10
1.53
2.03
0.79

11
1.82
2.22
0.88

9
1.52
2.09
0.94

10
1.8
2.18
0.91

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora and Fauna)

14
2.27
2.4
0.84

7
1.2
1.73
0.85

4
0.73
1.24
0.85

8
1.43
1.95
0.92

7
1.16
1.52
0.72

12
1.76
1.86
0.76

8
0.79
1.63
0.88

p. 2.2.4-10

6
0.75
0.66
0.37

3
0.25
0.05
0.05

Table 2.2.4-2 Richness, diversity and evenness indices of phytoplankton in river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal
Project.
Biological Indices

Number of Species (N0)


Margalef Richness Index
(R1)
Shannon Diversity Index
(H)
Evenness Index 5 (E5)

Cawayan
River

Ticol
River

Capuy
River

Rizal
River

Menito
River

Manitohan
River

BMGP
98
7
1.33

BMGP
24
9
1.48

BMGP
35
12
1.78

BMGP
127
14
1.68

BMGP
126
8
1.30

BMGP
121
12
1.84

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111
10
1.53

1.89

1.78

2.19

1.48

1.94

2.25

2.03

2.22

2.09

2.18

2.40

1.73

1.24

1.95

1.00

0.70

0.86

0.54

0.92

0.81

0.79

0.88

0.94

0.91

0.84

0.85

0.85

0.92

BMGP
79
11
1.82

BMGP
103
9
1.52

BMGP
104
10
1.80

BMGP
80
14
2.27

BMGP
107
7
1.20

BMGP
12
4
0.73

BMGP
71
8
1.43

Table 2.2.4-3 List of zooplankton species recorded from river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal Project.
FAMILY/SPECIES

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

A. ROTIFERA
1. Asplanchnidae
Asplanchna seiboldi
2. Bdelloidea
Bdelloidea spp.
3. Hexarthridae
Hexarthra sp.
4. Lecanidae
Lecane bulla
Lecane sp.
B. CLADOCERA
1. Chydoridae
Pleuroxus aduncus
2. Macrothricidae
Macrothrix spinosa
M. triserialis
3. Moinidae
Moina micrura
C. COPEPODA
1. Cyclopoda
Microcyclops varicans
Thermocyclops crassus
Copepoda (molt only)
Copepodite of a Copepod
Nauplius of a Copepod
2. Calanoida (molt only)
3. Harpacticoida
TOTAL # OF SPECIES
TOTAL # OF INDIV.

BMGP
24

Ticol
River
BMGP
35

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

Capuy
River
BMGP
121

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111

Rizal
River
BMGP
79

BMGP
103

Menito
River
BMGP
104

BMGP
80

BMGP
107

Manitohan
River
BMGP
12

BMGP
71

2
1

1
1

1
3

15
3
1

2
8

2
2
1

3
10

2
3

2
4
10

4
9

1
10
40

1
2
6
3
9

1
2

2
3

0
0

2
2

2
1
2
3

1
3
5

3
4

1
2

1
3
4

0
0

Table2.2.4.3: List of zooplankton species recorded from


Manitohan River systems
FAMILY/SPECIES

Manitohan River
BMGP 12

BMGP 71

A. ROTIFERA
1. Asplanchnidae
Asplanchna seiboldi
2. Bdelloidea
Bdelloidea spp.
3. Hexarthridae
Hexarthra sp.
4. Lecanidae
Lecane bulla
Lecane sp.
B. CLADOCERA
1. Chydoridae
Pleuroxus aduncus
2. Macrothricidae
p
Macrothrix spinosa
M. triserialis
3. Moinidae
Moina micrura
C. COPEPODA
1. Cyclopoda
Microcyclops varicans
Thermocyclops crassus
Copepoda (molt only)
Copepodite of a Copepod
Nauplius of a Copepod
2. Calanoida (molt only)
3. Harpacticoida
TOTAL # OF SPECIES
TOTAL # OF INDIV.

1
3
4

0
0

Table 2.2.4-4

List of benthic fauna species recorded from river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal Project.

ORDER/FAMILY/
/SPECIES

Manitohan
River

BMGP
24

BMGP
35

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

BMGP
121

A. HYDRACARINA
Hydracarina sp. 1
Percentage

1
0.48

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
0.29

0.00

1
0.29

0.00

0.00

0.00

B. TRICLADIDA
Dugesia sp.
Percentage

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
0.38

0.00

10
1.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

10
5
40
135

13
15
20
1
30

45
20
60
15
20

70
20
60
20

150
25
25
5
2

90
185
38
15
1

30
20
15
10

70
45
70
135

5
15
7

150
3
30

45
15
10
5
45
1

69.23

96.80

1
95.45

95.71

2
80.61

80.20

Capuy
River

Menito
River

BMGP
98

1
10

Ticol
River

Rizal
River

Bucalbucala
n River
BMGP
111

C.
EPHEMEROPTERA
Baetidae sp. 1
Baetidae sp. 2
Baetidae sp. 3
Baetidae sp. 4
Baetidae sp. 5
Caenidae sp. 1
Heptagenia sp.
Leptophlebiidae sp. 1
Percentage

Cawayan
River

90
11
5
16

2
3

50
170
60

1
20
5
56.06

15

100

43.48

10
77.08

5
7
81.61

BMGP
79

BMGP
103

BMGP
104

BMGP
80

BMGP
107

BMGP
12

BMGP
71

7
92.24

6
1
97.68

4
82.65

3
1
3
94.78

D. ODONATA
Lestidae sp. 1
Libellulidae sp. 1
Percentage

0.00

1.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.43

0.00

1
1.02

0.00

1
2.56

0.00

0.00

E. PLECOPTERA
Nemouridae sp. 1
Percentage

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
2.17

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
0.29

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

F. HEMIPTERA
Gerridae sp. 1
Naucoridae sp. 1
Percentage

1
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.38

Table 2.2.4-4 (contd.)


ORDER/FAMILY/
/SPECIES

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

G. COLEOPTERA
Elmis sp. 1
Hydrophilidae sp. 1
Psephenus sp. 1
Percentage

0.48

1
0.48

I. MEGALOPTERA
Corydalus sp. 1
Percentage

0.00

K.

OTHERS
Nais sp.
Percentage

TOTAL NO. OF SPECIES


DENSITY (N/0.1 M2)
REL. DENSITY (N/M2)*

BMGP
35

H. TRICHOPTERA
Hydroptilidae sp. 1
Hydropsychidae sp. 1
Philopotamidae sp. 1
Percentage

J. DIPTERA
Chironomus sp. 1
Chironomus sp. 2
Culex sp. 1
Simulium sp. 1
Tipulidae sp. 1
Tipulidae sp. 2
Tipulidae sp. 3
Percentage

BMGP
24

Ticol
River

0.00

0.00

10

40

10.20

BMGP
127
5
10
40
20.83

BMGP
126
1
1
1
6.52

Capuy
River
BMGP
121
8

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111

Rizal
River
BMGP
79

5
2.57

1
1
1
1.34

1
5
2
3.59

0.00

0.00

0.00

3
1.29

19.80

8
3.03

2.17

2
10
10
4.35

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
0.20

0.00

0.00

7
8

5
8

10
5

10
5

10

BMGP
103

1
0.58

Menito
River
BMGP
104
1
1
2
4.08

BMGP
80

15
4.35

BMGP
107

0.00

Manitohan
River
BMGP
12

BMGP
71

1
0.80

1
0.51

5
2
3.54

0.00

0.00

1
0.29

2.56

3
2.40

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1
1

20

55

15

5
1

5
3
1

1
0.48

6
8.16

0.00

13.64

32.61

13.83

13.45

5.60

0.00

12.24

0.29

25.64

0.00

0.51

5
2.38

0.00

0.00

15
5.68

5
10.87

0.00

0.00

1
0.43

5
1.45

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

11
210
2,100

9
98
980

7
202
2,020

18
264
2,640

13
46
460

15
506
5,060

15
223
2,230

11
232
2,320

12
345
3,450

13
98
980

11
345
3,450

9
39
390

8
125
1,250

9
198
1,980

* Based on the frame area of 0.1 m2 of the Surber sampler.

Table 2.2.4-4 (contd.)


ORDER/FAMILY/
/SPECIES
A. HYDRACARINA
Hydracarina sp. 1
Percentage
B. TRICLADIDA
Dugesia sp.
Percentage
C.
EPHEMEROPTERA
Baetidae sp. 1
Baetidae sp. 2
Baetidae sp. 3
Baetidae sp. 4
Baetidae sp. 5
Caenidae sp. 1
Heptagenia sp.
Leptophlebiidae sp. 1
Percentage
D. ODONATA
Lestidae sp. 1
Libellulidae sp. 1
Percentage
E. PLECOPTERA
Nemouridae sp. 1
Percentage
F. HEMIPTERA
Gerridae sp. 1
Naucoridae sp. 1
Percentage

Table 2.2.4-5 Richness, diversity and evenness indices of benthic fauna in river systems around the Tanawon Geothermal
Project.
Biological Indices

Number of Species (N0)


Margalef Richness Index
(R1)
Shannon Diversity Index
(H)
Evenness Index 5 (E5)

Cawayan
River

Ticol
River

Capuy
River

Rizal
River

Menito
River

Manitohan
River

BMGP
98
11
1.87

BMGP
24
9
1.74

BMGP
35
7
1.13

BMGP
127
18
3.05

BMGP
126
12
2.89

BMGP
121
15
2.25

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP
111
15
2.59

1.19

1.82

1.71

2.25

2.04

1.99

1.97

1.29

1.30

2.01

1.57

1.77

1.49

0.87

0.52

0.86

0.89

0.61

0.78

0.68

0.67

0.48

0.64

0.76

0.78

0.81

0.76

0.49

BMGP
79
11
1.84

BMGP
103
12
1.88

BMGP
104
13
2.62

BMGP
80
11
1.71

BMGP
107
9
2.18

BMGP
12
8
1.45

BMGP
71
9
1.51

Table 2.2.4-5 Richness, diversity and evenness indices of benthic fauna in river system around the Tanawon Geothermal Project

Biological Indices

Number of Species (N0)


Margalef Richness Index (R1)
Shannon Diversity Index (H')
Eveness Index 5 (E5)

Ticol
River

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

BMGP
24

BMGP
35

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

11
1.87
1.19
0.52

9
1.74
1.82
0.86

7
1.13
1.71
0.89

18
3.05
2.25
0.61

12
2.89
2.04
0.78

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Capuy BucalRizal
Menito
Manitohan
Osiao
Anahaw
River bucalan
River
River
River
River
BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP
121
111
79
103
104
80
107
12
71
64
72
132 133
15
2.25
1.99
0.68

15
2.59
1.97
0.67

11
1.84
1.29
0.48

12
1.88
1.3
0.64

13
2.62
2.01
0.76

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora and Fauna)

11
1.71
1.57
0.78

9
2.18
1.77
0.81

8
1.45
1.49
0.76

9
1.51
0.87
0.49

12
3.12
2.09
0.83

3
1.44
1.04
2.73

14
3.31
1.94
0.59

p. 2.2.4-14

18
2.7
1.76
0.52

Table 2.2.4-5 Richness, diversity and evenness indices of benthic fauna in river system around the Tanawon Geothermal Project

Biological Indices

Number of Species (N0)


Margalef Richness Index (R1)
Shannon Diversity Index (H')
Eveness Index 5 (E5)

Ticol
River

Cawayan
River
BMGP
98

BMGP
24

BMGP
35

BMGP
127

BMGP
126

11
1.87
1.19
0.52

9
1.74
1.82
0.86

7
1.13
1.71
0.89

18
3.05
2.25
0.61

12
2.89
2.04
0.78

Capuy
River

Bucalbucalan
River
BMGP BMGP BMGP
121
111
79
15
2.25
1.99
0.68

15
2.59
1.97
0.67

11
1.84
1.29
0.48

Rizal
River

Menito
River

BMGP
103

BMGP
104

12
1.88
1.3
0.64

13
2.62
2.01
0.76

Manitohan
River

Osiao

Anahaw

BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP BMGP


80
107
12
71
64
72
132
133
11
1.71
1.57
0.78

9
2.18
1.77
0.81

8
1.45
1.49
0.76

9
1.51
0.87
0.49

12
3.12
2.09
0.83

3
1.44
1.04
2.73

14
3.31
1.94
0.59

18
2.7
1.76
0.52

Table 2.2.4-6 Riverine fish and crustacean species recorded from three (3)
major river systems drained by the Tanawon Geothermal
Project1.
Family/Species

Cawayan
River

Ticol River

Rizal River

A. Anguillidae
Anguilla spp.
+
+
+
B. Cichlidae
+
+
+
Oreochromis niloticus
C. Cyprinidae
+
+
Cyprinus carpio
D. Clariidae
+
+
+
Clarias batrachus
E. Poeciliidae
+
+
+
Poecilia reticulata
F. Kuhliidae
+
Kuhlia marginata
G. Gobiidae
Stiphodon spp.
+
+
+
H. Channidae
+
+
+
Ophiocephalus striatus
I. Crustacea
Shrimp sp.1
+
+
+
Shrimp sp. 2
+
+
+
Crabs
+
+
+
1
Based on visual observation and interviews with riparian inhabitants.

Table 2.2.4-6

Riverine fish and crustacean species recorded from three (3)


major river systems drained by the Tanawon Geothermal Project1.

Family/Species
A. Anguillidae
Anguilla spp.
B. Cichlidae
Oreochromis niloticus
C. Cyprinidae
Cyprinus carpio
D. Clariidae
Clarias batrachus
E. Poeciliidae
Poecilia reticulata
F. Kuhliidae
Kuhlia marginata
G. Gobiidae
Stiphodon spp.
H. Channidae
Ophiocephalus striatus
I. Crustacea
Shrimp sp.1
Shrimp sp. 2
Crabs
1

Cawayan
River

Ticol River

Rizal River

+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

Based on visual observation and interviews with riparian inhabitants.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Flora & Fauna)

p.2.2.4 -15

Plate 2.2.4 1:
Plankton sampling at BMGP126 (Ticol river) using a
plankton net. Note the slow
river flow in this station which
is favorable to plankton.

Plate 2.2.4 2:
Sampling for benthic fauna at
BMGP-127 (Ticol river) using
a Surber sampler.

Plate 2.2.4 3:
Sampling for aquatic biota at
BMGP-79 (Rizal river) at the
height of the typhoon.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Freshwater Biology)

p. 2.2.4 - 16

2.2.5

MARINE FLORA AND FAUNA

2.2.5.1

Summary of Findings and Conclusion


A marine resource assessment was conducted in Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bay and Manito,
Poliqui Bay from November 28 to December 4, 2000 to gather the baseline information on
marine ecological conditions surrounding Tanawon Geothermal Project area. The marine
ecology components investigated in Sorsogon and Poliqui Bays were plankton, soft bottom
benthos, seagrasses/seaweeds, corals and other invertebrates, reef fishes and mangroves.
The coral and reef fish data gathered in Osiao, Albay Gulf last October 29-31, 1996 was used
for the Tanawon expansion area.
In Sorsogon Bay, initial survey showed that the plankton was generally dominated by
phytoplankton (99.6%) against zooplankton (0.4%). Diatoms were abundant in phytoplankton
group while Nauplii larval forms in zooplankton component. Soft bottom benthos community
indicated a stressed environment as evidently shown by high count of polychaetes and
nematodes but low count of crustaceans. Seagrass survey showed a sparse distribution and
low density of seagrass species, Enhalus acoroides (tropical eelgrass). Low cover of the
seagrass may be attributed to high sedimentation/siltation coming from several river runoffs in
the area. With regards to Mangrove, exploitation of mangrove species for fuel use and
fishpond development was observed in the area. Indiscriminate cutting of mangrove trees was
evident in most of the sampling stations.
In Poliqui Bay, survey for plankton showed similar results to Sorsogon that the phytoplankton
dominated the area (99.6%) against zooplankton (0.4%). Diatoms (Chaetoceros) had
dominated in all sampling stations while Copepods were dominant for zooplankton
component. The bay has dominant polychaete species (capitellid, syllid and spionid worms)
that implies high organic deposit. Low abundance of crustaceans in the area may indicate a
disturbed environment. Coral reef survey showed poor living coral cover (22.77%) but high
dead coral covers and high coral rubbles (abiotic component). Destructive fishing methods like
blast-fishing and dynamite-fishing were possible causes of depauperate coral communities at
the sites. Seagrasses in the area was generally patchy and sparse. Halophila pinifolia
dominated the area having a cover of 17% only. Limited growth of seagrasses is probably due
to high level of turbidity and sedimentation in the bay.
In Albay Gulf (specifically Sugot Bay), the assessment revealed that the corals have good to
excellent categories (68-100%) in Osiao North and Osiao SW stations Poritidae constituted
the highest cover followed by the Faviidae group. Fish visual census data identified a total of
48 species under 22 families. Both stations examined for fish abundance fell under poor
2
categories (413 and 551 no/500m , respectively). Also, both stations examined for fish
biomass fell under low categories (5.84 and 13.87 mt-km2, respectively). The condition of reef
fish communities in majority of reef areas is poor contrary to its high coral cover.

2.2.5.2

Methodology
A. EIA Survey Team
The baseline survey for marine ecology module was conducted from November 28 to
December 4, 2000 and again on June 5 to 9, 2002 by Norreen Gerona (marine biologist) and
assisted by Homer Hernandez (research assistant), Arvin Dantes (research assistant) and
Raffy Gomez (technician). Local residents of Manito and Sorsogon were also involved in the
survey as boat operators, field guides and helpers (Plate 2.2.5-1). Previous data gathered in
October 1996 within the Osiao stations of Albay Gulf were also utilized for the study.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Marine Biology)

p. 2.2.5- 1

B. Study Sources
All information and data contained and presented under this module were based on primary
sources, derived mainly from the survey conducted November 28 to December 4, 2000 and
October 29-31, 1996.

C. Location, Area and Scope of Study


The marine baseline survey was conducted in the coastal waters of Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bay;
Manito, Poliqui Bay and Osiao, Albay Gulf (specifically Sugot Bay), Bicol, Luzon. The marine
sampling stations are shown Figure 2.2.5-1.
The survey generally consisted of six studies designed to obtain baseline information on the
existing marine ecological conditions of the proposed project area, namely,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Plankton
Soft-Bottom Benthos
Seagrasses/Seaweeds
Corals and Other Invertebrates
Reef Fishes, and
Mangroves.

Since there was no coral reef present in Sorsogon Bay, studies dealt with soft-bottom benthos
and mangroves only while in Poliqui area, plankton, benthos, seagrasses/seaweeds, corals
and other invertebrates, reef fishes and mangroves were investigated.

D. Sampling Procedures
1. Plankton
A total of twelve (12) stations were surveyed for phytoplankton and zooplankton
organisms in the coastal waters of Sorsogon and Poliqui. Eight (8) stations were
established in Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bay while four (4) stations in Manito, Poliqui Bay. The
plankton samples were collected using a 20 m mesh net from hauled water and from
tows. Immediately after collection, the samples were placed in 500-ml nalgene bottle and
then fixed with 10% buffered formaldehyde for preservation of the specimens. Parameters
such depth, temperature, boat velocity and sampling time were also recorded. Taxonomic
identifications and density count were done at the laboratory. Identifications were made
down to the generic level.
Sampling stations and coordinates for phytoplankton and zooplankton are shown in Table
2.2.5-1.

2. Soft bottom Benthos


Sediments for epi- and infauna and grain size determination were obtained using an
Ekman grab with a mouth area of 0.0225 sq. m. For faunal analysis, three (3) replicate
samples were obtained from each station. Each sediment sample was sieved in situ using
U. S. standard 0.500-mm mesh (Plate 2.2.5-2). Retained sediments were pooled and
transferred to pre-labeled nalgene bottles. One or two drops of Rose Bengal solution were
added to each sample before fixing in 10% formalin.

Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Marine Biology)

p. 2.2.5- 2

In the laboratory, each sample was washed in tap water to get rid of formalin then
examined under a stereomicroscope for sorting and identification. The organisms were
sorted according to kind and identified to the lowest possible category. Finally, they were
preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol.
For grain size analysis, each sediment sample was placed in an aluminum foil plate, dried
at 100o C, pounded and passed through a series of sieves of finer mesh. These were
mechanically shaken for 20 minutes. Retained sediments in each sieve were pooled and
weighed. Composition was determined using the Wenthworth Classification Scale.

3. Coral Reef and Other Invertebrates


Samplings for corals and other benthic fauna were undertaken using the standard line
intercept transect method developed by English et al (1994). The transect was laid with
the orientation perpendicular to the shore to capture changes of community structure
relative to depth gradient. Living coral cover was arbitrarily categorized as Excellent (75100%), Good (50-74.9%), Fair (25-49.9%) and Poor (0-24.9%). Their categories included
both stony and soft corals. Obvious causes of reef damage such as siltation, dynamiting,
destructive fishing methods and natural predation were recorded.
Four (4) sampling sites were established in Manito, Poliqui Bay, namely; Nacio,
Pinaculan, Balagbag and Asias (Table 2.2.5-2). While two (2) stations in Oasio, Albay
Gulf were established in October 1996. No benthic survey was done in Sorsogon Bay
because of the absence of coral reefs.

4. Reef Fishes
Reef fishes, those associated with coral reefs, have diversity of number of species and
range of body forms and sizes as their most striking characteristic. Reef fish communities
constitute a major resource on reefs. In the Philippines, reef fish contributes about 1015% to the countrys total fishery (Carpenter 1977, Murdy and Ferraris 1980).
The coral reef stations in Manito, Poliqui Bay and Osiao, Albay Gulf were also used as
sampling stations for reef fish community following fish visual census technique. This is to
examine species composition, number of species, abundances, and biomass of
associated reef fish. All transects were 50 m long and 10 m wide with the depth ranged
from 4.5 to 8 m. Census was made every 5 m interval. All fishes encountered within 5 m
on either side and above the line were identified to species level whenever possible,
counted, and their sizes (total length) estimated to the nearest cm (English et al. 1994).
Fish identification followed the methodology of Randall et al. (1997) and FishBase (1998).
b
Fish biomass was calculated using the formula, W = a * L , where W is weight (g), a the
multiplicative factor, L the estimated length (cm) and b the exponent (b>1). The specific
constants a and b used in this survey followed were based on Kulbicki et al. (1993),
Letourneur et al. (1998) and FishBase (1998). In cases where no constants exist for a
species, the known constants for the closest relative having the same body shape were
used. Summaries of the various parameters species richness, abundance, and biomass
for each transect were generated.

5. Seagrasses
An assessment survey of the floral communities in seagrass meadows of Sorsogon,
Sorsogon Bay was done on December 4, 2000; and November 30 and December 1, 2000
for Poliqui Bay. No seagrass survey was conducted in Albay Gulf due to absence of
seagrass meadows. Sampling was done in three (3) different sites for more detailed
Tanawon Geothermal Project (BGPF)

Section 2.0: BASELINE PROFILE (Marine Biology)

p. 2.2.5- 3

study. Two (2) transects were laid in Poliqui Bay and only one (1) transect was laid in
Sorsogon due to very patchy and sparse seagrass distribution.
The standard transect-quadrat method was used (English et al 1994) to assess the
vegetation. The transect, no less than 50 meter, was laid perpendicular to the shore. The
samples were identified and recorded at every five (5) meter interval from the inshore end
of the transect using a quadrat of 0.25 sq. meter. Where seagrass distribution extended
beyond 50 meter, a 100 meter transect was used. All seagrass species within the quadrat
were identified and the biological parameters, such as frequency and percentage cover
were counted and recorded. All other associated species were also noted.
Statistical analysis for floral component of the seagrass ecosystem were