and transfer function concepts developed in preceding chapters. Then we develop methods for reducing
complicated block diagrams to manageable forms so that they may be used to predict the overall
performance of a system.
Summing
Point
Block
71 y
Block
Description
Takeoff
Point
Fig. 71
Capital letters in this chapter are used for Laplace transforma, or ztransforms. The argument s or z
is often suppressed, to simplify the notation, if the context is clear, or if the results presented are the
same for both Laplace (continuoustime system) and z(discretetime system)transfer function domains.
EXAMPLE 7.2.
R = R(s) or R = R(z).
The basic feedback control system configuration presented in Chapter 2 is reproduced in Fig. 72,
with all quantities in abbreviated transform notation.
154
156
[CHAP. 7
Fig. 75
Definition 7.1:
Definition 7.2:
Definition 7.3:
Definition 7.4:
Definition 7.5:
Definition 7.6:
B/R =
 primary feedback ratio
In the following equations, the sign refers to a positivo feedback system, and the + sign refers to
a negative feedback system:
C
G
(7.3)
1 + GH
E
1
(7.4)
R 1 + GH
B
GH
(7.5)
1+ GH
P
71
156
[CHAP. 7
Fig. 75
Definition 7.1:
Definition 7.2:
Definition 7.3:
Definition 7.4:
Definition 7.5:
Definition 7.6:
In the following equations, the sign refers to a positivo ieedback system, and the + sign refers to
a negative feedback system:
C
G
( 7.3)
1+GH
1
( 7.4 )
R 1 + GH
B GH
( 7.5 )
R 1 + GH
0
/ 77
CHAP. 7]
Block Diagram
Combining Blocks
in Cascade
Y = (P1P2)X
Y
X
 Pi , p, ...
Combining Blocks
in Parallel; or
Eliminating a
Y = P1 X  P2X
Pi
Y = Pi,/ P2 X
Eliminating a
Feedback Loop
Y = Pi(X T P2 Y)
Rearranging
P2
1,f: PiPz
Y = Pi (X =I P2 Y)
PiP,
P2
P2
W+
Z = TVIt X Y
Z = W XY
_x
.
Pi
X +
W+
6b
Pi
2
P2
W
Rearranging
Summing Points
p,
,
X
Removing a Block
from a Forward
Path
Removing a Block
from a Feedback
Loop
, PiP2
Forward Loop
Equivalent Block
Diagram
Equation
Transformation
157
Pi
Removing a Block
from a Forward
Path
6a
61)
P2
Y = P1 X  P2X
Eliminating a
Feedback Loop
'
P1(X 7 P2 Y)
1.
Pi
X +
1 . P1P2
p2
Removing a Block
from a Feedback Y = P1 (X T P2 Y)
Loop
Rearranging
Summing Points
W+
41
w+
lo
III
.
w +
el
II
= W:1 XY
Y
X
Z
PX =L Y
..
x +
Moving a Summing
Point Beyond a
Block
PiP2
PZ
Rearranging
Summing Points
Moving a Summing
Point Ahead of a
Block
P2
Z = P[X  Y]
Fig. 76
II
158
Equation
Transformation
Equivalent Block
Diagram
Block Diagram
Moving a Takeoff
Point Ahead of a
Block
Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Block
Point Ahead of a
Summing Point
12
Moving a Takeoff
Point Beyond a
Summing Point
Y
e.
Y = PX
ii
Moving a Takeoff
11
Y = PX
10
[CHAP. 7
Z= X Y
Z= X
4

Fig. 7 6

Continued
EXAMPLE 7.6.
A unity feedback system is one in which the primary feedback b is identically equal
to the controlled output c.
H = 1 for a linear, unity feedback system (Fig. 77).
CHAP. 7]
The characteristic equation for the unity feedback system, determined from 1 + G = O, is
DG + NG = O
159
(7.7)
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
We reemphasize here that the aboye superposition process is dependent on the system being linear.
EXAMPLE 7.8.
U
R +
Fig. 79
Step 1:
Step 2:
Put U = O.
The system reduces to
G1G2
Step 3:
C = CR + Cu =
1 + GiG2
IR + 1
1 + G392
1U I
1 + GiG2
1[Gi R + U]
The block diagram of a practical feedback control system is often quite complicated. It may include
several feedback or feedforward loops, and multiple inputs. By means of systematic block diagram
reduction, every multiple loop linear feedback system may be reduced to canonical form. The
techniques developed in the preceding paragraphs provide the necessary tools.
The following general steps may be used as a basic approach in the reduction of complicated block
diagrams. Each step refers to specific transformations listed in Fig. 76.
Step I:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Fig. 710
Step 1:
CHAP. 7]
169
R2
Fig. 732
First put the block diagram in the form of Fig. 733, ignoring the output C2.
c1
G3G4
R2
Fig. 733
Letting R2= O and combining the summing points, we get Fig. 734.
eGil
0.1
1
s+1
Fig. 741
Applying Transformations 1 and 6b, we get Fig. 742.
Fig. 742
Now we can apply Transformation 2 to the feedback loops, resulting in the final form given in
Fig. 743.
1
s+1
Fig. 743
7.20. Reduce the block diagram given in Fig. 744 to openloop form.
Fig. 744
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