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Industrial Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Expt no:

HYDRAULIC GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS


SR.
NO.

NAME

SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

TRANSMISSION LINE

A pipe, tube or other conductors


of handling major flow in the
circuit
Pilot lines have much small fluid
carrying capacity than working
line
Fluid drain and air exhaust lines
are made of light weight
materials

1.

Working line

2.

Pilot line

3.

Drain line

4.

Passing line

Pipes that cross each other are


drawn with small loop

5.

Joined work line

A connector dot is places to


show junction

6.

Flexible line

Flexible lines are shown with a


curve

7.

Energy flow in one


direction

Hollow arrow for air solid arrow


for liquid

8.

Plugged terminal
point

To block fluid flow plug is used


as indicated

9.

Fixed restriction

A fixed size, non adjustable pipe


restriction is shown

II

FLUID STORAGE

10.

Pipes terminated
above fluid level

Working line doesnt touch


bottom of reservoir

11.

Pipes terminated
below fluid level

Working line is shown touching


the bottom of reservoir

12

Vented tank or
reservoir

Hydraulic fluid reservoir or tank

Industrial Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Expt no:

III

PUMPS

13.

Basic pump symbol

Basic envelope symbol for a


pump is a circle

14.

Fixed displacement
unidirectional

Single triangle denotes


unidirectional flow

15.

Variable
displacement
simplified and
unidirectional

Arrow indicated pump


displacement can be varied

IV
A.

ACTUATORS
MOTORS

16.

Variable
displacement
unidirectional
motor

Motor has a variable


displacement

17.

Motor oscillating

Device doesnt permit rotation in


one direction

B.

CYLINDERS

18.

Single acting
cylinder

It can be actuated only in one


direction

19

Double acting
cylinder

It can be actuated in both


directions

Cylinder, double
end rod

There are identical areas on each


side of piston, and they can
provide equal forces in either
direction

20.

V.

METHODS OF OPERATION
2

Industrial Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Expt no:

21.

Spring control

Check valve with bias spacing


open when inlet > outlet + spring

22

Spring centered
pilot control

Operation is by the release of


pressure and pilot actuated

23.

Detent control

It is used with mechanical or


pilot operated valves

24.

Solenoid control
with pilot actuation

Electrically controlled with


internal pilot supply

25.

Push button

26.

Lever

VI.

Manually operated

VALVES

27.

Flow control valve


with pressure and
temperature
compensation and
integral check

Variation in pressure and


temperature does not affect the
flow control

28.

Relief valve

For overload protection

29.

Sequential valve

To achieve sequencing of
hydraulic actuators

30.

Unloading valve

Pump is unloaded at zero


pressure, thus saving the
horsepower

31.

Check valve

Flow is only in one direction

32.

Three way valve

33.

Four way valve

Industrial Hydraulics and Pneumatics

34.

Four way, spring


centered, three
position, manually
actuated valve

35.

Two position,
spring offset, four
way valve

36.

Air pilot actuated,


four way, three
position, spring
centered direction
control valve

Expt no:

Various center position for three position, four way valve

37.

Open center

38.

Pressure and B
closed, A opened to
tank

39.

All ports closed

40.

Pressure closed, A
& B open to tank

41.

B closed, pressure
opened to tank
through A

Industrial Hydraulics and Pneumatics

42.

Expt no:

Tandem

VII.

Miscellaneous

43.

Heaters

44.

Pressure gauge

45.

Strainer or filter

Introduction of heat and energy


into major line