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CE 5331-X13: Design of Earth Retention Structures

Rankines theory of Active and Passive Earth


Pressure
Priyantha W. Jayawickrama, Ph.D.
Sources:
Fundamental of Geotechnical Eng.,B.M. DAS (11.2 -11.5)

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Rankines Active Earth Pressure


L
A'

a'

B'

o'

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Active Pressure
With geometrical manipulations we may get:

a' o'

1 sin
cos
2c '
1 sin
1 sin

z tan 2

2 2c ' tan

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Active Pressure Coefficient Ka


The Rankines active pressure coefficient is given by:

a'

K a ' tan 2 4 2
o
The failure planes / slip planes make angle of

with major principle plane. (horizontal)

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Rankines Passive State


L
A

'p

o'

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Rankines Passive Pressure


Rankines passive pressure is given by:

1 sin
cos

2c '
1 sin
1 sin
'
p

'
o

z tan 2

2 2c ' tan

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Passive Pressure Coefficient Kp


The Rankines passive pressure coefficient is given by:

'p

K p ' tan 2 4 2
o
The failure planes / slip planes make angle of

with major principle plane. (horizontal)

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Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution


Against Retaining Walls
There are two different cases considered:

Horizontal backfill

Cohesion less soil


Partially submerged cohesion less soil with
surcharge
Cohesive soil

Sloping backfill
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Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution:


Cohesion less soil + horizontal backfill
Pa=0.5KaH2

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Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution:


Cohesion less soil + horizontal backfill
Pp=0.5KpH2

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Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution:


Cohesion less, submerged soil + horizontal backfill

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Lateral Force:
Active case:

Pa K a qH

1
1
K aH 12 K aH 1 H 2 K a w H 22
2
2

Passive case:

Pp K p qH

1
1
K pH 12 K pH 1 H 2 K p w H 22
2
2

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Cohesive soil with horizontal backfill


Active case:
Active pressure against wall at any depth will be given
by:

a K az 2c K a

Depth of tension crack will be,

z0

2c

Ka
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Cohesive soil
Active Pressure force will be,

1
c
2
Pa K a H 2 K a cH 2
2

Passive Pressure force will be,

Pp

1
K pH 2 2 K p cH
2
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Rankines Active and passive Pressure


with Sloping Backfill

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Cont
Active pressure coefficient:

K a cos

cos cos 2 cos 2


cos cos 2 cos 2

Passive pressure coefficient:

K p cos

cos cos 2 cos 2


cos cos 2 cos 2
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Cont
Active pressure force:

Pa

1
K a H 2
2

Passive pressure force:

Pp

1
K p H 2
2
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