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CIVIL W

WORKSCONTRAC
CT
REL
LATING TO
T THE CONSTR
RUCTION
N OF THE
E 185 MW
W SHUAKHEVI
H
HYDROP
POWER PROJECT
P
T, LOCA
ATED IN THE
T
AUT
TONOMO
OUS
REPU
UBLIC OF ADJAR
RA IN GE
EORGIA

Ch
hirukh
histsq
qali Weir
W
RH
HS Drrainag
ge Wo
orks
Manh
M
ole Chamb
C
ber
Sttructu
ural C
Calculation
n Rep
port

Revision2
n No.
2

Datte of
Iss0
sue
03.08..2016

Prepared B
By

Checked By
B

Hasan KAYGISIZ
Z

Hasaan KAYGISIZ
Z

AGE BAT
TUM LIMITED
D LIABILITY COMPANY

Approved By
Zeeki YILMAZ

Notes
1.
2.
3.

All levels are in metres elevation.


All dimensions are in millimetres unless otherwise stated.
Location of drains is indicative. Chainage between manholes is approximate
only, actual length will depend on curvature of pipe achieved when constructed.
Distance of drains from wall face to be a minimum of 150 mm drawing shows
indicative alignment but curvature can be applied to keep close to the walls.
No dimensions to be scaled from this drawing.
Provisions for manhole drainage flow measurement to be made in MH05 and
MH08.

4.
5.
6.

Key to symbols
-Manhole
Rodding Eye
Flap Valve

MH04

MH05

RE04

RE05

OS02

MH06

RE03

MH06A
Reference drawings
MH07

MH08

1.
2.

410-1411 - Manhole Chamber Details


410-1412 - Back of Wall Drainage and Rodding Eye Details

10m

20m

1:200
@A1

0
Rev

10/07/2016
Date

HK
Drawn

HK

For Construction
Description

Mott MacDonald House


8-10 Sydenham Road
Croydon, CR0 2EE
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 8774 2000
F +44 (0)20 8681 5706
W www.mottmac.com

Client

Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC


1. Abashidze Street 6
6010 Batumi Georgia
Title

Right Abutment Drainage


1/200

Shuakhevi HPP
Chirukhistsqali Weir
Right Abutment
Drainage Layout Plan and Sections

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:200

Status

C.K
Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3411

CK

Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

Table 1: Required Dimensions and Features


Diameter of
largest pipe
(D)

Rocker Pipe
length

Benching
width

150

minimum Benching
chamber railings
diameter

8.

Invert
access
steps

9.

1200

225

minimum
600

300

Not
required

1200
1200

Not
required

600
375

1350

450

1500
minimum
750

525
600

Not
required

1800

Required
with step
iron(s)

1800

675

Required

1800

Key to symbols

1000
750
825

Safety
chains

All levels are in metres elevation.


All dimensions are in milimetres unless otherwise stated.
No dimensions are to be scaled from this drawing.
Pre-cast concrete manhole units shall comply with the relevant provisions of BE
EN 1917 and BS5911 : Part 2..
Joints in manhole units to be made so that the required jointing material fills the
joint cavity. Surplus material to be trimmed and the joints pointed on
completion.
Manhole covers and frames are to be D400 rated, in accordance with BS EN
124, where subject to vehicular loading and B125 rated at other locations.
Manhole covers shall have a 600mmx600mm clear opening unless stated
otherwise on the project drawings. Covers and frames with minimum clear
openings outside the ranges in BS EN 124 shall comply with the provisions of
that Standard where applicable.
Manhole covers shall have large keyways and prising slots in accordance with
BS 5834.
Manholes are required at changes in gradient and direction and at junctions in
pipework.

2100
1250

minimum
1100

2400

Required

Reference drawings
1.
2.

410-1410 - Drainage Layout Plan and Sections


410-1412 - Drainage Details

1m

2m

1:20
@A1

03/08/2016

H.K

As per MML-2763-DR-AGE

H.K

H.K

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description
Mott MacDonald House
8-10 Sydenham Road
Croydon, CR0 2EE
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 8774 2000
F +44 (0)20 8681 5706
W www.mottmac.com

Client

Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC


1. Abashidze Street 6
6010 Batumi Georgia
Title

Shuakhevi HPP
Chirukhistsqali Weir
Drainage
Manhole Chamber Details
Sheet 1 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20
This document is issued for the party which commissioned it and for specific purposes connected with the captioned project only. It should not be relied upon by any other party or used for any other purpose.
We accept no responsibility for the consequences of this document being relied upon by any other party, or being used for any other purpose, or containing any error or omission which is due to an error or omission in data supplied to us by other parties.

Status

C.K
Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes
1. All dimensions are in metres unless otherwise specified.
2. All levels are in metres elevation.
3. Concrete class is of P4 with compressive strength C40/50 unless otherwise stated.
04

4. Backfilling shall not be allowed before 7 days cylindrical compressive strength gain
of concrete.
5. Steel reinforcement shall unless otherwise specified be deformed high yield steel
bars conforming to EN 10080 Class B or equivalent, having a minimum yield-point
stress of 420 Mpa.
6. Unless stated otherwise minimum cover to reinforcement shall be as follows:
40mm to all faces

04

50mm to ground bearing faces


7. Reinforcement is to be cut and bend to BS 8666:2005.
8. Where anchorage / lap lengths are not provided on the drawings, the following
table shall apply:
Lap(mm)

04

04

04

04

04

10

500

12

600

16

800

20

1000

25

1250

32

1600

04

Base Slab Plan


1/15

Key to symbols

Section C-C
1/15

Reference drawings
1.
2.

410-1410 - Drainage Layout Plan and Sections


410-1412 - Drainage Details

1m

2m

1:20
@A1

03/08/2016

H.K

As per MML-2763-DR-AGE

H.K

H.K

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description
Mott MacDonald House
8-10 Sydenham Road
Croydon, CR0 2EE
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 8774 2000
F +44 (0)20 8681 5706
W www.mottmac.com

Client

Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC


1. Abashidze Street 6
6010 Batumi Georgia
03

03

03

03
Title

Section A-A
1/15

Section B-B
1/15

01

Section C-C
1/15

Shuakhevi HPP
Chirukhistsqali Weir
RHS Drainage
Manhole Reinforcement Detail
Sheet 2 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20

Status

C.K
Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes

1. All dimensions are in metres unless otherwise specified.

2. All levels are in metres elevation.


3. Concrete class is of D2 with compressive strength C30/37 unless otherwise stated.
4. Loading of precast concrete cover shall not be allowed before 7 days cylindrical
compressive strength gain of concrete.
5. Steel reinforcement shall unless otherwise specified be deformed high yield steel
bars conforming to EN 10080 Class B or equivalent, having a minimum yield-point
stress of 420 Mpa.
6. Unless stated otherwise minimum cover to reinforcement shall be as follows:

Hatch Cover
Indicative Only

40mm to all faces


7.

Reinforcement is to be cut and bend to BS 8666:2005.

8. Where anchorage / lap lengths are not provided on the drawings, the following
table shall apply:
Lap(mm)

10

500

12

600

16

800

20

1000

25

1250

32

1600

Key to symbols

F
Reference drawings

Precast Cover Plan

1.
2.

Reinforcement Plan

1/10

410-1410 - Drainage Layout Plan and Sections


410-1412 - Drainage Details

1/10
40x40mm L-profile

03

03

05

0.5m

1m

1:10
@A1

Section C-C
1/10

03/08/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Section E-E

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

1/10

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description
Mott MacDonald House
8-10 Sydenham Road
Croydon, CR0 2EE
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 8774 2000
F +44 (0)20 8681 5706
W www.mottmac.com

Section A-A
1/10

02

06

40x40mm L-profile

Section D-D
1/10

07

Client

Section F-F
Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC

1/10

1. Abashidze Street 6
6010 Batumi Georgia
Title

Section B-B
1/10

Shuakhevi HPP
Chirukhistsqali Weir
RHS Drainage
Manhole Precast Cover Details
Sheet 3 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20

Status

C.K
Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

All levels are in metres elevation.


All dimensions are in millimetres unless otherwise stated.
No dimensions are to be scales from this drawing.
Access chambers / manholes to be provided at any structures and changes in
gradient / direction.
The maximum spacing of rodding points should be 25 metres.
Half-perforated pipes to be laid such that the perforations occur in the upper
sections of the pipe.

Table 1: Granular Stone


Gradings
Type A

Type B

Upper sieve size (D), mm

Stone grading ref

20

63

Lower sieve size (d), mm

20

Coarse

Coarse

Gc 85 - 15

Gc 85 - 15

80

98 - 100

63

85 - 99

40

100

20 - 70

31.5

98 - 100

Aggregate type
Category
Sieve sizes (mm) and
stone gradings (%
passing) - Basic set
plus set 2

20

85 - 99

0 - 15

10

20 - 70

0 - 15

0 - 15

0-5

Key to symbols

Table 2: Requirements for Geotextile


Drainage Material
Tensile strength (minimum)

6.0 kN/m

Elongation at maximum load


(maximum)

60

CBR puncture resistance (minimum)

1000N

Cone drop penetration (maximum)

45mm

Pore size - 90% finer than,


090 (maximum)

550 microns

Water permeability (minimum)

65x10 m/s

Breakthrough head (maximum)

20mm

Reference drawings
1.
2.

410-1410 - Drainage Layout Plan and Sections


410-1411 - Drainage Details

0.5m

1m

1m

2m

1.250m

1:10
@A1

1:20
@A1

2.5m

1:25
@A1

0
Rev

03/08/2016
Date

CJE
Drawn

RM

For Construction
Description

Mott MacDonald House


8-10 Sydenham Road
Croydon, CR0 2EE
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 8774 2000
F +44 (0)20 8681 5706
W www.mottmac.com

Client

Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC


1. Abashidze Street 6
6010 Batumi Georgia
Title

Shuakhevi HPP
Chirukhistsqali Weir
Drainage
Back of Wall Drainage Details

Designed

MML

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

H.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

AS SHOWN
This document is issued for the party which commissioned it and for specific purposes connected with the captioned project only. It should not be relied upon by any other party or used for any other purpose.
We accept no responsibility for the consequences of this document being relied upon by any other party, or being used for any other purpose, or containing any error or omission which is due to an error or omission in data supplied to us by other parties.

Status

H.K
Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3413

JHM

Page1of30

1.Design Method
1.1.Design Requirements
The report aims to present necessary calculations to provide reinforcement in manholes which
is to be used at Chirukhistsqali weir right bank utilizing ASTM C890-06-Standard Practice for
Minimum Structural Design Loading for Monolithic Concrete Water and Wastewater Structures
and BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 and ASSHTO LRFD for control of cracking.

2.Design Parameters
2.1.Project Parameters
D_Life

100

years

Manhole design life

2.2.Concrete Properties
EN 1992-1-1 Table 4.1 gives the Exposure Class XC2 as suitable for concrete surfaces subject to
long-term water contact.
Exposure Class

XC2

Wet-rarely dry

Recommendation for normal weight reinforced concrete quality for exposure class and
cover to reinforcement for at least a 50-year working life.
Concrete grade

D2

BS EN 1992-1-1 uses characteristics compressive cylinder strength fck as the basis


for design calculations.
fck

=30

fcm

=38

MPa

Min 28 days compressive strength of concrete

MPa

Mean compressive strength of concrete

(2/3)

fctm

=0.30 x fck
=2.90
MPa

Ecm

=22 x (fcm/10)
32836.57 MPa

Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete

=25

Bulk density of reinforced concrete

Mean tensile strength related to cylinder strength

0.3

kN/m

2.3.Reinforcement Properties
Grade

=420B

fy

=420

MPa

Yield strength of reinforcement

Es

200000

MPa

Modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement

2.4.Concrete Cover to Reinforcement


Cmin
=30
Minimum cover to rebar at walls and top slab
mm
Dev
=10
Fixing tolerence for reinforcement
mm
Cnom
=40
Nominal cover to rebar at walls and top slab
mm
Cmin
=40
Minimum cover to rebar at base slab
mm
Dev
=10
Fixing tolerence for reinforcement
mm
Cnom
=50
Nominal cover to rebar at base slab
mm
2.5.Backfill Design Parameters
f

=33

deg

Angle of internal friction well graded gravel-GW


[USCS] min 33 deg - max 40 deg

=20

cf

=0

kN/m
MPa

ELfill

=22

deg

Friction angle between fill and wall 2/3f

=918.40

Cover Level of Backfill

Unit volume weight of backfill


Cohesion

Page2of30

2.6.Ground Water Design Parameters


w

=10

ELwater

=918.40

kN/m
m

Unit volume weigth of water


Top Level of Ground Water

2.7.Live Load Surcharge Parameters


Live load surcharge shall be used when vehicular load is located within H/2 of the backface of the
wall LRFD[3.11.6.4].The equivalent height of soil for vehicular load, Heq, used for surcharge loads
shall be in accordance to LRFD[Table3.11.6.42].
Ltraffic
=0.5
m
Distance from wall backface to edge of traffic
H/2

=3.0

Distance from wall backface where live load


surcharge shall be considered in the wall design

Shall live load surcharge be included?


LS
=10.0
kN/m

Live load surcharge

Check
=
LRFDTable3.11.6.41

YES

Page3of30

3.Limit State Design Method


3.1.LFRD Requirements
For manhole design, the component dimensions and the size and spacing of reinforcement
shall be selected to satisfy the following equation for all appropriate limit states, as presented
in LRFD [1.3.2.1]
Q = i i Qi Rn = Rr
Where :
i

Load modifier

Load factor

Qi

Force effect: moment, shear, stress range or deformation caused by

=
=

applied loads
Total factored force effect
Resistance factor

Rn

Nominal resistance: resistance of a component to force effects

Rr

Factored resistance = Rn

3.2.Limit States
The Strength I Limit State is used to design reinforcement for flexure and checking shear in
the slabs and walls, LRFD [12.5.3] . The Service I Limit State is used for checking reinforcement
for crack control criteria, LRFD [12.5.2] .

3.2.1.Service Limit State


Service I Limit State shall be applied as restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width
under regular service conditions LRFD [1.3.2.2].
Factored Resistance
The resistance factor, , for Service Limit State, is found in LRFD [1.3.2.1 ] and its value is 1.00.
Crack Control Criteria
Per LRFD [12.11.3] , the provisions of LRFD [5.7.3.4] shall apply to crack width control
All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, which
produces tension in the gross section in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete.
Provisions are provided for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.
Crack control criteria does not use a factored resistance, but calculates a maximum spacing for
flexure reinforcement based on service load stress in bars, concrete cover and exposure condition.
Crack control criteria shall be applied when the tension in the cross-section exceeds 80% of
the modulus of rupture, fr, specified in LRFD [5.4.2.6] for Service I Limit State.
W max

0.2

mm

IMPLIED CRACK WIDTH

Page4of30

3.3.Load Factors
The following Strength I load factors st and Service I load factors, s1
shall be used for manhole design:
Strength I
Load Factor
Dead Load - Components
Dead Load - Wearing Surface
Vertical Earth Pressure
Horizontal Earth Pressure
Live Load Surcharge + IM
Live Load + IM
Hydrostatic Pressure

DC
DW
EV
EH
LS + IM
LL + IM
WA

1.25
1.50
1.30
1.35
1.5
1.75
1.00

0.90
0.65
0.90
0.90
1.5
1.75
1.00

Service I
Load Factor

Buried
Atrest

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

4.Structural Analysis of Manhole


Ht
W
L
Hs
tts
tbs
twex

S= W + twex

span length for cell, mm

S=
1400 mm
Hapron = Ht + tts/2+tbs/2
Hapron =

6275

6000
1200
1200
300
250
300
200

mm

apron wall heigth above floor, mm

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

cell clear heigth


cell clear width
cell clear length
backfill over top slab
top slab thickness

mm

bottom slab thickness

mm

exterior wall thickness

Page5of30

Dead Load (DC)


Include the structure self weight based on a unit weight of concrete of 25 kN/m3.
When designing the bottom slab of a manhole do not forget that the weight of the concrete
in the bottom slab acts in an opposite direction than the bottom soil pressure and thus
reduces the design moments and shears. This load is designated as ,DC, dead load
of structural components and nonstructural attachments, for application of load factors
and limit state combinations.
top slab dead load:

W dlts= W c x tts

W dlts=

6.25

kN/m

W dlbs=

7.5

kN/m

W dlsw=

175.70

kN

bottom slab dead load

W dlbs= W c x tbs
Side walls dead load

W dlsw= 4xW cxtwexxSxHapron

Linear soil bearing at bottom slab due to self weight of structure:

W bearing= W dlts + W dlsw - W dlbs

W bearing=

88.39

kN/m

Wearing Surface (DW)


The weigth of the future wearing surface is zero if there is any fill depth over the top slab. If there is
no fill depth over the top slab, the weight of the future wearing surface shall be taken as 1 kN/m

W ws=
0
Vertical Earth Load(EV)

kN/m

weight of future wearing surface

The weight of soil above the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m3.


Calculate the modification of earth loads for soil-structure interaction per LRFD [12.11.2.2] .
Embankment installations are assumed.
Installation_Type="Embankment"

s =
S=

20
1.4

kN/m
m

Hs=

0.3

unit weight of soil


span of top slab
(measured between mid of exterior walls)

depth of backfill above top edge of top slab


Calculate the soil-structure interaction factor for embankment installations:

0.2

Fe=

1.04

Unitless

Fe shall not exceed 1.15 for installations with compacted fill along the sides of the box section:
Fe=
1.04
Unitless
Calculate the total unfactored saturated earth load:

W e= Fe x (s-w) x S x Hs

W e=

4.38

kN/m

Distribute the total unfactored earth load to be evenly distributed across the top slab:

W sv=

3.13

TopSlab

kN/m

Page6of30

Horizontal Earth Load(EH)


As per ASTM C890-06 laboratory and field testing has shown that the value of lateral earth
pressure coefficient depends on the yielding of the wall of the structure relative to the earth backfill.
Walls of monolitic concrete structures can yield by deflecting.
The lateral earth pressure on structure where walls can not yield sufficiently will be considered as
at-rest pressure. The weight of soil surrounding the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m
The value of lateral earth pressure coefficient for this condition can be estimated by Jaky's eq:

ko= [1 - sinf]
k o=

0.5

s =

20

Unitless coeffient of lateral at-rest earth pressure


kN/m

unit weight of soil

The lateral earth pressure on the walls of a buried structure for the portion of the walls below the
ground water level will be as per ASTM C890-06 [5.4.1]

W sh_top= kox(s-w)xHs
W sh_bot= kox(s-w)x(Hs+Hapron)
1.35

kN/m

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Side

W sh_top=

The lateral earth pressure on the walls of a buried structure for the portion of the walls above the
ground water level will be as per ASTM C890-06 [5.4.1]

W sh_top= koxsxHs
W sh_bot= koxsx(Hs+Hapron)
2.71

kN/m

W sh_bot=

59.30

kN/m

Side

W sh_top=

Page7of30

Live Load Surcharge(LS) + Dynamic Load Allowance (IM)


When traffic can come within a horizontal distance from the structure equal to one half
of the height of the structure, a lateral surcharge pressure will be applied to the wall of structure.
Surcharge loads are computed based on a coefficient of lateral earth pressure times surcharge load
The load is designated as, LS, live load surcharge, for application of load factors and limit state
combinations. Refer to LRFD [3.11.6.4] for additional information regarding live load surcharge.
Although as per ASTM C890-06 [5.5.2] lateral surcharge load from traffic will be considered
negligible below a vertival distance 2.4m below wheel, however, herein surchage load shall be
applied to all heigth of wall in order to remain on the safe side.
Also, an impact factor is introduced into calculation in order to have an allowance for dynamic load.

k o=

Unitless coeffient of lateral earth pressure at rest


LSht=
10
kN/m live load surcharge height per
IM=
0.33
Unitless dynamic load impact factor
W sll= ko x (1+IM) x LSht
W sll+IM=
6.00
kN/m

Side Wall

0.5

IM

Hydrostatic Load(WA)
The water pressure acting on any point on the outside surface of the structure is :

w =

10

kN/m

unit volume weight of water

W wa_top= w x Hs

Pressure at top of wall

W wa_bot= wx(Hs+Hapron)

Pressure at bottom of wall

Wwa_top

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

Side Wall

TopSlab

BottomSlab

Wwa_bot

Page8of30

Live Loads(LL)
Live load consists of the standard HB-45 truck as per BD-37/01 ,
design loads are always axle loads (single wheel loads should not be considered) and the
lane load is not used.
Access cover might be at road surface level, so dispersal of HB wheel loads shall be neglected
in order to consider a more concentrated load
Conctact Area of HB Wheel Loads
Nominal HB wheel loads shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over a circular contact area
assuming an effective pressure of 1.1 N/mm. Alternatively, a square contact area may be assumed
using same effective pressure as per BD-37/01[6.3.2].
Distribution length perpendicular to the span
width of tire contact area
S=
0.3
m
Distribution length parallel to the span
LT=
0.3
m
length of tire contact area
LT

S
TopSlab

Aeq=

TopSlab

0.10

The weights of the design truck wheel is below. (Note that one axle load is equal to four wheel load)

Paxle=

450.00

kN

HB load design axle load

W wheel=

112.50

kN

center and rear wheel weights

The effect of single and multiple lanes shall be considered. In this case, a single lane with the
single lane factor governs. Applying the single lane multiple presence factor:

W wheel= mpfxWwheel

W wheel=

112.50

kN

Dynamic load allowance for buried structures covered by section 12, in percent
shall be taken as:

IM=
IM=
PLL+IM=
TopSlab

33.00
37
150

%
kN
kN

mpf=

1.00

Page9of30

Compaction Induced Loading


Different types of compactors are used for compacting the backfill behind retaining structures.
Main parameters characterizing the equipment are dimensions of the roller: roller width (L)
static weigth (Ps) and centrifugal force (Pd). Total roller load:

Model

DynapacCA512D

Ps

=105

Pd

=300

kN

=2.13

=(Ps + Pd) / L
=190

kN

kN/m

Figure illustrattes the distribution of compaction-induced horizontal pressures that are obtained
from elasticity theory as recommended by the Canadian Geotechical Society.

ko= [1 - sinf] Lateral earth pressure


k o=

0.5

Unitless

Zc= ko x (2P/)0.5
=1
m
d= (1/ko) x (2P/)0.5
=5
m

The distribution of horizontal pressure on wall from compaction effort and soil pressure
illustrated in figure is calculated in the following manner

a=
H=

0
49

Distance between compactor center and the wall

kN/m

Horizontal earth pressure including compaction

inducedloading

Page10of30

4.1.Bottom Slab Design


Summary of Loading on Bottom Slab

BottomSlab

W bearing=

88.39

kN/m

W sv=

3.13

kN/m

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

LL+IM=

76.34

kN/m

(PLL+IM/S)

W ULS =1.25xW bearing + 1.3W sv + 1.0W wa +1.75W LL+IM

ULS Factored Loading

=316.90
kN/m
W SLS =1.0xW bearing + 1.0W sv + 1.0W wa +1.0W LL+IM

SLS Unfactored Loading

=236.61

kN/m

Bottom Slab Reinforcement Design


Bottom slab is assumed to be act as interior two-way slab.

Lx=
1.40
m
Ly=
1.40
m
Ly/Lx=
1
MULS= 0.032 x W ULSxLx2
19.88
kNm/m
MULS= 0.024 x W ULSxLx2
14.91
19.8

99.3

14.9

Short Span
Long Span
Ratio
Edge Moment
Mid-span Moment

kNm/m

MSLS= 0.032 x W SLSxLx2


Edge Moment
14.84
kNm/m
MSLS= 0.024 x W SLSxLx2
Mid-span Moment
11.13
kNm/m
VULS= 4 x Mchange / Lx
Max shear
99.38
kN/m

The area below shear diagram shall be equal to moment change.

Page11of30

Concrete Properties at Time of Loading


t
Class

Days

=7
N

Development of strength at time of loading


Strength class of cement

R: high early strength; N: Normal Early Strength; S: Slow early strength

Coefficient depend on cement type

=0.25

cc(t)

= exp [s x (1-(28 / t) )]

cc(t)

=0.79

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=30.00

fc(t)

=fcm (t) - 8MPa

fck(t)

=22.00

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]0.3

0.5

=32837
Ecm(t)

Mean Compressive strength at time of loading


MPa
Compressive strength at time of loading

MPa

Serviceability calculations the mean value is used

MPa
Modulus of elasticity at time of loading

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm
=30589

MPa

Principal Reinforcement
main
12.00
mm

Diameter of main reinforcement

Amain

113.10

mm

Area of main reinforcement

smain

200.00

mm

Spacing of main reinforcement

=tbs - cnom - main/2


=244.00

Med

=19.88

=MEd

Effective depth

mm

kNm/m

/ bdfck(t)

=0.015

Unitless

K'

=0.168

Unitless

Check if

=0.02

It is often recommended K' should be limited


to ensure ductile failure

z
z

<=
0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)
=231.80 mm

K'

=0.168

=240.69

mm

compression reinforcement no need

<=

0.95 x d

=231.80

Limiting z to 0.95d is not a requirement of EC2 but


it is considered to be a good practice

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz
=204.16

Calculated requirements of reinforcement


mm/m

Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd
Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=437.50

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}

=437.50

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd =317.20

mm/m

mm/m

=437.50

mm/m

Asprov

=565.49

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=565.49

Required area of reinforcement


Provided area of reinforcement
mm/m

>=

Asreq

=437.50

mm/m

OK

Page12of30

Check Maximum Spacing of Principal Reinforcement


=min {2xtslab; 250mm}
Smax
For principle reinforcement
Check

=250

mm

Smain

=200

mm

<=

Smax

=250

mm

OK

Design for Shear


It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary
to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more
than applied shear stress.
0.5
k
Should not be more than 2
=min{ 1 + (200/d) ; 2}
=1.91
Resistance of members without shear reinforcement
=max {0.12 x k x (100 x x fck)1/3 ; 0.035 x k1.5 x fck05 }

VRdc

=0.43

MPa

VEd

=99.38

kN/m

Shear force at support

VEd

=0.41

MPa

Shear stress at support

Check

VEd

=0.41

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.43

MPa

OK

Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement


All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including
termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section
in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used
for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT
fck =

30

MPa

Area of tension steel, As =

565

mm2

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

244

b=

1000

mm

Area of compression steel, As2 =

565

mm
mm2

h=

300

mm

d2 =

56

mm

KNm

Maxmum tension bar spacing, S =

200

mm

days

Max tension bar dia, eq =

12

mm

(S, N, or R)

Short term or long term ?


Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

50

mm

QP moment, M =

14.84

Age at cracking =
Cement type =
Creep factor, =

0.0

Page13of30

CALCULATIONS
modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

moduli of elasticity of steel

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

mean concrete strength at cracking

fcm,t =

29.59

MPa

mean concrete tensile strength

fct,eff =

2.26

MPa

xu =

150.00

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

2301

4
6
mm 10

cracking moment = fctI/(h-x)

Mcr =

34.60

kNm

uncracked neutral axis depth


[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]
nd

uncracked 2 moment of area

> 14.85 kNm section is UNCRACKED


fully cracked neutral axis depth
(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

38.88

mm

concrete stress = M/[bx(d-x/3)/2+(e-1)As2(d-d2)(x-d2)/x]

c =

3.49

MPa

stress in tension steel = ce(d-x)/x

s =

112.13

effective tension area = min[2.5(h-d), (h-x)/3, h/2]b - As

Ac,eff

MPa
2
= 86474.94 mm

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0065

max final crack spacing = min[1.3/(h-x),3.4c+0.17/p,eff)]

sr,max =

481.96

mm

average strain for crack width calculation

sm-cm =

336.39

strain

CALCULATED CRACK WIDTH

Wk =

0.000

mm

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

4.2.Vertical Walls Design

Side

Summary of Loading on Walls


W sh_top= 1.35
kN/m

W sh_bot= 29.65

kN/m

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Vertical walls is assumed to be one-way slab and calculations consider 1m strip from bottom.

Page14of30

Horizontal Earth Load (EV)


Since the location of manholes varies, various loading shall be considered in order to get maximum
positive moment and negative moment even if this loading conditions do not exist on site.

Horizontal Earth loading for maximum moment at span.

3.03

4.24

W sh_bot=

29.65 kN/m
20.76

Msh_bot=

3.03

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msh_bot=

4.24

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Mchange=

7.26

kNm/m Change of Moment

Vsh_bot= 4 x Mchange / Lx - twex x W sh_bot


14.83

kN/m

Max shear at d

20.76
A

Joint
Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Moment Sum

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

0.00
0.00
0.00
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
-0.61

0.00
0.00
1.21
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
0.61

0.00
2.42
0.00
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
3.03

-4.84
2.42
-1.21
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
-3.03

4.84
-2.42
1.21
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
3.03

0.00
-2.42
0.00
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
-3.03

0.00
0.00
-1.21
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
-0.61

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
0.61

Page15of30

Horizontal Earth loading for maximum moment at support.

2.42

3.14

6.05

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

6.05

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msh_bot=

3.14

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsh_bot=

17.42

kN/m

18.16

Max shear at d

18.16

Joint
Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Moment Sum

23.35

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

0.00
0.00
-1.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-1.21

0.00
0.00
1.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.21

0.00
2.42
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.42

-4.84
2.42
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-2.42

4.84
0.00
1.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6.05

-4.84
0.00
-1.21
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-6.05

4.84
-2.42
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.42

0.00
-2.42
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-2.42

Page16of30

Horizontal Earth Loading


1.82

1.82

3.74

3.74
1.82

5.45
W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

5.45

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msh_bot=

3.74

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsh_bot=

17.42

kN/m

5.45

18.16

Max shear at d

20.76

23.35

20.76
A

Joint
Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Moment Sum

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

4.84
-2.42
0.00
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
1.82

0.00
-2.42
1.21
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
-1.82

0.00
2.42
-1.21
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
1.82

-4.84
2.42
0.00
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
-1.82

4.84
0.00
1.21
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
5.45

-4.84
0.00
0.00
-0.61
0.30
-0.30
0.15
-0.15
0.08
-0.08
0.04
-0.04
0.02
-0.02
-5.45

4.84
0.00
0.00
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
5.45

-4.84
0.00
-1.21
0.61
-0.30
0.30
-0.15
0.15
-0.08
0.08
-0.04
0.04
-0.02
0.02
-5.45

Page17of30

Horizontal Earth Loading


4.84

4.84

2.42
2.42

2.42
2.42

4.84
W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

4.84

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msh_bot=

2.42

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsh_bot=

14.83

kN/m

4.84

Max shear at d
20.76

20.76
A

Joint
Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Moment Sum

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.84

-4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-4.84

4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.84

-4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-4.84

4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.84

-4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-4.84

4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.84

-4.84
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-4.84

Page18of30

Hydrostatic Load (WA)

5.37

Lx=
1.40
m
Ly=
1.40
m
Ly/Lx=
1
Mwa_bot= (1/12) x W wa_botxLx2
10.74
kNm/m
Mwa_bot= (1/24) x W sh_botxLx2

Short Span
Long Span
Ratio
Edge Moment
Mid-span Moment

5.37
kNm/m
VULS= 4 x Mchange / Lx - twex x W wa_bot
10.7
32.8

32.88

kN/m

Max shear at d

Page19of30

Live Load Surcharge(LS) + Dynamic Load Allowance (IM)


Live load surcharge loading for maximum moment at span.

0.61

0.86

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

4.20
Msll=

0.61

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msll=

0.86

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsll=

3.00

kN/m

Max shear at d

4.20

Joint
Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Moment Sum

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

0.00
0.00
0.00
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00
-0.12

0.00
0.00
0.24
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00
0.12

0.00
0.49
0.00
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.61

-0.98
0.49
-0.24
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
-0.61

0.98
-0.49
0.24
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00
0.61

0.00
-0.49
0.00
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00
-0.61

0.00
0.00
-0.24
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
-0.12

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.12

Page20of30

Live load surcharge loading for maximum moment at support.


0.49

0.63

1.22
W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

1.22

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msll=

0.63

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsll=

3.52

kN/m

3.67

Max shear at d

4.72

Joint

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

Distribution

0.00
0.00
-0.24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
-0.24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.98
-0.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
-0.49
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Moment Sum

-0.24

0.24

0.49

-0.49

1.22

-1.22

0.49

-0.49

Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over

Page21of30

Live load surcharge loading


0.37

0.37

0.76

0.76
0.37

1.10
W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

1.10

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msll=

0.76

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsll=

3.52

kN/m

1.10

3.67

Max shear at d
4.20
4.72
4.20

Joint

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

Distribution

0.98
-0.49
0.00
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00

0.00
-0.49
0.24
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.49
-0.24
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.49
0.00
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.24
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
0.00
-0.12
0.06
-0.06
0.03
-0.03
0.02
-0.02
0.01
-0.01
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.00
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
-0.24
0.12
-0.06
0.06
-0.03
0.03
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00

Moment Sum

0.37

-0.37

0.37

-0.37

1.10

-1.10

1.10

-1.10

Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over

Page22of30

Live load surcharge loading


0.98

0.98

0.49
0.49

0.49
0.49

0.98
W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

0.98

kNm/m Edge Moment

Msll=

0.49

kNm/m Mid-span Moment

Vsll=

3.00

kN/m

0.98

Max shear at d
4.20

4.20

Joint

AC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

AB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

BD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DB
1.40
0.0007
0.50

DC
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CD
1.40
0.0007
0.50

CA
1.40
0.0007
0.50

Distribution

0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

-0.98
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Moment Sum

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

Member
Length
Inertia
Dist. Factor
FEM
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over
Distribution
Carry Over

Page23of30

Side Wall Load Combination

MULS =1.35xMsh_bot + 1.5Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot


MULS

Factored Edge Moment

=20.57
kNm/m
=1.34xMsh_bot + 1.4Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot

Factored Mid Span Moment

=12.59
kNm/m
MSLS =1.0xMsh_bot + 1.0Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot
VULS

SLS Moment

=18.02
kNm/m
=1.35xVsh_bot + 1.5Vsll + 1.0Vwa_bot
=61.15

Factored Shear

kN/m

Concrete Properties at Time of Loading


Days
t
=7
Development of strength at time of loading
Class
N
Strength class of cement
R: high early strength; N: Normal Early Strength; S: Slow early strength
=0.25
Coefficient depend on cement type
s
cc(t)

= exp [s x (1-(28 / t)0.5)]

cc(t)

=0.79

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=30.00

fc(t)

=fcm (t) - 8MPa

fck(t)

=22.00

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]0.3
=32837
MPa

Serviceability calculations the mean value is used

Ecm(t)

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm

Modulus of elasticity at time of loading

=30589

Mean Compressive strength at time of loading


MPa
Compressive strength at time of loading

MPa

MPa

Principal Reinforcement
main
12.00
mm

Diameter of main reinforcement

Amain

113.10

mm

Area of main reinforcement

smain

200.00

mm

Spacing of main reinforcement

d
Med

=twex - cnom - 3main/2


=142.00 mm
=20.57
kNm/m

=MEd / bdfck(t)

K'

=0.046
=0.168

Unitless
Unitless

Check if

=0.05

<=
0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)
=134.90 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz
=362.98

Effective depth

It is often recommended K' should be limited


to ensure ductile failure
compression reinforcement no need
K'
=0.168
=135.93

mm

<=

0.95 x d

Limiting z to 0.95d is not a requirement of EC2 but


it is considered to be a good practice
Calculated requirements of reinforcement

mm/m

=134.90

Page24of30

Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd
Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=254.61

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}

=254.61

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd =184.60

mm/m

mm/m

=362.98

mm/m

Asprov

=565.49

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=565.49

Required area of reinforcement


Provided area of reinforcement
mm/m

>=

Asreq

=362.98

mm/m

OK

mm

OK

Check Maximum Spacing of Principal Reinforcement


=min {2xtslab; 250mm}
For principle reinforcement
Smax
=250
mm
Check

Smain

=200

mm

<=

Smax

=250

Design for Shear


It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary
to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more
than applied shear stress.
k
Should not be more than 2
=min{ 1 + (200/d)0.5 ; 2}
=2.00
Resistance of members without shear reinforcement
=max {0.12 x k x (100 x x fck)1/3 ; 0.035 x k1.5 x fck05 }

VRdc

=0.49

MPa

VEd

=61.15

kN/m

Shear force at d distance to support

VEd

=0.43

MPa

Shear stress at d distance from support

Check

VEd

=0.43

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.49

MPa

OK

Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement


All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including
termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section
in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used
for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT
2

fck =

30

MPa

Area of tension steel, As =

565

mm

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

142

b=

1000

mm

Area of compression steel, As2 =

565

mm
mm2

h=

200

mm

d2 =

58

mm

QP moment, M =

18

KNm

Maxmum tension bar spacing, S =

200

mm

Age at cracking =

days

Max tension bar dia, eq =

12

mm

Cement type =
Creep factor, =

(S, N, or R)

Short term or long term ?


Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

52

mm

0.0

Page25of30

CALCULATIONS
modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

moduli of elasticity of steel

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

mean concrete strength at cracking

fcm,t =

38.00

MPa

mean concrete tensile strength

fct,eff =

2.90

MPa

xu =

100.00

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

677

cracking moment = fctI/(h-x)

Mcr =

uncracked neutral axis depth


[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]
nd

uncracked 2 moment of area

19.60

4
6
mm 10

kNm

> 18.02 kNm section is UNCRACKED


fully cracked neutral axis depth
(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

30.45

mm

concrete stress = M/[bx(d-x/3)/2+(e-1)As2(d-d2)(x-d2)/x]

c =

10.07

MPa

stress in tension steel = ce(d-x)/x

s =

224.81

effective tension area = min[2.5(h-d), (h-x)/3, h/2]b - As

Ac,eff

MPa
2
= 55951.95 mm

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0101

max final crack spacing = min[1.3/(h-x),3.4c+0.17/p,eff)]

sr,max =

378.65

mm

average strain for crack width calculation

sm-cm =

674.43

strain

CALCULATED CRACK WIDTH

Wk =

0.000

mm

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

H=

49

kN/m

Side

Side

Compaction Allowance Check for Side Wall

W sh_bot= 59.30
kN/m
ConsructionLoadingincluding
compactioninducedsurchargeload
WCON= 1.5xH
74
kN/m
W ULS = 1.35xMsh_bot + 1.5Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot
Check

115
Wcon=

kN/m
74

kN/m

<=

LongtermLoading
ConstructionDesignLoad
LongtermDesignload
W ULS

115

kN/m

OK

Page26of30

4.3.Top Slab Design


Summary of Loading on Top Slab
Top slab is assumed to be one-way slab due to larger opening.

LL+IM=

150

kN
(EquivalentUDLLoading)
LL+IM=
214
kN/m
W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W sv=

3.13

kN/m

W dlts=

6.25

kN/m

TopSlab
Load factor for design HB loading decreased to 1.3 as per BD-37/01[6.3.4]

W ULS =1.25xW dlts + 1.3W sv + 1.0W wa +1.3W LL+IM

ULS Factored Loading

=292.75
kN/m
W SLS =1.0xW dlts + 1.0W sv + 1.0W wa +1.1W LL+IM

SLS Unfactored Loading

=247.50
kN/m
MULS= (1/8) x W ULSxLx2
51.23
kNm/m
MSLS= (1/8) x W SLSxLx2

Factored Mid-span Moment


SLS Mid-span Moment

43.31
kNm/m
VULS= W ULSxL/2 -tts x W ULS
102.46

ULS Design Shear at d

kN/m

Concrete Properties at Time of Loading


Days
t
=28
Development of strength at time of loading
Class
N
Strength class of cement
R: high early strength; N: Normal Early Strength; S: Slow early strength
=0.25
Coefficient depend on cement type
s
cc(t)

= exp [s x (1-(28 / t)0.5)]

cc(t)

=1.00

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=38.00

fc(t)

=fcm (t) - 8MPa

fck(t)

=30.00

Mean Compressive strength at time of loading


MPa
MPa

Compressive strength at time of loading

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]
=32837
MPa

Serviceability calculations the mean value is used

Ecm(t)

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm

Modulus of elasticity at time of loading

0.3

=32837

MPa

Page27of30

Principal Reinforcement
main
16.00
mm

Diameter of main reinforcement

Amain

201.06

mm

Area of main reinforcement

smain

150.00

mm

Spacing of main reinforcement

d
Med
K

=tts - cnom - main/2


=192.00 mm
=51.23
kNm/m
=MEd / bdfck(t)

K'

=0.046
=0.168

Unitless
Unitless

Check if

=0.05

Effective depth

It is often recommended K' should be limited


to ensure ductile failure
compression reinforcement no need
K'
=0.168

<=
0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)
=182.40 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

=183.80

mm

<=

0.95 x d

=182.40

Limiting z to 0.95d is not a requirement of EC2 but


it is considered to be a good practice
Calculated requirements of reinforcement

=668.76 mm/m
Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd
Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=344.27

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}
=668.76

=344.27

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd

=249.60

mm/m

mm/m

OK

mm

OK

mm/m
Required area of reinforcement

mm/m

Asprov

=1340.41 mm/m

Check

Asprov

Provided area of reinforcement

=1340.41 mm/m

Asreq

>=

=668.76

Check Maximum Spacing of Principal Reinforcement


=min {2xtslab; 250mm}
For principle reinforcement
Smax
=250
mm
Check

Smain

=150

mm

<=

Smax

=250

Design for Shear


It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary
to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more
than applied shear stress.
0.5
k
Should not be more than 2
=min{ 1 + (200/d) ; 2}
=2.00
Resistance of members without shear reinforcement
VRdc

=max {0.12 x k x (100 x x fck)

1/3

1.5

; 0.035 x k

x fck

05

=0.66

MPa

VEd

=102.46

kN/m

Shear force at support

VEd

=0.53

MPa

Shear stress at d distance from support

Check

VEd

=0.53

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.66

MPa

OK

Page28of30

Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement


All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including
termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section
in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used
for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT
fck =

30

MPa

Area of tension steel, As =

1340

mm2

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

192

b=

1000

mm

Area of compression steel, As2 =

1340

mm
2
mm

h=

250

mm

d2 =

48

mm

KNm

Maxmum tension bar spacing, S =

150

mm

28

days

Max tension bar dia, eq =

16

mm

(S, N, or R)

Short term or long term ?


Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

52

mm

QP moment, M =

43

Age at cracking =
Cement type =
Creep factor, =

0.0

CALCULATIONS
modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

moduli of elasticity of steel

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

mean concrete strength at cracking

fcm,t =

38.00

MPa

mean concrete tensile strength

fct,eff =

2.90

MPa

xu =

124.74

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

1373

4
6
mm 10

cracking moment = fctI/(h-x)

Mcr =

31.75

kNm

uncracked neutral axis depth


[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]
nd

uncracked 2 moment of area

< 43.31 kNm section is CRACKED


fully cracked neutral axis depth
(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

48.37

mm

concrete stress = M/[bx(d-x/3)/2+(e-1)As2(d-d2)(x-d2)/x]

c =

10.16

MPa

stress in tension steel = ce(d-x)/x

s =

183.80

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0203

max final crack spacing = min[1.3/(h-x),3.4c+0.17/p,eff)]

sr,max =

277.05

mm

average strain for crack width calculation

sm-cm =

599.05

strain

CALCULATED CRACK WIDTH

Wk =

0.166

mm

effective tension area = min[2.5(h-d), (h-x)/3, h/2]b - As

MPa
2
Ac,eff = 65868.20 mm

Page29of30

Trimmer Beam for Allowance of Opening


The polish code for concrete structures (PN-B-03264) suggest traditional method of
designing additional reinforcement. In this case reinforcement is designed for
a homogeneous slab and then the amount of reinforcement from opening is distributed
around opening. However, opening edge cannot be longer than 1/4 of effective span
and the magnitude of uniformly distributed load is not allowed to be larger than 10kN/m
Lopening =600.00
mm
=1/4 Lspan =350.00
Check if
Lopening
=600.00
mm
>
mm

NOT OK

If the needs exceed the limits concerning the opening dimension or magnitude of loading
the code demands a kind of trimmer members to be designed in form of hidden beams.
The width of such members cannot exceed four slab heights.
=600
Widthofopening
a
mm
=300
Widthoftrimmerbeam
b
mm
Check if

b/a

=0.50

Atrimmer

201.06

mm

Area of trimmer reinforcement

strimmer

piece

Spacing of trimmer reinforcement

d
Med
K

=tts - cnom - main/2


=192.00 mm
=52.70
kNm/m
=MEd / bmdfck(t)

K'

=0.159
=0.168

Unitless
Unitless

Check if

=0.16

<=

0.5

A moment for a slab simply supported


on three edges is to be considered
Slab shall be considered as one-way slab on the ligth of above.
bm
=300.00
Width of trimmer beam
mm
Mxr
0.125 x Wuls x (a+2bm)
Moment acting edge of hole
=52.70
kNm/m
trimmer 16.00
mm
Diameter of trimmer reinforcement

Effective depth

<=
0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)
=159.63 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

It is often recommended K' should be limited


to ensure ductile failure
compression reinforcement no need
K'
=0.168
=159.63

mm

<=

0.95 x d

=182.40

Limiting z to 0.95d is not a requirement of EC2 but


it is considered to be a good practice
Calculated requirements of reinforcement

=785.98

mm/m

Asprov

=804.25

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=804.25

Provided area of reinforcement


mm/m

>=

Asreq

=785.98

mm/m

OK

Compaction Allowance Check for Top Slab


P=
LL+IM=
Check

190
214

kN/m

P=

kN/m
190

Compaction Equipment Loading


Equivalent UDL HB-45 Loading

kN/m

<=

LL+IM=

214

kN/m

OK

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Summary of Reinforcement
Unit
Base
Slab
Side
Wall
Top
Slab

Required Tension Provided Tension


Reinforcement
Reinforcement

Check

438 mm

565 mm

OK

363 mm

565 mm

OK

669 mm

1340 mm

OK