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manhole structural calculation

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You are on page 1of 36

WORKSCONTRAC

CT

REL

LATING TO

T THE CONSTR

RUCTION

N OF THE

E 185 MW

W SHUAKHEVI

H

HYDROP

POWER PROJECT

P

T, LOCA

ATED IN THE

T

AUT

TONOMO

OUS

REPU

UBLIC OF ADJAR

RA IN GE

EORGIA

Ch

hirukh

histsq

qali Weir

W

RH

HS Drrainag

ge Wo

orks

Manh

M

ole Chamb

C

ber

Sttructu

ural C

Calculation

n Rep

port

Revision2

n No.

2

Datte of

Iss0

sue

03.08..2016

Prepared B

By

Checked By

B

Hasan KAYGISIZ

Z

Hasaan KAYGISIZ

Z

AGE BAT

TUM LIMITED

D LIABILITY COMPANY

Approved By

Zeeki YILMAZ

Notes

1.

2.

3.

All dimensions are in millimetres unless otherwise stated.

Location of drains is indicative. Chainage between manholes is approximate

only, actual length will depend on curvature of pipe achieved when constructed.

Distance of drains from wall face to be a minimum of 150 mm drawing shows

indicative alignment but curvature can be applied to keep close to the walls.

No dimensions to be scaled from this drawing.

Provisions for manhole drainage flow measurement to be made in MH05 and

MH08.

4.

5.

6.

Key to symbols

-Manhole

Rodding Eye

Flap Valve

MH04

MH05

RE04

RE05

OS02

MH06

RE03

MH06A

Reference drawings

MH07

MH08

1.

2.

410-1412 - Back of Wall Drainage and Rodding Eye Details

10m

20m

1:200

@A1

0

Rev

10/07/2016

Date

HK

Drawn

HK

For Construction

Description

8-10 Sydenham Road

Croydon, CR0 2EE

United Kingdom

T +44 (0)20 8774 2000

F +44 (0)20 8681 5706

W www.mottmac.com

Client

1. Abashidze Street 6

6010 Batumi Georgia

Title

1/200

Shuakhevi HPP

Chirukhistsqali Weir

Right Abutment

Drainage Layout Plan and Sections

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:200

Status

C.K

Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3411

CK

Notes

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Diameter of

largest pipe

(D)

Rocker Pipe

length

Benching

width

150

minimum Benching

chamber railings

diameter

8.

Invert

access

steps

9.

1200

225

minimum

600

300

Not

required

1200

1200

Not

required

600

375

1350

450

1500

minimum

750

525

600

Not

required

1800

Required

with step

iron(s)

1800

675

Required

1800

Key to symbols

1000

750

825

Safety

chains

All dimensions are in milimetres unless otherwise stated.

No dimensions are to be scaled from this drawing.

Pre-cast concrete manhole units shall comply with the relevant provisions of BE

EN 1917 and BS5911 : Part 2..

Joints in manhole units to be made so that the required jointing material fills the

joint cavity. Surplus material to be trimmed and the joints pointed on

completion.

Manhole covers and frames are to be D400 rated, in accordance with BS EN

124, where subject to vehicular loading and B125 rated at other locations.

Manhole covers shall have a 600mmx600mm clear opening unless stated

otherwise on the project drawings. Covers and frames with minimum clear

openings outside the ranges in BS EN 124 shall comply with the provisions of

that Standard where applicable.

Manhole covers shall have large keyways and prising slots in accordance with

BS 5834.

Manholes are required at changes in gradient and direction and at junctions in

pipework.

2100

1250

minimum

1100

2400

Required

Reference drawings

1.

2.

410-1412 - Drainage Details

1m

2m

1:20

@A1

03/08/2016

H.K

As per MML-2763-DR-AGE

H.K

H.K

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description

Mott MacDonald House

8-10 Sydenham Road

Croydon, CR0 2EE

United Kingdom

T +44 (0)20 8774 2000

F +44 (0)20 8681 5706

W www.mottmac.com

Client

1. Abashidze Street 6

6010 Batumi Georgia

Title

Shuakhevi HPP

Chirukhistsqali Weir

Drainage

Manhole Chamber Details

Sheet 1 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20

This document is issued for the party which commissioned it and for specific purposes connected with the captioned project only. It should not be relied upon by any other party or used for any other purpose.

We accept no responsibility for the consequences of this document being relied upon by any other party, or being used for any other purpose, or containing any error or omission which is due to an error or omission in data supplied to us by other parties.

Status

C.K

Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes

1. All dimensions are in metres unless otherwise specified.

2. All levels are in metres elevation.

3. Concrete class is of P4 with compressive strength C40/50 unless otherwise stated.

04

4. Backfilling shall not be allowed before 7 days cylindrical compressive strength gain

of concrete.

5. Steel reinforcement shall unless otherwise specified be deformed high yield steel

bars conforming to EN 10080 Class B or equivalent, having a minimum yield-point

stress of 420 Mpa.

6. Unless stated otherwise minimum cover to reinforcement shall be as follows:

40mm to all faces

04

7. Reinforcement is to be cut and bend to BS 8666:2005.

8. Where anchorage / lap lengths are not provided on the drawings, the following

table shall apply:

Lap(mm)

04

04

04

04

04

10

500

12

600

16

800

20

1000

25

1250

32

1600

04

1/15

Key to symbols

Section C-C

1/15

Reference drawings

1.

2.

410-1412 - Drainage Details

1m

2m

1:20

@A1

03/08/2016

H.K

As per MML-2763-DR-AGE

H.K

H.K

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description

Mott MacDonald House

8-10 Sydenham Road

Croydon, CR0 2EE

United Kingdom

T +44 (0)20 8774 2000

F +44 (0)20 8681 5706

W www.mottmac.com

Client

1. Abashidze Street 6

6010 Batumi Georgia

03

03

03

03

Title

Section A-A

1/15

Section B-B

1/15

01

Section C-C

1/15

Shuakhevi HPP

Chirukhistsqali Weir

RHS Drainage

Manhole Reinforcement Detail

Sheet 2 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20

Status

C.K

Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes

3. Concrete class is of D2 with compressive strength C30/37 unless otherwise stated.

4. Loading of precast concrete cover shall not be allowed before 7 days cylindrical

compressive strength gain of concrete.

5. Steel reinforcement shall unless otherwise specified be deformed high yield steel

bars conforming to EN 10080 Class B or equivalent, having a minimum yield-point

stress of 420 Mpa.

6. Unless stated otherwise minimum cover to reinforcement shall be as follows:

Hatch Cover

Indicative Only

7.

8. Where anchorage / lap lengths are not provided on the drawings, the following

table shall apply:

Lap(mm)

10

500

12

600

16

800

20

1000

25

1250

32

1600

Key to symbols

F

Reference drawings

1.

2.

Reinforcement Plan

1/10

410-1412 - Drainage Details

1/10

40x40mm L-profile

03

03

05

0.5m

1m

1:10

@A1

Section C-C

1/10

03/08/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

Section E-E

10/07/2016

H.K

For Construction

H.K

H.K

1/10

Rev

Date

Drawn

Description

Mott MacDonald House

8-10 Sydenham Road

Croydon, CR0 2EE

United Kingdom

T +44 (0)20 8774 2000

F +44 (0)20 8681 5706

W www.mottmac.com

Section A-A

1/10

02

06

40x40mm L-profile

Section D-D

1/10

07

Client

Section F-F

Adjaristsqali Georgia LLC

1/10

1. Abashidze Street 6

6010 Batumi Georgia

Title

Section B-B

1/10

Shuakhevi HPP

Chirukhistsqali Weir

RHS Drainage

Manhole Precast Cover Details

Sheet 3 of 3

Designed

H.K

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

B.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

1:20

Status

C.K

Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3412

Notes

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

All dimensions are in millimetres unless otherwise stated.

No dimensions are to be scales from this drawing.

Access chambers / manholes to be provided at any structures and changes in

gradient / direction.

The maximum spacing of rodding points should be 25 metres.

Half-perforated pipes to be laid such that the perforations occur in the upper

sections of the pipe.

Gradings

Type A

Type B

20

63

20

Coarse

Coarse

Gc 85 - 15

Gc 85 - 15

80

98 - 100

63

85 - 99

40

100

20 - 70

31.5

98 - 100

Aggregate type

Category

Sieve sizes (mm) and

stone gradings (%

passing) - Basic set

plus set 2

20

85 - 99

0 - 15

10

20 - 70

0 - 15

0 - 15

0-5

Key to symbols

Drainage Material

Tensile strength (minimum)

6.0 kN/m

(maximum)

60

1000N

45mm

090 (maximum)

550 microns

65x10 m/s

20mm

Reference drawings

1.

2.

410-1411 - Drainage Details

0.5m

1m

1m

2m

1.250m

1:10

@A1

1:20

@A1

2.5m

1:25

@A1

0

Rev

03/08/2016

Date

CJE

Drawn

RM

For Construction

Description

8-10 Sydenham Road

Croydon, CR0 2EE

United Kingdom

T +44 (0)20 8774 2000

F +44 (0)20 8681 5706

W www.mottmac.com

Client

1. Abashidze Street 6

6010 Batumi Georgia

Title

Shuakhevi HPP

Chirukhistsqali Weir

Drainage

Back of Wall Drainage Details

Designed

MML

Eng check

H.K

Drawn

H.K

Coordination

Dwg check

H.K

Approved

Scale at A1

AS SHOWN

This document is issued for the party which commissioned it and for specific purposes connected with the captioned project only. It should not be relied upon by any other party or used for any other purpose.

We accept no responsibility for the consequences of this document being relied upon by any other party, or being used for any other purpose, or containing any error or omission which is due to an error or omission in data supplied to us by other parties.

Status

H.K

Rev

CON

Drawing Number

410-3413

JHM

Page1of30

1.Design Method

1.1.Design Requirements

The report aims to present necessary calculations to provide reinforcement in manholes which

is to be used at Chirukhistsqali weir right bank utilizing ASTM C890-06-Standard Practice for

Minimum Structural Design Loading for Monolithic Concrete Water and Wastewater Structures

and BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 and ASSHTO LRFD for control of cracking.

2.Design Parameters

2.1.Project Parameters

D_Life

100

years

2.2.Concrete Properties

EN 1992-1-1 Table 4.1 gives the Exposure Class XC2 as suitable for concrete surfaces subject to

long-term water contact.

Exposure Class

XC2

Wet-rarely dry

Recommendation for normal weight reinforced concrete quality for exposure class and

cover to reinforcement for at least a 50-year working life.

Concrete grade

D2

for design calculations.

fck

=30

fcm

=38

MPa

MPa

(2/3)

fctm

=0.30 x fck

=2.90

MPa

Ecm

=22 x (fcm/10)

32836.57 MPa

=25

0.3

kN/m

2.3.Reinforcement Properties

Grade

=420B

fy

=420

MPa

Es

200000

MPa

Cmin

=30

Minimum cover to rebar at walls and top slab

mm

Dev

=10

Fixing tolerence for reinforcement

mm

Cnom

=40

Nominal cover to rebar at walls and top slab

mm

Cmin

=40

Minimum cover to rebar at base slab

mm

Dev

=10

Fixing tolerence for reinforcement

mm

Cnom

=50

Nominal cover to rebar at base slab

mm

2.5.Backfill Design Parameters

f

=33

deg

[USCS] min 33 deg - max 40 deg

=20

cf

=0

kN/m

MPa

ELfill

=22

deg

=918.40

Cohesion

Page2of30

w

=10

ELwater

=918.40

kN/m

m

Top Level of Ground Water

Live load surcharge shall be used when vehicular load is located within H/2 of the backface of the

wall LRFD[3.11.6.4].The equivalent height of soil for vehicular load, Heq, used for surcharge loads

shall be in accordance to LRFD[Table3.11.6.42].

Ltraffic

=0.5

m

Distance from wall backface to edge of traffic

H/2

=3.0

surcharge shall be considered in the wall design

LS

=10.0

kN/m

Check

=

LRFDTable3.11.6.41

YES

Page3of30

3.1.LFRD Requirements

For manhole design, the component dimensions and the size and spacing of reinforcement

shall be selected to satisfy the following equation for all appropriate limit states, as presented

in LRFD [1.3.2.1]

Q = i i Qi Rn = Rr

Where :

i

Load modifier

Load factor

Qi

=

=

applied loads

Total factored force effect

Resistance factor

Rn

Rr

Factored resistance = Rn

3.2.Limit States

The Strength I Limit State is used to design reinforcement for flexure and checking shear in

the slabs and walls, LRFD [12.5.3] . The Service I Limit State is used for checking reinforcement

for crack control criteria, LRFD [12.5.2] .

Service I Limit State shall be applied as restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width

under regular service conditions LRFD [1.3.2.2].

Factored Resistance

The resistance factor, , for Service Limit State, is found in LRFD [1.3.2.1 ] and its value is 1.00.

Crack Control Criteria

Per LRFD [12.11.3] , the provisions of LRFD [5.7.3.4] shall apply to crack width control

All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, which

produces tension in the gross section in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete.

Provisions are provided for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

Crack control criteria does not use a factored resistance, but calculates a maximum spacing for

flexure reinforcement based on service load stress in bars, concrete cover and exposure condition.

Crack control criteria shall be applied when the tension in the cross-section exceeds 80% of

the modulus of rupture, fr, specified in LRFD [5.4.2.6] for Service I Limit State.

W max

0.2

mm

Page4of30

3.3.Load Factors

The following Strength I load factors st and Service I load factors, s1

shall be used for manhole design:

Strength I

Load Factor

Dead Load - Components

Dead Load - Wearing Surface

Vertical Earth Pressure

Horizontal Earth Pressure

Live Load Surcharge + IM

Live Load + IM

Hydrostatic Pressure

DC

DW

EV

EH

LS + IM

LL + IM

WA

1.25

1.50

1.30

1.35

1.5

1.75

1.00

0.90

0.65

0.90

0.90

1.5

1.75

1.00

Service I

Load Factor

Buried

Atrest

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Ht

W

L

Hs

tts

tbs

twex

S= W + twex

S=

1400 mm

Hapron = Ht + tts/2+tbs/2

Hapron =

6275

6000

1200

1200

300

250

300

200

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

cell clear width

cell clear length

backfill over top slab

top slab thickness

mm

mm

Page5of30

Include the structure self weight based on a unit weight of concrete of 25 kN/m3.

When designing the bottom slab of a manhole do not forget that the weight of the concrete

in the bottom slab acts in an opposite direction than the bottom soil pressure and thus

reduces the design moments and shears. This load is designated as ,DC, dead load

of structural components and nonstructural attachments, for application of load factors

and limit state combinations.

top slab dead load:

W dlts= W c x tts

W dlts=

6.25

kN/m

W dlbs=

7.5

kN/m

W dlsw=

175.70

kN

W dlbs= W c x tbs

Side walls dead load

W bearing=

88.39

kN/m

The weigth of the future wearing surface is zero if there is any fill depth over the top slab. If there is

no fill depth over the top slab, the weight of the future wearing surface shall be taken as 1 kN/m

W ws=

0

Vertical Earth Load(EV)

kN/m

Calculate the modification of earth loads for soil-structure interaction per LRFD [12.11.2.2] .

Embankment installations are assumed.

Installation_Type="Embankment"

s =

S=

20

1.4

kN/m

m

Hs=

0.3

span of top slab

(measured between mid of exterior walls)

Calculate the soil-structure interaction factor for embankment installations:

0.2

Fe=

1.04

Unitless

Fe shall not exceed 1.15 for installations with compacted fill along the sides of the box section:

Fe=

1.04

Unitless

Calculate the total unfactored saturated earth load:

W e= Fe x (s-w) x S x Hs

W e=

4.38

kN/m

Distribute the total unfactored earth load to be evenly distributed across the top slab:

W sv=

3.13

TopSlab

kN/m

Page6of30

As per ASTM C890-06 laboratory and field testing has shown that the value of lateral earth

pressure coefficient depends on the yielding of the wall of the structure relative to the earth backfill.

Walls of monolitic concrete structures can yield by deflecting.

The lateral earth pressure on structure where walls can not yield sufficiently will be considered as

at-rest pressure. The weight of soil surrounding the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m

The value of lateral earth pressure coefficient for this condition can be estimated by Jaky's eq:

ko= [1 - sinf]

k o=

0.5

s =

20

kN/m

The lateral earth pressure on the walls of a buried structure for the portion of the walls below the

ground water level will be as per ASTM C890-06 [5.4.1]

W sh_top= kox(s-w)xHs

W sh_bot= kox(s-w)x(Hs+Hapron)

1.35

kN/m

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Side

W sh_top=

The lateral earth pressure on the walls of a buried structure for the portion of the walls above the

ground water level will be as per ASTM C890-06 [5.4.1]

W sh_top= koxsxHs

W sh_bot= koxsx(Hs+Hapron)

2.71

kN/m

W sh_bot=

59.30

kN/m

Side

W sh_top=

Page7of30

When traffic can come within a horizontal distance from the structure equal to one half

of the height of the structure, a lateral surcharge pressure will be applied to the wall of structure.

Surcharge loads are computed based on a coefficient of lateral earth pressure times surcharge load

The load is designated as, LS, live load surcharge, for application of load factors and limit state

combinations. Refer to LRFD [3.11.6.4] for additional information regarding live load surcharge.

Although as per ASTM C890-06 [5.5.2] lateral surcharge load from traffic will be considered

negligible below a vertival distance 2.4m below wheel, however, herein surchage load shall be

applied to all heigth of wall in order to remain on the safe side.

Also, an impact factor is introduced into calculation in order to have an allowance for dynamic load.

k o=

LSht=

10

kN/m live load surcharge height per

IM=

0.33

Unitless dynamic load impact factor

W sll= ko x (1+IM) x LSht

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Side Wall

0.5

IM

Hydrostatic Load(WA)

The water pressure acting on any point on the outside surface of the structure is :

w =

10

kN/m

W wa_top= w x Hs

W wa_bot= wx(Hs+Hapron)

Wwa_top

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

Side Wall

TopSlab

BottomSlab

Wwa_bot

Page8of30

Live Loads(LL)

Live load consists of the standard HB-45 truck as per BD-37/01 ,

design loads are always axle loads (single wheel loads should not be considered) and the

lane load is not used.

Access cover might be at road surface level, so dispersal of HB wheel loads shall be neglected

in order to consider a more concentrated load

Conctact Area of HB Wheel Loads

Nominal HB wheel loads shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over a circular contact area

assuming an effective pressure of 1.1 N/mm. Alternatively, a square contact area may be assumed

using same effective pressure as per BD-37/01[6.3.2].

Distribution length perpendicular to the span

width of tire contact area

S=

0.3

m

Distribution length parallel to the span

LT=

0.3

m

length of tire contact area

LT

S

TopSlab

Aeq=

TopSlab

0.10

The weights of the design truck wheel is below. (Note that one axle load is equal to four wheel load)

Paxle=

450.00

kN

W wheel=

112.50

kN

The effect of single and multiple lanes shall be considered. In this case, a single lane with the

single lane factor governs. Applying the single lane multiple presence factor:

W wheel= mpfxWwheel

W wheel=

112.50

kN

Dynamic load allowance for buried structures covered by section 12, in percent

shall be taken as:

IM=

IM=

PLL+IM=

TopSlab

33.00

37

150

%

kN

kN

mpf=

1.00

Page9of30

Different types of compactors are used for compacting the backfill behind retaining structures.

Main parameters characterizing the equipment are dimensions of the roller: roller width (L)

static weigth (Ps) and centrifugal force (Pd). Total roller load:

Model

DynapacCA512D

Ps

=105

Pd

=300

kN

=2.13

=(Ps + Pd) / L

=190

kN

kN/m

Figure illustrattes the distribution of compaction-induced horizontal pressures that are obtained

from elasticity theory as recommended by the Canadian Geotechical Society.

k o=

0.5

Unitless

Zc= ko x (2P/)0.5

=1

m

d= (1/ko) x (2P/)0.5

=5

m

The distribution of horizontal pressure on wall from compaction effort and soil pressure

illustrated in figure is calculated in the following manner

a=

H=

0

49

kN/m

inducedloading

Page10of30

Summary of Loading on Bottom Slab

BottomSlab

W bearing=

88.39

kN/m

W sv=

3.13

kN/m

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

LL+IM=

76.34

kN/m

(PLL+IM/S)

=316.90

kN/m

W SLS =1.0xW bearing + 1.0W sv + 1.0W wa +1.0W LL+IM

=236.61

kN/m

Bottom slab is assumed to be act as interior two-way slab.

Lx=

1.40

m

Ly=

1.40

m

Ly/Lx=

1

MULS= 0.032 x W ULSxLx2

19.88

kNm/m

MULS= 0.024 x W ULSxLx2

14.91

19.8

99.3

14.9

Short Span

Long Span

Ratio

Edge Moment

Mid-span Moment

kNm/m

Edge Moment

14.84

kNm/m

MSLS= 0.024 x W SLSxLx2

Mid-span Moment

11.13

kNm/m

VULS= 4 x Mchange / Lx

Max shear

99.38

kN/m

Page11of30

t

Class

Days

=7

N

Strength class of cement

=0.25

cc(t)

= exp [s x (1-(28 / t) )]

cc(t)

=0.79

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=30.00

fc(t)

fck(t)

=22.00

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]0.3

0.5

=32837

Ecm(t)

MPa

Compressive strength at time of loading

MPa

MPa

Modulus of elasticity at time of loading

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm

=30589

MPa

Principal Reinforcement

main

12.00

mm

Amain

113.10

mm

smain

200.00

mm

=244.00

Med

=19.88

=MEd

Effective depth

mm

kNm/m

/ bdfck(t)

=0.015

Unitless

K'

=0.168

Unitless

Check if

=0.02

to ensure ductile failure

z

z

<=

0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)

=231.80 mm

K'

=0.168

=240.69

mm

<=

0.95 x d

=231.80

it is considered to be a good practice

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

=204.16

mm/m

Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd

Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=437.50

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}

=437.50

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd =317.20

mm/m

mm/m

=437.50

mm/m

Asprov

=565.49

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=565.49

Provided area of reinforcement

mm/m

>=

Asreq

=437.50

mm/m

OK

Page12of30

=min {2xtslab; 250mm}

Smax

For principle reinforcement

Check

=250

mm

Smain

=200

mm

<=

Smax

=250

mm

OK

It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary

to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more

than applied shear stress.

0.5

k

Should not be more than 2

=min{ 1 + (200/d) ; 2}

=1.91

Resistance of members without shear reinforcement

=max {0.12 x k x (100 x x fck)1/3 ; 0.035 x k1.5 x fck05 }

VRdc

=0.43

MPa

VEd

=99.38

kN/m

VEd

=0.41

MPa

Check

VEd

=0.41

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.43

MPa

OK

All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including

termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section

in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used

for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT

fck =

30

MPa

565

mm2

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

244

b=

1000

mm

565

mm

mm2

h=

300

mm

d2 =

56

mm

KNm

200

mm

days

12

mm

(S, N, or R)

Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

50

mm

QP moment, M =

14.84

Age at cracking =

Cement type =

Creep factor, =

0.0

Page13of30

CALCULATIONS

modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

fcm,t =

29.59

MPa

fct,eff =

2.26

MPa

xu =

150.00

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

2301

4

6

mm 10

Mcr =

34.60

kNm

[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]

nd

fully cracked neutral axis depth

(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

38.88

mm

c =

3.49

MPa

s =

112.13

Ac,eff

MPa

2

= 86474.94 mm

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0065

sr,max =

481.96

mm

sm-cm =

336.39

strain

Wk =

0.000

mm

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

Side

W sh_top= 1.35

kN/m

W sh_bot= 29.65

kN/m

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Vertical walls is assumed to be one-way slab and calculations consider 1m strip from bottom.

Page14of30

Since the location of manholes varies, various loading shall be considered in order to get maximum

positive moment and negative moment even if this loading conditions do not exist on site.

3.03

4.24

W sh_bot=

29.65 kN/m

20.76

Msh_bot=

3.03

Msh_bot=

4.24

Mchange=

7.26

14.83

kN/m

Max shear at d

20.76

A

Joint

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Moment Sum

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

-0.61

0.00

0.00

1.21

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

0.61

0.00

2.42

0.00

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

3.03

-4.84

2.42

-1.21

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

-3.03

4.84

-2.42

1.21

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

3.03

0.00

-2.42

0.00

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

-3.03

0.00

0.00

-1.21

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

-0.61

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

0.61

Page15of30

2.42

3.14

6.05

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

6.05

Msh_bot=

3.14

Vsh_bot=

17.42

kN/m

18.16

Max shear at d

18.16

Joint

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Moment Sum

23.35

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

0.00

0.00

-1.21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-1.21

0.00

0.00

1.21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.21

0.00

2.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.42

-4.84

2.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-2.42

4.84

0.00

1.21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

6.05

-4.84

0.00

-1.21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-6.05

4.84

-2.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.42

0.00

-2.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-2.42

Page16of30

1.82

1.82

3.74

3.74

1.82

5.45

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

5.45

Msh_bot=

3.74

Vsh_bot=

17.42

kN/m

5.45

18.16

Max shear at d

20.76

23.35

20.76

A

Joint

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Moment Sum

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

4.84

-2.42

0.00

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

1.82

0.00

-2.42

1.21

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

-1.82

0.00

2.42

-1.21

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

1.82

-4.84

2.42

0.00

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

-1.82

4.84

0.00

1.21

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

5.45

-4.84

0.00

0.00

-0.61

0.30

-0.30

0.15

-0.15

0.08

-0.08

0.04

-0.04

0.02

-0.02

-5.45

4.84

0.00

0.00

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

5.45

-4.84

0.00

-1.21

0.61

-0.30

0.30

-0.15

0.15

-0.08

0.08

-0.04

0.04

-0.02

0.02

-5.45

Page17of30

4.84

4.84

2.42

2.42

2.42

2.42

4.84

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

Msh_bot=

4.84

Msh_bot=

2.42

Vsh_bot=

14.83

kN/m

4.84

Max shear at d

20.76

20.76

A

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Moment Sum

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.84

-4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-4.84

4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.84

-4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-4.84

4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.84

-4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-4.84

4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.84

-4.84

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-4.84

Page18of30

5.37

Lx=

1.40

m

Ly=

1.40

m

Ly/Lx=

1

Mwa_bot= (1/12) x W wa_botxLx2

10.74

kNm/m

Mwa_bot= (1/24) x W sh_botxLx2

Short Span

Long Span

Ratio

Edge Moment

Mid-span Moment

5.37

kNm/m

VULS= 4 x Mchange / Lx - twex x W wa_bot

10.7

32.8

32.88

kN/m

Max shear at d

Page19of30

Live load surcharge loading for maximum moment at span.

0.61

0.86

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

4.20

Msll=

0.61

Msll=

0.86

Vsll=

3.00

kN/m

Max shear at d

4.20

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Moment Sum

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.12

0.00

0.00

0.24

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

0.12

0.00

0.49

0.00

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.61

-0.98

0.49

-0.24

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.61

0.98

-0.49

0.24

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

0.61

0.00

-0.49

0.00

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.61

0.00

0.00

-0.24

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.12

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.12

Page20of30

0.49

0.63

1.22

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

1.22

Msll=

0.63

Vsll=

3.52

kN/m

3.67

Max shear at d

4.72

Joint

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

Distribution

0.00

0.00

-0.24

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.24

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.24

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

-0.24

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.98

-0.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Moment Sum

-0.24

0.24

0.49

-0.49

1.22

-1.22

0.49

-0.49

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Page21of30

0.37

0.37

0.76

0.76

0.37

1.10

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

1.10

Msll=

0.76

Vsll=

3.52

kN/m

1.10

3.67

Max shear at d

4.20

4.72

4.20

Joint

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

Distribution

0.98

-0.49

0.00

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.49

0.24

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.49

-0.24

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.49

0.00

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.24

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

0.00

-0.12

0.06

-0.06

0.03

-0.03

0.02

-0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.00

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

-0.24

0.12

-0.06

0.06

-0.03

0.03

-0.02

0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

Moment Sum

0.37

-0.37

0.37

-0.37

1.10

-1.10

1.10

-1.10

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Page22of30

0.98

0.98

0.49

0.49

0.49

0.49

0.98

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

Msll=

0.98

Msll=

0.49

Vsll=

3.00

kN/m

0.98

Max shear at d

4.20

4.20

Joint

AC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

AB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

BD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DB

1.40

0.0007

0.50

DC

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CD

1.40

0.0007

0.50

CA

1.40

0.0007

0.50

Distribution

0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Moment Sum

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

0.98

-0.98

Member

Length

Inertia

Dist. Factor

FEM

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Distribution

Carry Over

Page23of30

MULS

=20.57

kNm/m

=1.34xMsh_bot + 1.4Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot

=12.59

kNm/m

MSLS =1.0xMsh_bot + 1.0Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot

VULS

SLS Moment

=18.02

kNm/m

=1.35xVsh_bot + 1.5Vsll + 1.0Vwa_bot

=61.15

Factored Shear

kN/m

Days

t

=7

Development of strength at time of loading

Class

N

Strength class of cement

R: high early strength; N: Normal Early Strength; S: Slow early strength

=0.25

Coefficient depend on cement type

s

cc(t)

cc(t)

=0.79

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=30.00

fc(t)

fck(t)

=22.00

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]0.3

=32837

MPa

Ecm(t)

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm

=30589

MPa

Compressive strength at time of loading

MPa

MPa

Principal Reinforcement

main

12.00

mm

Amain

113.10

mm

smain

200.00

mm

d

Med

=142.00 mm

=20.57

kNm/m

=MEd / bdfck(t)

K'

=0.046

=0.168

Unitless

Unitless

Check if

=0.05

<=

0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)

=134.90 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

=362.98

Effective depth

to ensure ductile failure

compression reinforcement no need

K'

=0.168

=135.93

mm

<=

0.95 x d

it is considered to be a good practice

Calculated requirements of reinforcement

mm/m

=134.90

Page24of30

Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd

Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=254.61

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}

=254.61

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd =184.60

mm/m

mm/m

=362.98

mm/m

Asprov

=565.49

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=565.49

Provided area of reinforcement

mm/m

>=

Asreq

=362.98

mm/m

OK

mm

OK

=min {2xtslab; 250mm}

For principle reinforcement

Smax

=250

mm

Check

Smain

=200

mm

<=

Smax

=250

It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary

to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more

than applied shear stress.

k

Should not be more than 2

=min{ 1 + (200/d)0.5 ; 2}

=2.00

Resistance of members without shear reinforcement

=max {0.12 x k x (100 x x fck)1/3 ; 0.035 x k1.5 x fck05 }

VRdc

=0.49

MPa

VEd

=61.15

kN/m

VEd

=0.43

MPa

Check

VEd

=0.43

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.49

MPa

OK

All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including

termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section

in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used

for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT

2

fck =

30

MPa

565

mm

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

142

b=

1000

mm

565

mm

mm2

h=

200

mm

d2 =

58

mm

QP moment, M =

18

KNm

200

mm

Age at cracking =

days

12

mm

Cement type =

Creep factor, =

(S, N, or R)

Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

52

mm

0.0

Page25of30

CALCULATIONS

modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

fcm,t =

38.00

MPa

fct,eff =

2.90

MPa

xu =

100.00

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

677

Mcr =

[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]

nd

19.60

4

6

mm 10

kNm

fully cracked neutral axis depth

(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

30.45

mm

c =

10.07

MPa

s =

224.81

Ac,eff

MPa

2

= 55951.95 mm

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0101

sr,max =

378.65

mm

sm-cm =

674.43

strain

Wk =

0.000

mm

W sll+IM=

6.00

kN/m

W wa_bot=

65.75

kN/m

W sh_bot=

29.65

kN/m

H=

49

kN/m

Side

Side

W sh_bot= 59.30

kN/m

ConsructionLoadingincluding

compactioninducedsurchargeload

WCON= 1.5xH

74

kN/m

W ULS = 1.35xMsh_bot + 1.5Msll + 1.0Mwa_bot

Check

115

Wcon=

kN/m

74

kN/m

<=

LongtermLoading

ConstructionDesignLoad

LongtermDesignload

W ULS

115

kN/m

OK

Page26of30

Summary of Loading on Top Slab

Top slab is assumed to be one-way slab due to larger opening.

LL+IM=

150

kN

(EquivalentUDLLoading)

LL+IM=

214

kN/m

W wa_top=

3.00

kN/m

W sv=

3.13

kN/m

W dlts=

6.25

kN/m

TopSlab

Load factor for design HB loading decreased to 1.3 as per BD-37/01[6.3.4]

=292.75

kN/m

W SLS =1.0xW dlts + 1.0W sv + 1.0W wa +1.1W LL+IM

=247.50

kN/m

MULS= (1/8) x W ULSxLx2

51.23

kNm/m

MSLS= (1/8) x W SLSxLx2

SLS Mid-span Moment

43.31

kNm/m

VULS= W ULSxL/2 -tts x W ULS

102.46

kN/m

Days

t

=28

Development of strength at time of loading

Class

N

Strength class of cement

R: high early strength; N: Normal Early Strength; S: Slow early strength

=0.25

Coefficient depend on cement type

s

cc(t)

cc(t)

=1.00

fcm(t)

= cc(t)xfcm

fcm(t)

=38.00

fc(t)

fck(t)

=30.00

MPa

MPa

Ecm

=22 x [fcm/10]

=32837

MPa

Ecm(t)

= [fcm(t)/fcm]0.3xEcm

0.3

=32837

MPa

Page27of30

Principal Reinforcement

main

16.00

mm

Amain

201.06

mm

smain

150.00

mm

d

Med

K

=192.00 mm

=51.23

kNm/m

=MEd / bdfck(t)

K'

=0.046

=0.168

Unitless

Unitless

Check if

=0.05

Effective depth

to ensure ductile failure

compression reinforcement no need

K'

=0.168

<=

0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)

=182.40 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

=183.80

mm

<=

0.95 x d

=182.40

it is considered to be a good practice

Calculated requirements of reinforcement

=668.76 mm/m

Minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction but not less than 0.0013btd

Asmin

=0.26x(fctm/fy)xbtxd

Asmin

=344.27

Asreq

=min {Ascalc;Asmin}

=668.76

=344.27

mm/m

>=

0.0013xbtxd

=249.60

mm/m

mm/m

OK

mm

OK

mm/m

Required area of reinforcement

mm/m

Asprov

=1340.41 mm/m

Check

Asprov

=1340.41 mm/m

Asreq

>=

=668.76

=min {2xtslab; 250mm}

For principle reinforcement

Smax

=250

mm

Check

Smain

=150

mm

<=

Smax

=250

It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary

to ensure that concrete shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement is more

than applied shear stress.

0.5

k

Should not be more than 2

=min{ 1 + (200/d) ; 2}

=2.00

Resistance of members without shear reinforcement

VRdc

1/3

1.5

; 0.035 x k

x fck

05

=0.66

MPa

VEd

=102.46

kN/m

VEd

=0.53

MPa

Check

VEd

=0.53

MPa

<=

VRdc

=0.66

MPa

OK

Page28of30

All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, including

termal effects and restraint of deformations, which produces tension in the gross section

in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete. Provisions specified, herein, are used

for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

INPUT

fck =

30

MPa

1340

mm2

fyk =

420

MPa

d=

192

b=

1000

mm

1340

mm

2

mm

h=

250

mm

d2 =

48

mm

KNm

150

mm

28

days

16

mm

(S, N, or R)

Cover to As, c =

(S or L)

52

mm

QP moment, M =

43

Age at cracking =

Cement type =

Creep factor, =

0.0

CALCULATIONS

modulus of elasticity of concrete = 22[(fck+8)/10]0.3

Ecm =

32.8

GPa

Es =

200.0

GPa

Modular ratio

e =

6.09

fcm,t =

38.00

MPa

fct,eff =

2.90

MPa

xu =

124.74

mm

bh/12+bh(h/2-x)+(e-1)[As(d-x)+As2(x-d2)]

Iu =

1373

4

6

mm 10

Mcr =

31.75

kNm

[bh/2+(e-1)(Asd+As2d2)]/[bh+(e-1)(As+As2)]

nd

fully cracked neutral axis depth

(-Ase-As2(e-1)+[{Ase+As2(e-1)}-2b{Ased-As2d2(e-1)}])/b

xc =

48.37

mm

c =

10.16

MPa

s =

183.80

As /Ac,eff

p,eff =

0.0203

sr,max =

277.05

mm

sm-cm =

599.05

strain

Wk =

0.166

mm

MPa

2

Ac,eff = 65868.20 mm

Page29of30

The polish code for concrete structures (PN-B-03264) suggest traditional method of

designing additional reinforcement. In this case reinforcement is designed for

a homogeneous slab and then the amount of reinforcement from opening is distributed

around opening. However, opening edge cannot be longer than 1/4 of effective span

and the magnitude of uniformly distributed load is not allowed to be larger than 10kN/m

Lopening =600.00

mm

=1/4 Lspan =350.00

Check if

Lopening

=600.00

mm

>

mm

NOT OK

If the needs exceed the limits concerning the opening dimension or magnitude of loading

the code demands a kind of trimmer members to be designed in form of hidden beams.

The width of such members cannot exceed four slab heights.

=600

Widthofopening

a

mm

=300

Widthoftrimmerbeam

b

mm

Check if

b/a

=0.50

Atrimmer

201.06

mm

strimmer

piece

d

Med

K

=192.00 mm

=52.70

kNm/m

=MEd / bmdfck(t)

K'

=0.159

=0.168

Unitless

Unitless

Check if

=0.16

<=

0.5

on three edges is to be considered

Slab shall be considered as one-way slab on the ligth of above.

bm

=300.00

Width of trimmer beam

mm

Mxr

0.125 x Wuls x (a+2bm)

Moment acting edge of hole

=52.70

kNm/m

trimmer 16.00

mm

Diameter of trimmer reinforcement

Effective depth

<=

0.5

=(d/2) x (1 + (1-3.53K)

=159.63 mm

Ascalc

=MEd / fyz

to ensure ductile failure

compression reinforcement no need

K'

=0.168

=159.63

mm

<=

0.95 x d

=182.40

it is considered to be a good practice

Calculated requirements of reinforcement

=785.98

mm/m

Asprov

=804.25

mm/m

Check

Asprov

=804.25

mm/m

>=

Asreq

=785.98

mm/m

OK

P=

LL+IM=

Check

190

214

kN/m

P=

kN/m

190

Equivalent UDL HB-45 Loading

kN/m

<=

LL+IM=

214

kN/m

OK

Page30of30

Summary of Reinforcement

Unit

Base

Slab

Side

Wall

Top

Slab

Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Check

438 mm

565 mm

OK

363 mm

565 mm

OK

669 mm

1340 mm

OK

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