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Running head: PEPSI Screening

PEPSI: A Screening and Programming Tool for Understanding Bradley Lopez


Cristian Calata
College of Southern Nevada

Biography

PEPSI Screening

Born on August 18th, 2009, in Las Vegas, Nevada, Bradley Lopez is the first child of the
family to be born with Down syndrome. He is a first grader attending Gwendolyn Woolley
Elementary School. Bradley is the third son of Martha and Santiago Lopez and has one older
brother named Osvaldo and one older sister named Zaira. His whole family was born in Mexico
but him. They practice the Catholic religion which has been a tradition from passed ancestors.
Bradley has a thing for cell phones, he likes to surf the web and take selfies. Even though he is
about to turn seven, he does not leave the diaper era behind yet.
He is a very busy child having to attend therapies and school on a daily basis. He
practices speech, physical, and occupational therapy in order to enhance his abilities. His mother
has to be behind his back at all times because he is very spontaneous with his ideas and could
flip the house around within seconds. He enjoys his birthday parties every year accompanied by
his family and friends. He has a niece named Marieyanna who is 5 years old and they act as best
friends. Every time they see each other they go crazy and it is nothing but laughter.
Bradley is very friendly and smart; he knows when a person does not appreciate him. He
will not approach those that he knows do not value his presence. Someone who he values a lot is
his aunt Rosa, he spends the night over often and regularly visits. She is his moms sister and she
also enjoys him being around. He loves to eat everything and is not picky at all. His mom has to
stop him from eating after a certain point because if not he will go nonstop. Bradley is loved by
many and has been a blessing since to his loved ones.

Physical Development

PEPSI Screening

Bradleys rate of physical development is much slower than the typical child because of his
special condition. Motor skills develop at a slower rate for children with Down syndrome than
for those without. These delays in motor development reduce infants opportunities for exploring
and learning about the world around them and therefore further affect cognitive development.
Poor oral motor control may impact the development of language skills (Buckley, 2016). He is
not able to do things a six year old would be able to do by now. For example, he is not able to
use the safety scissors that are provided at school. Another example, he cannot count past twenty
as he should be able to at his age.
At home hes still getting toilet trained which has been a slower process than it should have
been. Hes still in the process of learning which he is getting the hang of it slowly but surely. In
theory, children could be ready for toilet training as early as age 2, because most babies of this
age recognize the urge to urinate or defecate and can control the sphincter muscles that facilitate
waste elimination (Oswalt, 2008). In Bradleys case sometimes he will indicate that he needs to
use the restroom but in cases he really does not have to go and all he does is sit on the toilet. He
does let his mom know when he has to go but does get mixed up saying he has to do number one
or vice versa. Another activity that occurs at home is that he wants to help his mom clean after he
knows he has made a mess. Instead of helping her clean he spreads the mess but his mom still
lets him do it since he is trying to do a good act. Bradley in other words is learning slowly but
does get the hang of everything just not fully mastered as we know he wishes.
On the other hand there are also things that he is able to do successfully. For example,
stacking blocks, climbing stairs, stretching elastic bands, and so much more. Physical
development provides children with the abilities they need to explore and interact with the world
around them. A young childs physical growth first begins as muscles gain strength with use and

PEPSI Screening

children gradually develop coordination (Brotherson,2006). There is only one thing he has not
fully accomplished yet which is being able to jump at a normal elevation for his age. He is short
for his age which affects him in certain activities as in jumping high. He does not have the
strength needed to perform certain tasks at full potential.

Emotional Development

PEPSI Screening

Bradley is a very emotional pupil; he understands when others are sad or


mad at him. One thing that is sure is that Bradley does not know in entirely when he
is doing something bad, he gets in trouble and has absolutely no reason why. When
you yell at him he does get a little upset and will ignore you. For Bradley, it is good
to talk to him with a low tone when you are trying to educate him because if not he
gets upset when someone uses their loud voice on him. He is in the learning
initiative versus guilt stage from Eriksons stages of development. This stage can
sometimes be frustrating for parents and caregivers as children begin to exercise
more control over the things that impact their lives (Cherry, 2016).
Research has shown that by about age 6, children may appreciate that
people can experience one emotion, then a completely different emotion
immediately after the first. The understanding of simultaneous and even conflicting
emotions soon follows (Odle, 2009). Bradley does these emotion changes quite
often. Normally he does it when he is crying and all of a sudden he starts laughing.
In his mind it is like he is trying to trick the people around him but in reality he was
crying and then something made him laugh. It is like if Bradley was bipolar but that
is not the case. He is just in the stage of having different emotion changes within
seconds.
Emotional expression is still largely nonverbal, although some emotional
language may develop by age 20 months. For the most part, facial expressions,
crying or other vocal expressions, and gestures still express many of toddlers'
emotions (Odle, 2009). Bradley is way passed the twenty month mark and still
does not speak well. His disability does not allow him to speak fluently. His
expression is nonverbal for the most part so he shows emotion by throwing things

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or just crying. His happiness is full of laughter and running around like if he were to
never get tired.

Philosophical Development
Bradleys way of thinking is not like the typical kid around his age. He is very lovely
with everyone and does not like sadness at all. He enjoys life as it is right now, he knows his
routines and when we wakes up he knows the school bus will be coming shortly. He will always
be a kid at heart. His way of being is inspiring to everyone because he does not know what hate
is. He is not aware of his condition; to him it is like if everyone was the same. Bradley may
reason why he goes to therapy so often or why he goes to school. He does not know that it is to
enhance his skills. According to Michael Lipman, reasoning is the aspect of thinking which can
be discursively formulated, can be subjected to evolutional criteria, and can be taught (Lipman,
2012).
Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of
chromosome 21. There are three types of Down syndrome of which Bradley happens to have
Trisomy 21. The condition leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth
that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities (Crosta, 2016). His developmental
stages delay due to his condition which is why he seems younger than his actual age. Each child
is different but when it comes to Down syndrome, their characteristics are mostly the same. The
effect is has on each person depends on how they get treated and accepted by society.
Bradley is very smart and whoever treats him like if he was less does not have enough
basic knowledge. He is aware of his surroundings and appreciates the nature of life as we all do.
His way of thinking does not differ much from a normal child because he is pretty good at

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following what is expected from him. He has always been on track to what is expected of him
and shows improvement with his therapies at all times.
Social Development
Bradley has a very sociable life at home, therapy, and especially at school. Without him
realizing everyone seems to know him. He is a very lovable kid that everyone loves to have
around and enjoy his uniqueness. Even after surgeries Bradley tends to have a smile on his face.
He transfers positive vibes and there is no dull moment around him. He loves to try different
activities and spend quality time with others. He shows appropriate behavior whenever he has to
play with others and show friendship. Social understanding, empathy and social interactive
skills are strengths for children and adults with Down syndrome, which can be built on
throughout life to enhance their social inclusion and quality of life (Buckle,2002).
There seems to be much power towards the love they give, it is so pure and true that there
is no way you cannot seem to love their presence and share a good time. He shows manners and
respect at all times and it is pleasing to see because as for him it is normal but others perspective
is different because of coming from a child with Down syndrome. His facial expressions of
happiness and excitement just give you a sense of peace. He knows when to say please and
when to say thank you. Having this condition does not deficit the fact of being able to raise a
child with a special condition too differently.
Bradley knows how to say what he wants to say and if it is not by communication
verbally it is by signs and gestures. He cannot clearly speak everything but he sure does find a
way of expressing what he wants or needs. For example, one day he wanted to have eggs for
breakfast and he could not seem to find a way of letting his mom know verbally so he went to the

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refrigerator and took an egg and gave it to her. It is interesting to see how far a childs mind can
go even with a condition.
Intellectual Development
Normally, from birth to one year, a childs cognitive development expands rapidly during
the first year of life. For Bradley, it was not until he was three to four years when he started
recognizing faces and intimate facial expressions. Play skills and developmental abilities evolve
as infants become increasingly aware of their bodies, other people, and objects in their
environment (Chapman, 2007). He is a couple of years behind in his intellectual development.
He is on the right track just not on the same pace as others.
Bradley seems to not question the world he lives in because to him everyone acts the
same. Since he cannot communicate to us through language, his actions is what gives us a hint
on his wonders. Bradley is curious about certain foods, he likes sticking his fingers in cakes
because of the frosting. The texture of the frosting and taste seem to attract him. He knows that if
a food is red it may be spicy for him to eat it.
Bradley seems to know what is right and what is wrong. During this age range, your
child expands intellectually through self-directed play and exploration. By 2 years of age, his
language development is rapidly increasing, and he can hold short conversations with adults
(Welton, 2016). He knows to behave at other houses as in to not grab objects that are not his. He
judges others when they are not wearing hats, if Bradley is wearing one he expects you to also
have one on. He is aware of the temperature, he hates the sun. For him it is easier to sleep in the
winter rather than in the summer.

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Recommendations for Teachers/Parents


Try placing Bradley in therapies to better enhance is physical development. Show
emotional support and never feel guilt towards him. Encourage Bradley to play with others and
show friendship to enhance speech skills and activities. For intellectual development, the teacher
and parents to know sign language in order to communicate with him since he does not speak
clearly.

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Bradley's Level
Typical Child

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References

https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/early-childhood-physical-development-toilet-training/
http://www.education.com/reference/article/emotional-development/
- Research..
https://www.verywell.com/erik-erikson-biography-1902-1994-2795538
-this stage..
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145554.php
-down syndrome
https://www.down-syndrome.org/information/social/overview/
-First social