You are on page 1of 83

Answers to Odd-Numbered

Exercises and Chapter Tests

CHAPTER 1
Section 1.1

1. Commutative Property for addition


3. Associative Property for addition 5. Distributive Property
7. 3x + 3y 9. 8m 11. -5x +lOy
13. (a) -fs (b) ~ 15. (a) ~ (b) lf
17. (a) False (b) True 19. (a) False (b) True
21. (a) x > 0 (b) t < 4 (c) a~ TT (d) -5 < x <
(e)
~ 5
23. (a) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} (b) {2, 4, 6}
25. (a) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (b) 0
27. (a) {xI x ~ 5} (b) {x I -1 < x < 4}

IP- 31

<X< 0

29. -3

31. 2~x<8

-3

X~

37.

(-2, 1]

35.

(-oo, 1]

39.

(-1, oo)

-2

43.

45. ~

47. (a) 100 (b) 73 49. (a) 2 (b) -1


51. (a) 12 (b) 5 53. (a) 15 (b) 24 (c)
55. (a) ~ (b) -H- (c) -H- 57. (a) Yes (b) 170

Section 1.2 page 23

{/42

5.

{{c?

7. (a) 16

(b) -16

9. (a)
(b) 1000 (c) 1024 11. (a) ~ (b) 4
13. (a) ~ (b) 4 (c)
15. 5 17. 14 19.
21. 2~
31. 64r7 s

41. X

t3/I5

-!

23. a4

33. 648y 7

43. 16b

51. y 15;2

9/10

45. ----:;;;-

c d

4a2

XIS
I

27. 16x 10
x3
y2z9
35. 37. - 5
y
x

25. 6x 7 y 5

53.

bv
3 3

-----;172

(c)

(c)

14

29. 4/b2

s3

39. ~

q r

12
1;2 49. 32x
47. y
16/15
y

3f5/6

55.

57. lxl

(b) 2.8536 X 10- 5

71. (a) 319,000


(c)

(b)
75.
81.
85.

J6
6

:R

(b)

.J3XY
(c) Jf5
3y
10
7

69. (a) 6.93 X 10

(c) ----:;-

(c) 1.2954 X 108

0.00000002670
710,000,000,000,000 73. (a) 5.9 X 10 12 mi
4 X 10- 13 em (c) 3.3 X 10 19 molecules
1.3 X 10- 20 77. 1.429 X 10 19 79. 7.4 X 10- 14
2.5 X 10 13 mi 83. 1.3 X 1021 L
4.03 X 1027 molecules 87. 41.3 mi
(b)

page 33

23. x 4 - a 4

27. 1 + 3a 3 + 3a 6 + a 9
31. 1 - x2/3 + x4/3 - x2

(b) ----:;-

21. 2x 3 - 7x 2 + 7x- 5

3.

Rx

65. (a)

13. 2lt 2 - 29t + 10 15. 3x 2 + 5xy- 2y 2


17. 1 - 4y + 4y 2 19. 4x 4 + 12x 2y 2 + 9y 4

-I

-2

1. 17 112

67 (a)

63. 2lxl

1. 5x 2 - 2x - 4 3. x 3 + 3x 2 - 6x + 11
5. 9x + 103
7. - t 4 + t 3 - t 2 - lOt + 5
9. x3/2 _ x 11 . y 7/3 _ y t/3

-o-

41.

Section 1.3

-o-------o-----

33.

61. ab
page 12

59.

xfY

25.

a-~

b
29. x 5 + x 4 - 3x 3 + 3x- 2

33. 3x 4 y 4 + 7x 3y 5 - 6x 2y 3 - 14xy 4
35. 6x(2x 2 + 3) 37. 3y 3 (2y - 5) 39. (x- 4)(x + 2)
41. (y- 3)(y- 5) 43. (2x + 3)(x + 1) 45. 9(x- 5)(x + 1)
47. (3x + 2)(2x- 3) 49. (2t- 3)2 51. (r- 3s) 2
53. (x + 6)(x - 6) 55. (7 + 2y)(7 - 2y)
57. 4ab 59. (x + 3)(x- 3)(x + l)(x- 1)
61. (t + l)(t 2 - t + 1) 63. (2x - 5)(4x 2 + lOx+ 25)
65. (x 2 - 2y)(x 4 + 2x 2 y + 4y 2) 67. x(x + lf
69. x 2 (x + 3)(x- 1) 71. (y + 2)(y- 2)(y- 3)
73. (2x 2 + l)(x + 2) 75. 3(x- l)(x + 2)
77. y 4 (y + 2) 3(y + 1) 2 79. x 112(x + l)(x- 1)
81. x - 312 (x + lf 83. (x 2 + 3)(x 2 + 1) - 112
85. (a + 2)(a - 2)(a + l)(a - 1) 87. 16x 2(x- 3)(5x- 9)
89.

(2~- 1) 2(x + 3) - 112(7x +

Section 1.4

. _1_
X + 2

page 42

_ X+ 2
X + 1

_ _ y_
y - 1

_ x(2x

+ 3)

2x - 3

A1

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A2

(2x + I)(2x - I)
(
)2
x+5
3x + 7
2
15. x (x + I)
19. (
)(
)
X - 3 X+ 5
2
I
3x + 2
u + 3u + I
21. (x+I )(x+2 ) 23. (x+I )2 25.
u+I
2x
+
7
x- 2
27.
2x + I
31
29
" (x + 3)(x- 3)
(x + 3)(x + 4)
x2(x + I)
9.

x + 4
x+I
x
17. yz

-2-

33.

13 .

11. - -

t +9

-5

5x- 6
x(x- I)

c
39. - -

41.

c- 2

3x

+7

+ 2x - I

-I

49.

+3

55 ~

(x + I )312

J5

3-

2(fi

(x + I)4/3 59. - 2 - 61.


-4

69. True
79. (a)

65.

71. False

R,R2
R 1 + R2

(b)

5([r _ .,fi)
73. False

~=

25
7. - x+3
9. III, II2, I13 11. I9 and 36 13. $9000 at 4-!% and
$3000 at 4% 15. 7.5% 17. $7400 19. $45,000
21. Plumber, 70 h; assistant 35 h 23. 40 years old
25. 9 pennies, 9 nickels, 9 dimes 27. 45 ft
29. I20 ft by I20 ft 31. 9 em 33. 48 em
35. 60ft by 40ft 37. 2ft by 6ft by I5 ft 39. 4 in.
41. I? g 43. 0.6 L 45. 35% 47. 10m
49. I20 ft by I26 ft 51. 6.4 ft from the fulcrum
53. 37 min 20 s 55. 3 h 57. Henry, 4-! h; Irene 3 h
59. It h 61. 4 h 63. 500 mijh
65. 50 mijh (or 240 mijh)
67. 50 69. I6 mi; no 71. 7.52 ft 73. I20 ft
75. 35 yards 77. I69.I in. (circle) and I90.9 in. (square)
79. 6 cubits
1. 3n + 3

3. O.I4x

5. 4w + IO

- ..fi)

Section 1. 7 page 87

r-2

+ JS)

63. 3(I

45. I
51. ~ I-x 2

(2+x2+x+h
)(
)

{x + 2)2(x- 13)
(x - 3 )3
2x

57.

y- x
43. - xy

-3

47. aa+h
(
)
53

37. -.xy

35. (x+ I )(x+2 )(x-3 )

Section 1.6 page 70

~x2 +I+ x

67.

75. True

1. {o,-!,.,fi,2}

3. {-I,2}

5. (-oo, f ]
7

77. False

6.7 ohms

9. (-oo , 2]

7. (4, oo)
4

Section 1.5 page 57


1. (a) Yes (b) No 3. (a) Yes
9. -3 11. I2 13. -~ 15.

. I
19. -3, -2
27.
33.
41.
51.
57.

(b) No 5. 4
17. -4,2

v-;;i;

= {3V

a - 2c

73. b

[I, oo)

-2
15.

= ~c 2

69. x

a2

75. 2

I - a

a - a- I

00)

17. (- oo,

16

-I]

- I

19. [ -3, -I)

21.

(2, 6)
~

-3

23.

-I

[t, 5)

--

25. (-oo , 2)U(5,oo)

---o

27. [ -3, 6]

29. (-oo , -I] U [-!, oo)

-3

77.

79. 4.24 s 81. (a) After I s and I-! s (b) Never


(c) 25ft (d) After Ii s (e) After 21 s
83. (a) After I7 yr, on Jan. I, 2009
(b) After I8.612 yr, on Aug. I2, 20IO
85. I2 em 87. 132.6 ft

(-~,

----o--

nT

= ~ 67. x = 2d - b
R2 - R

13.

2 2

65. R 1

11. (- oo, --!)


I

3I
23. -I v3 25. - - , 2 2
3 2
-2 J14 29. -6 3 fi 31. - J6
2
3
I$
8Jl4
.
7
- - 35.
37. No real solutiOn 39. --,2
4
10
5
-50, 100 43. -4 45. 4 47. 3 49. 2 .,fi, JS
No real solution 53. 3fj, 2.,fi 55. -I, 0, 3
3 3
PV
27, 729 59. - - , - 61. 3.99, 4.0I 63. R = -

71. r

4I
21. - - , 3 2

7. -9

- I

.!.
2

31. (-I,4)
- I

35.

33. (-oo, -3) U (6, oo)


4

(-2, 2)

-3

37. (-oo, oo)

-2

Answers to Section 1.8


39. (-oo,-1)U[3,oo)
-c

41.

(-oo,- ~)

5. (a)

7. (a)

- I

43.

(3, 4)

-2

(-oo, 5) U [16, oo)

-2

(- I , 3) .

oo)

45. (-2, 0) U (2,

16

-4

-2

49. [ -2, 0)

(0, 1]

- 1

51. (-3, --}) U

(2, oo)

53.

-3

-2

55. (-7, 7)

57.

-7

(-3, -4) .

u (1, 3]

-2

-5

(6, -2)

-4

47. [ -2, -1)

A3

-5

(-oo,-1)U(1,oo)

(b)

fi4

(b) 10

-=- 1

(c)

(t.i)

(c )

9. 24

[2, 8]

(0, 0)

11. Trapezoid, area

=9

7
A( l , 3)

____...8 (5, 3)

59. (-7, -3)

61. [1.3, 1.7]

-7

-3

1.3

63. (-4, 8)

65.

-3

1.7

C( l, -3)

(-6, 2)

-3

D(5, -3)

-5

-5

-4

67. 68 ::::: F::::: 86

-6

69. From 0 s to 3 s

71. Between 0 and 60 mi/h


75. (a)

1
560
-3P
+- 3

77. 0.195 dollars


81.

4
4
--:::::;X:::::; 3
3

13.

15.

73. More than 200 mi

-y

(b) From $215 to $290


79. Between 20 and 40ft

83.

X< -2 Or X> 7
-5

-5

-5

-5

Section 1.8 page 100

Yt

1.
(-4, 5) .

3. (a)
(4 , 5)

(-2, 3) .

17 .

19.

(2, 3)

(2, 3)

(5, 2)

-5

(-4,-5)

-5

-5

-5

(4, - 5)

-5

(b)

flO

(c)

G. t)

-5

-5

-5

A4

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

21.

y,

_.,_

47. x-intercept

49. x-intercepts

y-intercept -5,
no symmetry

:: 1,

y-intercept 1,
symmetry about y-axis
y

-2

3 X

-5

23. A(6, 7) 25.

Q( -1, 3) 29.

(b)

10

33. 6.02, 5.22, 6.08 (correct to two decimals)

53. x-intercepts

51. x-intercept 0,
y-intercept 0,
symmetry about y-axis

35. (a)

-4

-5

::3,

y-intercept -9,
symmetry about y-axis

-4

-6

-5

-5

(b)

(~.3),(~.3)

37. (a) (8, 5)

(b)

(a + 3, b + 2)

(d) A'( -2, 1), B'(O, 4), C'(5, 3)

(c)

57. x-intercept 0,

55. x-intercept 0,
y-intercept 0,
no symmetry

(0, 2)

39. No, yes, no

y-intercept 0,
symmetry about y-axis

41. No, yes, yes


43. x-intercept 0, y-intercept 0,

symmetry about origin

-4
X

-5

-4
-5

59. x-intercepts

::4,

61. x-intercept 0,

y-intercept 4,
symmetry about y-axis
45. x-intercept 1,
y-intercept -1 ,

y-intercept 0,
symmetry about y-axis

no symmetry

-5
-4

Answers to Section 1 .1 0
63. Symmetry about y-axis
67. Symmetry about origin

65. Symmetry about origin

69.

71.

21.

19.
4

y
- 6r---+----r---+--~

-4

- 1.2

1.2

AS

-4

-0.8

- I

25. Yes, 2

23. No
73.
77.

(x- 2) + (y + 1) = 9
(x- 7) 2 + (y + 3) 2 = 9

81. (1, -2), 2

87.

83. (0, -3),

(x + 1) + (y - 5) = 130
(x + 2) 2 + (y- 2) 2 = 4

75.
79.

f7

85. ( -1,

-)

89. 127T

27. -4

29.

5
14

31.

4J2 = 5.7

33. 2.5, -2.5 35. 5 + 2 f5 = 7.99, 5 - 2 f5 = 2.01


37. 3.00, 4.00 39. 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 41. 1.62 43. -1.00,
0.00, 1.00 45. 2.55 47. -2.05, 0, 1.05 49. [ -2.00, 5.00]
51. (-oo, 1.00] U [2.00, 3.00] 53. (-1.00, 0) U (1.00, oo)
55. (-oo, 0) 57. 0, 0.01

Section 1.10 page 124

...

1. 2

-2

3.

-t

5. 4

9. -2,!,3,-i

19. 5x

+ y- 11

23. 3x - y - 3
29. X= -1

Section 1.9 page 112

1. (c)

3. (c)

7.

~I/

-20

9.

= 0 25. y = 5 27. x + 2y + 11 = 0
+ 1 = 0 33. X- y + 6 = 0

31. 5x- 2y

If

\ ro

13.

\ Jw

2000

-so[(jV
- 2000

17.

-l \I~

- 10

-I

- 50

+ 19 = 0

21. 3x- y - 2 = 0

20

l'

17. 2x- 3y

13. 3x-2y-6=0

(b) 3x- 2y

- 10

11.

5. (c)
400

-2[

-!

11. x+y-4=0

+ 1=0

15. x- y

-2

7.

J'

N/1
-3

I
- I

37. All lines pass through (3, 2)


39. -1,3

41.

- t,o

'~,' ' ' ,J ~' ~ ' ~


- 5t

. -5

=0

43.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A6

t. 3

45. 0, 4

3~0- - - - - - - - . . . .

71. (a)

(b) (21.82, 13.82)

(c) Price $21.82,


amount 13.82

~~--~--~--~~~so

. 01

-5

Chapter 1 Review page 129

-5

47. ~. -3

49. -~.

...

1. Commutative Property for addition


3. Distributive Property
5. -2 ~X< 6
-2

7. [5, oo)
9. 6

11. ~

21. 12xy

55. x - y - 3 = 0 57. (b) 4x - 3y - 24 = 0


59. 16,667 ft
61. (a) 8.34; the slope represents the increase in dosage for a

one-year increase in age.


(b) 8.34 mg

13.

2 2

23. x y

15. 11 17. 4
x(2 - .[x)
25.

4 -x
s
7.825 X 10 10 31. 1.65 X 10- 32
3xy 2 (4xy 2 - y 3 + 3x 2) 35. (x - 2)(x + 5)
(4t + 3)(t- 4) 39. (5 - 4t)(5 + 4t)
(x- 1)(x 2 + x + 1)(x + 1)(x 2 - x + 1)
x- 112 (x- 1) 2 45. (x- 2)(4x 2 + 3)
47. Jx 2 + 2 (x 2 + x + 2) 2 49. 6x 2 - 21x + 3 51. x- 7
3(x + 3)
x +1
53. 2x 3 - 6x 2 + 4x 55.
57. - x+4
x-4
1
1
59. 61. - - 63.
2)3 65. 5
x + 1
2x
67. No solution 69. 2, 7 71. -1,! 73. 0, :: ~
-2 ::
75.
3
77. - 5 79. 3, 11
29.
33.
37.
41.
43.

3/i-

(b) The slope represents pro-

63. (a)

duction cost per toaster;


the y-intercept represents
monthly fixed cost.

12000

!7

81. 20 lb raisins, 30 lb nuts

9000

85. 110 min


87. (-3, oo)

6000

83.

(.{329-

---c

-3

3000

-6

91. (-oo,-2)U(2,4]

65. (a) t

500

1000

1500

= f4 n + 45

67. (a) P = 0.434d

depth in feet
69. (a) C

=i

-2

+ 15, where Pis pressure in lb/in and dis

+ 260

95. - 1, 7
99. (a)

97. [1 , 3]
y

12
Q (-5, 12)

(b) 196 ft
d

[2, 8]

93.

(b) 76F

1000

(b) $635

(c) The slope represents


cost per mile.
(d) They-intercept
represents annual fixed
cost.

500

P(2,0)
X

-4
0

500

1000

3) = 3.78 mi/h

89. (-oo, - 6) U (2, oo)

-<>-

19. 16x 3
4r5/2
27. - 7-

-4

Answe rs to Chapter 1 Test

(b)

(d) y =

(c)

--X +

(e)

(-~, 6)
(x - 2)2 + y 2 = 193

123. 2x - 3y - 16 = 0

+y

125. 3x

- 12 = 0

X + 5y = 0
129. x 2 + y 2 = 169, 5x - 12y + 169 = 0
127.

Chapter 1 Test page 132


1. (a)

_2

(b) (- oo, 3], (0, 8]

2. (a) 81

101.

103. B
105. (x

y
3

.j193

A7

-----r-----1

'L ----ol - - - - -'I

(b) - 81

4. (a)
(f)

(b)
(e)

107. Circle, center ( - 1, 3), radius 1


109. No graph
111. No symmetry
113. No symmetry

(c)
(e)

(d) 25

(b) 48a 5b7

(c)

+ 5)

(2x- 5)(2x

(f)

81

3x-tf (x- l)(x- 2)

(d) 4x 2

(d) - 1

(c) -3, 4

X-

+ 12x + 9

+ 4)

.xy(x- 2)(x

(f)

(e) _l_

6. (a) llx- 2

x(x + 3)(x 2

(d)

(b) 1

49

+2

X-

(2x- 3)(x

(b)

(x - 3)(x- 2)(x + 2)

8. (a) 6

(e)

(d) x

9y

-(x + y) 5. 5ji + 2J1Q


4x 2 + ?x- 15 (c) a - b
x 3 + 6x 2 + 12x + 8

7. (a)

6{i

1
81

(c)

(b) 3.965 X 10- 7

3. (a) 1.86 X lOll

+ 5) 2 + (y + 1)2 = 26

(c) 51

3x + 9)

+ 2)

-3

.
(e) No real solution

-7

f
h
( ) 1, v2

(g)

2 22
3'
3

10. 50ft by 120ft

-3

11. (a) [ -4, 3)


115. Symmetry about y-axis

117. No symmetry

(b)

(-2, 0)

(c)

(1, 7)

-4

(1, oo)

-2

(d) (-1,4]

- I

12. Between 41 op and 50F

13. 0::::::; X::::::; 6

14. (a) -2.94, -0. 11 , 3.05

(b) [ - 1, 3]

15. (a) S(3, 6)

(b) 18

/',
119.

121.

/
/

10

''

/
/

p+(
-3 I

/"'>IK

-2r-~----------~--~

''

''

- 25

''

?R

/
/

''

/
/

'

-10

''
/

/
X

9. 12 rm

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

AS

27.

(b) x-intercepts -2, 2

16. (a)

y-intercept -4
(c) Symmetric about y-axis
X

-4

17. (a) 20 (b) (-1, -4) (c) 4x + 3y + 16 = 0


(d) 3x- 4y - 13 = 0
(e) (x- 5) 2 + (y + 12) 2 = 169
(f)

CHAPTER 2

(x + 1)2 + (y + 4) 2 = 100

18. (a) Center (0, 4); radius 3

(b) Center (3, -5); radius 5


y

y ~

Section 2.1 page 151


1. f(x) = ?x + 2 3. f(x) = (x- 4) 2 5. Divide by 2, then
7. Square, multiply by 3, then subtract 2
9.
~
11. x
f(x)

add 7
X

0~0

(input)

(output)

1~1
~

4~2

-3

-1
0

3
1

1
2
3

3
9
19

13. 3, -3, 2, 2a + 1, -2a + 1, 2a + 2b + 1

11-a2-a

15. - - -3 - - - - - undefined
3'
'3'1+a' a '

19. y = ~ x + 6, slope ~. y-intercept 6


y

17. -4, 10, -2, 3.j2, 2x 2 + ?x + 1, 2x 2 - 3x- 4


19. 6, 2, 1, 2, 2lx 1. 2(x 2 + 1) 21. 4, 1, 1, 2, 3
_
23. 8, -~, -1, 0,1 25. x 2 + 4x + 5,x 2 + 6
27. x 2 + 4, x 2 + Sx + 16 29. 3a + 2, 3(a +h) + 2, 3
31. 5, 5, 0
33. 3 - 5a + 4a 2 , 3 - 5a - 5h + 4a 2 + Sah + 4h 2 ,
- 5 +Sa+ 4h
35. (a) C(10) = 1532.1, C(100) = 2100 (b) The cost of

20. (a) x + 3y - 7 = 0 (b) 4x - y + 12 = 0


21. (a) 35,000
(b) The slope represents the cost of producing one more
blender. The C-intercept represents the fixed costs.

Focus on Problem Solving page 138


1. 37.5 rni/h 3. 150 rni 5. 2 7. 57 min
9. No, not necessarily 11. The same amount
13. (a) Uncle (b) Father (d) No 15. 8.49
19. 40

21.

25. Infinitely far

17. 427

producing 10 yd and 100 yd (c) C(O) = 1500


37. (a) D(0.1) = 28.1, D(0.2) = 39.8 (b) 41.3 mi (c) 235.6 mi
39. (a) v(0.1) = 4440, v(0.4) = 1665
(b) Flow is faster near central axis
(c)

r
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

v(r)

4625
4440
3885
2960
1665
0
41. (a) T(5000) = 0, T(12,000) = 960, T(25,000) = 1975
(b) The amount of tax paid on incomes of 5000, 12,000, and
25,000
43. (-oo,oo) 45. [-1,5] 47. {xlx=F3}

Answers to Section 2.2


49. {xI x =F

1}

51.

[5, oo)

53.

(-oo, oo)

55.

[%, oo)

A9

(b) Domain (-oo, oo),


range [ -4, oo)

13. (a)

57. [-2,3)U(3,oo) 59. (-oo,O]U[6,oo)


61. This person's weight increases as he grows, then continues

to increase; the person then goes on a crash diet (possibly) at


age 30, then gains weight again, the weight gain eventually
leveling off.
63. T

17. (a)

15. (a)

65. A won the race. All runners finished. Runner B fell, but got
up again to finish second.
X

-5

67.

Number

-I

of cards
sold

-5

Jan.

Apr.

Jul.

Oct.

Month

69. (a) 500 MW, 725 MW (b) Between 3:00A.M. and


4:00A.M. (c) Just before noon
71.
T

(b) Domain [ 1, oo ),
range [0, oo)

(b) Domain [ -4, 4],


range [0, 4]
19.

21.

60

58
-5

56

-5

54
52
-5

50

01

10

12

23.

-5

25.

-5

Section 2.2 page 165


1. (a) 1, -1, 3, 4 (b) Domain [ -3, 4], range [ -1, 4]
3. (a) f(O) (b) g( -3) (c) -2, 2
5. (a) Yes (b) No (c) Yes (d) No
7. Function, domain [ -3, 2], range [ -2, 2]
9. Not a function
11. (a)
Y+
(b) Domain (-oo, oo),
range (- oo, oo)

-5

-5

29.

27.

-4

-5

-5

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A10

31.

33.

55. (a)

(b)

7'7'7,/71.(,

- 101

- 10

-4

J> I'7

'7 '7 .(,

10

110

110

-5

-4
- 10

-5

35.

(c) If c > 0, then the graph of f(x) = (x- c) 3 is the same as


the graph of y = x 3 shifted right c units. If c < 0, then the

37.

graph of f(x) = (x- c) 3 is the same as the graph of y = x 3


shifted left c units.

57. (a)
X

-5

(b)

-5

c=

c =

c=2

39.

c=4

-5

-5

Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
51. Yes

41.
43.
45.
47.
49.

- I

-2

JX;

(c) Graphs of even roots are similar to


graphs of odd roots
As c increases, the graph of y = {/X becomes
are similar to
steeper near 0 and flatter when x > 1.

r;.:.

61.

59.
X

------+------</

53. (a)

-5

- 51

-5

~T.....-;

-5

-5

- 10

(b)

65.

63.

-5 I

' ' ' i"'> I ,..... ' ' '

-5

- 10

(c) If c > 0, then the graph of f(x)

------<>0

= x 2 + cis the same as the

graph of y = x 2 shifted upward c units. If c < 0, then the graph


of f(x) = x 2 + cis the same as the graph of y = x 2 shifted
downward c units.

-5

Answers to Section 2.5


y

69.

67.

A11

19. (a) 245 persons/yr (b) -328.5 persons/yr


(c) 1990-1994 (d) 1994-1999
21. (a) 7.2 units/yr (b) 8 units/yr (c) -55 units/yr
(d) 1996-1997, 1997-1998
23. Increasing on [ - 1, 1], [2, 4]; decreasing on [1, 2]
25. Increasing on [ - 2, -1], [1, 2]; decreasing on [ - 3, -2],
[ -1, 1], [2, 3]
27. (a)

29. (a)
10

- 10

10

-2 r---~--------~~~

-5

- 10

(b) Increasing on [0, oo );


decreasing on (- oo, 0J

(b) Increasing on [2.5, oo );


decreasing on (- oo , 2.5]
33. (a)

31. (a)
20

75.

C(x) =

o-o
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e
o-e

2
2.2
. 2.4

O<x~1

1
1.1

<x~

<X~

1.1
1.2

,..

4.0

1.9 <

77. f(x) = - ix - ~' - 2 ~ x ~ 4

79. f(x) = 1-

Fx

- 5 ~~~L4~-4------4

-3

-25

< 2.0
2

-3 ~~--~----~-+--_,

(b) Increasing on

(b) Increasing on

(-oo, -1], [2, oo);

(- oo , -1.55], [0.22, oo);

decreasing on [- 1, 2J

decreasing on [ - 1.55, 0.22]

Section 2.5 page 194


1. (a) Shift downward 3 units (b) Shift right 3 units
3. (a) Stretch vertically by a factor of 3

Section 2.3 page 172

1. T = kx

3. v = k/z

7. z = k

(b) Shrink vertically by a factor oft


5. (a) Reflect in the x-axis and stretch vertically by a factor of 2
(b) Reflect in the x-axis and shrink vertically by a factor of !
7. (a) Shift right 4 units and upward unit (b) Shift left 4
units and downward unit 9. (a) Shrink horizontally by a
factor of
(b) Stretch horizontally by a factor of 4

JY

i
11. R = k -

13. y = 7x
Pt
M = 15x/y 17. W = 360/r 2 19. C = 16/wh
s = 500//t 23. (a) F = kx (b) 8 (c) 32 N
(a) C = kpm (b) 0.125 (c) $57,500
(a) R = kLjd 2 (b) 0.002916 (c) R = 137 i1

9. V = klwh
15.
21.
25.
27.

5. y = ks/t

29. $3.75

31. $51 ,200

33. (a)

11. (a)

3. 5

5. 60

7. 12+3h

(b)

f = !:_ (b) Halves it


L

Section 2.4 page 182


1. 3

-5

9. -1/a

15. ~

17.

-%

-5

-2

11. - . -

-5

13. (a)

-5

A12

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

Yt

(c)

Yt

(d)

Vl

(b) Shift right 2 units, then shrink vertically by a factor of


19. g(x) = (x- 2) 2 + 3 21. g(x) = -5)x + 3
23. g(x) = 0.1
2
X

25.

(f)

Yt

1 1 1 1 1 1

-5

Vl

Ut

-5

J0-~..4

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 71..-J 1 1 1 1 1 1

-5

~+

31.
y

13. (a)

29.
-5+

"T

J"

~+
-5

27.

dy

-H

Yt

lx -11 -

-3+

(e)

(b) Shift up 2 units


17. (a) Stretch vertically by a factor of 2

-5
-5

15. (a) Shift left 2 units

-5

5L

-5

-5

01

-5

-5

33.

-5

(b) (i)

y~

35.

(ii)

t il

n5

01

-5

-5

Vl

~I

-4

-5 ~
(iii)

~ tY

Y1

(iv)

10

1~

1111.
4
X

:L

\./
~

(-3,5)
-4

37.

Yt

-10

-~~~r~~~~~~-.-,-,
0
-2

39.

"-

Yt

-2

+II

I
I

11

I
I
I

v
-5

-5

-5

-5

..

Answers to Section 2.6


41. ~----~----~

55. Odd

A13

57. Neither

(b)
(c)

-8~----~~~--~~
X

-5

-2

For part (b) shift the graph in (a) left 5 units; for part (c) shift
the graph in (a) left 5 units and stretch vertically by a factor of
2; for part (d) shift the graph in (a) left 5 units, stretch vertically
by a factor of 2, and then shift upward 4 units.
43.

59. To obtain the graph of g, reflect in the x-axis the part of the
graph off that is below the x-axis.
61. (a)

Yt

(b)

- 4r---~~~~--~~__,

-5

-4

(c)

For part (b) shrink the graph in (a) vertically by a factor oft;
for part (c) shrink the graph in (a) vertically by a factor of
t and reflect in the x-axis; for part (d) shift the graph in (a) right
4 units, shrink vertically by a factor oft, and then reflect in the
x-axis.

Section 2.6 page 204

45. (a)

1. Vertex (4, -16)

(b)

-5

3. Vertex

x-intercepts 0, 8
y-intercept 0

-5

(d)

a,-~)

x-intercepts 0, 3
y-intercept 0

47.

49.

e-o
(b)

(a)

e-o

.~

-3

-4

e-o
e-o

-4

-5

e-o

5. Vertex (-2, -3)


x-intercepts -2 ::
y-intercept 1

t-3

7. Vertex ( -3, -1)


x-intercepts -4, -2
y-intercept 8

.J3

53. Neither

51. Even

4
X

-5
-2

-4

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A14

11. Vertex (5, 7)

9. Vertex ( -1, 1)

(c) Maximum h( -~)

=%

(-t. ~) +2

o.

-3

(b)

no x-intercept
y-intercept 57

no x-intercept
y-intercept 3

-4

-2

25.

-2 0

Minimum!(-~)

~ 27. Maximum f( -3.5) = 185.75


31. Minimum h( -2) = -8
f 35. f(x) = 2x 2 - 4x

29. Minimum f(0.6) = 15.64

33. Maximum f( -1) =


37. (-oo,oo),(-oo,1]

13. Vertex (-2, 19)

x-intercepts -2 ::: ~ Jl9


y-intercept 3

39. 25ft

15. (a) f(x)

= -(x-

1) 2

(b)

17. (a)
(b)

f(x) = (x + 1) 2

41. $4000, 100 units

43. 30 times 45. (a) -4.01 (b) -4.011025


47. Local maximum= 0.38 when x = -0.58;
local minimum = -0.38 when x = 0.58
49. Local maximum 0 when x = 0;
local minimum= -13.61 when x = -1.71;
local minimum= -73.32 when x = 3.21
51. Local maximum = 5.66 when x = 4.00
53. Local maximum= 0.38 when x = -1.73;
local minimum = -0.38 when x = 1.73

55. 7.5 mi/h

57. 3.96C

59. 7

(1,1)

Section 2.7 page 214


X

A(w) = 3w 2 , w > 0 3. V(w) = ~ w3 , w > 0


5. A(x) = lOx- x 2 , 0 < x < 10 7. A(x) = ( ../3/4)x 2 , x > 0
9. r(A) = JA/Tr, A > 0 11. S(x) = 2x 2 + 240/x, x > 0
13. D(t) = 25t, t "?:: 0 15. A(b) = b ~4- b, 0 < b < 4
17. A(h) = 2h ~ 100- h 2, 0 < h < 10
19. (b) p(x) = x(19 - x) (c) 9.5, 9.5
1.

(-1,-2)

(c) Maximum f(1)

19. (a)
(b)

f(x) =

= 1

-(x + tY + -

(-l ~)y

f( -1) = -2
g(x) = 3(x- 2) 2 + 1

(c) Minimum

21. (a)
(b)

2' 4

21. -12, -12


23. (b) A(x) = x(2400 - 2x)
25. (a) f(w) = 8w + 7200/w

(c) 600ft by 1200 ft

(b) Width along road is 30 ft, length is 40 ft


(c) 15ft to 60ft
27. (a) R(p) = -3000 p 2 + 57,000 p (b) $19
3

29. (a)

-1) = -(x + ~) 2 +%

(c) Maximum!(

23. (a) h(x) =

(c) Minimum g(2)

(b)
31.
(b)

33.
35.
(b)

4)

(c) $9.50

A(x) = 15x - ( -7T +- x 2

8
Width = 8.40 ft, height of rectangular part = 4.20 ft
(a) A(x) = x 2 + 48/x
Height = 1.44 ft, width = 2.88 ft
(a) A(x) = 2x + 200 x (b) 10m by 10m
(a) E(x) = 14 25 + x 2 + 10(12 - x)
To point C, 5.1 mi from point B

Answers to Section 2.9

A15

(fog)(x) = l2x + 31, (-oo, oo)


(go f)(x) = 2lxl + 3, (-oo, oo)
(fo f)(x) = lxl, (-oo, oo)
(gog)(x) = 4x + 9, (-oo, oo)
2x- 1
37. (fog)(x) = ---,x =I= 0
2x
2x
(g j)(x) = X + - 1, X =f:= -1

Section 2.8 page 225

35.

(f + g)(x) = x 2 + x + 2, (-oo, oo);


(f- g)(x) = x 2 - x- 2, (-oo, oo);
(fg)(x) = x 3 + 2x 2 , (-oo, oo);
(f/g)(x) = x 2/(x +~oo, J2) U (-2, oo)
3. (f + g)(x) = )1 + x 2 + 1- x, (-oo, 1];
(f- g)(x) = Jl+?- ~' (-oo, 1];
(fg)(x) = )1- x + x 2 - x 3 , (-oo, 1];
1.

lEE_

(f/g)(x) = v~' (-oo, 1)

(f o f)(x) =

(gog)(x)
39. (f o g)(x) = 1{{x;, [0, oo)
(go f)(x) = 1{{x;, [0, oo)
(f o f)(x) = ({x, (- oo, oo)
(go g)(x) =
[o, oo)
41. (fogoh)(x) = F=l- 1
43. (fogo h)(x) = (J;.: - 5) 4 + 1
45. g(x) = x- 9, f(x) = x 5 47. g(x) = x 2 , f(x) = x/(x + 4)
49 . g(x) = 1 - x 3 , f(x) = lx I
51. h(x) = x 2 , g(x) = x + 1, f(x) = 1/x
53. h(x) =
g(x) = 4 + X, f(x) = x 9
55 . A(t) = 3600 7Tt 2 57. A(t) = 167Tt 2 59. (a) f(x) = 0.9x
(b) g(x) = x- 100 (c) f o g(x) = 0.9x- 90,
go f(x) = 0.9x - 100, fog: firs t rebate, then discount, go f:
first discount, then rebate, g o f is the better deal

'rx,

11. y

..

rx,

13. r - - - - . - - - - - - - - . _

x:

, x =I= -1, x =I= 1


= 4x- 3, (-oo, oo)

(f + g)(x) = 8/(x(x + 4)), x =I= -4, x =I= 0;


(f- g)(x) = 4(x + 2)/(x(x + 4)), x =I= -4, x =I= 0;
(fg )(x) = -4/(x(x + 4)), x =I= -4, x =I= 0;
(f/g)(x) = -(x + 4)/x, x =I=- 4, x =I= 0
7. [0, 1] 9. [4, oo)
5.

15.
f

-3 1

/7

I P

-3r-----~-+--+-----~

-I

-I

-2

17. (a) 1 (b) -23 19. (a) -11 (b) -119


21. (a) -3x 2 + 1 (b) -9x 2 + 30x- 23
23. 4 25. 5 27. 4
29. (fog)(x) = 8x + 1, (-oo, oo);

(go f)(x) = 8x + 11, (-oo, oo);


(fo f)(x) = 4x + 9, (-oo, oo);
(gog)(x) = 16x- 5, (-oo, oo)
31. (fog)(x) = (x + 1) 2 , (-oo, oo)
(go f)(x) = x 2 + 1, (-oo, oo)
(f o f)(x) = x4 , ( - oo, oo)
(g og)(x) = x + 2, (-oo, oo)
1

33. (f o g)(x) = x +

Section 2.9

page 236

1. No 3. Yes 5. No 7. Yes 9. Yes


15. No 17. (a) 2 (b) 3 19. 1

f- 1(x)
f - 1(x)
39. f - 1 (x)
41. f - 1(x)
43. f- 1(x)
47. f - 1(x)
31.
35.

51. (a)

11. Yes

= t(x- 1) 33. f - 1(x) = i(x- 7)


= 2x 37. f - 1(x) = (1/x)- 2
= (5x- 1)/(2x + 3)
= t (x 2 - 2), x ~ 0
= )4 - x 45. f- 1(x) = (x- 4) 3
= x 2 - 2x, x ~ 1 49. f - 1(x) = f;:

-5

(b)

, x =I= -2

(g o f)(x) = - + 4, x =I= 0

-5

(f f)(x) = X, X =f:= 0
(gog)(x) = 4x + 12, (-oo, oo)
0

(c)

f- 1(x) = (x + 6)

13. No

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A16

53. (a)

(b)

f - 1(x) = t(x - 7) A pizza costing x dollars has f - 1(x)

75.

toppings.

-2

-2
-2

-2

(c) f- 1 (x) = x 2 - 1, x ~ 0
55. Not one-to-one

-2 1

---..,1

57. One-to-one

Chapter 2 Review page 240


1. -4, 8, -16, a 3 + 2a - 4, -a 3 - 2a - 4,
x 3 + 3x 2 + 5x- 1, 8x 3 + 4x- 4, 2x 3 + 4x- 10
3. (a) -1, 2 (b) [ -4, 5] (c) [ -4, 4] (d) Increasing on
[ -4, -2] and [ -1, 4]; decreasing on [ -2, -1] and [4, 5]
(e) No 5. Domain [ -3, oo), range [0, oo) 7. (-oo, oo)
9. [ -4, oo) 11. {xI x =I= -2, -1, 0}
13. (-oo,-1]U[1,4]
15.

-4

16

-5

-5
- 20

-3

61. x~O,f - 1 (x)=~4-x


63. x ~ -2, h- 1 (x) = J;.:- 2

59. Not one-to-one


10

21.

19.
-5

15

- 10

65.

17.

-5

" ' " 'ol

yr

v ''
c

-1

ol

1~

(3,-3)

-3

-5

23.

:! I

I ! i
67. (a) f(x)

= 500 + 80x

(b)

f - 1(x) = to(x- 500), the

25.

-5

7io4

If
I

number of hours worked as a function of the fee


(c) 9; if he charges $1220, he worked 9 h
69. (a) v-

,t
18 500
(b) 0.498; at a distance 0.498 from the central axis, the velocity
is 30 71. (a) F- 1(x) = i(x- 32); the Celsius temperature
when the Fahrenheit temperature is x (b) F- 1(86) = 30; when
the temperature is 86F, it is 30C
if X~ 20,000
{ 0.1x
73 (a) f ()
x = 2000 + 0.2(x - 20,000)
if X> 20,000
if X~ 2000
1 ( ) _ {lOx
(b) J X 10,000 + 5x
if X> 2000
If you pay x euros in taxes, your income isf- 1 (x)
(c) f- 1 (10,000) = 60,000

Y,.,

27.

ui
-3

ljol

---I

-5

Ul

-5

29.

I +\
-3

-3

.I

/-sf

(t) = Jo.25 -

~
Answers to Chapter 2 Test
33. (iii)

69. (a) (f + g)(x) = x 2 - 6x + 6


(b) (f- g)(x) = x 2 - 2
(c) (fg )(x) = -3x 3 + 13x 2 - 18x + 8
(d) (f/g )(x) = (x 2 - 3x + 2)/(4 - 3x)
(e) (f og)(x) = 9x 2 - 15x + 6
(f) (go f)(x) = -3x 2 + 9x- 2
71. (f og)(x) = - 3x 2 + 6x- 1, (-oo, oo);
(go f)(x) = -9x 2 + 12x- 3, (-oo, oo);
(f oJ)(x) = 9x- 4, (-oo, oo);
(g og)(x) = -x 4 + 4x 3 - 6x 2 + 4x, (-oo, oo)
73. (fogo h)(x) = 1 + .[x 75. Yes 77. No

-3

35.

37.

rr--------.-.,.-.,.

- 10

10

81. f - 1(x)

x+2
=3

83. f - 1(x)

.,c_
= vx-

A17

79. No

85. (a), (b)

- 3o c::=~~~~=t-J
-2

-20

39. [ -2.1, 0.2] u [1.9, 00)


41. M = 8z 43. (a) I= k/d 2
45. 11.0 mi/h

47. 5

(b) 64,000
-1
49. 3(3 + h)

(c) 160 candles

-5

51.

10

-5
-2 ~~~~~~--~~~

(c)

f - 1(x) = )x +

- 10

Increasing on (-oo, 0], [2.67, oo); decreasing on [0, 2.67]


53. (a) Shift upward 8 units

(b) Shift left 8 units

(c) Stretch vertically by a factor of 2, then shift upward 1 unit


(d) Shift right 2 units and downward 2 units

Reflect in y-axis
(f) Reflect in y-axis, then in x-axis
(g) Reflect in x-axis (h) Reflect in line y
(e)

55. (a) Neither


57.

(b) Odd

Even

(c)

Chapter 2 Test page 244


1. (a) and (b) are graphs of functions, (a) is one-to-one

2. (a) f(4)

(b) [0, 1) U (1,

=x

3. (a) M

(d) Neither

f(x) = (x + 2)2- 3 59. g(-1) = -7 61. 68ft

J6

= 3' f(6) = s' f(a +

1)

J(i+1

= -a--

oo)

= kwh 2/L

(b) 400

5. (a)

(c) 12,000 lb

4. h

(b)

63. Local maximum= 3.79 when x = 0.46;


local minimum= 2.81 when x = -0.46
65.
-5

AIC
sales

Jan.

Apr.

r;
..{3
67. (a) A(x) = 5y::JX- 2x 2

Jul.

Oct.

(b) 5 em by

-5

Month

25..{3 em

6. (a) Shift right 3 units, then shift upward 2 units

(b) Reflect in y-axis

+7

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A18

7. (a) f(x) = 2(x - 2) 2

+5

(b)

(b) No

13. (a)
(c)

f(2) = 5
-4

- 30

(c) Local minimum= -27.18 when x = -1.61;


local maximum= -2.55 when x = 0.18;
local minimum = -11.93 when x = 1.43
(d) [ -27.18, oo) (e) Increasing on [ -1.61, 0.18] U [1.43, oo);
decreasing on (-oo, -1.61] U [0.18, 1.43]

(2, 5)

-5

8. (a) -3, 3

(b)

Focus on Modeling page 250


1. (a)

Yt

. . :-.... /
RegressiOn

360t

~
~

-5

(b) y = 1.5125x- 2656.4


(c) 365.6 ppm

line~

355
350
345

8 340
335

3. (a)

= 400x- 2x 2 (b) 100ft


(f o g)(x) = 4x 2 - 8x + 2

9. (a) A(x)

10. (a)
(b)
(e)

11.

(g o f)(x) = 2x 2 + 4x - 5
(g o g o g)(x) = 8x - 21
(a) f - 1(x) = 3 - x 2 , x ~ 0

(c) 2

'

~ 12

(d) 11

(b)

Regression
line

11
10

0I

-------X

-5

10

20 30 40 50
Thousands of dollars

r~

~7

60
50
40

12. (a) Domain [0, 6], range [ 1, 7]


(b)
y

(b) y = -0.0995x + 13.9, x in thousands of dollars


(c) 11.4 per 100 population (d) 5.8 per 100 population
5. (a) Y
70

-5

60

30
20
10
5

lO

15

20

25

Temperature

60-te
50
40
X

30
20
lO

.(c)

4
6
8 10 12
Wind speed (kmlh)

30

A 19

An swers to Section 3.1

(b) y = 2.6768x- 22.19, y = - 3.5336x + 46.73


(c) 0.77 is the correlation coefficient for the temperature-bites
data, so a linear model is not appropriate; - 0.89 is the correlation coefficient for the wind/bites data, so a linear model is
more suitable in this case.
7. (a) Y

5.

7.

100

/""Regression line

80

60

40

9.

20

~~

80

85 90 95 100
Noise level (dB)

lOS

11.
100

(b) y = - 3.9018x + 419.7 (c) The correlation coefficient


is - 0.98, so a linear model is appropriate. (d) 53%
9. (a)
~

75

70

ij'

6s

8.:l

60

55

13.

1920

1940

= 0.29083x

(b) y

11. (a)
~

'i
~

e
0

Y
100

1960

1980

- 501.8

(c) 79.9 years

. ...
..'.... .. . ..

90
80

15.

~-.

70
60
50

17.

0 I 25,000
50,000
Teacher average pay ($)

19 .

X
X

(b) y = - 0.000012x + 72.0


(c) r = - 0.00812; very little correlation; it appears that
teachers' salaries do not affect graduation rates.

-4

CHAPTER 3
Section 3.1 page 269
1.

23.

21.

3.

-4

10
X

X
X

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A20

25.

27.

53.

local minimum ( -3, -27)

30

-5~~--~~~--~--+-1

- 1

-30

-1

55.

local maximum (-1, 5)


local minimum (1, 1)

10

31.
- 3~---r--~---------1

-5

57. One local maximum, no local minimum

59. One local maximum, one local minimum


61. One local maximum, two local minima
63. No local extrema

65. One local maximum, two local minima


33.

35.

67.

_.----- c =

_- c=2
- I

c= 1

l\c =!
2

-5
X

-2

Increasing the value of c stretches the graph vertically.

-5

69.
37. Ill
39. v
41. VI
43. y~
45. y~
47. y~
49.

00
00
00

as
as
as

x~ oo,y~

X~

-oo

as

x~

-oo

oo

x~ oo,y~

-oo

30

- !.5

'--c . . . . ._

as x~ -oo
local maximum (4, 16)

_, /

lt.s

-3

Increasing the value of c moves the graph up.


71.

~--~--------~---112

- 2I

=s

,,

- 50

51.

30

local maximum (- 2, 25)


local minimum (2, -7)
-40

-5~+---~--~--~~~

-30

Increasing the value of c causes a deeper dip in the graph in


the fourth quadrant and moves the positive x-intercept to
the right.

Answers to Section 3.3


41. -1, -~. -3 ::Jill
43. (a) -2, 2, 3

(b)

45. (a) -4, 3

(b)

47. (a) - 1,2

(b)

A21

(b) Three
(c) (0, 2), (3, 8), (-2, -12)
75. (g) P(x) = P0 (x) + PE(x), where P0 (x) = x 5 + 6x 3
and PE(x} = -x 2 + 5
77. (b) Domain {xI 0 < x < 18}
(c) 2~
1728 in 3

2x

~~~~~~~~~_/1 8

79. (a) 1380 rabbits, after 4.2 months


(b) After 8.4 months
81. (a) Three x-intercepts, two local extrema
(b)

One x-intercept, no local extrema


X

Section 3.2 page 278

In answers I -23, the first polynomial given is the quotient and


the second is the remainder.

1. x+1, -11 3. x 2 +4x +22, 93


5. x + 2, 8x- 1 7. 3x + 1, 7x- 5 9. x 4 + 1, 0
11. x- 2, -2 13. 3x + 23, 138 15. x 2 + 2, -3
17. x 2 - 3x + 1, -1 19. x 4 + x 3 + 4x 2 + 4x + 4, -2
21. 2x 2 + 4x, 1 23. x 2 + 3x + 9, 0
25. -3 27. 12 29. - 7 31. - 483 33. 2159 35.
37. -8.279 43. -1 :: J6 45. x 3 - 3x 2 - x + 3
47. x 4 - 8x 3 + 14x 2 + 8x- 15
49. - 1x 3 + 3x 2 + lf x - 9

49. (a) - 1,2

(b)

Section 3.3 page 287

1. 1 , 3 3. 1, 2, ::4, 8, ::~ 5. -2, 1


9. 2 11. -1, 2, 3 13. -1 15. 1, 2
17. 1, - 1, -2, -4
23. -1, -~. ~

25. -1. ~. 1

29. -3, -2, 1, 3


35. -1, 4,

19. 2, 1
31. -1,

3JI3
2

7. - 1,2
51. 1 positive, 2 or 0 negative; 3 or 1 real

21. -2

53. 1 positive, 1 negative; 2 real

27. - 1, ~. 2

-t. 2, 5
1 $

37. 3 , - 2 -

33. -2, -1 ::
1

fi

1/3

39. 2 - 2 -

55. 2 or 0 positive, 0 negative; 3 or 1 real (since 0 is a zero but


is neither positive nor negative)
61. 3, - 2

63. 3, -1

65. -2, ~. :: 1

67. :: ~.

Answe rs to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A22

69. -2, 1, 3, 4 75. -2, 2, 3 77. -f, -1, 1, 4


79. -1.28, 1.53 81. -1.50 83 . 11.3 ft
85. (a) It began to snow again. (b) No

51 . 3 (multiplicity 2), 2 i

(c) Just before midnight on Saturday night


87. 2.76 m 89. 88 in. (or 3.21 in.)

(b) (x - 1)(x + 1)(x - 3i)(x + 3i)

59. (a) (x- 2)(x + 2)(x 2

-t,

1. Real part 5, imaginary part -7 3. Real part


imaginary part
5. Real part 3, imaginary part 0
7. Real part 0, imaginary part
9. Real part jj, imaginary part 2
11. 5-i 13. 3+5i 15. 12+i 17. -19+4i
19. -4 + 8i 21. 30 + 10i 23. -33 - 56i 25. 27 - 8i
27. -i 29. ~ + i 31 . -5 + 12i 33. -4 + 2i
35. 2
i 37. -i 39. -i 4 1. 1 43. 5i 45. -6
47.

(3 + 15) + (3 - JS)i 49. 2 51 . -i fi


1

+ .

57

-6

J6 i

55 2
63 .

-t

-1
-

-2-+

f3
. 59 2I + I .
2 l
2l

61

53 . 3i

-2-+

f3
.
2 l

65. 1 3i

61 . (a) 4 real

+ 5i); 5i (1)

13. [x- (-1 + i)][x- (-1- i)]; -1 + i (1), -1- i (1)


15. x(x- 2i)(x + 2i); 0 (1), 2i (1), -2i (1)
17. (x- 1)(x + 1)(x- i)(x + i); 1 (1), -1 (1), i (1), -i (1)
19. 16(x - f)(x + f)(x - f i)(x + f i); f (1), - f (1),

fi (1), -fi (1)

(c) 4 imaginary

1. x-intercept 2; y-intercept - ~

3. x-intercepts -1, 2; y-intercept


5. x-intercepts -3, 3; no y-intercept
7. x-intercept 3, y-intercept 3, vertical x = 2; horizontal y = 2
9. Vertical x = -2; horizontal y = 0
11 . Vertical x = 3, x = - 2; horizontal y = 1
13. Horizontal y = 0
15. Vertical x = -6, x = 1; horizontal y = 0
17. Vertical x = 1

!L

7. 2, 2i

In answers 11-27, the factored form is given first, then the


zeros are listed with the multiplicity of each in parentheses.

(b) 2 real, 2 imaginary

Section 3.6 page 321

Section 3.5 page 306


1. -2, 1 if3 3. 0, 1 i 5. i
1+J.r::; +
l+t.r::;
9 -+ 1' 2
3 - 1' -2- 2ly.:>,
2lV.:>3

2x + 4)(x 2 + 2x + 4)
2)[x - (1 + i fj)J [x - (1 - i J3)J
-

[x + (1 + i J3)J [x + (1 - i J3)J

19.

11. (x- 5i)(x

(b) (x- 2)(x

Section 3.4 page 298

-t

+ 4) (b) (x - 5)(x - 2i)(x + 2i)


(x- 1)(x + 1)(x 2 + 9)

55. (a) (x - 5)(x


57. (a)

53. 1 (multiplicity 3), 3i

IL
_L_l_ ___ _

23.

'f

21.

\i'o

25~:I y
I
I
I
--------~--2r--~

-4

21 . (x + 1)(x- 3i)(x + 3i); -1 (1), 3i (1), -3i (1)


23. (x- i) 2 (x + if; i (2), -i (2)
25. (x- 1)(x + 1)(x- 2i)(x + 2i); 1 (1), -1 (1),

2i (1), -2i (1)

+ ifj) 2 ; 0 (1), ifj (2), -ifj (2)


2x + 2
3x 2 + 4x - 12
2x 2 + x - 2

27. x(x- ij3) 2 (x


29. P(x)
31.

Q(x)

33 . P(x)

=x

x3

= x3

= x 4 - 4x 3 +
= 6x 4 - 12x 3

10x 2 - 12x + 5
37. T(x)
+ 18x 2 - 12x + 12
1iJ3
1iJ3
39. -2, 2i 41. 1,
2
43 . 2,
2
35. R(x)

45.

-f, -1 i fi

29.

27.

\!

- - - - .::1.2_

1---?

-5

47. -2, 1, 3i 49. 1, 2i, i f3

Answers to Section 3.6


31.

\!'
35.

\!

39.

33JY

51.

30+
10

I
-J.--I
I

=-t--t---t-;;
X

37.

il

I
I

I
I
I

y:L

I
-------~

0 '\

-6

10

55.

t:.

57.

" y

I
I
I
I
-1------

!L_.

53.

Y,

30

-6

I'

41.

!L

-'--1

--

A23

59.

30

-10 1

110

-30

vertical x

=-3

60

-10 I

'~

I .--

110

-30
X

-6

45~

j_

10

10

61.
- 10 I

'I

vertical x = -1.5
x-intercepts 0, 2.5
l1o y-intercept 0
local maximum ( -3.9, -10.4)
local minimum (0.9, -0.6)
end behavior: y = x - 4

--

--~----

-6

yll

vertical x = 2

63.
X

-6

-3r-----~~~-------1

47.

vertical x = 1
x-intercept 0
y-intercept 0
local minimum (1.4, 3.1)
end behavior: y = x 2

49.
-5

IV
!1

10

65.

100

_,._,.

J_../

-5 1

/I

=-

,1

vertical x = 3
x-intercepts 1.6, 2.7
y-intercept -2
local maxima ( -0.4, -1.8),

(2.4, 3.8)

local minima (0.6, -2.3)


- 100

(3.4, 54.3)
end behavior y = x 3

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A24

(b) It levels off at 3000.

67. (a)

13. (a) S = 13.8x(100 - x 2 )

4000

(c) 6 0 0 , . - - - - - - - - - - . . .

(b) 0::::;;; X::::;;; 10


(d) 5.8 in.

f/
0

69. (a) 2.50 mg/L

.'-----------------_/10

(b) It decreases to 0.

(c) 16.61 h

In answers 15-21, the first polynomial given is the quotient and


the second is the remainder.

'---~--~----~--~400

If the speed of the train approaches the speed of sound, then the
pitch increases indefinitely (a sonic boom).

Chapter 3 Review page 325


yt

1.

3.

x- 1, 3 17. x 2 + 3x + 23, 94
x 3 - 5x 2 + 17x- 83,422 21. 2x- 3, 12 23. 3
8 29. (a) 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
2 or 0 positive, 3 or 1 negative 31. 3 + i 33. 8 - i
35. %+ ~i 37. i 39. 2 41. 4x 3 - 18x 2 + 14x + 12
43. No; since the complex conjugates of imaginary zeros will
also be zeros, the polynomial would have 8 zeros, contradicting
the requirement that it have degree 4.
45. -3, 1, 5 47. -1 2i, -2 (multiplicity 2)
15.
19.
27.
(b)

49. 2, 1 (multiplicity 3)
X

53. 1, 3, - 1 i
2
55.

X=

59.

J3

!7
57.

-0.24, 4.24

X=

61.

--!.lt~----------

7.

5.

-0.5, 3

51. 2, 1 i

-5

-6

9.

10

-31

F'....

x-intercepts -2.1, 0.3, 1.9


y-intercept 1
local maximum ( -1.2, 4.1)
local minimum (1.2, -2.1)
y~oo
as x~oo
y~ -oo
as x~ -oo

-9

-10

11.

30

-2r-----~~-----+--~

-20

x-intercepts -0.1, 2.1


y-intercept -1
local minimum (1.4, -14.5)
y~oo
as x~oo
y~ oo
as x~ -oo

20

65.

- 10

r===

........!-

- 20

110

x-intercept 3
y-intercept -0.5
vertical x = - 3
horizontal y = 0.5
no local extrema

Answers to Section 4.1

67.

x-intercept -2
y-intercept -4
vertical x = - 1, x = 2
slant y = x + 1
local maximum
(0.425, -3.599)
local minimum (4.216, 7.175)

30

j[__ ___ _jl


y

(d)

I
I
I
II
I
I
I

(e) x 2

Chapter 3 Test page 328

-61

69. (-2, -28), (1, 26), (2, 68), (5, 770)

'"
~

A25

-6

2x- 5
60

1.
-10 1

\'t~

(10

Focus on Problem Solving page 331


1. Not traversable
2. (a) x

+ 2x + 2, 9
2

3. (a) :: 1, ::3, ::~, ::~

(b) x

+ 2x + ~. lf
2

(b) 2(x- 3}(x-

5. Yes; tour is possible for odd n.

~)(x + 1)

9. -36

(c) -1, ~. 3
(d)

3. Traversable

11. No

13.

7. Inside

15.
y

/
lO

4. (a) -1 - ~i

5. 3, -1 :: i

(b) 5 + i (c) -1 + 2i
6. (x- 1} 2 (x- 2i)(x + 2i)

7. x 4 + 2x 3 + 10x 2 + 18x + 9
8. (a) 4, 2, or 0 positive; 0 negative
(c) 0.17, 3.93

(d) -1

(e) 6..[2

CHAPTER 4
Section 4.1 page 343
1.

3.

~r----.80_ _ _---.--..

-3 r-----~~------fr-~

-80

(d) Local minimum (2.8, -70.3)

9. (a) r, u

(b) s

(c) s

-2

-2

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A26

7.

5.

31.

y =?X
Y = 4x

(2, 22.17)

X
X

-2

= 3x

9. f(x)
13. III
19. !R,

11. f(x)

15. I

-2

33. y = 3(2x)

=(it

(b) The graph of g is steeper


than that of f.

17. II

(-oo, 0), y = 0

21. !R, (-3,

oo), y = -3

y
X

-2

~
X

-5

-2

-5

39. (a}
(i) 20_,---.------.,.-----.
23. !R, (4,

oo), y = 4

25.

R (o, oo ), y = o
y

1000

The graph off ultimately


increases much more
quickly than g.

(-3, I)

-2

-5

27.

25

29.

(b) 1.2, 22.4

-2

41.

c=2

c = 0.5
c = 0.25
X

-3 ~
- I

The larger the value of c, the more rapidly the graph increases.

Answers to Section 4.2


43. (a) 13 kg (b) 6.6 kg
45. (a) 0 (b) 50.6 ft/s, 69.2 ft/s
(c)

Section 4.2 page 356


1. (a) 52 = 25

(d) 80 ft/s

100,---------...

\(

lo

(b) log 10 0.0001 = - 4

wo

47. (a) 5164

(b)

12,000
n0 = 12,000

r-

---

15

no= 50

(c) 6000

3. (a) 81/ 3 = 2

9. (a) log 8 8 = -1

11. (a) ln2=x

13. (a) 1

(c) 2

(b) 0

(b) 2- 3 = _!_

7. (a) log5 125 = 3

(b) log 2 8= -3

15. (a) 2

(b) lny=3
(b) 2

(c) 10

17. (a) -3

(b) ~

(c) - 1

19. (a) 37

(b) 8

-t

(b) 4

(c) -1

23. (a) 32

(b) 4

21. (a)

(b) 5= 1
(b) e5 = y

5. (a) ! = 5

A27

25. (a) 5 (b) 27


31. (a) 0.3010 (b)
33. (a) 1.6094 (b)
35. y = log5 x 37.

(c)

J5

27. (a) 100

(b) 25 29. (a) 2 (b) 4


1.5465 (c) -0.1761
3.2308 (c) 1.0051
y = log9 x 39. II 41. III 43. VI

45.

49. (a) $16,288.95


(b) $26,532.98
(c) $43,219.42
51. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
53. (i)

$4,615.87
$4,658.91
$4,697.04
$4,703.11
$4,704.68

(f) $4,704.93
(g) $4,704.94
X

-2

55. (a) $7,678.96

(b) $67,121.04
63.

4
r-------------~

47. (4, oo) , IR,x

=4

49. ( -oo, 0), IR, X= 0

el f
X

~----------------~40

- I

-2

65.

67.
53. (0, oo), IR, x

51. (O,oo),IR,x=O

=0

-5
-3 ~~--~~------+-_,

- I

- I

Vertical asymptote x = 0,
horizontal asymptote y = 1
X

69. Local minimum= (0.27, 1.75)


X

71. (a) Increasing on (-oo, 1.00], decreasing on [1.00, oo)


(b) (- 00' 0.37]

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A28

55. (0, oo), [0,

oo),x = 0

Section 4.3 page 363

1. 1 + log 2 x

3. log 2 x + log 2 (x - 1}

7. log 2 A + 2log 2 B

11. log5 (x 2 + 1} 13. t(ln a+ ln


15. 3 log x + 4 log y - 6 log z
19. ln x + t(ln y- ln

z}

t log(x

1}

+ y
23. t[log(x + 4} - log(x + 1} - 2log(x 3
21.

'

b}

17. log 2 x + log 2 (x 2 + 1} - ~ log 2 (x 2


X

5. 10 log 6

9. log 3 x + ~ log3 y

)
-

7)]

25. 3 ln x + ~ ln (x- 1} - ln (3x + 4}


57. (-3,oo)

59. (-oo,-1}U(1,oo)

27. ~

61. (0,2}

-2~---r~,-+-~-T--~

31. 3

33. ln 8

35. 16

37. 4 +log 3
4

41. log 2 (AB/C 2 }

39. log 3 160

domain= ( -1, 1}
vertical asymptotes
x=1,x=-1
local maximum (0, 0}

63.

29. 1

43. log

x~
(x 1)
2
[ \JX
+1

2
]

45. ln[ 5x 2 (x 2 + 5} 3]
47. log [ ~2x + 1 ~r.-(x--------,-4)-..,.,/(x----:4---x----=2:---~
1) J
49. 2.321928
55. 3.482892
57.

domain= (0, oo)


vertical asymptote x = 0
no maximum or minimum

51. 2.523719

-1

53. 0.493008

-3

Section 4.4 page 372

domain = (0, oo)


vertical asymptote x = 0
horizontal asymptote y = 0
local maximum
= (2.72, 0.37}

W+============~20

1. 2.7726 3. 0.3495 5. - 0.5850 7. 1.2040 9. 0.0767


11. 0.2524 13. 1.9349 15. -43.0677 17. 2.1492
19. 6.2126 21. -2.9469 23. -2.4423 25. 14.0055
27. 1 29. 0,
31. ln 2 = 0.6931, 0
33. ~ ln 3 = 0.5493 35. e 10 = 22026 37. 0.01 39 . .9j

41. 3 - e2

= -4.3891

43. 5

45. 5

47.

-H

51. ~ 53. 1/J5 = 0.4472 55. (a) $6435.09


8.24 yr 57. 6.33 yr 59. 8.15 yr 61. 8.30%
63. 13 days 65. (a) 7337 (b) 1.73 yr

49. 6

-3

(b)

67.
69.
77.
81.

69. The graph off grows more slowly than g.


71. (a)

it I)

t = -fJ-ln(1(b) 0.218 s
2.21 71. 0.00, 1.14 73. -0.57 75. 0.36
2 < x < 4 or 7 < x < 9 79. log 2 < x < log 5
101, 1.1 83. log2 3 = 1.58

(a)

Section 4.5 page 386

-w

1. (a) 500 (b) 45% (c) 1929 (d) 6.66 h


3. (a) n(t) = 18,000e0 08 ' (b) 34,137
(c)
n(t)

100
-1

60,000

(b) The graph of f(x) = log(cx} is the graph of f(x) = log

shifted upward log c units.


73. (a) (1, oo) (b) f- 1(x}

= 102x

75. (a) f-'(x) = log 2 (-x-)

1-

(b) (0, 1)

40,000
20,000
2002 2004 2006 2008

Answers to Chapter 4 Test


5. (a) n(t) = 112,000e0 041 (b) About 142,000 (c) 2008
7. (a) 20,000 (b) n(t) = 20,000e0 10961
(c) About 48,000 (d) 2010
9. (a) n(t) = 8600e0 15081 (b) About 11 ,600 (c) 4.6 h
11. (a) 2029 (b) 2049 13. 22.85 h
15. (a) n(t) = 10e- 0 023 11 (b) 1.6 g (c) 70 yr
17. 18 yr 19. 149 h 21. 3560 yr
23. (a) 210F (b) 153F (c) 28 min
25. (a) 137F (b) 116 min
27. (a) 2.3 (b) 3.5 (c) 8.3
29. (a) 10- 3 M (b) 3.2 x 10- 7 M
31. 4.8 ~pH~ 6.4
33. log 20 = 1.3 35. Twice as intense 37. 8.2
39. 6.3 X 10- 3 W/m2 41. (b) 106 dB

13. (-oo,t)

15. (-oo,-2)U (2, oo)

19. 10Y =X

21. log 2 64 = 6

27. 45

31. -3

29. 6

33.

+ 2 log B + 3 log C
2
- 1) - ln(x + 1)]
2log 5 x + log5 (1 - 5x) -

3.

35. 2

=X

37. 92

25. 7
39. ~

41. log A

43. t [ln(x 2
45.

47. log 96

53. -15

(x -

49. log 2 [ (x 2

55.

t (5 -

57. tIn 10 = 3.07


65. 2.303600
67.
10

t log5 (x 3

y)3/ 2]

+ y 2f

51. log

61. - 4, 2

x)
(

x2 - 4 )

.Jx 2 + 4

63. 0.430618

vertical asymptote
X= -2
horizontal asymptote
y = 2.72
no maximum or minimum

R (- oo, 5), y = 5
y

log5 26) = 0.99


59. 3

Chapter 4 Review page 390


1. IR, (0, oo), y = 0

17. 2 10 = 1024

23. log 74

A29

- 20

20
-I

69.

-5

vertical asymptotes
X= -1 , X= 0, X= 1
local maximum
= (-0.58, -0.41)

1.5

- 1.5

2.5

-5

5. (1, oo) , !R,x = 1

7. (0, oo), !R,x

71. 2.42 73. 0.16 <X< 3.15


75. Increasing on (-oo, 0] and [1.10, oo),
decreasing on [0, 1.10]
77. 1.953445 79. log4 258
81. (a) $16,081.15 (b) $16,178.18 (c) $16,197.64
(d) $16,198.31 83. (a) n(t) = 30e0 151 (b) 55 (c) 19 yr
85. (a) 9.97 mg (b) 1.39 X 105 yr
87. (a) n(t) = 150e- 0 00043591 (b) 97.0 mg (c) 2520 yr
89. (a) n(t) = 1500e0 15151 (b) 7940 91. 7.9, basic
93. 8.0

=0

- I

Chapter 4 Test page 393


9. IR, (-1, oo),y

= - 1

2.

1.

11. (O,oo),IR,x=O
y

(-2 oo) !R X = -2
' ' '

A30

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

3. (a) ~

(b) 3

(c)

+ 2)

4. ~ [log(x

(x + 1) )
( X~

5. In

7. (a)
(d) y

6. (a) 4.32

n(t)

1000e

(d) 2

+ 4)]

- 4 log x - log(x2

2 079441

(b)

0.77

(b) 22,627

(c)

(c)

5.39

(d)

1.3 h

(c) In E = 3.30161 X 0.10769t, where tis years since 1960 and


E is expenditure in billions of dollars.
(d) E = 27.15633e0 107691 (e) 1310.9 billion dollars
5. (a) y = ab 1, where a = 301.813054, b = 0.819745, and

tis the number of years since 1970


(b) y = at 4 + bt 3 + ct 2 + dt + e, where a = -0.002430,
b = 0.135159, c = -2.014322, d = -4.055294,
e = 199.092227, and tis the number of years since 1970
(c) From the graphs we see that the fourth-degree polynomial is
a better model.
(d) 202.8, 27.8; 184.0, 43.5
c:

"'B

10,000
0

a.

(a)

(b)

A(t) = 12.ooo(1 +

$14,195.06

9. (a)

(c)

.,'(:;
-o "'

o.~~ 6 r

j ~

21

ISO
100
50

9.249 yr

-s

10

(b) x = 0, y = 0
(c) Local minimum= (3.00, 0.74)
(d) (-oo, 0) U [0.74, oo)
(e) - 0.85, 0.96, 9.92

10
IS
20
Years since 1970

7. (a)

-5
0.2

01

Focus on Modeling page 403

(b)

1. (a)

~ 250

~ 200

';;' ISO
0

1g- 100
50

Il.

1790

..
.
.
.
....

1850

1900

01

1950

16

- I

- I

-2

-2

2000 t

Year

(b) y

= ab where a= 4.041807
1
,

10- 16 and

b = 1.021003194, andy is the population in millions in


the year t. (c) 457.9 million (d) 221.2 million (e) No
3. (a) Yes
(b) Yes, the scatter plot appears linear.

.......

In

6.5
6.0

5.5
5.0

(c) Exponential Function


(d) y = a ~ where a = 0.057697 and b = 1.200236
9. (a) y = a + bIn t where a = -7154.888, b = 1016.007,
and y is metric tons of coal produced in the year t
(b) 912 metric tons

CHAPTER 5

4.5

Section 5.1 page 416

4.0

5.

3.5

10

20
30
Years since 1960

7. P( -JS /3, t) 9. P( -/2/3, j7 /3)


= 1T/4, (/2/2, /2/2); t = 1T/2, (0, 1); t = 37T/4,

P(%, !)

11. t

(-/2 /2, /2/2); t = 1T, (-1, 0); t = 51Tj4, (-/2/2, -/2/2);


= 37T/2, (0, -1); t = 71T/4, (/2/2, -/2/2); t = 21T, (1, 0)

250

~ ~ 200

300

Answers to Section 5.3


13. (0,1)

15. (-/3/2,1)

J3 /2)
( -!, ~)

23. (a)

Section 5.3 page 439

17. (1,-/3/2)

21. ( -fi/2, -fi/2)

19. ( -1,

(b)

(!, -~)

25. (a) 7T/4


27. (a) 7T/5

(b) 7T/3
(b) 7T/6

29. (a) 7T/3

(b) (-1, /3/2)

(c) (-

(c) 7T/3

1.

!, - ~)

(d)

3.

(!, ~)

(d) 7T/6
(d) 7T/6

(c) 7T/3

31. (a) 7T/4

(b)

(-fi/2, fi/2)

-J3 /2)

(b) ( -1,

35. (a) 7T/4

(b) ( -fi/2, -fi/2)

37. (a) 7T/6

(b) (-

39. (a) 7T/3

(b)

5.

J3 /2, -1)
{i, J3 /2)
(-i, -/3/2)

7.

Vi

43. (0.5, 0.8)

- 27T

Section 5.2 page 426


1. t = 7T/4, sin t = fi/2, cost= fi/2; t = 7Tj2, sin t = 1,
cost= 0; t = 37T/4, sin t = fi/2, cost= -fi/2; t = 7T,
sin t = 0, cost= -1; t = 57T/4, sin t = -fi/2,
cost= -fi/2; t = 37T/2, sin t = -1, cost= 0; t = 77T/4,
sin t = -fi/2, cost= fi/2; t = 27T, sin t = 0, cost= 1
3. (a)
/2 (b)
5. (a) -1 (b) - 1
7. (a) 1 (b) -1 9. (a) 0 (b) 0
11. (a)

(b) 2

15. (a) /3/3


19. (a)

13. (a)

(b) -/3/3

fi/2

(b)

J2

(b)

27.

~.!.1

17. (a) 2

21. (a) -:-1

37. (a) 0.9

35. (a) 0.8

(b) 0.93204

41. (a) - 0.6

1, -I
y

1T

- I

- I

(b) -1

31.

15. 10, 47T

13. 3, 27T/3

**-lo

(b) 1.02964

43. Negative

45. Negative 47. II 49. II


51. sin t = ~ 1 - cos 2 t 53. tan t = (sin t)/JI - sin2 t
55. sect= -~1 + tan t 57. tan t = ~sec t- 1
59. tan 2 t = (sin 2 t) /( 1 - sin 2 t)
61. cost= -~,tant= -t,csct=!,sect=
cot t =
63. sin t = -2J2/3, cost=
tan t = -2J2, esc t =

-3

17. 1, 67T

19. 3,

-%,

-1

27T

(b) 0.84147

39. (a) 1

(b) -0.57482

(b) -2/3/3

29. -Jll/4,)5/4, -$5/5

--H-. - -fJ-, lf

- 7T

23. sin 0 = 0, cos 0 = 1, tan 0 = 0, sec 0 = 1,


others undefined
25. sin 7T = 0, cos 7T = -1, tan 7T = 0, sec 7T = -1,
others undefined

33.

11.

-J3

1T

- I

33. (a) 7T/3

41. (a) 7T/3 (b)


45. (0.5, -0.9)

A31

t,

-tfi,

cott = -fi/4
65. sin t = cot t =

-1

67. cost=

!. cos t = ~' esc t =

- !, sec t =

-J15 /4, tan t = Jl5 /15, esc t =


Jl5

sec t = -4!15 /15, cot t =


69. Odd 71. Odd 73. Even

%,

75. Neither

-4,
-I

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A32

23. 2, 27r, 'Tr/6

21. 1, 27r, 'Tr/2

-2

- 1

27. 2, 37r, 7r/4

25. 5, 27r/3, 7r/12


y

-2

-5

29. 3, 2,

-i

t. 'Tr, 'Tr/6

31.

80

53.

y
.!_
2

-6.28 I"'"

....... ....

7.,

. . . . ....

::;;ol 6.28

-7

225

55.

curve that lies between


the graphs of y = x 2 and
y = -x2

-2
- 151 :

/?!! I

<J \ I

= x 2 sin xis a sine

115

33. 1, 27r/3, -'Tr/3


-225

57.

= ex sin 57T.X is a sine curve


that lies between the graphs
ofy =ex andy= -ex

-!Cj
-3

59.

= 4 sin x
3, 47r, 0 (b) y = 3 sin
7r, - 7r/3 (b) y = - cos 2(x + 7r/3)

35. (a) 4, 27r, 0


37. (a)
39. (a)

t.

(b) y

tx
t

1.5

-05[U'~
- 1.5

= cos 37rx cos 217rx is


a cosine curve that lies
between the graphs of
y = cos 37rx and
y = -cos 37rx
y

0.5

Answers to Section 5.4


61. Maximum value 1.76 when x = 0094, minimum value

13. 21T

- 1.76 when x = -0094 (The same maximum and minimum


values occur at infinitely many other values of xo)
63. Maximum value 3000 when x = 1.57, minimum value
- 1000 when x = - 1057 (The same maximum and minimum
values occur at infinitely many other values of xo)
65. 1.16
67. 0034, 2080
69. (a) Odd (b) 0, 21T, 41T, 61T, 00 0
(c)
I
(d) f(x) approaches 0
(e) f(x) approaches 0
-20 I "' ,. ,

,,

''

A33

15. 1T

l
U
I
U!'
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I

7T

in

' / " i 20

-5

17. 21T

19. 1T/2

- I

,. !U
I'n InI

Section 5.4 page 451


1. 1T

3. 1T

57T

-6

~
X

:oH
I

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

-5

21. 1

5. 1T

23. 1T

) 'Ui ! ~
I
I

- 'TT

!!..

in
I

-5

9. 21T

I
I

:n:

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I

25. 1T

ni

InI
I

7T

I
I
I

I
I
I

I
I
:

I !!..

I
I
I

I
I
I

:n2:

27. 1Tj3

I
I

10

Ui 'Ui

!U
-'TT

I _!!..
2

11. 1T

I
I

~~n I~-~
I

!~

)!

7. 21T

I
I

I
I

!!..

I
I

in in
4

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A34

29. 27T/3

)]
I
I

31.

'TT/2

45.

'TT/2

'U! ]~
s

I_:!!.
I 6

:!!.

I
I
I

I
I

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

j
X
X

ln (\ /
6

-4

33.

'TT/2

35.

Chapter 5 Review page 452

'TT/2

1. (b) -!-. -J3 /2, - J3 /3 3. (a) 'TT/3 (b) ( - -!-, J3 /21


t = J3 /2, cost= - -!-, tan t = -J3, esc t = 2fj /3,
sect= -2, cot t = -J3/3 5. (a) 'TT/4 (b) (-.fi/2, -.fi/2)
(c) sin t = - .fi/2, cost= -.fi/2, tan t = 1, esc t = -.fi,
sect= -.fi, cot t = 1 7. (a) .fi/2 (b) -.fi/2
9. (a) 0.89121 (b) 0.45360 11 . (a) 0 (b) Undefined
13. (a) Undefined (b) 0 15. (a ~ -J3 /3 (b) -J3
17. (sin t)/(1 - sin 2 t) 19. (sin t)/ 1 - sin 2 t
21. tan t = --fi, esc t = lf, sect= - #, cot t =
(c) sin

-lf

- JS

37. 2

39. 27T/3

lui
I
I
I
I
I
I

I !!

31. (a) 1, 47T, 0


(b)

Ul ,+Ul
I
I

I
I

n ln
0,

6:n6:
I
I
I
I

(b)

YT

I
I
I
I
I
I

-JS /5, tan t = -2,

= 2 J5 j s; cos t =
sec t=
27. 3
25. (16 - Jl7)/4
29. (a) 10, 47T, 0
23. sin t

I
I
I
I

7r

33. (a) 3,

43. 2

41. 37T/2

4
(b)

lUI U
I
I

I
I

_:tn !

nl

'TT, 1

35. (a) 1, 4,
(b)

-t

Answers to Chapter 5 Test

37. y = 5 sin 4x

39. y

41.

43.

1T

57.

=~sin 21r(x + t)

The graphs are related


by graphical addition.

1T

r \

1 _\ Y\'-/1

h14

- 3.5

59. 1.76, - 1.76 61. 0.30, 2.84


63. (a) Odd (b) 0, 1T, 21T, . . .
(c)
1
(d) f(x) approaches 0
(e) f(x) approaches 0

- 20 ~VVV<Jill ~ \/\OI'\,oc..~ 20

45. 1T

47. 21T

!U !U
4

I
I
I

I_:!!.. 0
I 4- 4

\i

- I

Chapter 5 Test page 454


1. y

I
I

71'

I~

I
I

(\i i(

II

49. (a)

;,

II T

..)

-i

2. (a) ~

-~

(b)

3. (a)

-!

(b)

-fi/2

(c)

(c)

J3

4. tan t = - (sin t}/ ~ 1 - sin2 t


6. (a) 5, 1rj2, 0 (b)

-1

I'v~
~~r

~r

- 0.5

(b) Period

--fs

<>

1.

1Tj3

2. 41T,

(b)

_
,

(b) Not periodic

1T

ul f

(c) Neither

53. (a)

(b) Not periodic

1.5

(c) Even
-2

t / \J ' v ,

8.

~~1T y~

11

- 05
.

55.

- 1.5

(c) Even

-5

-3

:!!..

1.5

'"

(d)

(d) - 1

5.

51. (a)
1.5

y = x sin x is a sine

15

. whose graph 1'1es


f unctiOn
between those of y = x
15

andy= -x

I \_)
I
I
1

:
I
1

nl lnl
1

-1

9. 1T/2

~u

471'

- 15

A35

.
I

I
I
I
I
I

]:!!..
4

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A36

+ 7T/3)

10. y = 2 sin 2(x


11. (a)

(c) Minimum value - 0.11


when x = 2.54,

1.2

maximum value 1
whenx = 0
-9.42 1

""'

17. y

. (7Tt)
= 11 + 10 Sill
lQ

= 3.8 + 0.2 sin(s t)

21. (a) 45V

(b)

40

23. (a)

I 9.42

:;;oo

15~ y

13. y = 5 COS 27Tt

(b) Even

(c)

E(t) = 155 cos 1207Tt

19.

40

(d)

V(t) = 45 cos 807Tt

80
70

- 0.4

60
50

Focus on Modeling page 466


1. (a) 2, 27T/3, 3/(27r)

40

(b)

0 1

II

(b) y = 22.9 cos 0.52(t - 6) + 62.9 where y is temperature (F)


and tis months (January = 0)
X

(c)
80
70

-2

60

3. (a)

-;t, 47T/3, 3/(47r)

50

(b)

40

0.25
0

(d)

y = 23.4 sin (0.48t - 1.36) + 62.2

25. (a)

- 0.25

II

80

5. (a) 10 m/min
(b)

(c) 0.4 m

20

8.2

12

7.8

(b) y = 30 sin 0.52t


in year t

_.!_
40

+ 50 where y is the owl population

(c)

7. (a) 8900
11. y = 21

(b) about 3.14 yr

sin~ t)

9. d(t)

= 5 sin 57Tt

y (feet)
21

20
0

(d) y

12 t

= 25.8 sin (0.52t - 0.02) + 50.6

-21

27. f(t) = e- 0 91 sin 7Tt

29. c

t ln 4 = 0.46

Answers to Section 6.4


CHAPTER 6

Section 6.1 page 480

1. 7r/5 = 0.628 rad 3. - 87r/3 = -8.378 rad


1.047 rad 7. -3 7T/4 = -2.356 rad 9. 135

5. 7r/3 =

11. 150
13. -270/'TT = 85.9 15. - 15 17. 410, 770, -310,
-670 19. 117T/4, 197T/4, - 57T/4, -137T/4 21. 77T/4,
157r/4, -97T/4, -177T/4 23. Yes 25. Yes 27. Yes
29. 13 31. 30 33. 280 35. 57r/6 37. 7T 39. 'TT/4
41. 557r/9 = 19.2 43. 4 45. 4 mi 47. 2 rad = 114.6
49. 36/7T = 11.459 m 51. 3307T = 1037 mi
53. 1.6 million mi 55. 1.15 mi 57. 50m2 59. 4 m

61. 6 cm2

63. 327r/15 ft/s = 6.7 ft/s

65. (a) 20007T rad/min

67. 39.3 mijh

Section 6.2 page 489

Section 6.3 page 501


1. (a) 30

60 (c) 60 3. (a) 'TT/4 (b) 7r/6 (c) 7r/3


(b) 7T= 0.94 (c) 37T/7 7.
9. -fi/2
11 .
13. 1 15. -J3/2 17. J3/3 19. J3/2
21. -1 23.
25. 2 27. - 1 29. undefined
31. III
33. IV
35. tan () = -~ 1 - cos 2 0 cos ()
2
37. cos () = ~ 1 - sin ()
39. sec () = - 1 + tan2 ()
(b)

-J3

69. 2.1 m/s

1. sin () = %, cos () = ~' tan () =

33. sin () = 0.45, cos () = 0.89, tan () = 0.50, esc () = 2.24,


sec () = 1.12, cot()= 2.00
35. 1026 ft 37. (a) 2100 mi (b) No 39. 19ft
41. 38.7 43. 345 ft 45. 415 ft, 152ft
47. 2570 ft 49. 5808 ft 51. 91.7 million mi
53. 3960 mi 55. 230.9 57. 63.7
59. a = sin (), b = tan (), c = sec (), d = cos ()

5. (a) 7Jl5

(b) 507r/3 ft/s = 52.4 ft/s

1-, esc () = ~' sec () = !,

cot () =
3. sin () = ~' cos () = if, tan () = ~
esc () = ~' sec () = ~' cot () = -!o 5. sin () = 2Jl3 /13 ,
cos () = 3Jl3 /13, tan () =
esc () = Jl3 /2, sec () = Jl3 /3 ,
cot()= ~ 7. (a) 3$4/34, 3$4/34 (b) ~' ~
(c) $4/5,$4/5 9.
11. 13 J3/2 13. 16.51658
15. x = 28 cos (), y = 28 sin ()
17. cos ()=%,tan()=
esc ()= !,sec () = ~'cot()=

t,

1f

i,

A37

41. cosO= -%,tan() = -i,cscO=!,secO= -~,

-1-

cot()=
43. sin()= -~,cos()=%, esc()= -!,sec()=~'
cot()=
45. sin () =
cos () = J3 /2, tan () = J3 /3,

-1-

t,

sec()= 2 J3/3, cot()= J3


47. sin()= 3 !5/7, tan() = -3 !5/2, esc()= 7 !5/15,
sec()= -!,cot() = -2 !5/15
49. (a) J3 /2, J3
(b)
J3 /4 (c) 0.88967
51. 19.1
53. 66.1

i,

t,

55. (a) 40~- - - - . - - - - - - - . - - - .

19. sin () = fi/2, cos () = fi/2,


tan () = 1, esc () = fi,
sec()= fi

I~

(b)

21.07

57. (a) A(O) = 400 sin() cos()


(b) 300
.;._.__ _ _ _ __

t,

21. sin()= !45/7, cos()= tan()= !45/2, esc()= 7!45/45,


cot()= 2!45/45 23. (1 + J3) /2 25. 1 27.
29.
/1
31.

,...._-----~------'

I6 .fi"' 22.63
16

(c)

44 .79

1.57

width = depth= 14.14 in.

Section 6.4 page 51 0


16

35

1. 318.8

3. 24.8

5. 44

7. LC = 114, a= 51, b = 24

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A38

33.

9. L C = 62, a = 200, b = 242

- !3/3

41. sin()=

sec()=

35.

- /i/2

37. 2

!3/3

39.

-!3

-ft, cos()= --f3, tan()= -lf, esc()= -ft,

-lf, cot()=

- -f2

45. tan () = - -),_


1---c-o----=s2=--0 /cos ()

43. 60

47. tan 2 0 = sin 2 0/(1 - sin2 0)

fj /4, cos ()= %,esc () = 4 fj /7,


cot()= 3 fj /7

49. sin () =
230

11. L B = 85, a= 5,

13. L A = 100, a= 89,

c=9

= 71
c

~
~

51. cos()= - %,tan()= - %, esc() = t' sec() = - %,


cot()=
53. -JS/5 55. 1 57. 5.32 59. 148.07 61. 77.82
63. 77.3 mi 65. 3.9 mi 67. 119.2 m 69. 14.98

-1

Chapter 6 Test page 526


B

'----------'--.::0..8

15. L B = 30, L C = 40, c = 19 17. No solution


19. L A 1 = 125, L C 1 = 30, a 1 = 49;

L A 2 = 5, L C2 = 150, a 2 = 5.6
21. No solution 23. 219ft
25. (a) 1018 mi (b) 1017 mi 27. 155m
sin a
29. (a) d . (
) (c) 2350 ft 31. 48.2
sm f3- a
Section 6.5 page 518

1. 57r/3, -'Tr/10 2. 150, 137.5


3. (a) 4007r rad/min = 1256.6 rad/min (b) 31,416 ft/min
4. (a) fi/2 (b)
/3 (c) 2
(d) 1

J3

5. (26 + 6 m)/39

6. a= 24 sin(), b = 24 cos()

- -ft

7. (4 - 3 /i)/4 8.
9. tan() = -)sec 2 0- 1
10. 19.6 ft
11. 9.1 12. 250.5 13. 8.4 14. 19.5
15. (a) 15.3 m2 (b) 24.3 m 16. (a) 129.9 (b) 44.9
17. 554ft

Focus on Problem Solving page 530

1. 28.9 3. 47 5. 29.89 7. 15
9. L A= 39.4, LB = 20.6, c = 24.6
11. L A= 48, LB = 79, c = 3.2

1. Tetrahedron 4, 6, 4; octahedron 8, 12, 6; cube 6, 12, 8;


dodecahedron 12, 30, 20; icosahedron 20, 30, 12

13. L A = 50, L B = 73, L C = 57

3. Hexagons

15. L A 1 = 83.6, L C 1 = 56.4, a 1 = 193;

L A 2 = 16.4, L C2 = 123.6, a2 = 54.9


17. No such triangle 19. 2 21. 25.4 23. 84.6 25. 24.3
27. 2.30 mi 29. 23.1 mi 31. 2179 mi 33. (a) 62.6 mi
(b) S 18.2 E 35. 96 37. 211 ft 39. 3835 ft
41. 3.85 cm2 43. 14.3 m 45. $165,554

5. P + 21r
2

(c) 533 = 22 + 23 2 = 72 + 22 2

~,

CHAPTER 7
Section 7.1 page 540

1. (a) 7r/3 (b) 111r/6 (c) -37r/4 (d) - 1rj2


3. (a) 450 (b) -30 (c) 405 (d) (558/7r) 0 = 177.6

1. cost

2.8 19

1.2

11. )a +(b+c)
15. (a) 13 = 22 + 32 , 41 = 42 +5 2

9. 0

Chapter 6 Review page 522

5. 8 m 7. 82ft 9. 0.619 rad = 35.4


11. 18,151 ft 2 13. (a) 3007rrad/min = 942.5 rad/min
(b) 7539.8 i~min = 628.3 ft/min 15. sin () = 5/ fi4,
cos()= 7/ fi4., tan()=~' esc()= fi4/5 , sec()= fi4./7 ,
cot()= f 17. x = 3.83, y = 3.21
19. X= 2.92, y = 3.11
21.
23. a = cot 0, b = esc ()
25. 48 m
27. 1076 mi
29. -fi/2
31. 1

3 - 4!3)=

7. 2 ( 7r

13. sin2x
21. cos()

3. secx 5. - 1 7. esc u 9. 1 11. cosy


15. sec x 17. 2 sec u 19. cos 2x

cos()
sin()

23. LHS = sm ()-- = RHS

1
cos u
sin y .
1 - cos 2y
27. LHS = - - sm y =
= sec y - cos y = RHS
cosy
cos y
.
cos B
29. LHS = smB + cosB - sin B
2
2
sin B + cos B = _1_ = RHS
sin B
sin B
25. LHS = cos u - - cot u = RHS

Answers to Section 7.1

31. LHS = - cos a cos a - sin a =


sin a

-cos 2a - sin2a
sin a

sec v +tan v
59. LHS = (sec v - tan v) sec v + tan v

-1
= - - = RHS
sin a

2
2
sec v - tan v = RHS
sec v + tan v
sin x +cos x
61 . LHS = sin x + cos x

2
2
_ LHS = sin () + cos () = sin () + cos ()
cos ()
sin ()
cos () sin ()
1
= RHS
cos ()sin ()
35. LHS = 1 - cos 2{3 = sin2f3 = RHS

33

37

_ LHS =

2
(sin x + cos x)
(sin x + cos x)(sin x - cos x)

cos x

sin x +cos x
sin x- cos x

63. LHS =

69. RHS =

= -sm x = RHS
sin x
45. LHS = sin2x (1 + c~s:x) = sin2x + cos 2x = RHS
sm x
47. LHS = 2(1 - sin 2x) - 1 = 2 - 2 sin 2x- 1 = RHS
2
_ LHS = 1 -cos a 1 +cos a
1 - cos a
49
sin a
1 + cos a
sin a(1 + cos a)
2

sm a
= RHS
sin a(1 + cos a)
2
sin x- 1 = RHS
(sin x + 1)2

sec x + tan x
sec x + tan x

sec x(sec x +tan x) = RHS


sec2x - tan2x

sin()cos ()-

sin 28 - l
~
cos 8 sin 8 - cos 8

I _8
Sin
cos 8

STii"8

sin()

2+
2
2
1
71 _ LHS = - sm t 2 tan t = _ 1 + sm 2t __
sin t
cos t sin2t
2
= - 1 + sec t = RHS
73

_ LHS = sec x - tan x + sec x + tan x


(sec x + tan x)(sec x - tan x)

2 secx
= RHS
sec 2x - tan 2x
75. LHS = tan 2x + 2 tan x cot x + cot2x = tan 2x + 2 + cot2x
= (tan2x + 1) + (cot2x + 1) = RHS
I

77. LHS = "COSt7 - 1 . cos u = RHS


_ I_ +
cos u

COS U

79

sec x
sec x - tan x

sin x cos x _ cos x(1 - cos x)


sin x cos x - sin x(1 - cos x)

cos20
= LHS
cos O(sin ()- 1)

. LHS = (sin x + cos x)(s~n x - sin x cos x + cos x)


smx +cos x

= sin2x - sin x cos x + cos 2x = RHS

+2

sin t cost
sm t cost
sin t cos t
= RHS
1 + sin2u
2
2
. 2
s?....u_ cos u = cos u + sm u = RHS
55. LHS = ---'-co-r-'-'.
2
2
sin-u
cos u cos u - sin2u
1 _ cosz;;
57. LHS =

sin X

cos 2x
cos x
cos x
1
cos 2x - 1
=--+--------=---sin x
sin x
sin x
sin x
sin x

COSX

Sin X
COS X

43. LHS = cot x cos x + cot x - esc x cos x - esc x

53. LHS = sm t + 2 sin t cos t + cos2t


sin t cost
sin2t + cos 2t + 2 sin t cos t

_ I_ _

=cos X= RHS
sin x
2
2
2
2
u = sm u (1 _ cos 2u) = RHS
65. LHS = sm 2u _ sm u cos
2
cos u
cos u
cos 2u
67. LHS = (sec2x - tan 2x)(sec 2x + tan 2x) = RHS

---cost
cost = 1 - cos2t = RHS
39 _ LHS = cost
cost
1
cost
1
41. LHS = - = sec 2y = RHS
cos 2y

_ LHS = sinx- 1 . sinx + 1


51
sin x + 1 sin x + 1

sin x

.
cos x sin x
= (sm x + cos x) .
= RHS
sm x +cos x

sin x +cos x
cos x sin x

_ 1 + - 1-

(sin x + cos x)(sin x - cos x)


= RHS
(sin x- cos x)(sin x - cos x)

A39

81.

LHS = 1 + sin x 1 + sin x = (1 + sin xf


1 - sin x 1 + sin x
1 - sin2x
2
2
(1 + sin x) = (1 + sin x) = RHS
2
cos x
cos x

83. LHS = (sin x +

cos x

c~s x) = (sin_ x + cos x)


4

sm x

1
= (
sin x cos x

)4= RHS

sm x cos x

A40

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

85. tan 0
91.

87. tan 0

89. 3 cos 0

35. LHS =

Yes

1.5

-6.28 I '

I I '

'

'

sin x cosy+ cos x sin y - (sin x cosy - cos x sin y)


cos x cos y - sin x sin y + cos x cos y + sin x sin y
= 2 cos x sin y = RHS
2 COS X COSy
37. LHS = sin((x + y) + z)
= sin(x + y) cos z + cos(x + y) sin z
= cos z [sin x cos y + cos x sin y]
+ sin z [cos x cos y - sin x sin y] = RHS
5
7
39. 2 sin(x + 7T) 41. 5
sin(2x + 7T)
6
4

f I 6.28

- 1.5

No

93.

J2

-6.28 I

"

" I

"

43. f(x) =

" I 6.28

J2 sin (x + ~)

-I

Section 7.2 page 548


1.

.j6 +

J2

3.

.j6-

9.

.j6: J2

17. LHS =

J2

5. 2

+ fj 7. -.,f6-

4
11.

fi/2

sin(-I cos(-I-

u)
u)

J2

4
13.

1/2

15.

fj

sin ~ cos u - cos ~ sin u


cos -I cos u + sin -I sin u

17

47. tan Y = 6
49. (a)

=cos u = RHS
sin u
19. LHS =

(
)
cos -I- u

- 6.28

6.28

cos ~ cos u + sin ~ sin u


-3

1
=--=RHS
sin u
21. LHS = sin x cos ~ - cos x sin ~ = RHS
23. LHS = sin x cos 7T- cos x sin 7T = RHS
25. LHS = tan x - tan 7T = RHS
1 + tanxtan 7T
27. LHS =
cos x cos ~ - sin x sin ~ + sin x cos

:1i2 cos x

- l2 sin x + l2 sin x -

sin (x +

-6.28 I

f-

:1i2 cos x

1
tan(x - y)

33

1
(b) k

10

'

l I

0=

J2,

7T/4

I I 6.28

cos x sin f
= RHS

1 + tan x tan y
tan x - tan y

I
I
t
1 + CoiX CoiY cot x co Y = RHS
1 _ _1_
cot x cot y

cotx

~) =

+ sin (x -

51. (a)

29. LHS = sin x cos y + cos x sin y


- (sin x cosy- cos x sin y) = RHS

31 _ LHS =

~)

cot y

_ LHS = sin x _ sin y = sin x cos y - cos x sin y = RHS


COS X
COS y
COS X COS y

- 10

Section 7.3 page 557


1.
7.

11.

~~~. ~~~. ~i~ 3. -~,

is. -

5.

~.

is.

-~, ~' -~ 9. i(~- cos 2x +-}cos 4x)


n-(~- cos 4x +-}cos 8x)

13. fg-(1 - cos 2x - cos 4x + cos 2x cos 4x)


15.

t~2- fj
i~2 - J3

17.

t)2 + J2

19.

J2- 1

21.
23. (a) sin 36
(b) sin 60
25. (a) cos 68 (b) cos 100 27. (a) tan 4 (b) tan 20

Answers to Section 7.4


29 .

.fl0/10, 3.fl0/10, t

31.

~(3 + 2 fi)/6, ~r--(3--=----2----..,fi=---)/-6, 3 + 2 J2

33.

J6/6, -!30/6, -$/5

35.

! (sin 5x -

sin x)

! (sin 5x +

37.

39. t(cos llx +cos 3x)

-6.28

6.28

41. 2 sin 4x cos x

45. -2 cos ~ x sin

43. 2 sin 5x sin x

sin 3x _ cos 3x =
2
cos x
sin x

75. (a)

sin 3x)

A41

tx

-5

47. (fi + {3)/2 49. t(fi- 1) 51. fi/2


53. LHS = cos(2 5x) = RHS
55. LHS = sin2x + 2 sin x cos x + cos2x = 1 + 2 sin x cos x

2.5

77. (a)

=RHS
. LHS = (2 sin~ cos 2x) = 2(2 sin x c_os x)(cos 2x)
57
smx
smx
=RHS
59

. LHS =

_
2
2(tan x - cot x)
tan x + cot x
(tan x + cot x)(tan x - cot x)
2

sin x
cosx

sin x cos x
cos x
sinx
Slll X COS X

rHIIIIIfllh '111111111111 '1111111111\A 9.42

- 2.5

(c)

The graph of y = f(x)


lies between the two
other graphs.

2.5

2 sin x cos x

= Sin
2X + COS 2X

-9.42

9.42

= 2 sin x cos x = RHS


61. LHS = tan(2x +

x) = tan 2x + tan x
1- tan2xtanx

2 tan

I=taiTx + tan x
1-~tan
2
1 - tan x

-2.5

83. (a) P(t) = 8t 4 - 8t 2 + 1


(b) Q(t) = 16t 5 - 20t 3 + 5t

2
= 2 tan x +tan x(1 - tan x) = RHS
2
1 - tan x - 2 tan x tan x
63. LHS = (cos 2x + sin2x)(cos 2x - sin2x)
= cos 2x - sin2x = RHS

Section 7.4 page 567

65 . LHS = 2 sin 3x cos 2x = sin 3x = RHS


2 cos 3x cos 2x
cos 3x

7. (a) Tr/6 (b) - Tr/6 (c) Not defined


9. (a) 0.13889 (b) 2.75876 11. (a) 0.88998

67 . LHS = 2 sin 5x cos 5x = RHS


2 sin 5x cos 4x

21. - Tr/3

2 sin(~) cos(Y)
69. LHS = 2
cos (X+
-2-Y) cos (X-2-Y)

=sin(~)
cos(x; Y) = RHS

Tr/6

(b) Tr/3

3. (a) Tr/4

(b) Tr/4

5. (a) Tr/2

(b) 0

1. (a)

(b) Not defined

(c) Not defined

(c) - Tr/4
(c)

13.

23. !3/3

7r

15. 5
25.

17. Tr/3
27. Tr/3

33.

51. (a) 0 =

73. LHS =

sin- 1 ( 6~0 )

(b) 0 = 0.826 rad

--+- 3.14

2 sin 3x cos 2x + 2 sin 3x cos x + sin 3x


2 cos 3x cos 2x + 2 cos 3x cos x + cos 3x
sin 3x(2 cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1) = RHS
cos 3x(2 cos 2x + 2 cos x + 1)

- Tr/6

35. $/5 37. s- 39. 1


2
2
1 - x2
41. ~ 43. x/~ 45. - 47. 0
1+x 2
49. (a) h = 2 tan (} (b) (} = tan- '(~)
31.

53. (a)

(sin x + sin 5x) + (sin 2x + sin 4x) + sin 3x


(cos x + cos 5x) + (cos 2x + cos 4x) + cos 3x

19.
29. ~

3.14

-3

Conjecture: y = Tr/2 for - 1 ~ x ~ 1


55. (a) 0.28

(b) ( -3 + f0)/4

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A42

67. !!_ 7 7T 37T l17T


2' 6 ' 2 ' 6

Section 7.5 page 579


7T
7T
57T
1. - + 2k7T 3. - + 2k7T,- + 2k7T
2
3
3
47T
57T
5.
+ 2k7T,
+ 2k7T

69 0
.

71. k'TT

2
73. !!_ + 2k7T !!_ + k'TT 57T + 2k7T
9
3 ' 2
'9
3
75. 0, 0.95
77. 1.92
79. 0.71

7T
27T
47T
57T
+ 2k7T, - + 2k7T, - + 2k7T, - + 2k7T
3
3
3
3
9 (2k + 1)7T 11 !!_
k 7 7T 2k l17T 2k
.
4
. 2 + 7T, 6 +
7T, 6 +
7T

7. -

13. - !!_ + k'TT 15.


3
7T
57T
17. - + 2k7T, +
3
3
.
21. No solutiOn
25.

23.

!!_

1. 4

2k7T

lm
4i

37T
+ 2k7T
2
2k7T 117T
2k7T
- - ,~ +- 3
3
27.

5 + 2i

l(!!_
+ k7T)
26

-1

1)7T, -2)

Re

Re

57.

5. 2

7. 1

Im!

Im

it
0.6 + 0.8i

J3 + i

(b) 1.15928, 5.12391


49. (a) 1.36944 + 2k7T, 4.91375 + 2k7T
(b) 1.36944, 4.91375
51. (a) 0.46365 + k7T, 2.67795 + k7T
(b) 0.46365, 2.67795, 3.60524, 5.81954
53. (a) 0.33984 + 2k7T, 2.80176 + 2k7T
(b) 0.33984, 2.80176

55. ((2k

Ol

k'TT

31. 4 (3 +
33. 3
7T
27T
57T
47T
35. - + 2k7T, - + 2k7T, - + 2k7T, - + 2k7T
6
3
6
3
37 !!_ + k'TT 37T + k'TT 39 !!_ 57T 77T 117T 137T 177T
8
2' 8
2
9 ' 9 ' 9 ' 9 ' 9 ' 9
41 !!_ 37T 57T 77T 43 !!_ 27T 47T 57T
"6'4 ' 6 ' 4
"3'3'3 ' 3
27T 47T
45. 0, 3 ' 3
47. (a) 1.15928 + 2k7T, 5.12391 + 2k7T
29. 4k7T

1m

19. -

77T
18
+

)
k7T

J29

3.

+ k'TT

l(!!_
+ 2k7T) l(_!!_ + 2k7T)
43
' 4
3
27T

Section 7.6 page 589

9.

Re

Re

11. Im

lm!

+ 2i

2 + 2i

(~ + k'TT, v'3)

l +i
0.5 + 0.5i
- I

ol

Re
Re

- 1 - i

8- 2i

15.

13.
X

Im

Im

z, = 2 + i z, + z2 = 4

59.
63
.
65
.

0.94721 o or
!!_ 37T 57T
8' 8 ' 8 '
!!_ 27T 77T
9 ' 9' 9'

89.05279 61. 44.95 or 135.05


77T 97T 117T 137T 157T
8 ' 8 ' 8' 8 ' 8
87T 137T 147T
9 ' 9 ' 9

0
Z2

4
2- i

Re

z, Z2 = 5

-1

Re

Answers to Section 7.6

17.

19.

1m

55. z1 = 2(cos
z2 = 2(cos

37r +

A43

~ + i sin~)
. sm
. 3
7r)

7r + z. sm
. 2
7r)
z 1z2 = 4(cos 2

Re

ZJ
7r
. . 7r
- = cos - - z sm z2
6
6
1
1(
7r
.. 7r)
~ = 2 cos 6 - z sm 6

21.

. -l17r)
57. z1 = 4 (cos -11 7r
- + z. sm
6
6
37r + z. sm
. 4
37r)
z = yr,;;(
L cos 4

"

z 1z2 = 4 vr,L;;2 (cos -7 7r


12
Zt
r,;;(
l37r
- = 2 y2 cos-~
12
1
1
(
l17r
~ = 4 cos - 6

Re

"""

"

23.

fi (cos~ + i sin~)

25. 2(cos

. -l17r)
27 . 4(cos -117r
- + z. sm
6
6
31.

5 !i (cos~+ isin~)

7
7
7r + i sin 7r)
4
4

29 . 3(cos 37r + z. sm
. 37r)
33. s(cos

~7r + isin ~7r)

35. 20(cos 7r + i sin 7r)


37. 5[cos(tan-

1) + i sin(tan- 1)]
1

39. 3 !i (cos 47r + i sin 47r)


43.

41. s(cos

J5 [cos(tan- t) + i sin(tan- t)J


1

7r
. . 7r)
45. 2 (cos4
+ z sm4
47r

. . 47r

47. z1z2 = cos3 + z sm3


Z1
27r
. . 27r
-=cos-+zsm~
3
3
3
3
49. z 1z2 = 15(cos 7r + i sin 7r)
2
2
Z1
3(
77r
. . 77r)
= 5 cos 6 - z sm 6

22

51. z1z2 = 8(cos 150 + i sin 150)

~ = 2(cos 90 + i sin 90)


Zz

53. z1z2 = 100(cos 350 + i sin 350)

~ = rs (cos 50 + i sin 50)


Zz

~ + i sin~)

59. z 1 = 5

. -7 7r)
+ z. sm
12
.
.
l37r)
+ z sm - 12
.z sm
. -l17r)
6

fi (cos~+ i sin~)

z2 = 4( cos 0 + i sin 0)
z 1z2

= 20 !i(cos

~ + i sin~)

z 1 = -5 fi
. 47r)
- (cos 47r + z. sm
4
22
1
fi ( 7r . . 7r)
~ = lO cos 4 - z sm 4
61. z 1 = 20(cos 7r + i sin 7r)

7r
. . 7r)
z2 = 2 (cos 6 + z sm 6
77r
. . 77r)
z2z2 = 40(cos 6 + z sm 6
z 1= 10 (cos-+zsm57r
. . 57r)
z2

. 7r)
-1 = -201 (cos 7r - z. sm
21

63. -1024
69. 4096

65. 512(

- J3 + i)

71. 8( - 1 + i)

67. - 1

73. 2~8

r,;;(cos 12
7r + i sin 12
7r) ,
75. 2 VL

-J3 -

i)

lm

r,;;2 (cos-+zsml37r
. . 137r)
2 VL
12
12

WI

w2

Re

A44

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

77. 3(cos

37T + z. sm
. 8
37T) , 3(cos 8
77T + z..
77T) ,
sm 8

18

1m

Wo

12

I
0
\
\

''

12

Re

/WJ

..

Section 7. 7 page 599

//

1.

_./

3.

Wz

u+v

2u

79.

1, i

fi

- 2

13

7T) ,
18

21 7T ism-. 217T)
2 116 (cos--+

I
\

.
z. sm

13
13
5
5
89. 2 1' 6 (cos 7T + i sin 7T), 2 116 (cos 7T + i sin 7T),
12
12
12
12

--- .. ,,

w, . I

13 7T
18
+

257T
. . 257T)
2(cos -18- + z sm -18-

. -117T)
. -157T)
3 ( cos -117T
- + z. sm
- , 3 (cos -157T
- + z. sm
8
8
8
8

18 ,

87 . 2(cos 7T + z. sm
. 7T) 2(cos

Im

+ fi .
-Tz

iiWz

-..., ._ w,

wJ, /

'

w.

I
\

'

lwo
11

Re

-2

o,

ws'-

'-...

_./

/"

5.

w6

81.

J3 + .!_i - J3 + .!_i
2

2 '

-i

2 '

1m
i

.....

w, ,
I

'

'\

I
1\
\
\

-2

''

.........

__

.......

~ Wo

I
I jt

7. (3,3) 9. (3,-1) 11. (5,7) 13. (-4,-3)


15. (0, 2) 17. (4, 14), (-9, -3), (5, 8), (-6, 17)
19. (0, -2), (6, 0), ( -2, -1), (8, -3)
21. 4i, -9 i + 6j, 5i- 2j, - 6i + 8j

Re

I
/
/

Wz

23.
25.

83.

fi
2

fi.

-Tz

......... ,

1\
\
W\ ' 2

+ fi.
-Tz

27. 20,[3i

i
/

fi

$, !13, 2 J5, t !13, .fi6, JW, J5 - J13


[101, 2 fi, 2 [101, fi, fi3, J145, [101 -

1m

w,, /

85.

v - 2u

'

.........

-.,

'

I jt
I
....... /

29. - fi i -

31. 4 cos 10i + 4 sin 10j


\

__

+ 20j

Wo

/ tlwJ

Re

33.
39.
(c)
45.
(c)
49.
51.
55.
57.

2 fi

fi j
2

= 3.94i +

0.69j
15,[3, -15 35. 5, 53.13 37. 13,157.38
2, 60 41. 2i - 3j 43. (a) 40j (b) 425i
425i + 40j (d) 427 mijh, N 84.6 E
794 mijh, N 26.6 W 47. (a) 10i (b) 10i + 17.32j
20i + 17.32j (d) 26.5 mijh, N 49.1 o E
(a) 22.8i + 7.4j (b) 7.4 mi/h, 22.8 mi/h
(a) (5, -3) (b) ( -5, 3) 53. (a) -4j (b) 4j
(a) ( -7.57, 10.61) (b) (7.57, -10.61)
T 1 = -56.5 i + 67.4j, T 2 = 56.5i + 32.6j

Answers to Chapter 7 Review

Section 7.8 page 609


1. (a) 2

(b) 45

(b) 97

15. 9

23. (a) (1, 1)

(b) 56

3. (a) 13

7. (a) 5/3

13. Yes

25. (a)
(b) 30

17. - 5

19.

(b) Yes

1.5

5. (a) -1

9. Yes

--

A45

11. No

- 3.14

3.14

21. -24

(b) u 1 = (1, 1), u2 = ( -3, 3)

25. (a) ( -~, ~)

(b) u 1 = ( -~, ~), u2 = (~, ~)


18
24
)
(b) Dt -- ( -5,5
18 24 ) 0 - ( 28 21 >
2 1. ( a ) ( -5,5
' 2 - 55

29. -28 31. 25 33. 16 ft-lb


37. 1164 lb 39. 23.6

- 1.5

27. (a)

(b) No

35. 8660 ft-lb


I ./ I

I " I ./ I

I '- I 6.28

Chapter 7 Review page 612


-4

(})c o s (} +sin
(}
. o(cos
- . -(}+ -sin
-=
-1. LHS =sm
sm (}
cos (}
cos (}
2
2
cos 0 + sin 0 = RHS
cos (}

29. (a)

2 sin 2 3x + cos 6x = 1

1.5

3. LHS = (1 - sin2x) esc x- esc x =esc x- sin2x esc x- esc x

- 3.14

3.14

1
= -sin x - - = RHS
sin x
2

2
2
1
5 LHS = cos x - tan x = cot2x - - - = RHS
2
2

sin x
sin x
cos2x

COS X
_1__ sin x

7. LHS =

COS X

= RHS

COS X

sin2x
.
.
cos2x
sm2x -.-2- + cos2x - -2- = cos2x + sm2x = RHS
sm x
cos x

9. LHS

11 . LHS =

2 sin x cos x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 sin x = RHS


1 + 2 cos 2x - 1
2 cos 2x
2 cos x

13. LHS = 1 - cos


sin x

= _1_ - cos X = RHS


sin x
sin x

y) - (x- y)) - cos((x + y) + (x- y))]


=~(cos 2y -cos 2x) = ~[1 - 2 sin2y- (1 - 2 sin2x)]
= ~(2 sin2x - 2 sin2y) = RHS

15. LHS = t(cos((x +

17 . LHS = 1 + sin x 1 - cos x = 1 + 1 - cos x


COS X
sin X
COS X

-1.5

31. 0,

33. !!_ 5'TT

'IT

35. !!_ 5 'TT

6' 6
!!_ 2?T 3?T 4TT 5?T 7?T
39
"3 ' 3 ' 4 ' 3 ' 3 '4

3' 3

41. !!_ !!_ 5 'IT 7 'IT 3'IT 11 'IT

43 !!_

6'2'6 ' 6 ' 2 ' 6

37. 2 '1T 4 TT

3' 3

"6

45 1 18

..

49.

~ ~2 + J3 51 . .fi- 1 53 . .fi/2

55 .

.fi/2

61.

t (.fi + JS)

67. ~

.fi +

57 .

69.

63.

2/ {ii

J3

59. 2

J16 + 1
9

~(3 + 2 .fi)/6
71.

73.

65. ?T/3

x/ ,Jl+?

(10)

X
75. (} = cos- 1 3
77. (a) (} = tan- 1 ~

79. (a)

lm

= 1 + - - - 1 = RHS

+ 4i

COS X

19 LHS = cos ~2
2

2 sin ~2 cos ~2 + sin2 ~2 = 1 - sin(2 ~)


2 = RHS
2

21 . LHS = 2 sin.x cos x _ 2 cos x- 1


sm x
cos x
1
= 2 cos X - 2 cos X + - - = RHS
tan x + tan

**

23. LHS = 1 _ tan x tan

Re

COS X

= RHS

(b) 4\JL-,
f2 !!_
4

(c) 4 .fi (cos

~ + i sin~)

(b) none

A46

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

81. (a)

lm

7.

+ 3i
X

- I

Re

-z7r

(b)

)34, tan- 1(!)

(c)

J34 [cos(tan- !) +
1

i sin(tan - 1

!)]

lm

83. (a)

Domain IR
8. (a) (}
(b)

- 1+ i

fi, 3 1T

89. 2J2(1- i)

91. 1, t

93.

1+

J2 (cos 347T +

fi,

8, 0

105. Yes

Re

(b) 2(cos

101. 5, 25, 60

13. - 8,

-- <37
9 37
54)

107. No, 45
1 2

(b) ( 3~ ,

109. (a) 17 ffl/3 7

.fj;

~i

99. (a) (4.8 i + 0.4j) X 104

97. (10, -2)

(b) 4.8 X 104 lb, N 85 .2 E


103. 2

10. 0.57964, 2.56195, 3.72123, 5.70355

lm

JU. (6, 4), <-10, 2), <-4, 6), <-22, 7)

95. 3 i - 4j

u2

6' 2' 6' 2

12. (a)

Re

85. 8(-1 + ifj)

4
57T 37T

11. ~
0

3
i sin 7T)
4
87. -i(1 + if3)

(c)

1T

-1

(b)

1T

= tan-

Domain [- 1, 1]
3
27T 47T
(b) (} cos- 1 9. (a) - , X
3 3

1 X
-

-#)

(c) u 1

= ( 13~2 , -#),

+ i sin

j)

(c) - 512

J3 + i

14. -3i, 3(

~ + i)

1m
......

111. - 6

w,,

' "'\

41_ Wo

Chapter 7 Test page 615

t3

\
2

1. (a) LHS = sin (} sin (} + cos (} = sin


cos(}

(b) LHS =

(}

+ cos

(}

"'

= RHS

cos(}

I
/

_,.../

-.. .
-3i iW2

tan x
1 + cos x = tan x(1 + cos x)
1 - cos x 1 + cos x
1 - cos2x
1 +cos X= RHS
sin x

'\

COS X

J34

15. (a) - 6i + 10j (b) 2


16. (a) (19, -3) (b) 5
(c) 0 (d) Yes
17. (a) 14i + 6 fj j (b) 17.4 mi/h, N 53.4 E

J2

18. (a) 45

(b)

fi6/2

(c) %i - j

19. 90

2 tan x

2 sin x
.
(c) LHS = - = - - cos 2x = 2 smxcosx = RHS
sec 2x
cos x
2. tan (}

3. (a) !

(b) J2:

J6

(c) !

~2 - J3

Focus on Problem Solving page 618


1. 636,619

4. (10 - 2 .j5 )/15


5. (a) !(sin 8x- sin

2x)

(b) -2 cos

!x sin ~x

3. 16 em
.

6. -2

(c) A flat dtsk

1T

11.

7. ~
57T 77T

2' 4' 4

9. (b) 12 em

13. 5

Re

Answers to Section 8.4

CHAPTER 8

17. (10, - 9)

(x, 3 -

19. (2, 1)

~x)

27. (-3, -7)

Section 8.1 page 628

25.

1. (3, 1) 3. (4, 16), (-3, 9) 5. (2, -2), (-2, 2)


7. ( -25, 5), ( -25, -5) 9. (1, 2) 11. ( -3, 4), (3, 4)

1
1
31. (- - - , - - )
a-1 a-1

13. ( - 2, - 1), (- 2, 1), (2, - 1), (2, 1)

37.
39.
41.
43.
47.
51.

15.

(-1, fi), (-1, -fi), (t. J!I),

19. ( -2, -2)


25.

(t. -II)

21. (6, 2), ( -2, -6)

11.

(4, o)

23. No solution

()5, 2), ()5, -2), (-)5, 2), (-)5, -2)

27. (3,

-t), (- 3, - t)

29.

(-k, t)

31. ( - 0.33, 5.33)

33. (2.00, 20.00), (-8.00, 0) 35. (-4.51, 2.17), (4.91, -0.97)


37. (1.23, 3.87), ( -0.35, -4.21) 39. ( -2.30, -0.70),
(0.48, -1.19) 41. 12 em by 15 em 43. 15,20
45. (400.50, 200.25), 447.77 m 47. y = 3x + 5
49. (-

t. - ~), (~, ~)

51. ( JiQ, 10)

29.

1
1
33. ( --, -) 35. 22, 12
a+b a+b

Section 8.3 page 646


1. Linear

9. (5, 2,

3. Nonlinear

5. (1, 3, 2)

Section 8.2 page 635

7. (4, 0, 3)

-~)

2y- Z = 4
-y-4z=4
2x+y+ z =O

X -

(2, 2)

(x, 5 -

(x, fx-!)
ix)

23.

5 dimes, 9 quarters
Plane's speed 120 mi/h, wind speed 30 mi/h
Run 5 mi/h, cycle 20 mi/h
200 g of A, 40 g of B 45. 25%, 10%
$16,000 at 10%, $32,000 at 6% 49. 25
(3.87, 2.74) 53. (61.00, 20.00)

11.
1.

21. No solution

A47

15. (1, 2, 1)

13.

2x- y + 3z = 2
2y - Z = 4
{
3y + 7z = 14
X+

19. (0, 1, 2)

17. (5, 0, 1)

t) 23. No solution 25. No solution


+ 2t, t) 29. (2 - 2t, -t + 4t, t)
(1, -1, 1, 2) 33. y = 2x 2 + 4x + 3
y = ~x 2 + 5x- 1f 37. $30,000 in short-term bonds,

21. ( 1 - 3t, 2t,


27. (3 - t, - 3
31.
35.

$30,000 in intermediate-term bonds, $40,000 in long-term


bonds 39. Impossible

Section 8.4 page 659


3. No solution
1. (a) Yes

(b) Yes

3. (a) Yes

(b) No

(c)

3
{xy=5
= x

(c)

+ 2y + 8z = 0
y + 3z = 0

5. (a) No

(b) No

(c)
{

5. Infinitely many solutions


7. (a) Yes

(b) Yes

(c)

(
X

=0
0 = 0

+ 5z = 1
X+ 3y -

W = 0
z +2w=O
=
1
0
0=0

9. (1, 1, 2) 11. (1, 0, 1) 13. (-1, 0, 1)


15. (-1, 5, 0) 17. (10, 3, -2) 19. No solution
21. (2- 3t, 3 - 5t, t) 23. No solution
25. ( -2t + 5, t- 2, t) 27. x = -~s + t + 6, y = s, z = t
29. ( -2, 1, 3) 31. ( -9, 2, 0) 33. (0, -3, 0, -3)

7. (2, 2)

9. (3, - 1)

11. (2, 1)

13. {3, 5)

15. (1, 3)

39.

(i- it, -i + *t, + *t, t)


x = fs - tt, y = fs + ft, z = s, w = t

35. (-1, 0, 0, 1)

37.

A48

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

41. 2 VitaMax, 1 Vitron, 2 VitaPlus


43. 5-mile run, 2-mile swim, 30-mile cycle
45. Impossible

17. No inverse

~] 5.[1~ -~]

7. Impossible

11. [ 5 -2 5]
1 1 0
17.

[57 102 -71]

9.

13. [-1 -3 -5 ]

-1

-14 -8 -30]
[ -6 10 -24

23. [28

21

28]

15.

3 -6

[-1] [
8

27.

-1

29. Impossible

[ 1 ~ -1 ~~]

21. [

19. Impossible

25.

3
1

-335

343

~
-1

~]

3 2-1 1l [x'] [OJ


[01 30 -11 -10 ; = 45

25.
29.
33.

X=

37.

X=
X=

1 -3

39. (a)

126,y =-50 27. X= -38,y = 9,z = 47


-20, y = 10, Z = 16 31. X= 3, y = 2, Z = 1
3, y = -2, Z = 2 35. X= 8, y = 1, Z = 0, W = 3

0 !1-1]

-2

-!

(b) 1 oz A, 1 oz B, 2 oz C

(c) 2 oz A, 0 oz B, 1 oz C

2, y = -1

(d) No

x + y + 2z = 675
2x + y + z = 600
{
X + 2y + Z = 625

21 11 21
[

X=

23.x=8, y=-12

[107 23 3]
5

(b)

37.

0
1 1
_
1
1
0
0
1 0 0 -1

33. [~ -~] [;] = [:]


35.

-1

21.

41. (a)

31. Impossible

0 0-2 1]

Section 8.5 page 669

1.No 3.[:

19.

_.2__1 4]
~ 1 -3

1 2

J[XJ = [675]
600
y

625

x4

39. x = 2, y = 1
45. (a) [ 4,690

41. [
2

1,690

ll]
~

43. Impossible

13,210]

(b) Total revenue in Santa Monica, Long Beach, and Anaheim,

respectively
47. (a) [105,000

58,000] (b) The first entry is the total


amount (in ounces) of tomato sauce produced, and the second
entry is the total amount (in ounces) of tomato paste produced.
-21 27
49. Only ACB is defined.
51. No
-2 -14 18 -4

[-3

-6]

-2

11. Noinverse

7.

-3

13. [

-~ ~]
2

9.

13 5]
-5 -2

-4 -4 5
15.
1 1 -1
[
5 4 -6

43.

~ [ -ee=x2x e-2x
e-3x ]

45.

cos ()
[ sin ()

-sin ()]
cos ()

Section 8. 7 page 697

1. 6

3. -4

11. -12,12

25. 120

37. (1, 3, 2)

c28:, - 1~:.*)

47. 0, 1, 2

27. (a) -2

31. (0.6, -0.4)

35. (4, 2, -1)


41.

5. Does not exist

7.

9. 20, 20

13. 0, 0 15. 4,hasaninverse 17. -6,has


19. 5000, has an inverse 21. -4, has an inverse

29. (-2, 5)

4 -4 -4

He earns $125 on a standard set, $150 on a deluxe set, and $200


on a leather-bound set.

23. -18

[ 1-2 ] [ 2-3] [
3

an inverse

Section 8.6 page 682

5.

I 43 -41]
-i -i t

-4
(c) A - '=

43.

49. 1, -1

(b) -2

(c)

Yes

33. (4, -1)


39. (0, -1, 1)

(~.i.i.
51. 21

-1)
53.

45. abcde

9f

Answers to Section 8.8

Section 8.8 page 703

17.

1.

A49

19.

3.
- y-.- -1

- yT

-~-

Ol

y/

///r

u+

~X

bounded

7.

U_l_

bounded

21.
5.

/I

23.
y

X
X
X
X

bounded
9.

25.

11.

y.

bounded
27.

\- -n---,
I

Ol ; ' ' ' ' ..;,__

13.

ot

I
I

1l

not bounded

~I

I'\\: I

bounded

29.

15.

31.

not bounded

not bounded

bounded

bounded

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

ASO

33.

''

''

Bx + C
+-3
x2 + 4

Ax + B
x + 1

5. - X -

' ' ';<2


,I

-,

"'-

'\

'

A
B
C
-+--+
. x
2x - 5
(2x - 5) 2

bounded

35.

7. -2- -

x2

Ex+ F
+ 2x + 5

Cx + D
+-x2 + 2

D
(2x - 5)

+ - - -3

Gx + H
+---(x 2 + 2x + 5) 2

1
1
11. - - - - x- 1 x+1

1
13. - - - - x-1
x+4

2
2
15. - - - - x-3
x+3

17. - - - - x-2
x+2

3
2
19. - - - - x- 4
x+2
21

--t
- + -t -

. 2x - 1

25.

23

4x - 3

3
-2- + - - -1 x - 2
x +2
2x - 1

- - - - + -2 27. _-_ - (2x + 3)2


X+ 1
X
x
2x + 3

2
1
2
29. - - --3
X
x
X+ 2
4
4
2
1
31 - - - - - +
+-- 3
. x + 2
x - 1
(x - 1)2
(x - 1)

37.

3
1
1
33 - - --. x +2
(x + 2 f
(x + 3f
35. ~- _!_
x2 + 3
x

37.

2x- 5
x2 + x + 2

39 _ - _ X + 2
x2 + 1
(x 2 + 1f
41. x 2

39. x = number of fiction books


y = number of nonfiction books

+ _5_
x2 + 1

+ _!_
x

+ - 3-- ~
x- 2
x2 + 1

43. A= a+ b, B =a- b

X+

20

{ X~

100

y,x ~ y

0, y

Chapter 8 Review page 711

1. (2, 1)

3. x
y

50

= any number

tx- 4

50

Section 8.9 page 709


1.

--+-X - 1
X + 2

3.

--+
X -

(x - 2) 2

+-X + 4

-5

Answers to Focus on Modeling

5. No solution

7. ( -3, 3), (2, 8)

Chapter 8 Test page 713

9 (J.Q
7'

1. Wind speed 60 km/h, airplane 300 km/h


2. (3, - 1); linear, neither inconsistent nor dependent
3. No solution; linear, inconsistent

_11.)
3

4.

X=

t (t + 1), y = t (9t + 2),

A51

= t;

linear, dependent
5. (1, -2), ( t,

t (7 -

3t),

17.

z=t
23. $3000 at 6%, $6000 at 7% 25. Impossible

27.

r~ ~~l

29. [10

33. [ 30

22 2]
-9
1 -4

39. 0, no inverse

(I 9)

45. 5 5
49.

47.

-5]

31. [ -:

-J1 -TIIJ

35.

r-t

41. - 1,

(-26,
87 26 23)

3]

63 -2
10 l 10. r 36
58l 11. [ -~ -~
0 -3
18 28
r -3 9
12. B is not square 13. B is not square 14. -3
15. (70, 90) 16. (5, -5, -4)

9.

11. (21.41, -15.93) 13. (11.94, -1.39), (12.07, 1.44)


15. (1, 1, 2)
17. No solution
19. X = -4t + 1,
y = - t - 1,
z= t
21. X= 6 - 5t,
y

-f); nonlinear

6. Peaches cost $0.50, cherries cost $2, pears cost $1


7. Incompatible dimensions 8. Incompatible dimensions

lA I = 0, IB I = 2, B - l
,Y+

18. (a)

37. 1. [

ol
0
1

(b)

9 -4]
-2 1

X
X

2 -3 l
1 -2

r -8 - 6

1 -2
0
3 -6

~~]

3
2

43. (65, 154)

19. -

x-

1
1
1+-(
1)2- - 2
xx+

20. ( -0.49, 3.93), (2.34, 2.24)

21

Focus on Modeling page 719

51.

1. 198, 195

3.

maximum 161
minimum 135

bounded
5. 3 tables, 34 chairs 7. 30 grapefruit crates, 30 orange crates
9. 15 Pasadena to Santa Monica, 3 Pasadena to El Toro,

bounded

b+c
2

a+c
2

a+b
2
-4
4

53. x = -- , y = -- , z = --

57. - - + - X- 5
X+ 3

55. 2,3

-2

59. - + - - + - - - : X
X- 1
(x - 1) 2

0 Long Beach to Santa Monica, 16 Long Beach to El Toro


11. 90 standard, 40 deluxe 13. $7 500 in municipal bonds,
$2500 in bank certificates, $2000 in high-risk bonds
15. 4 games, 32 educational, 0 utility

A52

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

23.

CHAPTER 9

Section 9.1 page 730


1. III

. 3. II

-2r------------+----__,

5. VI

Order of answers: focus; directrix; fo cal diameter


-4

7. F (l , O) ;x= - 1;4

9.

F(o,%);y=

-%; 9

25. x = 8y 27. y 2 = -32x 29. y 2 = -8x


31. x 2 = 40y 33. y 2 = 4x 35. x 2 = 20y
37. x 2 = 8y 39. l = - 16x 41. y 2 = -3x
43. x = y 2 45. x 2 = -4
y
47. (a) y 2 = 12x (b) 8 ..j15 = 31 em 49. x 2 = 600y
51 . (a) x 2 = - 4py, p = ~' 1, 4, and 8
(b) The closer the directrix to
the vertex, the steeper the
-3 ,
I<..........:
parabola.
2

J2

'

:J040.#

-5

-5

p=4

11.

F(o ' 2o ' y -1)

1
13 . F( -32,

_!._.
20 5

o).' x --

_1_.

32 8
y

p=1

p=1

-1

Section 9.2 page 741


1. II
X

-2

3. I

Order of answers: vertices; f oci; eccentricity; major axis and


minor axis
5. V(5, 0) ; F(4, 0) ;
7. V(O, 3); F(O, $);

%; 10, 6

-3

$/3;6,4
y

15.

F(o, -~) ; y = ~; 6

5
17 . F( -12,

o).' x --

..1...
1
12 3
y
X

-5
-3

-5

-2

-3

9.

-5

V(4, 0) ; F( 2{3, 0);

11.

v(o, J3); F(o, ff2);

1/ J2; 2 .[3, ,[6

.[3j2; 8, 4

19.

21.
4

-2

-3r-------~----r---~

-3 I

">'-

......-;=

-2

-2

-0.5

-1

Answers to Section 9.3

13. V(1, 0}; F(~/2, 0};

1s.

~/2; 2, 1

v(o, fi); F(o, )31i};

~/2;

2fl, J2

x2
. 2.2500

45.

10 16

y2
2.2491

10 16

=1

x2
2
y
hr.
1,455,642 + 1,451,610
-- 1 47. 5 v39/2
= 15.6 in.

51 . (a)
X

(b) Common major


axes and vertices;
eccentricity increases
as k increases

- I

A53

- I

- 12
-2

17. V(O, 1}; F(O, 1/fl);

12
- I

1/fl; 2, J2

Section 9.3 page 751

1. III

3. II

Order of answers: vertices; foci; asymptotes


5. V(2, 0}; F(2J5, 0}; y = 2x
X

- I

- I

x2
19. 25

y2

x2
+- = 1 21. 16
4

y2

+- =
8

1 23. -

x2

256

y2

+- =

48

27.

25. _.-------.-------..,

7. V(0,1};F(O,fi6);
- 61

I I

- 7 1 I

Ill

-5

x2
29. 25
x2

64x 2
39. 225
41.

y2

+ 91 = 1

x2
37 . 25

y2
x2
-4 = 1 33 . - 9

I I

y=tx
y

y2

+ -13 =

1
-2

y2

+5 =1

64y 2

9. V(1 , 0}; F(fl, 0};

+ ---s1 = 1

(0, 2}

I Ill

-7

y2
+ -9 = 1 31 . x 2

35 " 100

11. V(O, 3}; F(O, f34 };

y = x

= }x

-2

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A54

V(2 fi, 0);

13.

15.

F( JlQ,O);
y

tx

v(o, : t);

Section 9.4 page 760

F(O, : .J5/2);

1. Center C(2, 1);

y =

tx

3. Center C(O, -5);

foci F(2 : .j5, 1);


vertices V 1( -1, 1),
v2(5, 1); major axis 6,
minor axis 4

foci F 1(0, -1), F 2 (0, -9);


vertices V1(0, 0), V2 (0, -10);
major axis 10, minor axis 6
y

-5
X

-5

-3
2

17.

L12

4x

=1

19.

x
16
=1

16

~2

21.

4y
9=

5. Vertex V(3, -1);


focus F(3, 1);
directrix y = - 3

25.

23.

1
7. Vertex

focus
.

v( -t, o);

F(-~, -~);
.
l
= 16

directnx y

-8 ~------~--~~~

-8~----~~--~----~

-8

y2 = 1

x2

27.

-8

x229. y 2 - -3 - 1

16

31.

2
X

L25 = 1

33.

5y

64

-3

E._= 1
256

9. Center C( -1, 3);


2

35.

L16 = 1

x
16

37.

x
L16
9-

foci F 1( -6, 3), F 2 (4, 3);


vertices V 1(-4, 3), V2 (2, 3);
asymptotes

=1

/2

39. (a) x 2 - y 2 = c 2

43. (a) 490 mi

45. (b)

(b)

y2
x2
= 1
,
2475
60 025

11. Center C( -1, 0);

: (x + 1) + 3

foci F( -1, : .J5);


vertices v( -1, : 1);
asymptotes
y

= t(x + 1)

(c) 10.1 mi

10

k = 12
X

k=8
k =4

k=L
-5

Answers to Section 9.5


2

13. x 2 = -i(Y- 4)
17.

15.

29. Point (1, 3)

(x- 5) + L = 1
25

ASS

16

(y - 1)2 - x 2 = 1

(1, 3)

19. Ellipse; C(2, 0);

21. Hyperbola; C(1, 2);

F(2, :: )5); V(2, ::3);

Fl(- ~. 2), F2G 2);

major axis 6,
minor axis 4

V(1 :: )5, 2);


asymptotes
y

= :: ~ (x - 1) + 2
y

33.

31.
-2 ~-+--+------------1

-2 r----r--~~--~--_,

X
X

-9

35. (a) F

<

17

- 12

(b) F = 17

(c) F

>

17

37. (a)
23. Ellipse; C(3, -5);

p =l
2

25. Hyperbola; C(3, 0);

F(3 :: .jii, -5);


V1(-2, -5), V1(8, -5);

p=2

F(3, 5); V(3, ::4);


asymptotes

major axis 10,


minor axis 4

p = - 2

= ~(x- 3)

p =

_l

-6

(c) The parabolas become narrower.


0

Section 9.5 page 768


X

1.

(Ji. 0)

7. X 2

3. (0, -2 /3)

9. 7Y 2 - 48XY - 7X 2
11. X 2 - Y 2 = 2
13. (a) Hyberbola
(b) X 2 - Y 2 = 16
(c) cp = 45
27. Degenerate conic

(pairs of lines),
y = ~(x- 4)

5. (1.6383, 1.1472)

+ fj XY + 2 = 0
-

L
\+-6

40X - 30Y = 0
15. (a) Parabola

<b>
(c)

=fir

cp = 45

Y ..

6t

-6

-6

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A56

17. (a) Hyberbola


2

(b) Y
(c) </>

19. (a) Hyberbola


(b) x2 - y2

31. (a)

(c) </>

Jl2 = 1

(b) XY-coordinates: c(5, 0); V1(6, 0), V2 (4, 0); F(5

= 30

(X - 5) 2

xy-coordinates: C(4, 3);

= 53
Y ..

F(4 ~fi, 3 ~fi)

(c) Y = (X- 5); 7x- y - 25 = 0, x + 7y - 25 = 0


33. X= x cos</>+ y sin <f>; Y = -x sin</>+ y cos</>

4+~/

fi, 0);

VI(-, .!f), v2(1f, lf);

pp

-4
X

------1

/j

Section 9.6 page 782


1.

II -4

(3, ~)

(-3,~)

'

21. (a) Hyberbola


(b) 3X 2 - Y 2 = 2 f3
(c) </> = 30

a,

23. (a) Hyberbola


(b)

(X- 1)2- 3Y 2

(c) </>

5.

3.

(I, f)

(-!,-~)
X

-6

-6

= 53

7. (2

9. (1, - 1)

~)

17. (5, tan-

15. (4,
21. r
6

-21

/I

...................

16

(b)

= tan (J sec (J

29. x2 + y2

33. x2 + y2

= (x2

39. VI
45.

11. (-5,0)

13. ( fi, 347T)

~) 19.

~
4

23. r

27. X= 6

-4

29. (a) Hyperbola

(- 5, 27T), (5, 7T)

fj, 2)

See graph at right.

(b)

a,

(-5, 21r)

5
(-1 , - 67T) , (1 , ~)
6

(Y + 1)2 = 1

27. (a) Parabola

(5, 1T)

-6

&OQ

25. (a) Ellipse

(c) <!>

57T)

= 60

(b) x2 +

37T) (

- 32, 3'2

= 4 sec

=l
X

41. IT

+ / - x)2

(J=
(J

25. x 2 + y 2 = 49

31. y- X= 1
35. X= 2

37. y

43. I
47.

I(2.~)

10

_,.&1.

(2, 1T)

(2, 0)

(2,~)
-15

= f3x

Answers to Section 9.7

51.

49.

69. 0

()

A57

4'7T

(6.f)
(-2,0)

-3.51

11.5

-3

71.

55.

-2 1

'~/

-2 1

....-=-==-+J:

-2

-2

(-6,f)
57.

59.

-2 1

:,

;k

,.......

-2

-2

-2I

::::......

:X'o:::

,........-

-2

63.

61 .

The graph of r
73. IV

= 1 + sin nO has n loops.

75. ill

77. (b) ~ 10

+ 6 cos(57r/12) = 3.40

Section 9.7 page 788


1. r = 6/(3

(1.~ )

67. 0

65.

()

5. r

4'7T

= 20/(1 + 4 cos

9. (a) 3, Hyperbola
(b)

- 1.25 I

>I<

+ 2 cos 0)
0}

3. r = 2/(1
7. r

+ sin 0}

= 10/(1 + sin 0}

11. (a) 1, Parabola


(b)

I 11.25

(3, 0)

(- 1,0)

0
- 1

,.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

ASS

15. (a) ~' Hyperbola


(b)

13. (a) ~' Ellipse


(b)

(z.~)

(b) y = -

7. (a)

-3

(6.~)

i,

directrix x = -

""'"'

17. (a) e =

-3

//

Yt

9. (a)

(b) x 3 =

(b) x 2

+l

(b) r =

4 - 3 cos ( 0 -

f)

-05~1

Ul"'

-3

-3

- 0.5

19. The ellipse is nearly circular


when e is close to 0 and becomes
more elongated as e ~ 1- . Ate = 1,

JJ " ~ e= !.OJ

Yt

11. (a)

the curve becomes a parabola.

lI

21. (b) r = (1.49 X 108 )/(1 - 0.017 cos 0)

- 1

23. 0.25

~.
X

- 1

Section 9.8 page 794


3. (a)

1. (a)

y ..

13. (a)

(b) y = x 2

Yf

-6

16

(b)

X -

2y

12

=0

(b) X

5. (a)

-3

= (y + 2) 2
(b)

X=

JI=Y

15. (a)

(b) y

= 2x 2

Answers to Chapter 9 Review

(b) x 2

17. (a)

i =

1.2

41.

A59

-II I \

-1.2

43. (a) x
(b)

19. (a)

= e1112 cos t, y = e1112 sin t

(b) xy

=1

-3r-~-4~--~~-4~--n

-3

45 _ (a) x

= 4 cos t , y = 4 sin t
2 - cos t

2 - cos t

(b)
X

-2~~~~---------+--1

21. (a)

(b)

X+

1
-3

47. III
51 .

49. II
53 . (b)

x2t3

+ y2'3

= a2/3

23. X

= 4 + t, y = -1 + t t

27 . x

= a cos t, y = a sin t

25.

+ t, y =

+t
X

31.

33.

= a(sin (}cos (} + cot 0), y = a(1 + sin2 0)


x + J2ay57. y = a - a cos (
a

55. x

i)

Chapter 9 Review page 797


1. V(O, 0); F(O, -2);

y=2

3. V( -2, 2); F(

-t, 2);

x=-*
y

37.

39.
2.5

-2
-1.25 I

-2.5

I 11.25

Ut
-2

~X

A60

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

5. c(o, o); v(4, o);


F(2 fj, 0); axes 8, 4

23. Ellipse;

7. C(O, 2); V(3, 2);

F(- 2554 ' 8).'

F(1, 4 JlS);
V(1,4 2/5)

F(/5, 2); axes 6, 4


y

-4

25. Parabola;

v(-64, 8)

-3

-3

9. C(O, 0); V( 4, 0);


F(2.,J6, 0);

11. C( -3, -1);


v(-3, -1 fi);

-5

27. Ellipse;
F(3, -3 1/fi);
vl(3, -4), v2(3, -2)

F(-3, -1 2 /5);

J2

asymptotes Y -- +
- -x

asymptotes y =
y=
2

-tx-

t x,

-3

29. Has no graph


X

(x- 1)2

31. x 2

y2

= 4y

x2

33. - - - = 1
4
16
2
4(x- 7)
(y - 2) 2

(y - 2) 2

= 1 37.
4
225
39. (x - 800) = -200(y - 3200)
41. (a) 91,419,000 mi
(b) 94,581,000 mi
43. (a)
10
35.

+--=

100

13.

17.

l
x2
= 8x 15. - - - = 1
16

(x - 4) 2

(y - 2) 2

+--=

16

-10 1'

r~\/

k=2

-10

k=l

45. (a) Hyperbola


21. Hyperbola;

19. Parabola;

F(O, 12 fi);
V(O, 12)

F(O, -2);
V(O, 1)

(b) 3X 2
(c) cJ> =

Y2
45

47. (a) Ellipse


(b) (X- 1) 2 + 4Y 2 = 1
(c) cf> = 30

= 1

-3

'110

Answers to Chapter 9 Test

49. Ellipse

51. Parabola

65. (a) e
20

67. (a) e

1, parabola

(b)

A61

= 2, hyperbola

(b)

-5r--r------~----++~
-~

(t. 1T)
-5

-10

53. (a)

(6,0)

69.

X=

2y

71. (x - 1) 2 + (y - 1)2 = 1

-l

(b)

(x 2 + y2 - 3x)2

9(x 2 + /)

55. (a)

73.

- 1.25 I

(b)

(x2 + y2)3

)(

I I 1.25

= 16x2/

57. (a)

59. (a)

-1.25

75. x

= -!(1 + cos 0), y = -!(sin 0 + tan 0)

Chapter 9 Test page 800


1. F(O, -3), y

2. V(4, 0); F(2 [3", 0); 8, 4

=3

(b) x 2 - / = 1
61. 0 ~ 0 ~ 67T

(b) x 2

63. 0

+ y2 = x + y
~

67T
X

-0.75

I )(

I 1.25

-4 1 )(

)EaK

I
-2

-5

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A62

3. V(O, 3); F(O. 5); y

~x

X2

12. ~ in.
(c)

1> = 27

y2

(b) - + - = 1

13. (a) Ellipse

18

x2
)2
(
5. _16 + Y-- 3 = 1
2
9
6. (x - 2)2 _ L = 1
3

4 Y

7.

2 = -x

(x- 3)2
-

(y + 1)2
4

(d)

(-3jij5, 6jij5), (3jij5, -6jij5)

14.

= 1

+ (y + 2) 2 = 5, circle

15. (x- 1)2

-3

16. r = - - - 1 + 0.5 cos (}


8. 9(x

+ 2) 2

8(y - 4)2 = 72

17. (a)

9.

(y + 4) 2 = -2(x- 4)

-2

3)2

(X

y2

(b) - - + - = 1

Focus on Modeling page 805


y2

x2

10. - - -

16

=1

11. x 2

4x- 8y

+ 20 = 0

1. y

= -(

g
) x 2 + (tan O)x
2v6 cos2 0

Answers to Section 10.2

3. (a) 5.45 s
(d)

(b) 118.7 ft

(c)

5426.5 ft

39. 10

y
(feet)

Jt

41.

43. 8

45. 31

47. 385

A63

49. 46,438

53. J1 + fi + J3 + J4 + J5
J4 + J5 + .j6 + fi + J8 + J9 + J16

51. 22
55.

100

57. x

100

+ x 4 + + x 100

59.

10

k= l

999
X

1000

. 2()
vo2 sm

(feet)

7 No (}
.
'

5. -----:;;;--

63.

k=l

k(k

+1

61.

k2

k= 1

100

65.

xk

67. 2(2" - 1)/ 2"

k=O

= 230
Section 10.2 page 822
1. (a) 5, 7, 9, 11, 13

CHAPTER 10

(c)

(b) 2

a,.
15

Section 10.1 page 816

t, t, !;

*'

1. 2, 3, 4, 5; 101 3. ~,
Jbt 5. -1, -~, -f6; LO~
7. 0, 2, 0, 2; 2 9. 1, 4, 27, 256; 100 100 11. 3, 2, 0, -4, - 12
13. 1, 3, 7, 15, 31 15. 1, 2, 3, 5, 8
17. 7, 11, 15, 19,23,27, 31,35,39,43

lO

45

3. (a) ~'
(c)

t, ~' -~, -t

(b) -1

a,.

'-----------------__/11

19. 12, 6,4, 3,~, 2,~,t.1.~


M
- l

.....

21.

5. a,.= 3
ll

+ 5(n- 1), a 10 = 48

7. an = ~ - ~(n

~' 2, ~' 2, ~' 2, ~' 2, ~' 2

9. Arithmetic, 3

- 1), a 10

15. Arithmetic, 1. 7
17. 11, 18, 25, 32, 39; 7; a11
19.

-2

11. Not arithmetic

13. Arithmetic, -t

= 11 + 7(n - 1)

t, t, t, ~' n; not arithmetic

= -4 + 6(n- 1)
+ 3(n - 1), 299 25. 5, 24, 4 + 5(n - 1), 499
4, 4, -12 + 4(n- 1), 384

21. -4, 2, 8, 14, 21; 6; a,.


23. 3, 14, 2
0

11

23. 2"

25. 3n - 2

27. (2n - 1)/n2

31. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36


2 8 26 80.

35. 3 9 27 8f Sn - 1 37. 1 -

ji,

1-

33.

29. 1

+ (- 1)"

t, %, #, ~' i;j, ~~

}n

J3, -1, 1 - JS; Sn = 1 - r;;+1

27.
29. 1.5, 31, 25
31.
35.
43.
51.
57.

+ 1.5(n - 1), 173.5


s, 2 + 4s, 2 + (n- 1)s, 2 + 99s

33. ~

-100, -98, -96 37. 30th 39. 100 41. 460


1090 45. 20,301 47. 832.3 49. 46.75
$1250 53. $403,500 55. 20
(a) 576ft (b) 16n 2 ft 61. Yes

A64

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

Section 10.3 page 830

Section 10.5 page 846

1. (a) 5, 10, 20, 40, 80

1. Let P(n) denote the statement 2 + 4 + + 2n = n(n + 1).


Step 1 P(1) is true since 2 = 1(1 + 1).
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

(c)

(b) 2

a.
80

2 + 4 + ... + 2k + 2(k + 1)

60

20

= (k + 1)(k + 2)

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

t -%, i, --&-, -f2

3. (a)
(c)

Induction
hypothesis

k(k + 1) + 2(k + 1)

40

(b)

-t

3. Let P(n) denote the statement


7
3
5 + 8 + + (3n + 2) = n( n + ).

a.

.
5
1(3 1 + 7)
Step 1 P ( 1) IS true smce =
2
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then
5 + 8 + ... + (3k + 2) + [3(k + 1) + 2]

0
-I

Induction
hypothesis

=
-

5. an - 3 5

n-1

_
' a4 - 375

9. Geometric, 2

_ 5( l)n- l

7. an - 2 - 2

11. Geometric,

_
5
' a 4 - -16

13. Not geometric

15. Geometric, 1.1 17. 6, 18, 54, 162, 486; geometric,


common ratio 3 a = 6 3n- 1
I I
I
I ' nl

I
1./l)n- 1
19. 4 16 64 256 , 1024 ; geometric, common ratio 4; an = 4\4
21. 0, ln 5, 2ln 5, 31n 5, 4ln 5; not geometric
23. 3, 162, 2 3n- 1 25. -0.3 , 0.00243, (0.3}( -0.3)n- 1

27 _
.

31.

_l_ _j_
12 144

s 2f7,

s 8/7,

39 .. 315

41. 441

33.

35.

43. 3280

lf

1)_,_(n_+_2__,_)
1 2 + 2 3 + + n(n + 1) = _n(,_n_+----'3
.

37. 11th

45. ~bi!

Step 1 P(1) is true since 1 2

64 1024 (4 )n
47. 19ft, 80 (43)n 49. 25
625 5 5

(1)n- 3

51. (a) 179 ft


59. - \~
69. (a) 2

(b) 18- 3

61. ~

(b) 8

63. ~

+ 4 fi

53. 2

65. ~~~

55. 4

57.

1 (1 + 1) (1 + 2)
3

67. 3m

71. 1

+ 55b

Section 10.4 page 839


1. $13,180.79 3. $360,262.21 5. $5,591.79
7. $245.66 9. $2,601.59 11. $307.24
13. $733.76, $264,153.60
15. (a) $859.15 (b) $309,294.00 (c) $1,841,519.29
17. $341.24 19. 18.16% 21. 11.68%

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then


1 2 + 2 . 3 + ... + k(k + 1) + (k + 1}(k + 2)

648

1- a
73. a - 1- a

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k) . Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
5. Let P(n) denote the statement

144(- ...L)n- 1 29 32/3 311/3 3(2n+1)/3


12
.
'
'

s 2 (n- 1)/7

k(3k + 7) + (3k + 5)
2
3~ + 13k + 10
2
= (k + 1)[3(k + 1) + 7]
2

= k(k + 1)(k + 2) + (k + 1)(k + 2)


3

Induction
hypothesis

(k + 1)(k + 2}(k + 3)

3
So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

7. Let P(n) denote the statement


2

n (n_ +___[_
1)
13 + 23 + . . . + n3 = ____,_

12 (1 + 1) 2
Step 1 P( 1) is true since 13 =
4

Answers to Section 10.5

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then


13 + 23 + ... + ~ + (k + 1) 3
=

k?-(k

+ 1)2 + (k + 1)3
4

Induction hypothesis

(k + 1)2[k?- + 4(k + 1)]


4

(k + 1)2 (k + 2) 2
4
So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
9. Let P(n) denote the statement

23 + 43 + + (2n) 3 = 2n2(n + 1)2.


Step 1 P(1) is true since 23 = 2 12(1 + 1) 2.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then
23 + 43 + ... + (2k) 3 + [2(k + 1)]3

= 2k?-(k + 1) 2 + [2(k + 1)] 3


= (k + 1) 2(2k?- + 8k + 8)
= 2(k + 1) 2(k + 2) 2

Induction hypothesis

A6 5

But k?- - k + 41 is odd (by the induction hypothesis) and 2k is


clearly even, so their sum is odd. So P(k + 1) follows from
P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n)
holds for all n.
17. Let P(n) denote the statement 8n - 3n is divisible by 5.
Step 1 P(1) is true since 8 1 - 3 1 is divisible by 5.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now
8k+ 1 - 3k+ 1 = 8 8k - 3 3k
= 8 8k - (8 - 5) 3k = 8 (8k - 3k) + 5 3k

which is divisible by 5 because 8k - 3k is divisible by 5 (by the


induction hypothesis) and 5 3k is clearly divisible by 5. So
P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
19. Let P(n) denote the statement n < 2n.
Step 1 P(1) is true since 1 < 21 .
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

k + 1 < 2k + 1
< 2k + 2k
= 2. 2k = 2k+1

Induction hypothesis
Because 1 < 2k

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

11. Let P(n) denote the statement


1 2 + 2 22 + + n 2n = 2[1

21. Let P(n) denote the statement (1 + x)n ~ 1 + nx


for x > -1.
Step 1 P(1) is true since (1 + x) 1 ~ 1 + 1 x.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

+ (n - 1)2n].
Step 1 P(1) is true since 1 2 = 2[1 + 0].
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

1 2 + 2 22 + ... + k 2k + (k + 1) 2k+ 1
Induction
= 2[1 + (k- 1)2k] + (k + 1) 2k+ 1
hypothesis
1
1
= 2 + (k- 1)2k+ + (k + 1) 2k+
= 2 + 2k2k+ 1 = 2[1 + k2k+ 1]

(1 + x)k+ 1

= (1 + x)(1 + x)k
(1 + x}(1 + kx}
Induction hypothesis
= 1 + (k + 1)x + kx 2

1 + (k + 1)x

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

13. Let P(n) denote the statement n2 + n is divisible by 2.


Step 1 P(1) is true since 12 + 1 is divisible by 2.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now

23. Let P(n) denote the statement an= 5 3n- 1


Step 1 P(1) is true since a 1 = 5 3 = 5.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

(k + 1) 2 + (k + 1) = k?- + 2k + 1 + k + 1
= (k?- + k) + 2(k + 1)
But k?- + k is divisible by 2 (by the induction hypothesis) and
2(k + 1) is clearly divisible by 2, so (k + 1)2 + (k + 1) is divisible by 2. So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle
of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
15. Let P(n) denote the statement n2 - n

+ 41 is odd.

Step 1 P(1) is true since 12 - 1 + 41 is odd.


Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now

(k + 1) 2 - (k + 1) + 41 = (k?- - k + 41) + 2k

ak+ 1 = 3 ak

= 3 5 3k- 1
= 5. 3k

Definition of ak + 1
Induction hypothesis

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
25. Let P(n) denote the statement X - y is a factor of xn - yn.
Step 1 P( 1) is true since x - y is a factor of x 1 - y 1
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now
xk+I _ yk+I

= xk+I _ xky + xky


= xk(x - y) + (xk -

_ yk+I
yk)

A66

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

But xk(x - y) is clearly divisible by x - y and xk - y k is divisible by x - y (by the induction hypothesis), so their sum is
divisible by x - y. So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the
Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
27. Let P(n) denote the statement F 311 is even.
Step 1 P( 1) is true since F3 . 1 = 2, which is even.
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now, by the definition of the
Fibonnacisequence

+ F3k+1
F3k+1 + F3k + F 3k+ J
= F3k + 2 F3k+ 1

33. Let P(n) denote the statement F ~ n.


Step 1 P(5) is true since F5 ~ 5 {because F5 = 5).
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Now
11

Fk+ 1 = Fk + Fk- 1
~ k + Fk- 1

Definition of the Fibonnaci sequence


Induction hypothesis
Because Fk- 1 ~ 1

~k+1

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k) . Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n ~ 5.

F 3(k+ 1) = F 3k+3 = F 3k+2

Section 10.6 page 856

But F3k is even (by the induction hypothesis) and 2 F3k+l is


clearly even, so F 3{k+ 1) is even. So P(k + 1) follows from P(k) .
Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds
for all n.
29. Let P{n) denote the statement
Fr + F~ + + F~ = Fn Fn+1
Step 1 P{1) is true since Fr = F 1 F 2 {because F 1
Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

1. x 6 + 6x 5 y + 15x 4y 2 + 20x 3y 3 + 15x 2y 4 + 6.xy 5 + y 6


4

()

= F 2 = 1).

11. 5

5
- ---;;j2

[1 1]
1 0

11

= [Fn+1 Fn ] .
Fn

1] =
1

Fn - 1

[F F .
3

F2

F1

[Fk+ 1 + Fk
Fk + Fk- 1

[1 1]

15

x 20 + 40x 19y + 760x 18y 2


25a26/ 3 + a 25/ 3 29. 48,620x 18
300a2b23 33. 100y 99
13,440x 4y 6 37. 495a 8 b8

(x + y) 4 41. (2a + b) 3
3x 2

+ 3xh + h 2

4, *

t. n-; sbo

1. ~.
lf; \~ 3. 0, 0,
5. 1, 3, 15, 105; 654,729,075
7. 1,4, 9, 16,25,36,49
Induction hypothesis

9. 1, 3, 5, 11, 21, 43, 85


11. (a) 7,9,11,13,15

(b)
F k+ J]

[Fk+2 Fk+1]
Fk+ 1
Fk

20

a"1
1s

Fk

10

Definition of the
Fibonnaci sequence

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n ~ 2.

25.
27.
31.
35.
39.
43.

15

Chapter 10 Review page 858

Fk]
Fk Fk- 1 1 0

23. 1 + - + - 2 + - 3 + - 4 + - 5 + - 6
x
x
x
x
x
x

[: ~J

1
= [Fk+

Definition of the
Fibonnacisequence

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

~J'

+ 210 - 010 + 5x - x 5/ 2

13. 15 15. 4950 17. 18 19. 32


21. x 4 + 8x 3y + 24x 2y 2 + 32xy 3 + 16y4

= [:

Induction hypothesis

Step 1 P(2) is true since [ 1 1] = [2


1 0
1

[: ~r

10 5

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k) . Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
31. Let P n denote the statement

1
+ 4

5x + 10x - 10x 2 + 5x - 1
7. x y - 5x 8y 4 + 10x 6y 3 - 10x 4y 2 + 5x 2y - 1
9. 8x 3 - 36x 2y + 54xy 2 - 27y 3
5. x

Fr + F~ + + F~ + F~+ 1
= Fk Fk+ l + F~ + 1
= Fk+ 1(Fk + F k+ 1)
= Fk+ l Fk-+'2

3. x + 4x + 6 + 2

(c) Arithmetic, common


difference 2

Answers to Chapter 10 Test


3 9 21

13. (a) 4 8 16
(b)
an

243
32 64

A67

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

t) ... (1 + )(1 +

(1 + +)(1 +

= (k + 1)(1 + - - )
.

Induction hypothesis

= (k + 1) + 1
So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
(c) Geometric, common ratio~

15. Arithmetic, 7
19. Arithmetic, t
25. 5

27.

37.126
3
43. - +
22
100

47.

17. Arithmetic, 5

21. Geometric,

31. 12,288

29. 64

69. Let P(n) denote the statement an = 2 3" - 2.


- 2 = 4.

J2

Step 1 P(1) is true since a 1 = 2 3 1


Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

23. 2i

35. (a) 9

(b) 6

.ji

39.384 41.02 +1 2 +22 + .. +9 2


32
33
350
33
- + - + ... + 45 " 3k
23
24
251
.

6:1.

k 2k+ 2 49. Geometric; 4.68559

55. 13
63.

J5

57. 65,534

53. Geometric, 9831

59. $2390.27

3ak

= 3(2

61.

Step 1 P( 1) is true since 1

1
)

1(3 1 - 1)

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then


1 + 4 + 7 + + (3n - 2) + [3(k + 1) - 2]
k(3k- 1)
=
+ [3k + 1] Induction hypothesis
2
3~- k

+ 6k + 2

Step 1 P(4) is true since 4! > 24.


Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then

(k + 1)! = k!(k + 1)
> 2k(k + 1)

Induction hypothesis

>

Because k + 1 > 2

73. 255

Chapter 10 Test page 861


1. 0, 3, 8, 15; 99

t. is

2. -1

5. (a) False

(c) -

+ (n

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

P(n) denote the statement

8. 2

3. - 4; 68,

an= 80- 4(n- 1)

(b) True
-

1)d] or Sn =

(a+2- an)

n -

!. -78

1
7. (a) Sn = a( - rn)
1- r

+)(1 + l) (1 + *} = n + 1.
Step 1 P(1) is true since (1 + +) = 1 +

75. 12,870

79. b- 40/3 + 20b- 37/3 + 190b- 34/ 3

(b) 60

= (k + 1)[3(k + 1) - 1]

2k+1

77. 16x 4 + 32x 3y + 24x 2y 2 + 8xy 3 + y 4

n [2a
6. (a) Sn = 2

= (k + 1)(3k + 2)

> 2" for n ~ 4.

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n ~ 4.

4.

67. Let

Induction hypothesis

So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.

65. Let P(n) denote the statement

= n( 3n2-

3k - 2) + 4

= 2. 3k+l- 2

l (3 + jj)

1 + 4 + 7 + + (3n - 2)

+4

71. Let P(n) denote the statement n!

k= l

51. Arithmetic, 5050

ak+ t

(b) 58,025/59,049

+ J2

9. Let P(n) denote the statement


12 + 22 + ... + n2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6

(1 +

1.

Step 1 P(1) is true since 12 = 1(1 + 1)(2 2 + 1)


6

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

A68

Step 2 Suppose P(k) is true. Then


12 + 2 2 + ... + ~ + (k + 1) 2
k(k + 1){2k + 1)
=
+ (k + 1)2
6
k(k

Induction hypothesis

+ 1){2k + 1) + 6 (k + 1) 2
6

(k + 1)[k(2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)]

29.
37.
45.
53.
59.
65.
69.

2,522,520 31. 168 33. 56 35. 330


100 39. 20 41. 210 43. 2,598,960
120 47. 495 49. 2,035,800 51. 1,560,780
$22,957,480 55. (a) 56 (b) 256 57. 1024
2025 61. 79,833,600 63. 131,072
161,280 67. (a) 20,160 (b) 8640
17,813,250 71. 182 73. 62,986

Section 11.3 page 890

= {HH, HT, TH, TT}

1. (a) S

(k +

1)(2~

+ 7k + 6)

3. (a)

7. (a)

11. (a)

(k + 1)[(k + 1) + 1][2(k + 1) + 1]
So P(k + 1) follows from P(k). Thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P(n) holds for all n.
10. (a) (1 - 12 ) + (1 - 22 ) + (1 - 32 ) + (1 - 4 2 ) + (1 -5 2 )
=-50
(b) 10
11. 32x 5 + 80x 4y 2 + 80x 3y 4 + 40x 2y 6 + 10.xy 8 + y 10
12. e3)(3x)3(-2)1 = -414,720x 3

1) = n 2

2!3-

7. (a) -

n(n + 1)52n + 1)

(b)

(c)

(c) 0

-f6

(b)

5. (a) ~
9. (a)

fi

(b)

(b)

f,

19.

-f9

(d)
(c)

-w

(c)

(c)

(d)

(e)

{i

21. 1/C(49, 6) = 7.15 X 10- 8 23. (a) 10 4 (b) 1~s


25. (a) 1/48 6 = 8.18 x 10- 11 (b) 1/48 18 = 5.47 x 10- 31
27. 4/11! = 1.00 X 10- 7
31. (a) Yes (b) No

29. (a) ~

(b)

33. (a) Mutually exclusive; 1

Not mutually exclusive;

35. (a) Not mutually exclusive; ~

n(n 2 + 1)

5. -----'--2

-_J_

9. (a) 91;

17. (b) ~

(b)

Focus on Problem Solving page 864

+ 3 + 5 + + (2n-

(b)

(b)

(c) ~

13. 4C(13, 5)/C(52, 5) = .00198


15. 4/C(52, 5) = 1.53908 X 10- 6

1. 1

i
i

(b)

441; [ n(n; 1)

(b) Mutually exclusive;

37. (a) ~

(b)

(b)

43. (a)

45. (a) Yes


49.

_l_
12

55. (i)

CHAPTER 11

51.

(b)

1. 12 3. (a) 64 (b) 24 5. 1024 7. 120


9. 144 11. 120 13. 32 15. 216 17. 480
19. No 21. 158,184,000 23. 1024 25. 8192
27. No 29. 24,360 31. 1050
33. (a) 16,807 (b) 2520 (c) 2401 (d) 2401 (e) 4802
35. 936 37. (a) 1152 (b) 1152 39. 483,840 41. 6

41.

47. (a) ~

(b)

39.

{i

(d)

-k
53.

66

1 1

it

-f.2

_1_ _

363

- 2.14 X 10

- 5

P(~:~~ 8) = 0.07434

57. 1 -

3)

s-

(c) 1
(c)

_ I_
1444

59. 600/P(40,

Section 11.1 page 869

!
!

5/494

61. 0.1

Section 11.4 page 897


1. $1.50 3. $0.94 5. $0.92 7. 0 9. -$0.30
11. - $0.0526 13. -$0.50
15. No, she should expect to lose $2.10 per stock.
17. -$0.93 19. $1

Chapter 11 Review page 898


Section 11.2 page 879
1. 336 3. 7920
11. 120 13. 24
19. 24

21. 60

5. 100 7. 2730 9. 151,200


15. 362,880 17. 997,002,000
23. 60 25. 15 27. 277,200

1. 624 3. (a) 10 (b) 20 5. 120 7. 45


9. 17,576 11. 120 13. 5 15. 14
17. (a) 240 (b) 3360 (c) 1680
19. 40,320
(d) 2808

21. (a) 31,824 (b) 11,760


(e) 2808 (f) 6,683,040

(c) 19,448

Answers to Section 12.3

23.
27.
31.
35.
39.
41.

*n

(a)
(b) -/- (c)
(a) -& (b)
(c)
(a) 1 ~ (b) 26o 33.
$0.00016 37. (a) 3
(a) 105 (b) 55 (c)
(a) 144 (b) 126 (c)

f3

fi
(d) -k

(d)

(e) 1 5

29. (a)

25. ~

Section 12.2 page 923

(b) ~

1. (a) 5

(b) 9

(d) 75

84

-k

fs

--fl
17.

11. 2

(d)

13. ~

21. 4

f3

*.1 . -&

-t

5. -!-

3. 75

(f) 0

7. -3

9. 5

--ft

19.
23.

-i

(e)

-!

-3 ~------------+---~

- 1 ~----1------+----__,

7. 30 29 28 C(27, 5) = 1,966,582,800
8. (a) -!- (b)
(c)
9. (a)
(b)
(c) -fJ
10. C(5, 3)/C(l5, 3) = 0.022 11.
12. 1 - 1
= 0.427 13. $0.65
120

(h)

15. 12

(g) Does not exist

1. (a) 105 (b) 30,240 2. 60


3. (a) P(30, 4) = 657,720 (b) C(30, 4) = 27,405
4. 12 5. 4 2 14 = 65,536 6. (a) 4! = 24

(d)

(b) .51

Chapter 11 Test page 901

(b) 6!/3!

(c) 2

-k

A69

-&

-3

- l

25. (a) 0.667

~
- l~--------+---------1

Focus on Modeling page 904


1. (b)

-fo

3. (b)

7. (b) -!-

- l

CHAPTER 12

(b) 0.667

f(x)

0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001

0.71339
0.67163
0.66717
0.66672

-0.1
-0.01
- 0.001
- 0.0001

f(x)
0.61222
0.66163
0.66617
- 0.66662

27. 0 29. Does not exist 31. Does not exist


33. (a) 1, 2 (b) Does not exist
(c)

Section 12.1 page 914


1. 3. 1 5.17.-1 9.0.51 11.-!- 13.(a)2
(b) 3 (c) Does not exist (d) 4 (e) Not defined
15. (a) - 1 (b) -2 (c) Does not exist (d) 2 (e) 0
(f) Does not exist (g) 1 (h) 3 17. - 8 19. Does not
exist 21. Does not exist
23. (a) 4 (b) 4 (c) 4

(c)

X
X

25. (a) 4

(b) 3

(c) Does not exist

~ :
Section 12.3 page 932
1. 3 3. -11
+
11. y =
17. F'(4) =

x i
--16

21. f'(a) = (a

5. 24 7. y = -x - 1 9. y
13. f'(2) = - 12 15. g'(l)
19. f'(a) = 2a + 2

~ 1)2

= -x + 4
=4

A70

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Chapter Tests

23. (a) f'(a) = 3a2


(b) y = -2x + 4, y
(c)

9. (a) 8, 6.875

= x

+ 2, y

= lOx -

(b) 5, 5.375

12

20

-20

25. -24 ft/s 27. 12a2 + 6 rn/s, 18 rn/s, 54 rn/s, 114 rn/s
29. 0.75/min 31. (a) -38.3 gal/min, -27.8 gal/min
(b) -33.3 gal/min

11. 37.5

13. 8

15. 166.25

17. 133.5

Chapter 12 Review page 952

Section 12.4 page 941

1. (a) -1, 2 (b) y = -1, y = 2 3. 0 5. j 7.


9. 2
11. Does not exist 13. 7 15.
17. 0 19. 0
21. Divergent 23. 0 25. Divergent 27. ~ 29. 8
31. (b) 30 giL

-i

1. 1 3. 0.69 5. Does not exist 7. (a) Does not exist


(c) 2.4 (d) 2.4 (e) 0.5 (f) 1 (g) 2 (h) 0
9. -3 11.7 13.2 15. -1 17.2 19. Doesnotexist
(b) 2.4

21. f'(4) = 3 23. f'(16) =


25. (a) f'(a) = -2
(b) -2, -2 27. (a) f'(a) = 1/(2 ~a + 6) (b) 1/(4 fi), 1/4
29. y = 2x + 1 31. y = 2x 33. y =
+1
35. (a) -64 ft/s (b) -32a ft/s (c) J4Q = 6.32 s

-ix

Section 12.5 page 950

1. (a) 40, 52

(d) -202.4 ft/s 37.


45. 10 47. %

39.

41. Divergent

43. 3.83

Chapter 12 Test page 954


1. (a)
0

lOX

(b)

lOX

(b) 43.2, 49.2


3. 5.25
7. (a)

f/s,

5.

-1~

I~

22
3

-1

underestimate

2. (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 0 (e) 0 (f) 0 (g) 4 (h) 2


(i) Does not exist 3. (a) 6 (b) -2 (c) Does not exist
(d) Does not exist (e)
(f) 2 4. (a) f'(x) = 2x- 2
(b) -4, 0, 2 5. y =
+ ~ 6. (a) 0 (b) Does not exist

1.5
1.0
0.5

7. (a)
0

(b)

lf

ix

Focus on Modeling page 958

(b)

#, overestimate

1. 57,333! ft-lb

3. (b) Area under the graph of


(c) 3000 lb
(d) 1500 lb 5. (a) 1625.28 heating-degree hours (b) 70F
(c) 1488 heating-degree hours (d) 75F
(e) The day in part (a)

p(x) = 375x between x = 0 and x = 4

1.5
1.0
0.5

Index
Absolute value, 10-11
of complex numbers, 582
equations, 57, 94-95
properties of, 11
Absolute value function, 158, 164
Absolute value inequalities, 83-84
Addition
of complex numbers, 294
of fractional expressions, 37-38
graphical, 220
of inequalities, 78
of matrices, 662
of polynomials, 27
of vectors, 591, 594, 595
Addition and subtraction formulas,
543-547
Additive identity, 5
Algebraic errors, avoiding, 42
Algebraic expressions, 27-37
Algorithm, origin of term for, 6
Al Karchi, Abu Bekr, 862
AM (amplitude modulation) radio, 465
Ambiguous case, of solving triangles, 507
Amplitude, harmonic motion and, 456
Amplitude modulation (AM) radio, 465
Analogy, used in problem solving, 617
Angle measure, 472-483
Angles, defined, 473
Angular speed, 479-480
Annuities
calculating amount of, 834-836
present value of, 836-837
Aphelion, 742, 789
Apollonius, 723
Apolune, 742
Appel, Kenneth, 530
Approval voting, 884
Arccosine function, 563
Archimedes, 728
Arcsine function, 561

Arctangent function, 564


Area of a triangle, 500, 696
Area problem, calculus
under a curve, 948-950
defined, 946-948
estimating using rectangles, 943-945
under graphs, 955-957
limit of approximating sums, 945-946
Areas, formulas for, inside front cover
Aristarchus of Samos, 485
Arithmetic sequences
defined, 817
partial sums, 819-822
Arrow diagram, of functions, 146
Arrow, Kenneth, 884
Assets, division of, 273-274
Associative Property, 4
Asymptotes, 308-310
defined, 310
horizontal, 312, 936
of hyperbolas, 745-746
of rational functions, 312, 316
slant, 318-321
vertical, 912
vertical and horizontal, 312-313
Augmented matrix, 648
Automotive design, 264
Average rate of change, 174-17 8
Axes. see also Rotation of axes
of ellipses, 735
of hyperbolas, 745
of parabolas, 725, 726
polar axis, 773
real and imaginary, 581
Axis of symmetry, parabolas, 724
Back-substitution, solving linear
equations, 638-639
Base 10 logarithm, 354
Bell, E. T., 663

Bearing,515
Best fit
finding, 247-248
measuring, 249-250
Bhaskara, 77, 533
Binomials, 26, 848
Binomial coefficients, 850-852
Binomial expansion, 854
Binomial Theorem, 853-856
Bounded regions, of planes, 703
Burton, David, 903
CAD (computer-aided design), 264
Calculators. see also Graphing calculators
evaluating trigonometric functions,
422-423
as graphing device, 435
graphing calculators, 104-107,
909-910,916
Calculus, preview of. see Limits
Cardano, Gerolamo, 304
Carrier signals, radio, 465
Cartesian plane, 89. see also Coordinate
plane
CAT (Computer Aided Tomography)
scan, 754
Catenary, 343
Cayley, Arthur, 675
Central box, of hyperbolas, 746
Chang Ch'iu-Chien, 77
Chaos, 229
Circles, 95-98
equations of, 97-98
graphing, 97, 106 -107
as polar graph, 781
Circular arc, 477-478
Circular function. see Trigonometric
functions
Circular motion, 479-480
Circular sector, 477-478
A71

A72

Index

Clarkson, Roland, 812


Codes, unbreakable, 544
Coefficient matrix, 679
Coefficients, of polynomials, 257
Cofunction identities, 535
Colinear points, 127
Column transformations, of determinants,
692
Combinations, and permutations, 875-877
finding number of, 876
Comets, paths of, 748
Common (base 10) logarithms, 354
Commutative Property, 4
Complete Factorization Theorem,
299-300
Completing the square, 49-50
Complex numbers, 292-298
arithmetic operations on, 294-295
complex roots of quadratic equations,
296-297
defined,293
DeMoivre's Theorem, 586-587
graphing, 581-583
multiplication and division of, 584
roots of, 587-589
square roots of negative numbers,
295-296
trigonometric form of, 583-586
Complex roots, of quadratic equations,
296-297
Complex zeros, 299-307
Composite function, 220-224
Compound fractions, 38-40, 315
Compound interest, 341-343
annuities and, 835-836
continuously compounded, 343
formula for, 342
using logarithmic equations for,
370-372
Computer-aided design (CAD), 264
Computer Aided Tomography (CAT)
scan, 754
Computer graphics
applying matrices to generation of,
668-669,684-687
rotating an image, 770-772
Computers
applications of, 178
as graphing device, 435
Conics. see also by type
basic shapes of, 723

degenerate, 758
equivalent description of, 784
graphing rotated, 765-766
identifying by discriminant, 7 67-7 68
polar equations of, 785
shifted, 753- 761
simplifying general equation for, 764
Conjecture, mathematic induction and,
841-842
Conjugate Zeros Theorem, 303-304, 307
Constant coefficient, 257
Constant function, 156
Constant of proportionality, 168
Constant rate of change, 178-179
Constants, 26, 228
Constant term, 257
Contestant's dilemma, 902-903
Continuous functions, 919
Continuously compounded interest, 343
Coordinate geometry, 89-100
circles, 95- 98
coordinate plane, 89-93
vs. geometry, 104
graphing equations, 93-96
symmetry, 106-108
Coordinate plane, 89-93
Correlation coefficient, 249
Cosecant function
cosecantcurves,449
formula for, 493
graphing, 449-450
inverse, 566
trigonometric ratios, 483
Cosine function
addition and subtraction formulas for,
543-544
cosine curves, 432
double-angle formula for, 550
formula for, 493
graphing, 428-430
graphing transformations of, 430-435
half-angle formula for, 554
inverse cosine, 562-564
Law of Cosines, 513-517
periodic properties of, 428
product-sum formula for, 555
shifted curves, 433-435
sum of sines and cosines, 546-547
sum-to-product formula for, 556
trigonometric ratios, 483
Costfunction, 159-160

Cotangent function
cotangent curves, 447
formula for, 493
graphing, 447-449
inverse cotangent, 566
trigonometric ratios, 483
Coterminal angles, 475-477
Counting
combinations, 875-877
Fundamental Counting Principle,
867-869
permutations, 872-875
solving counting problems, 877-879
Cramer's Rule, 693-696
Cumulative voting, 884
Curve
area under, 948-950
slope of a, 926
Curve fitting, 643-646
Cycles, of vibration, 455-456
Damped harmonic motion, 464-466
Damping constant, 464
Data, linearizing, 400-401
Data matrices, 685
Daylight, modeling hours of, 460-461
Decibel scale, 385
Degenerate conics, 758
Degrees
as angle measure, 473
compared with radians, 474-475
DeMoivre's Theorem, 586-587
Denominators, 6, 22, 41
Dependent systems, linear equations, 630,
641, 654-658
Dependent variables, 146
Derivatives, 928-930
defined, 929
estimating from graphs, 933
finding at a point, 929-930
Descartes, Rene, 89-90, 257, 282
Descartes' Rule of Signs, 282-283, 305
Determinants, 688-699
areas of triangles, 696
invertibility criterion, 691
row and column transformations,
691-692
Diaconis, Persi, 868
Difference
of cubes, 31
of functions, 218

Index

of matrices, 662
of squares, 30
Difference quotients, 148, 176
Digital images, 668-669
Digital numbers, 121
Diophantus, 37, 77, 532
Direct substitution, finding limits using,
919-920
Direct variation, 168-169
Discriminant
identifying conics by, 767-768
of quadratic formula, 52
Distance, between points on the real line,
11-12
Distance formula, 91-92
Distinguishable permutations, 873-874
Distributive Property
combining algebraic expressions, 26
factoring with, 28-29
real numbers and, 4-5
Dividends, 273
Division
of complex numbers, 295, 584
of fractional expressions, 37
overview of, 6
of polynomials, 272- 279, 273-274
synthetic, 274-275
Division Algorithm, 273
Divisors, 6, 273
Dodecahedron, 529
Domains
of combined functions, 219-220
finding from graphs, 160-161
of functions, 146, 149-150
of trigonometric functions, 420
of variables, 26
Dot product
calculating work, 608-609
component of u along v, 605-606
defined, 602
projection of u onto v, 607
properties of, 603
of vectors, 602-606
Dot Product Theorem, 603
Double-angle formulas, 550-552

e (number), 339, 355


Earthquakes, magnitude of, 384-385
Eccentricity
of a conic, 784-785
of an ellipse, 738

of planetary orbits, 738


Ecology, mathematical study of, 676-677
Economics, use of mathematics in, 657
Einstein, Albert, 138, 691 , 803
Elementary row operations, 649-650
Elements, of sets, 8
Elimination method, 624-625
Ellipses, 734-743
with center at origin, 736
eccentricity of, 738-739
equation of, 737, 739-740
foci of, 738
geometric definition of, 734
graphing shifted, 754-755
orbits of planets as, 738
rotating, 787-788
vertices of, 735- 736
Empty set 0, 8
Encryption, 544
End behavior
of polynomials, 259- 261, 263
of rational functions, 318-321
Equality
of matrices, 662
properties of, 45
of vectors, 591, 594
Equations, 45-57. see also Systems of
equations; Systems of linear
equations
absolute value, 57
of circles, 97- 98
equivalent, 45
exponential, 364- 367
false, 642
of functions , 162-163
graphic solutions for, 107
graph of, 93
of horizontal lines, 117
of a hyperbola, 745
involving higher powers, 55-56
involving radicals, 55
linear, 46-47, 118
of lines, 116-119
logarithmic,367-370
matrix, 679- 682
modeling with. see Mathematical
models
nonlinear, 46
of a parabola, 197
polynomial, 285-286
Properties of Equality and, 45

A73

quadratic, 48-54
of quadratic type, 55
of a shifted conic, 759
roots of, 261
solving for unknown functions,
227,239
solving using analogy strategy,
617- 618
of vertical lines, 117
Equations, trigonometric, 570-578
with functions of multiple angles,
575-577
solving, 570-572, 575, 577-578
Equivalent equations, 45
Equivalent inequalities, 78
Equivalent systems, 639, 643-646
Eratosthenes, 481, 815
Error-correcting codes, 192
Euler, Leonhard, 135, 293, 329-330
Euler' s Formula, 529- 530
Even function, 192-194, 197, 227
Even-odd identities, 535
Even-odd properties, 423
Events, probability of, 884-885
complements of events, 885-886
events defined, 883
intersection of independent events,
888- 889
mutually exclusive events, 886-887
union of two events, 887- 888
Everest, Sir George, 509
Existence theorem, 291
Expected value, 895- 897
Experiments, defined, 882
Exponential data, linearizing, 400
Exponential equations, 364-367
Exponential function, 335-348
compound interest, 341- 343
natural, 339-341
Exponential growth, 348
Exponential modeling, 375-383, 394-396
Exponential notation, 14, 18- 19
Exponents
fractional, 21 , 32
integer, 14- 18
integer, exponential notation, 14
integer, zero and negative exponents, 15
Laws of, 15-18, 21, 336
rational, 21- 22
Extraneous solutions, 55
Extreme values, 197-206

A74

Index

Extreme values (cont.)


of quadratic functions, 197-202
using graphing devices for, 202-204
Factorial notation, 869
Factoring
common factors, 29
complex solutions and, 300
differences and sums of cubes, 31
differences of squares, 30
fractional expressions, 32
by grouping, 32
polynomials, 301-302
quadratics, 29
solving trigonometric equations by,
572-575
by trial and error, 29-30
Factoring formulas, 30
Factor Theorem, 276-277, 279
Falling objects, instantaneous velocity of,
931
False equations, 642
Family of functions, 160
Fermat, Pierre de, 89, 532, 882
Fermat's Last Theorem, 532
Fibonacci, 810
Fibonacci numbers, 663, 811, 815
FM (frequency modulation) radio, 465
Focal diameter, of parabolas, 728
Focus
of an ellipse, 734, 736
of a hyperbola, 744-745
of a parabola, 724-725, 732
FOIL method, 27
Force, modeling, 597-599
Four-color problem, 530
Fourier analysis, 121
Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 437, 551
Fractals, 818-819
Fractional exponents, 21, 32
Fractional expressions
adding and subtracting, 37-38
avoiding common errors, 42
compound fractions, 38-40
multiplying and dividing, 36-37
rationalizing denominator or numerator,
41
simplifying, 36
solving equations involving, 54

Fractions
compound, 38-40
partial, 704-709
properties of, 6
Frequency, harmonic motion and, 456
Frequency modulation (FM) radio, 465
Functions, 143-255, 218-227
algebra of, 218-220
common examples of, 143-144
composition of, 220-224
defined, 145-147
domain of, 149-150
evaluating, 147-149
even, 192-194
extreme values, 197-206
greatest integer, 158
increasing/decreasing, 179-181
inverse, 232-236
iterates of, 228-229
methods for representing, 150-151
modeling with, 206-214
modeling with, guidelines for, 209
one-to-one, 230-231, 233-236
rate of change and, 17 4
transformations of, 184-197
trigonometric, See Trigonometric
functions
variation as applied, 168
Functions, graphing, 156-168
Functions, limits of. see Limits
Fundamental Counting Principle, 867-869
Fundamental identities, 424, 497-498, 535
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, 299
Fundamental Principle of Analytic
Geometry, 93
Galileo, Galilei, 723, 733, 803
Galois, Evariste, 280
Gateway Arch, 337
Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 300, 651, 819
Gaussian elimination, 639-640, 651-654
Gauss-Jordan elimination, 653
General conic equation, simplifying, 764
Geometric sequences, 824-830
Geometry, analytic, 723
Global Positioning System (GPS),
626-627
Gnomons of AI Karchi, 862-863
Golden ratio, 814

Graham, Ronald, 877


Graphical addition, 220
Graphical solutions, 107-110
compared with algebraic method,
108-109
for equations, 107
for inequalities, 111
for systems of equations, 625-627
using graphing calculator, 104-107
Graphing calculators
for extreme values of functions,
202-204
pitfalls of, 916
for trigonometric graphs, 435-439
using, 104-107
zoom and trace features of, 909-910
Graphing devices. see Graphing
calculators
Graphing functions, 156-168
Graphs, 700-703
of complex numbers, 581-583
of linear inequalities, 702-703
of nonlinear inequalities, 700
of polar equations, 775-781
reflecting, 188-189
shifted, 753-757
shifts, horizontal, 186-188
shifts, vertical, 184-186
stretching and shrinking, 189-190
of two inequalities, 701-702
Gravity, Newton's Law of, 171
Greater than(>), 7
Greatest integer function, 158, 159, 164
Great Trigonometric Survey of India, 509
Grouping, factoring by, 32
Growth constant, 228
Haken, Wolfgang, 530
Half-angle formulas, 552-555
Half-life of radioactive elements, 380
Halley, Edmund, 854
Hardy, G. H., 332
Harmonic motion, 455-471
damped, 464-466
modeling periodic behavior, 461-464
simple, 456
Herons' Formula, 516
Hilbert, David, 689
Hilbert's tenth problem, 663

A76

Index

Limits, area problems (cont.)


estimating area using rectangles,
943-945
limit of approximating sums, 945-946
modeling with, 955-957
Limits at infinity, 934-939
defined, 935
finding, 938
functions with no limit at infinity, 939
at negative infinity, 936, 938
Limits of sequences, 939-941
defined, 939
finding, 940-941
limits of recursive sequences, 942
Linear and Quadratic Factors Theorem,
305
Linear equations. see also Systems of
linear equations
applying to rate of change, 121-124
graph of, 118-119
solving, 46-47
Linear factors, 305-306
Linear functions
becoming inverse, 239
composing, 227
defined, 156
graphs of, 164
as mathematical models, 246-247
Linear inequalities, 78-79, 702-703
Linearizing
exponential data, 400
power data, 400-401
Linear programming, 715-721
guidelines for, 717
Karmarkar' s technique, 716
Linear speed, 479-480
Lines, 113-124
of best fit, 247-248
general equation of, 118
parallel, 119
perpendicular, 120-121
point-slope form of equation of, 116
slope-intercept form of equation of, 117
slope of, 114-115
using slope to indicate rate of change,
122-124
vertical and horizontal, 117
Lissajous figure, 793
Local extrema, of polynomials, 267-269,
272

Local maximum, 202, 268


Local minimum, 203, 268
loga, 349
Logarithmic equations, 367-372
Logarithmic functions, 349-358
applications of, 370-372, 383-386
common (base 10) logarithms, 354
natural logarithms, 355-356
properties of, 353
Logarithmic modeling, 383-386
Logarithms, Laws of, 359-364
Logistic curves (or logistic growth model),
341
Logistic function, 228
Longbow curve, 796
Long division, of polynomials, 273-274
LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation), 723,
750
Lorenz Contraction Formula, 924
Lower bounds, 283-284
Machine diagram, of functions, 146-147
Magic squares, 864
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 754
Magnitude,
of an earthquake, 384-385
of vectors, 591, 594
Main diagonal, of matrices, 67 4
Major axes, of ellipses, 735
Majority voting, 884
Mandelbrot, Benoit, 818
Mathematical models, 60-70, 206-214
defined, 246
finding line of best fit, 247-248
guidelines for, 61
guidelines for modeling functions,
209
linear functions as, 246-247
measuring fit, 249-250
using inequalities, 84-86
variation, 168
Matijasevic, Yuri, 663
Matrices, algebra of, 661-673. see also
Determinants
applied to computer graphics, 668-669,
684-687
equality of matrices, 662
identity matrices, 674
inverse of matrices, 675-678
matrix equations, 666, 679-682

multiplication, 663-668
sum, difference, and scalar product, 662
Matrices, solving linear equations,
648-661
augmented matrix, 648
elementary row operations, 649-650
Gaussian elimination, 651-654
matrix defined, 648
reduced row-echelon form, 651
row-echelon form, 650-651
Matrix equations, 666, 679-682
Maxima value, 202
Midpoint formula, 93
Minima value, 203
Minor axes, of ellipses, 735
Modeling. see also Mathematical models
defined, 145
with equations, 60-70
force and velocity, 597-599
with area, 955-957
with linear systems, 632, 633, 658-659
Monte Carlo method, 902-904
path of a projectile, 802-804
with polynomial functions, 398-399
population growth, 375-383, 394-396
with power functions, 396-398
prey/predator models, 442
using linear programming, 715-721
using linear systems, 643-646
Modulus of complex numbers, 582
Monomials, 26, 257, 258-259
Monte Carlo method, 902-904
Mortgage payments, 838
Multiple angles, trigonometric functions
of, 575-577
Multiplication
of algebraic expressions, 27-28
of complex numbers, 294, 584
of fractional expressions, 37
of functions, 218
of inequalities, 78
of matrices, 663-668
of polynomials, 27
of vectors by scalars, 592
Multiplicative identity, 6
n! (n factorial), 851
nth root, 19-20
Napier, John, 360
Nash, John, 657

Index

Hipparchus, 483
Hooke's Law, 172
Horizontal asymptotes, 313-317, 936
Horizontal lines, 117, 230-231
Horizontal line test, 230
Horizontal shifts, of graphs, 186-188
Horizontal stretching and shrinking, of
graphs, 191-192
Hyperbolas, 744-753
with center at origin, 745
degenerate, 759
equation of, 749-750
finding tangent line to, 927-928
geometric definition of, 744
rotating, 763-764
shifted, 756-757
sketching, 746-747
with transverse axis, 748-749
Hypothesis, induction, 843
Icosahedron, 529
Identities
addition and subtraction formulas for,
545-546
Pythagorean, 498
reciprocal, 498
trigonometric, 497, 535-540
Identity function, 239
Identity matrices, 674
Image of x under f, 146
Imaginary axis, 581
Imaginary part, of complex numbers, 293
Inconsistent systems, linear equations,
630,641,654-658
Independent variables, 146
Induction hypothesis, 843
Induction, mathematic
conjecture and proof, 841-842
principle of, 843-845
sums of powers and, 845-846
Inequalities, 77-86. see also Systems of
inequalities
absolute value, 83-84
graphic solutions for, 111
linear, 78-79
modeling with, 91-93
nonlinear, 79-83
proving by induction, 846
rules for, 78

Infinite geometric series, 828-829


Infinite series, 827-830
Infinity, limits at, 934-939
Initial point, vectors, 591
Initial side, of angles, 473
Inner product, of matrices, 663-664
Installment buying, 837-839
Instantaneous rate of change, 930-932
defined, 930
estimating, 931-932
instantaneous velocity of falling objects,
931
Integer exponents, 14-18
Integers, as real number type, 3
Intercepts, 95-96
Interest, on investment, 60-61
Intermediate Value Theorem, 262, 291
Intersections
finding intersection points, 571-572
of intervals, 10
of sets, 8
Intervals, 8-10
graphing, 9-10
open and closed, 8-9
unions and intersections, 10
Invariant Theory, 691
Inverse cosecant, 566
Inverse cosine, 562-564
Inverse cotangent, 566
Inverse functions, 232-236
defined, 232
finding, 233-236
linear functions becoming, 239
properties of, 233
Inverse numbers, 6
Inverse of matrices, 675-678
Inverse secant, 566
Inverse sine, 560-562
Inverse tangent, 564-565
Inverse trigonometric functions, 560-566
solving trigonometric equations using,
577-578
Inverse variation, 169-170
Invertibility criterion, 691
Irrational numbers, 3
Iterates of functions, 228-229
Joint variation, 171
Jordan curves, 331

A75

Kantorovick, Leonid, 715


Karmarkar, Narendra, 716
Kepler, Johannes, 723, 739, 740
Kepler's Third Law, 173
Knuth, Donald, 163
Konigsberg bridge problem, 329-330
Koopmans, T. C., 715
Kovalevsky, Sonya, 191
Law enforcement, use of mathematics for,
384-385
Law of Cosines, 513-517
Law of Gravity, 171
Law of Sines, 505-510
Laws of Exponents, 15-18, 336
for rational exponents, 21
Laws of Logarithms, 359-364
LCD, see Least common denominator
Leading coefficients, 257
Leading terms, 257
Leading variable, 654
Least common denominator (LCD)
adding fractions, 7
using with fractional expressions, 38
Least squares line, 247-248, 637
Left-hand limits, 913, 921-923
Lemniscates, as polar graph, 781
Length, vectors, 591
Leontief, Wassily, 657
Less than ( <), 7
Limit Laws, 916-917
finding limits using, 920-921
limits at infinity and, 937
Limits
derivative problems, 928-930
finding by direct substitution, 919-920
finding by using algebra and Limit
Laws, 920-921
of a function, 907-914
instantaneous rates of change,
930-932
left- and right-hand limits, 921-923
Newton on, 921
special, 918-919
tangent line problems, 924-928
Limits, area problems
area defined, 946-948
area under a curve, 948-950
area under a graph, 955-957

A78

Index

Predator/prey models, 442


Preference voting, 884
Present value (Ap) of an annuity,
836-837
Prime numbers, 810, 828
Principal, compound interest and, 341
Principal nth root, 19
Principal square root, 19
Principle of Mathematical Induction, 843
Principle of Substitution, 28
Probability
complements of events, 885-886
defined, 883
of events, 884-885
intersection of independent events,
888-889
mutually exclusive events, 886-887
union of two events, 887-888
Problem solving, principles, 134-137
Products. see also Multiplication
of functions, 218
inner, 663
of polynomials, 27
positive/negative, 79
scalar, 662
sign of, 79
Product-sum formulas , 555-55'7
Projectile, modeling" path of, 802-804
Projection Laws, 520
Projection of vectors, 607
Proof
by contradiction, 135
mathematical induction and, 841-842
Proportionality, 168- 171
Pure imaginary number, 293
Pyramid, volume of, 149
Pythagoras, 210
Pythagorean identities, 424, 498, 535
Pythagorean Theorem, 70, 533
Quadrants, of coordinate plane, 89
Quadratic equations, 48-54
complex roots of, 296-297
factoring, 29
form of, 48
of fourth-degree, 55- 56
solving by completing the square, 49-50
solving by factoring, 48-50
trigonometric identities and, 573

Quadratic factors, 305-306


Quadratic formula, 51
complex solutions and, 300
discriminant of, 52
Quadratic function, 197-202
extreme values of, 197
graphing, 197-198
maximum/minimum value of, 201-202
standard form of, 199-201
Quadratic inequalities, 79- 80
Quadratic polynomial, 643
QuadReg command, on calculator, 647
Quotients, 273
difference quotients, 148
in division, 6
of functions, 218
inequalities and, 81-82
positive/negative, 79
Radian measure, of angles, 474-475
Radicals, 19-21
combining, 20-21
equations for, 55
nth root and, 19- 20
using with rational exponents, 21
Radioactive decay model, 382
Radioactive elements, half-lives of, 380
Radio, AM and FM, 465
Radiocarbon dating, 368
Ramanujan, Srinivasa, 332
Range
finding from graphs, 160-161
of functions, 146
of an inverse function, 232
Rate of change, 174-178, 184
average, 174-178
indicating by slope of lines in
coordinate plane, 121-122
instantaneous, 930-932
Rational exponents, 21-22
Rational expressions, 36
Rational functions
graphing, 311-318
simple, 308-310
slant asymptotes and end behavior,
318- 321
transformations, 310-311
Rationalizing the denominator, 22, 41
Rational numbers, 3-4

Rational zeros. see Real zeros


Rational Zeros Theorem, 279-282
Real axis, 581
Real number line, 7-8, 11-12
Real numbers, 3-12
absolute values and distance, 10-11
Law of Exponents and, 336
natural numbers as, 3
order of (less than, greater than), 7
properties of, 4-7
real lines and, 7-8
sets and intervals, 8-10
Real part, of complex numbers, 293
Reciprocal functions, 164
Reciprocal identities, 424, 498, 535
Rectangles, using to estimate area,
943-945
Rectangular coordinates, 774-775
Recursive sequences, 810-811
Reduced row-echelon form of a matrix,
651,653-654
Reduction formulas, 427
Reference angle, 496-497
Reference numbers, 413-416
Reflecting graphs, 188-189, 352
Reflection property
of ellipses, 740
of hyperbolas, 750
of parabolas, 729
Regression line, 247-248, 637
Regular polyhedron, 528-529
Relativity, Theory of, 691, 803
Remainders, 273
Remainder Theorem, 275-276
Rhind papyrus, 77, 705
Richter, Charles, 384
Richter scale, 384
Right angles, 483-489
Right-hand limits, 913, 921-923
Rise, vs. run in slope, 113-114
Robinson, Julia, 663
Root functions, 164
Root-mean-square (rms) method, 468
Roots
complex, 298
of complex numbers, 587-589
of equations, 45
of polynomial equations, 261
of unity, 307

Index

Natural exponential functions, 339-341


Natural logarithms, 355-356
Natural numbers, 3
Navigation
bearings, 515
LORAN, 723, 750
Negative exponents, 15
Negative numbers, 5
square roots of, 295-296
Network theory, 329
Newton, Sir Isaac, 723, 740, 748, 803,
854-855,921
Newton's Law of Gravitation, 171
Noether, Emmy, 691
Nonlinear equations, 46
Nonlinear inequalities, 79-83
graphing, 700
guidelines for solving, 81
Notation
exponential, 14, 18-19
factorial, 869
scientific, 18-19
set-builder, 8-9
sigma, 813-815
summation, 813
use in problem solving, 134
Numbers
complex. see Complex numbers
converting sound, pictures, and text
into, 121
imaginary, 293
inverse, 6
irrational, 3
negative, 5
ordered pair of, 89
polygonal numbers, 833
prime, 810, 812
rational, 3-4
real. see Real numbers
reference, 413-416
representing functions with, 151
square, 833
using geometric shapes to represent, 833
Numerators, 6, 41
Numerical method
finding values of functions with, 422
for finding zeros, 291-292
Objective function, 717
Oblique asymptotes, 318

Oblique triangles, 505


Octahedron, 529
Odd functions, 192-194, 197, 227
One-sided limits, 912-914, 921-923
One-to-one function, 230-231
finding inverse of, 233-236
Orbits. see Planetary orbits
Ordered pair, of numbers, 89
Origin (0), 7-8, 89, 100, 745, 773
P(n, r), 872-873
'TT, value of, 412
Parametric curve,
graphing, 792-794
Parabolas, 724-733
family of, 729-730
focal point of, 729
geometric definition of, 724
graph of, 94
graph of shifted, 755-756
with horizontal axis, 726-727
latus rectum of, 727
as quadratic function, 197
sketching, 728
with vertical axis, 725
Parallel lines, 119
Parameters, 160, 643
Parametric equations, 789-796
for cycloid, 792
graphing parametric curves, 792-793
polar equations in parametric form,
793-794
sketching parametric curves, 789-791
Partial fraction decomposition, 705
Partial fractions, 704-709
Partial sums, of sequences, 812, 819-821,
826-827
Pascal, Blaise, 845, 882
Pascal's Triangle, 849-850
Pattern recognition, 134-135, 862-865
Pentagonal numbers, 833
Perfect square, 49
Perihelion, 742, 789
Perilune, 742
Period
amplitude and, 431-433
harmonic motion and, 456
Periodic behavior. see Harmonic motion
Periodic functions, 428, 436, 441
Periodic properties, 444

A77

Periodic rent, 835


Permutations, 872-875
Perpendicular lines, 120-121
pH scale, 383
Phase shift, of sine and cosine curves, 433
Piecewise defined function, 147, 157-158
Pi (n), value of, 412
Planes, bounded and unbounded regions,
703
Planetary orbits
eccentricities of, 738
Kepler's description of, 739
Platonic solids, 528
Plurality voting, 884
Point-slope form of equation of lines, 116
Polar axis, 773
Polar coordinates, 773-781
graphing polar equations, 775-780
Polar equations
of conics, 783-788
families of, 80
graphs of, 775-781
in parametric form, 793-794
Polls,894-895
Polya, George, 134-135
Polygonal numbers, 833
Polyhedron, regular, 528-529
Polynomial function, 257, 398-399
Polynomials
adding and subtracting, 27
defmed, 257
degrees of, 26
dividing, 272-279
end behavior of, 259-261
family of, 269
graphs of, 257-267
guidelines for graphing, 263
local extrema of, 267-269
product of, 27
quadratic, 643
real zeros of, 279-292
zeros of, 261
Population growth, 375-383, 394-396
Power data, linearizing, 400-401
Power functions
compared with exponential functions,
341-343
graphs of, 160, 164
modeling with, 396-398
Powers, formulas for lowering, 553

Index
Rotation of axes, 761-768
equations of, 762
graphing rotated conics, 765-766
rotating hyperbolas, 763-7 64
Row-echelon form
of a matrix, 650-651
solving linear equations, 652, 654
Row transformations, of determinants,
692
Rule of Signs (Descartes), 282-283, 305
Rules, for inequalities, 78
Run, vs. rise in slope, 113-114
Sample size, polls, 894-895
Sample space, of experiments, 882
Scalar product, of matrices, 662
Scalars, 591, 592
Scatter plots, 247-249
Scientific notation, 18-19
Secant
formula for, 493
inverse, 566
trigonometric ratios, 483
Secant function
even properties of, 423
graphing, 449-450
secant curves, 449
Sectors, circular, 477-478
Seq mode, calculators, 809
Sequences
arithmetic, 817
defined, 807
Fibonacci, 806, 811, 814
finding terms of, 808-809, 825-826
geometric, 824
infinite series, 827-830
partial sums of, 812, 819-822, 826-827
properties of sums of, 815
recursive, 810-811
sigma notation of, 813-815
Sequences, limits of, 939-941
Series, infinite, 827-830
Set-builder notation, 8-9
Sets
as collection of objects, 8
unions and intersections, 8-9
Shifted conics, 753-761
Sieve of Eratosthenes, 810
Sigma notation, 813-815

Signs, of trigonometric functions, 421, 494


Similarity, in trigonometry, 503
Simple harmonic motion, 456
Sine
addition and subtraction formulas for,
543,545
curves, 432
double-angle formula for, 550
formula for, 493
half-angle formula for, 554
inverse, 560-562
Law of, 505
product-sum formula for, 555
sum of sines and cosines, 546-547
sum-to-product formula for, 556
trigonometric ratios, 483
Sine function
graphing, 428-430
graphing transformations of, 430-435
odd properties of, 423
periodic properties of, 428
shifted curves, 433-435
Sinusoidal curves, 442
Slant asymptotes, 318-321
Slope
indicating rate of change, 122
interpreting, 127
of lines, 114-115
Slope-intercept form of equation of a line,
117
Slope of the line tangent to a curve, 926
Snowflake curve, 865
Sound, intensity levels of, 385-386
Special Product Formulas, 28, 35
Special Theory of Relativity, 803
Species, study of survival of, 672-673
Splines, polynomial curves, 264
Spring constant, 172, 957
Square matrix, 688-691
Square numbers, 833
Square roots
of negative numbers, 295-296
nth root and, 19-20
Squaring function, 146
Standard form, of equation of a circle, 96
Standard position, of angles, 475
Stars, modeling brightness of, 459
Step functions, 159, 168
Stochastic matrices, 668

A79

Substitution method
for solving linear systems, 622-623
using direct substitution for finding
limits, 919-920
Substitution, Principle of, 28
Subtraction
of complex numbers, 294
of fractional expressions, 37-38
of inequalities, 78
overview of, 5
of polynomials, 27
Summation notation, 813
Summation variable, 813
Sums
of cubes, 31
of functions, 218
of infinite geometric series, 829-830
limits of approximating, 945-946
of matrices, 662
partial sums of sequences, 812,
819-821, 826-827
of powers, 845
of sines and cosines, 546-547
Sum-to-product formulas, 556
Supply and demand equations, 123
Surveying, using triangulation for,
508-509
Symmetry, 98-100
tests for, 779
Synthetic division, 274-275
Systems of equations, 621-629
elimination method for solving,
624-625
graphical method for solving, 625-627
guidelines for modeling with, 633
substitution method for solving, 622-623
Systems of inequalities, graphing,
699-704. see also Inequalities
Systems of linear equations, 643-646
dependent and inconsistent, 630, 641
modeling with, 632
several variables, 638-648
two variables, 630-638
using Cramer's rule for solving,
693-696
writing as matrix equations, 666
Table command, in calculators, 809
Tables, finding limits using, 909

A80

Index

Taking cases, 528-530


Tangent,493,543,550,555-556,5~4-565

trigonometric ratios, 483


Tangent function
graphing, 447-449
tangentcurves,447
Tangentline,924-928
finding tangent line to a hyperbola,
927-928
Taussky-Todd, Olga, 667
Taylor, Brook, 422
Terminal points
reference numbers and, 413-416
on unit circle, 411-413
of vectors, 591
Terminal side, of angles, 473
Terms, combining like, 26
Terms,ofsequences
defined, 807
finding, 808, 818-819, 825
for recursive sequences, 810
Test points, graphing, 262, 263, 700
Tetrahedron, 529
Thales of Miletus, 487
Theodolite, 508
Trace command, in calculators, 703,
909-910
Transformations
of functions, 184-197
of exponential functions, 338, 340
by matrix multiplication, 684
of monomials, 258-259
of rational functions, 310-311
of sine and cosine functions, 430-435
Transition matrix, 673
Transverse axes, of hyperbolas, 745
Triangles
ambiguous case, 507
area of, 500, 516
solving height problems, 63-64
solving oblique, 505
Triangular form, of linear systems, 638
Triangular numbers, 833, 862
Triangulation, for surveying, 508-509
Trigonometric functions, of angles,
472-533
defined, 493
reference angle and, 496-497

Unbounded regions, of planes, 703


Unbreakable codes, 544
Unions
of intervals, 10
of sets, 8
of mutually exclusive events, 886
Unit circle, 409-416
points on, 409-410
reference numbers, 413-416
terminal points, 411-413
Universal machine, 178
Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem,
283-285
Upperbounds,283-284

Variables
correlation of, 249-250
defined,26
dependentandindependent, 146
leading, 654
in linear systems, 633-634, 638-648
summation, 813
Variation, in modeling
direct, 168-169
inverse, 169-170
joint, 171
Variation in sign, 282
Vectors. see also Dot product
algebraic operations on, 594
analytic description of, 592-596
angle between, 604
calculating components of, 605-606
direction of, 592, 593, 596, 605-606
expressing in terms of i and j, 595
geometric description of, 591-592
horizontal and vertical components,
592,596
modeling velocity and force, 597-599
orthogonal, 604
properties of, 595
use of, 591
Velocity, estimating, 933
Velocity, modeling, 597-599
Vertical asymptotes, 313-317, 912
Vertical axes, of parabolas, 725
Vertical lines, 117
Vertical line test, 161-162
Vertical shifts, graphs, 184-186
Vertical stretching and shrinking, graphs,
189-190
Vertices
of ellipses, 735
of hyperbolas, 744
of parabolas, 724
Viete, Franc;ois, 51, 502
Viete's relations, 331
Viewing rectangle, of graphing calculator,
104
Voltage, measuring, 468
Von Neumann, John, 178
Voting, fair methods, 884-885

Value off at x, 146

Weather prediction, 57 4

relationship to trigonometric functions


of real numbers, 495
signs of, 494
Trigonometric functions, of real numbers
of angles, 419
defmed, 418
domains of, 420
even-odd properties, 423
relationship to trigonometric functions
of angles, 495
signs of, 421
trigonometric identities, 424-425
unit circle, 409-416
values of, 421-423
Trigonometric graphs
of cosecant and secant functions,
449-450
graphing devices used for, 435-439
of sine and cosine functions, 428-430
of tangent and cotangent functions,
447-449
Trigonometric identities, 535-540
of angles, 497-500
basic types of, 535
proving, 537-540
of real numbers, 424-425
simplifying, 536
Trigonometric ratios, 481, 483-484
Trinomials, 26
Turing,AJan, 106,178
Two-sided limits, 921

Index

Wiles, Andrew, 531


Words, representing functions with, 151
Work, calculating with dot product,
608-609
x-axis, 89, 98
x-coordinate, 89-90
x-intercept, 95-96, 315

y-axis, 89, 98
y-coordinate, 89-90
y-intercept, 95-96, 315
Zero exponents, 15
Zero-Product Property, 48, 572
Zeros
complex, 299-307

A81

multiplicities and, 301-305


numerical method for finding, 291-292
of polynomials, 261, 263
real, 279-292
Zeros Theorem, 301
Zero vector, 591
Zoom feature, in calculators, 909-910

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CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 10

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CHAPTER 8

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