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Neural

Signaling

Chapter 41

The Nervous System


Transmits info to/from the spinal
cord and brain
Composed mainly of neurons and
glial cells

Nervous =ssue rst arose in


wormlike organisms about 550 to
600 million years ago
In vertebrates, 2 parts:
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)


Nerves that connect the CNS to every
other part of the body bounded of

External s+mulus
(e. g., vibra+on,
movement, light,
odor)

Internal s+mulus
(e. g., change in blood
pH
or blood pressure)

RECEPTION
Detec+on by Detec+on by
external
internal
sense organs sense organs

Neural
signaling
involves four
processes:

recption: stimulus can come from the outside or inside


TRANSMISSION
Aerent (sensory) neurons
transmit informa+on

Central Nervous System


(brain and spinal cord)
INTEGRATION
Interneurons sort
and interpret
informa+on

All the system are been integrated

TRANSMISSION
Eerent (motor) neurons
transmit impulses

ACTION BY EFFECTORS
(muscles and glands)

For example,
animal
runs away

For example,
respira+on rate increases;
blood pressure rises

Neurons receive
s=muli and
transmit neural
signals
sensory= Afferent
Interneuron= Efferent
motor neuron:

# of Neurons

Fruit y/lobster: 100,000


Mouse: 75 million
Octopus: 300 million
Capuchin monkey: 3.6 billion
Human: 86 billion
Elephant: 267 billion

The Neuron
receive information

the largest

single axon
transmite a
signal

support vetebrate nervs

The cell body of the neuron contains the nucleus and normal cellular organelles
Mul=ple dendrites extend from the cell body in addi=on to one long axon.
The axon will transmit the nerve impulse, or ac+on poten+al, that starts in (or is
detected by) the dendrites.
neurons=PNS
Schwann cells surround some vertebrate neurons. The cytoplasm of the Schwann
cell contains myelin, which is lipid rich.

genetically disorder MS(outoinmune system)


and enviromental factors
is not a hereditary diseases

Myelin sheath

Artery

Vein

Axon

Structure of a Myelinated Nerve

Dendrites
Stimulus
Nucleus
Cell
body
Axon

When two neurons meet.


A synapse occurs between two neurons,
or between a neuron and an eector
(muscle cell or gland).

NeurotransmiQers will diuse from a
neuron through the small space adjacent to
the other cell

Text

Signal
direction
Synapse

Neurotransmitter

Synaptic terminals

Synaptic
terminals

Glial Cells Play Cri=cal Roles in Neural Func=on


More than 75% of cells in the human CNS = glial cells
Four types are found in the vertebrate CNS:
Astrocytes
support, provide nutrients

Oligodendrocytes
form myelin sheaths
helps produce myelin sheaths

Ependymal cells
what chemical they produce

line cavi=es of CNS

Microglia
phagocytosis

FRIDAY

Capillary
Astrocytes
provide physical support

Cilia

Oligodendrocyte

Ependymal
cells
Nerve ber
Myelin sheath

Microglia

Concentra=on Gradients:
Transmiang Info Along the Neuron

Monday 10-24.

Plasma membrane is electrically polarized electric


charge inside the cell is more nega=ve than the
electric charge of the extracellular uid
Separa=on of electric charges produces poten=al energy
dierence across the membrane (ability to do work)

Res=ng Poten=al:

the membrane poten=al in a res=ng


(not excited) neuron or muscle cell

When a nerve is not transmiang a signal,


the voltage will read -70 mV (millivolts)
= the res+ng poten+al

The neuron plasma membrane is polarized:


electric charge inside the cell is more nega=ve
than the electric charge of the extracellular uid

How the Neuron Develops and Maintains a Res=ng Poten=al

If a s=mulus causes the membrane


poten=al to become LESS nega=ve, the
membrane becomes depolarized
-55 mV

If voltage falls to a cri=cal threshold


level, voltage-ac=vated ion channels
open
Allows Na+ to ow into neuron

Ac=on poten=al is generated in a wave of depolariza=on that moves down the axon
As the ac=on poten=al moves down the axon, repolariza=on occurs behind it

S=muli
Neurons are excitable cells: respond to s=muli and convert
s=muli into nerve impulses
An electrical, mechanical, or chemical s=mulus may alter
the res=ng poten=al, by increasing the membranes
permeability to Na+ ions
When a s=mulus causes the membrane poten=al to
become LESS nega=ve (closer to 0), that region of the
membrane become depolarized (excited)

An ac=on poten=al is generated when the voltage reaches threshold level

When depolariza=on is greater


than -55 mV, the threshold level
is reached and an ac=on
poten=al is generated

Voltage-Ac=vated (or Gated) Ion Channels


One -55 sodium ions will flow inside
the cell
TTX binds to voltage activated Na+
channels blocking Na+ , if eating too
much it can cause stop
breading(poisen fish)

Local anesthe=cs (as well as cocaine) bind to voltage-ac=vated Na+ channels and block them
channels cant open impulse cannot be transmiied pain is not experienced

Ac=on Poten=al
Resting state -70
Action potential

Action potential

Membrane potential (mV)

+50
Falling
phase
0

Rising
phase
Threshold (-55)

-50

-100

Resting
potential
-70

Depolarization
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (msec)

-77

Axon
Plasma
membrane

Action
potential
1

Cytosol

Na+

K+

Action
potential

2
Na+

K+
K+

Action
potential

Only a s=mulus strong enough


to depolarize the membrane to
its cri=cal threshold results in
transmission of an impulse
along an axon
Ac+on poten+al is an
all-or-none response
No varia=on exists in
the strength of a
single impulse
Intensity of sensa=on
depends on the number
of neurons s=mulated
and their frequency of
discharge

Na+

K+

Ac=on poten=al is generated in a wave of depolariza=on that moves down the axon
As the ac=on poten=al moves down the axon, repolariza=on occurs behind it

Presynaptip neuron ends at the sypnase and Postsynaptic starts at the sypnase

Neural
signaling
across a
synapse

Axon of
presynaptic
neuron
Voltage-gated
Ca2+ channel
Ca2+

Neurotransmitter

Postsynaptic
membrane
Postsynaptic
neuron

depolorization will

Receptor for
start
neurotransmitter

Ca2+

Neural
signaling
across a
synapse

Presynaptic
membrane
Na+

Postsynaptic
membrane

Depolariza=on!

Some examples of neurotransmiiers


Acetylcholine - triggers muscle contrac=on

neurotransmiter

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a retrograde messenger neurotransmiter


and travels backwars
at some synapses
signal goes from post to presynap=c neuron
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Dopamine (major role in reward-mo=vated
behavior) important in identify body resources (water , food)
Serotonin - contributor to feelings of well-being

Excitatory postsynap=c poten=al (EPSP)


Inhibitory postsynap=c poten=al (IPSP)
EPSP=-70 to -60
IPSP= -70 to -80

Neural integra+on is the process of summing


(integra=ng) incoming EPSPs and IPSPs by dendrites and
cell bodies IPSPs cancel the eects of some EPSPs

Neural Integra=on

0
-55
-70

bring the neuron


close to fire
Brings the neurons away from fire

Neural Circuits

Convergence: single neuron is controlled by signals


from two or more presynap=c neurons informa=on
is integrated before ac=on poten=al is transmiied
Divergence: single presynap=c neuron s=mulates
many postsynap=c neurons