3 views

Uploaded by Fachreza Imam

konveksi

- Thermal Management
- Installation Manual TCD 2012 2013
- COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF STEPPED AND STRAIGHT MICROCHANNEL HEAT SINK
- Dell_XPS_M1330_-_nVidia_GeForce_8400M_GS_-_Copper_Mod
- Allied Control Data Tank
- datasheet.pdf
- Paper
- Introduction to Heat Transfer Module
- International Journals Call for paper http://www.iiste.org/Journals/
- Seismic inversion for acoustic impedance and porosity of Cenozoic cool-water carbonates on the upper continental slope of the Great Australian Bight
- rr221403-thermal-engineering-and-heat-transfer
- Konpresorska stanica
- Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 Ed
- Hyper_612_Ver._2_-_Product_Sheet.pdf
- 9c96051d1adcf70150
- 20020013939_2002004340
- LEDrite Presentation 2011
- Purebase600wndw Db En
- Fujitsu World Tour 2017 - Compute Platform for the Digital World
- Gbpc25005 Diodo Puente

You are on page 1of 10

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ichmt

modules under forced convection

Rong-Tsu Wang a, Ya-Wei Lee b, Sih-Li Chen c, Jung-Chang Wang d,

a

Department of Airline and Transport Service Management, Vanung University, No.1, Van-Nung Rd., Chung-Li, Tao-Yuan 32061, Taiwan, ROC

Department of Mechatronic, Energy, and Aerospace Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tauyuan 33551, Taiwan, ROC

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC

d

Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University (NTOU), Keelung 20224, Taiwan, ROC

b

c

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Keywords:

Heat pipe

Heat sink

Thermal module

Thermal resistance

Least square method

a b s t r a c t

The geometry and heat transfer effects on heat pipes embedded heat sinks-cooling system are investigated in the

present paper. In the forced convection system, two different heat pipe geometrical shapes of L and U congurations are taken into account. This study adopts a versatile superposition method and least-square estimators with

thermal resistance network analysis to design and experiment their geometry and heat transfer effects under

different fan speeds and heat source areas. The results suggest that the characteristics of system performance

under varying speeds and areas are signicantly different from those under altering speeds and areas. When

the thermal performances of these two congurations are 0.04 C/W of U-shaped heat pipes at 78.85 W, and

L-shaped heat pipes are lowest 1.04 C/W at 34 W, respectively, the lowest thermal resistances of the representative L- and U-shaped heat pipeheat sink thermal modules are respectively 0.25 C/W and 0.17 C/W under

twin fans of 3000 RPM and 30 30 mm2 heat sources. The result of this work is a useful thermal management

method to facilitate rapid analysis and has provided a useful insight into the design of heat pipe cooling systems.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The extended surface n is usually added to enhance the rate of heat

removal for traditional air cooling techniques. The conventional way to

dissipate heat from microprocessors especially in Central Processing

Units (CPUs) and Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) cooling was forced

convection using a fan with a heat sink directly. However, with the

advances in computer and semiconductor manufacturing industry,

integral circuit design is getting more and more complex so that the

electronic components of CPUs, GPUs, and LED lighting lamps (LEDs)

are made toward the small size, increased power and high efciency

development. They generate more and more heat and heat ux is significantly increased. Thus, the cooling problems of electronic device are

daily major [13]. The manufacture technology of embedded heat

pipes into heat sinks is rapid developments to ensure faster dissipation

of the heat which is a quite obvious application in high-performance

cooling devices. Therefore, heat pipe thermal modules that transfer

energy away from the heat source through convection mechanism

possessing simple metal heat sinks and fans are used to solve the hotspot problems [47]. Technical development related with the application of two-phase ow heat transfer assembly to thermal modules has

Communicated by W.J. Minkowycz.

Corresponding author at: No.2, Beining Rd., Keelung 20224, Taiwan, ROC.

E-mail address: jcwang@ntou.edu.tw (J.-C. Wang).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2014.07.023

0735-1933/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

become mature. Heat pipe absorbs large amounts of latent heat from a

heat source through the phase change of working uid inside and transfers rapidly heat ow to the other side by vapor form without any uid

machinery. The computer-aided thermal design of heat sink with heat

pipe/vapor chamber progresses a high-quality thermal condition development [8]. The heat pipe thermal module has better thermal performance and is that most of the heat rst transfers to the evaporator

of a heat pipe, so the evaporated liquid working uid of the heat pipe

produces steam. Steam releases heat through condensation and recondenses into liquid returning to the evaporator, driven by capillary

force, while the rest of the heat capacity is removed from the heat sink

through forced fan convection [9,10]. The thermal dissipation performance of some heat pipes bent into the required geometric shape and

embedded into the metal base plate or n stack compares well with

that of a vapor chamber. Wang et al. [11,12] had experimentally studied

the thermal resistances of an aluminum heat sink with horizontallyembedded two and four U-shaped heat pipes of 6 mm diameter under

xed heat source area and single fan. They showed that two heat

pipes embedded in the base plate carry 36% of the total dissipated

heat capacity from the heat source, while 64% of heat capacity was

delivered from the base plate to the ns. Moreover, if the temperature

of the heat source is not allowed to exceed 70 C, the total heat adsorption power of heat sink with two and four embedded heat pipes will not

respectively exceed 131 W and 164 W. Finally, a program was developed using Visual Basic to rapidly calculate the thermal performance

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

Nomenclature

k

L

Q

Qb

R

Rt

Rh

T

distance between evaporation and condensation sections of heat pipe, meter

total heat transfer rate, Watt

heat transfer rate from base plate to ns, Watt

thermal resistance, C/W

total thermal resistance, C/W

heat pipe thermal resistance, C/W

temperature, C

Subscripts

a

air/ambient

b

base plate

f

n

s

heat source/dummy heater

n

position of embedded L-/U-shaped heat pipes

of a heat sink with embedded heat pipes [13]. Mohamed et al. [14,15]

investigated also the thermal performance of a heat sink with nned

U-shaped heat pipes for optimum L-ratio (ratio of the evaporator section length to the condenser section length) of the U-shaped heat

pipe, which was found to be dependent on heat pipe diameter and the

n spacing and was of practical engineering importance in the optimum

design of the heat sink. The performance analysis of a nned U-shaped

heat pipe used for desktop PC-CPU cooling was estimated for both

natural and forced convection modes under steady state condition.

Russel et al. [16] identied the effect of orientation on the performance of the U-shaped heat pipe with grooved and sintered wick structures. Thermal modules with U-shaped heat pipes are currently used for

CPU/GPU cooling. Natural and forced convection can both be used to obtain optimum results for minimum thermal resistance and lead to the

generation of high capillary forces for anti-gravity applications [17].

The thermal performance of a heat sink with nned U-shaped heat

pipes is carried out to compatible research for a wide range of highfrequency microprocessors. Besides, another heat pipe bent into metal

base plate is the L shape. One set of risers of the L-shaped heat pipes

functions as the evaporating section while the other set attached to

ns acts as the condensing section. This shape of heat pipeheat sink

is particularly well-suited for cooling electronic components such as

microprocessors using forced convection. Wang [18] vertically arranged

six L-type heat pipes in such a way that the bottom acts as the evaporating section and the risers act as the condensing section, and derived a

mathematical model including all major components from the thermal

interface through the heat pipes and ns. A Windows-based computer

program also uses an iterative superposition method to predict the

thermal performance. Thermal performance testing shows that a representative heat sink with six L-type heat pipes will carry 160 W and has

reached a minimum thermal resistance of 0.22 C/W. The total thermal

resistance varies according to the functionality of the L-type heat pipes.

In recent years, heat pipe-based two-phase ow heat transfer modules

have emerged to effectively reduce the temperature of small-area LED

lighting lamps with higher degrees of heat ux [19,20]. Wang [21,22]

analyzed and designed the optimum thermal performance of a

at heat pipe-thermal module application in a high-end VGA card

cooling system, which is able to cope with a heat ux GPU of over

62.5 W/cm2. The optimum total thermal resistance of a at heat

pipe-thermal module is 0.232 C/W at a high power GPU of 180 W

and inclination angle of 180. The technical development of two-phase

ow heat transfer assembly to thermal modules has matured and is

one of the best options, especially in LED thermal problems. Lu et al.

141

[23] used the at heat pipe (FHP or vapor chamber) to improve the thermal characteristics of a high power LED (light-emitting diode) package.

The obtained results indicated that the junction temperature of the LED

is about 52 C for an input power of 3 W and, thus, the total thermal

resistance of LED system is 8.8 K/W. Wang et al. [2426] presented a

successful experimental analysis with VCTM V1.0 to develop a 30 W

high-power LEDs vapor chamber-based plate, nding that the thermal

performance of the LED vapor chamber-based plate was an improvement over that of the LED copper-based plate with an input power

above 5 W. Results show that the maximum effective thermal conductivity is 870 W/mC and, compared with the experimental value, the

calculating error is no more than 5%. The LED vapor chamber-based

plate successfully resolved the hot-spot problem of 30 W high-power

LEDs.

Fig. 1. Heat pipe thermal modules (a) U-shaped heat pipe thermal module (b) L-shaped

heat pipe thermal module.

142

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

The heat pipe thermal module studied in the present study is shown

in Fig. 1. The present study is to experiment two serial fans set in the

opposite sides of the heat sink, providing a double volume ow rate of

a single fan different from the ones before and to investigate their

thermal performances by using the superposition and least square

smoothing methods [27].

The U-shaped heat pipe thermal module is composed of an aluminum base plate with ns, two heat pipes, and an aluminum n stack.

The dimensions of base plate are 52 42 7.5 mm3 and its ns are

10 42 7.8 mm3. The n stack is an array of 35 ns, 0.4 mm thick

with a 2.0 mm gap. Its dimensions are 42 mm 82 mm. This type of

thermal module has two parallel heat pipes. The total length of single

heat pipe is 265 mm with an evaporating length of 30 mm directly

contacting the heat source, and two condensing lengths of 117.5 mm

embedded in the ns. One end of the heat pipes is inserted into the

base plate to form the evaporation section, while the other end is embedded in the ns to form the condensation section. Another L-shaped

heat pipes heat sink consisted of a copper base plate, six heat pipes,

and an aluminum n stack. The overall dimensions of the L-shaped

heat pipes heat sink are 117 85 83 mm3, which consists of six

single heat pipes with aluminum ns 83 mm 70 mm, 0.4 mm of

thickness, a count of 27 and a pitch of 2.8 mm. The copper base plate

measures 66 51 7 mm3. These six L-shaped heat pipes are

156 mm in length, including 50 mm embedded in the base plate to

carry heat from the heat source to the ns for dissipation. The heat

pipe is bent at a right angle to be an L-shaped heat pipe and has a

51 mm evaporator and a 105 mm condenser. However, single U- or

L-shaped heat pipe has 6 mm diameter and is made of copper with a

sintered copper powder metal wick of 10 5 m effective pore radius

and pure water as working uid.

2. Methodology

2.1. Thermal resistance network and superposition method

Fig. 2 exhibits the thermal resistance network of the heat pipe thermal modules acquired by the superposition method [11]. The superposition rule is sufcient to present the given heat transfer geometry

problem geometry in Fig. 2 as the sum or difference of some geometry

with known conguration factors (Fig. 2 in Refs. [11,18]), which can

be expressed as the parameters. Therefore, superposition principle is

also often stated in the summation rule. We may divide the heat transfer

problem into a number of simpler problems each satised the required

homogeneity conditions and all adding up to the problem in the present

boundary condition is satised by a function with arbitrary constants.

Consequently, the number of the present heat transfer problems is

equal to the number of non-homogeneities involved in the formulation

of the actual problem. The heat diffusion problem is derived and reduced to a number of simpler parameters by employing superposition

method in the present paper. Finally, superposition method affects the

homogeneity but not the type of differential equation or boundary conditions. And each heat transfer problem involved in a superposition rule

has the same geometry. The related derivation processes are similar to

those shown in Ref. [11]. In summary, the superposition method can

be used to reduce a linear heat diffusion problem to a number of simpler

problems, which shows that heat transfer rate Q transfers heat from the

heat source to the ns through the base plate and the embedded heat

pipes.

From Fig. 2 heat transferred from heat source to the lower surface of

the base plate is divided into two parts, which heat transfer rate Q transfers heat from the heat source to the ns through the base plate and the

heat pipes. The rst part,that is the base plate transfers heat to the heat

sink of the second metal block and ns, is the bypass heat ow Qb. And

the second,that is the heat pipes embedded asymmetrically in the base

plate transfer heat from the base plate to ns, is the bypass heat ow Qn,

which transfers heat from the evaporator of the heat pipe to the condenser and ns, and next dissipates in the ambient surroundings due

to the forced convection. The subscript of n denotes the position of the

embedded heat pipes. The bypass heat ow Qb can be evaluated by

comparing the temperature differences corresponding to the input

heating power as claried in Ref. [11] resulting to the thermal performance of the thermal module which is estimated separately by experiments with and without embedded heat pipes of the thermal module.

From the superposition method, the bypass heat ow Q equals the

sum of Qb and Qn as shown in Eq. (1). Symbol n equals 1 to 2 for the

U-shaped heat pipe thermal module; otherwise, n is 1 to 6 for the

L-shaped heat pipe thermal module. Consequently, Qn thus equals Q

minus Qb.

Q Qb

Qn

n1

thermal modules as show in Fig. 3. Ts is the temperature of the heat

source, Tb is the temperature of the base plate, Tbu is the temperature

of the upper base plate, Thpe,n is the temperature of the evaporator

of the single embedded heat pipes, Thpc,n is the temperature of the

condenser of the single embedded heat pipes and Ta is the ambient

temperature. The total thermal resistance Rt can be expressed as the

sum of the thermal contact resistance Rif and the thermal resistances

on the pathways of Qb and Qn, which is

Rt Rif

2

or6

X

!

1

1

:

2

or6

X

In Eq. (2), Rt is dened as the temperature difference (the temperature of heat source Th minus the ambient temperature Ta) divided by the

total heating power Q. The Rif is the interface resistance, dened as the

effective temperature difference at the interface (Th minus the temperature at the center of the lower surface of the base plate Td) divided by

Q. The Rb is the base plate thermal resistance, dened as the temperature difference (Td minus the average temperature at the upper surface

of the base plate Tu) divided by Qb. The Rhs is the base plate convection

resistance, dened as the temperature difference (Tu minus Ta) divided

by Qb. The Rbh,n is the base plate heat pipe thermal resistance, dened as

the temperature difference (Td minus the temperature of the evaporation section of the heat pipes Ten) divided by Qn. The Rh,n is the heat

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

143

Fig. 3. Position of measured temperatures (a) U-shaped heat pipe thermal module (b) L-shaped heat pipe thermal module.

temperature of the condensation section of the heat pipes Tcn) divided

by Qn. The Rf,n is the heat pipe convection resistance, dened as the temperature difference (Tcn minus Ta) divided by Qn. As symbol of n equals

1 to 2, the thermal module is U-shaped heat pipeheat sink including

L-shaped heat pipeheat sink with twenty-one thermal resistances

when n is 1 to 6. The theoretical heat pipe thermal resistance from

Ref. [18] can be obtained through the temperature difference between

Thpe,n and Thpc,n as shown in Eq. (3). The ratio of bypass heat of the

144

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

heat pipe to total heat is utilized through Newton's method and the

GaussSeidel iteration method.

Rh

Thpe;n Thpc;n

Qn

4

0:5940:032 Q n 4:781 10

7

1:596 10

Q n

Q n

The experimental apparatus employed to measure the thermal performance of thermal module is shown in Fig. 4. The thermal module is

located on a dummy heater and connected to all the apparatus. The

dummy heater supplies a xed amount of heating power to simulate

the real heat source (CPU, GPU, etc.). The dummy heater consisted of a

copper block of 15 50 100 mm3 with two embedded 35 electrical

resistance rods of 10 mm diameter. And two different contacting areas

of heat source (15 15 mm2 and 30 30 mm2, respectively) are utilized

to attach to the heat pipe evaporator in the present experiment. An adjustable DC power supplier of ADC50-10 possesses a maximum voltage

of 50 V and current of 10 amps to allow calculation of input power

under an error range 0.5%. The heating power can be increased to 300

W in steps of 30 W. Bakelite and adiabatic materials prevent heat loss

around the copper block. Thermal grease with 2.5 W/mk is applied to

the mounting surface of the heater block to reduce the thermal interface

resistance. Two same fans of 80 80 25 mm3 are mounted at the right

and left sides of the cooling module to disperse heat through forced convection to ambient air while maintaining a constant ow direction and

rotational speed. In a forced convection system, the uid movement is

by an external force as fans. If the uid velocity is large, then turbulence

is induced. And the mixing of hot and cold air is more efcient, there is

an increase in heat transfer. The commercial specications of the present fan are that the air volume ows and pressures are respectively

from 10.9 to 40.8 CFM and 41.454 to 2.94 Pa between 800 to

3000 RPM with an operating voltage of 12 V and maximum current of

0.26 A. And the noise values are 13 to 28 dB. Therefore, the maximum

noise maybe 28 dB when a single fan is running at 3000 RPM. Fan

speed can be set at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. The GL-800 data recorder

can measure 40 channels including temperature, voltage, and humidity,

with a sampling time of 104 s. Instrumentation consisted of type T

thermocouples with a diameter of 0.32 mm and a measuring range of

dummy heater, base plate, heat pipes, ns and surroundings. The thermocouples used in the present experiment have a measurement error of

0.5 C. The data recorder manufactured has a measurement error of

1%. The power supply unit has a measurement error of 0.5%. Finally,

the maximum error for the thermal resistance is thus within 5%.

Investigations on the experimental procedure were divided into two

parts. The rst part referring to the superposition method [11] is to

measure the thermal performance of the entire heat sink with all heat

pipes intact. After separately testing the whole thermal performance

of the heat sink with embedded U-shaped and L-shaped heat pipes in

the above experiments, the second part is the heat sink experiments

without heat pipe function. Let all U- (n = 12) and L-shaped heat

pipes (n = 16) in the heat sink fail to function successively. The thermal performances are measured as the U-shaped and L-shaped heat

pipes are successively disabled in positions n = 12 and 16 by cutting

through their adiabatic region, heating them to over 100 C, and

allowing the working uid to vaporize and escape. Because heat ow

could neither travel by two-phase working uid ow or by heat pipe

walls conduction, this cutting process is to reduce the conductance of

the heat pipe to zero. The heat capacity transference from the base

plate and the U-shaped and L-shaped heat pipes to the ns can be obtained by comparing the individual results across the same temperature

differences, respectively. As the geometry is symmetric, the analysis is

carried out for half of the U-shaped heat pipe. The related processes

are presented in Ref [18], and are not presented here. The heat sink

experiments without heat pipes function are then performed, and the

corresponding thermal resistances are determined. The heat pipe is a

two-phase heat transfer component, and its thermal resistance will

change with the heating power. We express and derive a mathematical

model to predict the theoretical thermal resistance of heat pipe utilized

in the present study. Rather than conducting thermal performance

experiments of independent single heat pipes to reverse calculate the

experimental thermal resistance of a single heat pipe through thermal

resistance analysis and bypass heat ow, this study used the leastsquare estimator formula [27] to t the experimental values as the

theoretical thermal resistance of the heat pipe. The present formula is

based on our thermal performance experiments of heat pipe thermal

modules that the rates of change in input heating power and temperature during the execution of an application depends on the temperature

differences between the evaporating and the condensing sections.

Based on the single heat pipe relationship established by Ref. [18] and

Table 1

Relationship between interface thermal resistances Rif and input power.

Heat input (W)

15 15

30 30

Two fans

One fan

Two fans

L-shaped

U-shaped

30

60

90

120

150

180

240

300

30

60

90

120

150

180

240

300

One fan

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

0.033

0.033

0.032

0.034

0.034

0.033

0.035

0.033

0.034

0.034

0.035

0.031

0.03

0.039

0.038

0.038

0.037

0.037

0.037

0.034

0.036

0.036

0.037

0.033

0.034

0.034

0.034

0.037

0.036

0.037

0.037

0.037

0.037

0.04

0.038

0.033

0.032

0.032

0.034

0.034

0.033

0.035

0.037

0.037

0.037

0.035

0.033

0.032

0.033

0.033

0.035

0.036

0.037

0.033

0.034

0.036

0.037

0.039

0.033

0.032

0.032

0.031

0.033

0.034

0.037

0.035

0.032

0.037

0.037

0.039

0.036

0.037

0.038

0.036

0.037

0.032

0.033

0.034

0.035

0.037

0.036

0.036

0.037

0.037

0.033

0.033

0.033

0.034

0.035

0.036

0.036

0.037

0.037

0.037

0.032

0.033

0.031

0.03

0.033

0.035

0.036

0.035

0.034

0.037

0.035

0.036

0.035

0.035

0.034

0.035

0.035

0.035

0.033

0.034

0.034

0.035

0.035

0.033

0.034

0.033

0.034

0.035

0.033

0.035

0.034

0.035

0.035

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

145

Table 2

Relationship between total thermal resistances and input power.

Heat input (W)

15 15

30 30

Two fans

One fan

Two fans

L-shaped

U-shaped

30

60

90

120

150

180

240

300

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

300

One fan

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

1000

2000

3000

0.55

0.5117

0.4956

0.49

0.4927

0.5

0.417

0.407

0.404

0.399

0.377

0.4367

0.42

0.4144

0.42

0.4353

0.4483

0.397

0.37

0.366

0.353

0.336

0.318

0.307

0.4133

0.3933

0.3867

0.3983

0.4187

0.4383

0.343

0.297

0.288

0.287

0.282

0.281

0.281

0.6433

0.62

0.6133

0.6117

0.6117

0.6217

0.557

0.507

0.501

0.491

0.49

0.5167

0.4717

0.4589

0.4642

0.47

0.4844

0.417

0.362

0.351

0.343

0.338

0.346

0.4367

0.415

0.4078

0.4192

0.432

0.45

0.363

0.312

0.303

0.301

0.298

0.298

0.3767

0.3733

0.3667

0.3617

0.29

0.276

0.271

0.268

0.274

0.275

0.2708

0.2656

0.2621

0.2613

0.207

0.196

0.19

0.188

0.184

0.245

0.2408

0.2477

0.2479

0.2497

0.175

0.17

0.164

0.161

0.158

0.47

0.4667

0.455

0.455

0.397

0.383

0.354

0.355

0.2983

0.295

0.2878

0.2867

0.286

0.233

0.228

0.228

0.222

0.222

0.26

0.2525

0.2478

0.2467

0.252

0.192

0.184

0.18

0.178

0.177

single heat pipe is assumed to be as follows [26]. And then, they were

acquired by using the least square method to t the discrete points, on

the basis of this, the navigation line detection algorithm was proposed.

Detailed descriptions of Least Square Method can be found in the literature [27].

3. Results and discussions

Table 1 reveals the thermal interface resistance Rif of L- and

U-shaped heat pipeheat sinks to the total heating power. Rif is dependent on mechanical and thermal properties as well as surface roughness

properties and contact pressure between two contacting surfaces.

Moreover, thermal interface materials with high thermal conductivity

can validly reduce the thermal interface resistance. Given a constant

input power, the different between the two thermal modules is not

large. The reason is that the thermal conductivity of thermal grease is

the same when there is not much change in temperature. The Rif is

approximately 0.035 C/W when the heating power is between 30 W

and 300 W. Therefore, the Rif may be treated as a constant in this experiment. The magnitude of Rif is a major part in thermal management and

control of electronic devices and, hence, may signicantly affect the

thermal performance of such thermal module. Table 2 demonstrates

the total thermal resistance Rt of the L- and U-shaped heat pipeheat

sinks to the total heating power under variable fan speeds and heat

source areas. Generally, the total thermal resistances decrease as fan

speeds increase. The thermal module should be improved thermal performance at higher fan speeds. Forced convection is a primary function

of the temperature because the uid properties are temperature dependent. Empirical dimensionless analysis formulations combined by

Nusselt number (Nu), Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr)

are used to calculate convection heat transfer for forced convection.

The magnitude of Re is used to judge if there is laminar or turbulent

ow in a forced convection. The Nu is almost constant for fully developed laminar channel ow; otherwise, it is no longer as constant for

turbulent ow region. Coolant ows from fans are regulated so the

convection in the channels of heat sink was clearly in either the turbulent or laminar ow region and, as expected, the former gave lower

thermal resistance than the latter. The Rt exhibits small changes for

fan speeds of 2000 RPM and 3000 RPM and 30 30 mm2 heat source.

This is because of larger area of heat source and lower heat ux than

15 15 mm2 heat source at same heating power. The respective average total thermal resistances are 0.17 C/W (3000 RPM), 0.19 C/W

(2000 RPM) and 0.28 C/W (1000 RPM) for L-shaped heat pipe

heat sink, and 0.25 C/W (3000 RPM), 0.27 C/W (2000 RPM)

and 0.37 C/W (1000 RPM) for U-shaped heat pipeheat sink. The differences of Rt are both about 0.1 C/W between 2000 and 1000 RPM.

The total thermal resistances have not large change at the dual fans

speeds of 1000 RPM and above input power of 90 W at 30 30 mm2

area of heat source. The differences of total thermal resistances between

fan speeds of 2000 RPM and 3000 RPM are almost the same; the thermal

module has well thermal performance at 2000 RPM at 30 30 mm2

area of heat source.

From Table 2, the total thermal resistances Rt progressively decrease

as input powers increase, with the lowest values Rt between 90 W to

Table 3

The bypass heat ow ratios.

L-shaped

U-shaped

Area of Heat

Source(mm2)

Ratio

Two fans,

2000 RPM

One fan,

3000 RPM

One fan,

1000 RPM

30 30

I (n = 1,6)

II (n = 2,5)

III (n = 3,4)

Qb/Q

I (n = 1,6)

II (n = 2,5)

III (n = 3,4)

Qb/Q

28%

27%

30%

15%

35%

27%

25%

13%

27%

30%

29%

14%

33%

25%

25%

17%

47%

20%

10%

23%

38%

28%

20%

14%

15 15

Ratio

Two fans,

2000 RPM

Two fans,

3000 RPM

One fan,

2000 RPM

One fan,

3000 RPM

(n = 1 + 2)

68%

68%

69%

67%

Qb/Q

32%

32%

31%

33%

(n = 1 + 2)

67%

65%

72%

63%

Qb/Q

33%

35%

28%

37%

146

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

150 W for 15 15 mm2 heat source, and the smaller heat source area

results in higher heat ux. After the heating power increases to 150 W

(67 W/cm2), Rt rises and launches because of the operating performance limits of the embedded heat pipes. This is the heating power

increasing to the point that the embedded heat pipes are starting to

function, and the total thermal resistance shows a decreasing trend.

The heat pipes are unable to sustain excessive higher heat capacity at

heating powers of above 150 W for 15 15 mm2 heat source, causing

the evaporation section to produce more amounts of vapor than that

of condensed liquid, resulting in the heat pipes losing performance,

thereby increasing total thermal resistance. Unlike the 30 30 mm2

heat source, Rt presents a mild parabolic curve because of the function

of the embedded heat pipes and higher heat ux. Thus, the Rt values

of 15 15 mm2 heat source are all higher than those of 30 30 mm2

heat source. Raising fan speed improves thermal performance of

present thermal module. Consequently, the fan should be kept above a

gradated speed to acquire better heat diffusion benets. The total thermal resistances of single fan operation are higher than those of dual fan

operation due to heat convection mechanism under identical heat

source areas and the fan speeds. Normally, twin-fan convection can

enhance the thermal performances than the usage of single fan at low

fan speeds. In present experimental results, the values of total thermal

resistance Rt are nearly identical levels between a single fan speed of

3000 RPM and twin fans of 2000 RPM. In addition to thermal interface

resistances Rif and total thermal resistances Rt, the rest of thermal resistances including base plate resistances Rb, n-base convective thermal

resistances Rhs, base to heat pipe resistances Rbh,n, heat pipe resistances

Rh,n, and n-pipe convective resistances Rf,n are able to obtain based on

the individual bypass heat ow. Table 3 shows the bypass heat ow

ratios of L- and U-shaped heat pipeheat sink thermal modules to the

total heat capacity according to superposition method and the same

experimental scheme as Ref. [11]. The single U-shaped heat pipe has a

higher heat dissipation ratio than that of single L-shaped heat pipe at

the identical condition.

From Table 3, three groups of dual L-shaped heat pipes are marked

as I of (Q1 + Q6) / Q, II of (Q2 + Q5) / Q and III of (Q3 + Q4) / Q. The

sum of the ratio of the six embedded L-type heat pipes is between 77%

and 87%. For large volume ow rates (two fan 2000 RPM and one fan

3000 RPM), each bypass heat ow ratio (groups IIII) is almost 30%.

Group I is dissipated heat capacity by the two L-shaped heat pipes closest to the air inlet with higher heat transfer coefcient at single fan condition, and group III is the furthest away from the air inlet as shown in

Fig. 3(b), which is why the ratio of group I heat-transfer path of 47%

and 38% is larger than that of the group III heat-transfer path of 10%

and 20% for single fan of 1000 RPM. At 1000 RPM, the impact of n impedance on the ow eld decreases the volume ow rate from the air

inlet to the heat pipe, while the volume ow rate to the six L-shaped

heat pipes increases from 77% (30 30 mm2 heat source) to 87% (15

15 mm2 heat source). For embedded two U-shaped heat pipe thermal

module, the bypass heat ow ratio of the single U-shaped heat pipe is

found to increase as the heat source area decreases. The reason is

when the heat source area is reduced; the ratio of the total area of the

contact area of the heat pipe to the heat source increases, the bypass

heat ow ratio will raise as the heat source area is decreased. The experimental results are good agreement with theoretical suppose. Table 4

displays the heat pipe thermal resistance regression curves of the Lshaped thermal module which applied the quadratic polynomial equations [27]. The heat pipe is a two-phase heat transfer element, and its

thermal resistance value will change with the heat ow resulting from

the multiphase behavior of the working uid inside heat pipe. Six Lshaped heat pipes have the lowest thermal resistances of the order of

1.04 C/W, 2.07 C/W, 1.92 C/W, 2.76 C/W 2.19 C/W, 1.7 C/W between 34 W and 40 W. And from Ref. [27] the U-shaped heat pipe has

the highest thermal resistance below 10 W, following a gradual decline as heat ow increases with the rate of decline slowing to

25 W, and then gradually increasing after 35 W. Therefore, the

Table 4

Theoretical thermal resistance equations of L-shaped heat pipes [27].

Rh1 (W/mK)

Rh2 (W/mK)

Rh3 (W/mK)

Rh4 (W/mK)

Rh5 (W/mK)

Rh6 (W/mK)

3.66 101

(Q1 = W)

6.31 101

(Q2 = W)

5.42 101

(Q3 = W)

8.46 101

(Q4 = W)

6.93 101

(Q5 = W)

6.42 101

(Q6 = W)

2.46 102 Q2 + 3.15 104 (Q2)2

2.61 102 Q3 + 3.7 104 (Q3)2

3.3 102 Q4 + 4.26 104 (Q4)2

2.58 102 Q5 + 3.33 104 (Q5)2

1.76 102 Q6 + 2.2 104 (Q6)2

Fig. 5. Relationships of the base plate resistances toward the heating power (a) U-shaped

heat pipe thermal module (b) L-shaped heat pipe thermal module.

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

1.59 10 1 0.3 102 Q1 + 0.19 104 (Q1)2, where the lowest

thermal resistance is 0.04 C/W at the heat ow Q1 of 78.95 W. And its

highest effective thermal conductivity is 1852 W/(mK).

Fig. 5 indicates the relationships of the base plate resistances Rb toward the heating power Qb. These thermal resistance curves on the

paths Q ib closed to horizontal. Thus, Rb obtained in this experiment

may be considered constant as heating power increases, since the components that transfer heat through this path of heating power Qb, transferred from the base plate without function of the heat pipes

transferring heat capacity to the ns, are all solid. This phenomenon is

anticipated and can be construed as the thermal physical properties

(eg. density, thermal conductivity) of these components which are the

same when there is not much change in temperature. For U-shaped

heat pipes, Rbvalues are approximately between 0.15 C/W and

Fig. 6. Relationships of the n-base convective thermal resistances toward the heating

power (a) U-shaped heat pipe thermal module (b) L-shaped heat pipe thermal module.

147

0.51 C/W and 1.10 C/W at 15 15 mm2 heat source, respectively. For

L-shaped heat pipes, Rb values are approximately between 0.49 C/W

and 0.52 C/W at 30 30 mm2 heat source, and are approximately

between 1.18 C/W and 1.84 C/W at 15 15 mm2 heat source,

respectively. This reason is when the heat source area is reduced, the

spreading of the thermal resistances will be increased and the base

plate resistances will be changed to larger values. Fig. 6 shows the

relationships of the n-base convective thermal resistances Rhs toward

the heating power Qb. These Rhsvalues reduced as volume ow rates increased. The base to heat pipe resistances Rbh will increase when heat

source area decreases as shown in Fig. 7. From the experimental

results, the values of Rbh will increase twice when the heat source size

is reduced from 30 30 mm2to 15 15 mm2. Fig. 8 exhibits the

n-pipe convective resistances Rf with input power. The n-pipe

Fig. 7. Relationships of the base to heat pipe resistances toward the heating power.

148

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

4. Conclusions

been analyzed through careful experiments and versatile methods for

electronic cooling in the present study. Particular attention is paid to

the inuences of geometric variations of heat pipes upon the performance of the cooling system. The effects of fan speeds and heat source

areas on the performance have also been examined. For embedded six

L-shaped heat pipe thermal modules, the average heat capacity ratio

of a single heat pipe is 14%. The lowest total thermal resistance of the

L-shaped heat pipeheat sink module is 0.17 C/W under dual fans at

3000 RPM for a 30 mm 30 mm heat source. For embedded two

U-shaped heat pipes module, a single heat pipe can dissipate an average

heat capacity ratio of 33%. The lowest total thermal resistance of the

U-shaped heat pipeheat sink module is 0.25 C/W under dual fans at

3000 RPM for a 30 mm 30 mm heat source. Intentionally, the fan

should be kept above a certain speed over 1000 RPM to obtain better

cooling efciency. The heat ow ratio of total heat ow through the

heat pipe is also different under variable heat source areas. The smaller

they had large variation of the heating power resulting from higher

heat ux causing the heat pipe to reach its operating limits more easily.

Finally, the present study has established a useful method of thermal

performance solution of the heat transfer model which enables us to

apply it in thermal management and control.

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the nancial support from

NSC101-2221-E-019-042- for the present study. Finally, the author

would like to thank all colleagues and students who contributed to

this study.

References

Fig. 8. Relationships between the n-pipe convective resistances with input power.

increases, so they can be considered constant in this experiment. The

volume ow rate and heat sink design affect the heat transfer coefcient

and n efciency. It should be recognized that when ns are in the 90%

efciency range, an increase of several percent efciency could require a

considerable lengthening of the n. The heat transfer coefcients of dual

fans and high fan speed are larger than those of one fan or low fan speed.

The convection heat transfer coefcient is most often calculated using

empirical formulations based on convection correlations. However,

turbulent ow will result in a larger pressure drop such that with a

given fan, the uid ow rate will be reduced. Forced convection heat

transfer from a given surface is a function of the local ow velocity.

Therefore, wind speed caused by the fan should not be affected by the

size of the heat source area, and in addition to the single fan speed,

2000 RPM fans have higher n-pipe thermal resistances.

[1] J.-C. Wang, S.-L. Chen, Heat transfer engineering applications, Air Cooling Module

Applications to Consumer Electronic Products, I,nTech Open Access Publisher,

2011, ISBN 978-953-307-361-3. 339366 (Chapter 14).

[2] Y.-W. Chang, et al., Heat pipe for cooling of electronic equipment, Energy Convers.

Manag. 49 (2008) 33983404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.05.002.

[3] T.-E. Tsai, et al., Dynamic test method for determining the thermal performances of

heat pipes, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 53 (2010) 45674578.

[4] J.-C. Wang, et al., Experimental investigations of thermal resistance of a heat sink

with horizontal embedded heat pipes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34

(2007) 958970, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2007.03.015.

[5] R.-T. Wang, et al., Experimental analysis for thermal performance of a vapor

chamber applied to high-performance servers, J. Mar. Sci. Technol. (Taiwan) 19

(2011) 353360.

[6] S.W. Chi, Heat Pipe Theory and Practice: A Sourcebook, 1st ed Hemisphere Pub.

Corp, 1976. 130 (Chapter 1).

[7] J.-C. Wang, Investigations on non-condensation gas of a heat pipe, Engineering 3

(2011) 376383.

[8] J.-C. Wang, Computer aided design: technology, types and practical applications,

Computer Aided-Thermal Module Design, N

, ova Publisher, 2012, ISBN 978-162257-346-2. 134 (Pub. Date: 2012-December, Chapter 1).

[9] P. Dunn, D.A. Reay, Heat Pipes, 1st ed Pergamon Press, Oxford; New York, 1976.

1887 (Chapter 2).

[10] R.-T. Wang, J.-C. Wang, Analyzing the pressure-difference phenomenon between

the condensing and boiling sections in a heat pipe cooling system, Int. Commun.

Heat Mass Transfer 39 (2012) 390398.

[11] J.-C. Wang, Superposition method to investigate the thermal performance of heat

sink with embedded heat pipes, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 36 (2009)

686692, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2009.04.008.

[12] J.-C. Wang, et al., Program for rapid computation of the thermal performance of a

heat sink with embedded heat pipes, J. Chin. Soc. Mech. Eng. 31 (2010) 2128.

[13] R.-T. Wang, A tting, simple and versatile window program (HSHPTM) design using

lumped parameters and one-dimensional thermal resistance models, Heat Mass

Transf. 49 (2013) 291297.

[14] Mohamed H.A. Elnaggar, et al., Characterization of working uid in vertically

mounted nned U-shape twin heat pipe for electronic cooling, Energy Convers.

Manag. 62 (2012) 3139.

[15] Mohamed H.A. Elnaggar, et al., Experimental analysis and FEM simulation of nned

U-shape multi heat pipe for desktop PC cooling, Energy Convers. Manag. 52 (2011)

29372944, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.03.001.

[16] M.K. Russel, et al., The effect of orientation on U-shaped grooved and sintered wick

heat pipes, Appl. Therm. Eng. 31 (2011) 6976.

R.-T. Wang et al. / International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 57 (2014) 140149

[17] T.-S. Liang, Y.-M. Hung, Experimental investigation on the thermal performance and

optimization of heat sink with U-shape heat pipes, Energy Convers. Manag. 51

(2010) 21092116.

[18] J.-C. Wang, L-type heat pipes application in electronic cooling system, Int. J. Therm.

Sci. 50 (2011) 97105.

[19] J.-C. Wang, Thermal module design and analysis of a 230 Watt LED illumination lamp

under three incline angles, Microelectronics Journal 45 (4) (2014) 416423 (April).

[20] J.-C. Wang, Thermoelectric transformation and illuminative performance analysis of

a novel LED-MGVC device, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 48 (2013) 8085

(November).

[21] J.-C. Wang, 3-D numerical and experimental models for at and embedded heat

pipes applied in high-end VGA card cooling system, Int. Commun. Heat Mass

Transfer 39 (2012) 13601366.

[22] J.-C. Wang, Development of vapour chamber-based VGA thermal module, Int. J.

Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow 20 (2010) 416428, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/

09615531011035811.

149

[23] X.-Y. Lu, et al., Thermal analysis of high power LED package with heat pipe heat sink,

Microelectron. J. 42 (2011) 12571262.

[24] J.-C. Wang, Thermal investigations on LEDs vapor chamber-based plates, Int.

Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 38 (2011) 12061212.

[25] J.-C. Wang, Analyzing thermal module developments and trends in high-power LED,

Int. J. Photoenergy 2014 (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/120452 (Article ID

120452, May, 11 pages).

[26] J.-C. Wang, et al., Development of 30 Watt high-power LEDs vapor chamber-based

plate, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 53 (2010) 39004001.

[27] J.-C. Wang, U- and L-shaped heat pipes heat sinks for cooling electronic components

employed a least square smoothing method, Microelectron. Reliab. 54 (6/7) (2014)

13441354 (June).

- Thermal ManagementUploaded byEdwin Okoampa Boadu
- Installation Manual TCD 2012 2013Uploaded byRichard Alvarado
- COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF STEPPED AND STRAIGHT MICROCHANNEL HEAT SINKUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Dell_XPS_M1330_-_nVidia_GeForce_8400M_GS_-_Copper_ModUploaded byalbitmanuel
- Allied Control Data TankUploaded bycjtrybiec
- datasheet.pdfUploaded byZiuss oram
- PaperUploaded byNirmal Singh
- Introduction to Heat Transfer ModuleUploaded byrfah1980
- International Journals Call for paper http://www.iiste.org/Journals/Uploaded byAlexander Decker
- Seismic inversion for acoustic impedance and porosity of Cenozoic cool-water carbonates on the upper continental slope of the Great Australian BightUploaded byMiftahulhusnah
- rr221403-thermal-engineering-and-heat-transferUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Konpresorska stanicaUploaded byMirjana Tonic
- Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 EdUploaded byEVANINMORTAL
- Hyper_612_Ver._2_-_Product_Sheet.pdfUploaded byGary Golbraich
- 9c96051d1adcf70150Uploaded byخالد بنسالم
- 20020013939_2002004340Uploaded byViswanath Vakkalagadda
- LEDrite Presentation 2011Uploaded byJean Yang
- Purebase600wndw Db EnUploaded byIonescu Ştefan-Vlad
- Fujitsu World Tour 2017 - Compute Platform for the Digital WorldUploaded byNitesh Kohli
- Gbpc25005 Diodo PuenteUploaded byMikrocontrol
- 403C_11G ---1500Uploaded bymuhammad arif
- Heat Transfer Performance Analysis of Water Nano Particles Combination for Corrugated Plate Heat ExchangerUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science
- AOD9N40Uploaded byCadena Cesar
- hi-1573_v-rev-tUploaded byDunkMe
- 52173-00_2Uploaded bymarkigldmm918
- NB_Thermal_design_course_material.pdfUploaded byKarthik Anandan
- ch8_2 BasicSystemModelingfHaudraulicSystem.pdfUploaded byAjay Nath S A
- Year Planner (f1) LatestUploaded byNor Shakeela
- Final Dissertation Approved.docxUploaded bySirajuddin Ahmed
- mcqUploaded byMathews P Reji

- ISC Physics Syllabus 2018Uploaded byAbhishek Upadhyay
- Torque vs TorsionUploaded byRavindra Jagadale
- Welding Handbook v69 v69Uploaded byhorstiilling
- Low salinity EOR 2012Uploaded byPondok Huda
- Experiment 4Uploaded byswaroop_exlnc
- Rebar Tensile Testing GuideUploaded byAdnan Jadoon
- Shear Wave Velocity Measurement Guidelines - CANADA Pag81_HVUploaded byLuis Yegres
- ch5_p01-51Uploaded byJeanne Jackson
- End Point of Wet Granulation by Measuring Powder Energies and Thermal PropertiesUploaded byckumar2
- ruvacwsUploaded byacamip
- Concave MirrorUploaded byBastab Dey
- Hydraulics, Psi.xlsUploaded byscrbdgharavi
- Flywheel PptUploaded byAidil Syawani Kun
- Distribution of Story ShearUploaded byJester Abucay
- LEDs - Presentation 16_9Uploaded byabhijit1729
- ACI 523.3R-14 Guide for Cellular Concretes Above 50 Lbft3 80Uploaded byAlfonso Capone
- Duplex Stainless Steel 2Uploaded bywhusada
- HW1 SolutionUploaded bySam
- 1403.4343Uploaded byMichael Marzet
- Chapter 7 Test BUploaded byelvisfan777
- Thick Shell TheoryUploaded byNitin Suryawanshi
- 4.03 Acid and Bases MSUploaded byAdnan Chowdhury
- Effect of fuel gas to GTUploaded byAmpornchai Phupol
- General Welding ProcedureUploaded byKirinSir
- Economizer CoilUploaded bydivya
- Polypropylene Properties - VinidexUploaded byalex
- Bell Nozzles InformationUploaded byRaghava Kundrapu
- Booklet Special Tools CFM56-3Uploaded byAulia Galih Ramadhan
- chuẩn bị lab 5Uploaded byMaria Anh Thư
- merged_document_4.pdfUploaded byYolanda Winarny Eviphanie Hutabarat