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How Do Substrate Concentration and PH

Affect Enzyme Controlled Reactions?

November 10th, 2016
On my honor, I have neither received nor given any
unauthorized aid on this assignment.

According to Global Healing Center, lactase is an enzyme which can break down milk
sugar (lactose) into its component parts: glucose and galactose, and exists in some digestion
dairy products such as, ice cream, milk and cheese (The Health Benefits of Lactase). According
to Baseline of Healthi Foundation, lactase is important because its digestion not only help human
body process the lactose in dairy, but also prevent bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, and
cramping ( LACTASE ENZYME).
According to, the main function of lactase is to hydrolyze a type of sugar
that known as lactose. Lactose is a kind of sugar that found in milk and other dairy product. However,
the human body cannot naturally absorb it. Therefore, to metabolize that sugar, our bodies need to use
lactase for breaking down lactose into 2 specific parts: glucose and galactose. Then, these smaller

sugar molecules will be absorbed easily by the human intestine cells. Without lactase, lactose
still exists in your digestive tract and cannot be used by your body.

Data Table

Data Graph
Pink line: pH 3
Yellow line: pH 5
Blue line: pH 7
Orange line: pH 9
Green line: pH 11
The relationship between substrate concentration and the initial reaction rate of an
enzyme catalyzed reaction is a linear relationship. If the substrate concentration
increases higher, the initial reaction will become stronger and faster.
The maximum initial reaction rate for the lactase enzyme at pH 7 is 350.
The maximum initial reaction rate cannot be reached at low lactose concentrations
because as I said, if the substrate concentration increases higher, the initial reaction will
become stronger and faster. Therefore, the maximum initial reaction rate can be reached
at low lactose concentrations is an impossible thing.

The data indicates about the optimum pH level for this lactase catalyzed reaction is pH
Enzymes function most efficiently at the temperature of a typical cell, which is 37
degrees Celsius. Increases or decreases in temperature can significantly lower the
reaction rate. It proves that how the importance of temperature regulating mechanisms
in organisms. For example, if the temperature is higher, the enzyme will work faster and
more effective. In contrast, if the temperature is lower, the enzyme will work slower and
less effective. Therefore, the temperature affects the enzymes function a lot.
Quoting Bioandrea4, the producer of this product should mainly be worried about pill
because the person consuming it may not digest it or take it in properly. For example, the
lactase pH should stay neutral; it shouldn't be too acidic or base because if not the person
will not receive enzymes it wants to (Enzyme-Controlled Reactions <Virtual Lab>).

Works Cited
Edward. The Health Benefits of Lactase. Global Healing Center. 30 July 2011. Accessed 21 Oct.

Pritchard, Joseph. "Natural Enzymes to Help Digest Food." LIVESTRONG.COM. 16 Aug. 2013. Web. 12
Nov. 2016

LACTASE ENZYME. Baseline of Healthi Foundation. Accessed 14 Nov. 2016.


Enzyme-Controlled Reactions (Virtual Lab>). Bioandrea4.

< Accessed 14 Nov. 2016.>