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Types of Chopper Circuits

Last Updated on November 28, 2013 by john in Power Electronics with 12 Comments
In chopper circuits, unidirectional power semiconductors are used. If these
semiconductor devices are arranged appropriately, a chopper can work in any of the
four quadrants. we can classify chopper circuits according to their working in any of
these four quadrants as type A, type B, type C, type D and type E. Let us now take a
look of these classi cations and the characteristics of various classi cations.
Type A Chopper or FirstQuadrant Chopper
This type of chopper is shown in the gure. It is known as rst-quadrant chopper or
type A chopper. When the chopper is on, v0 = VS as a result and the current ows in the

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direction of the load. But when the chopper is o v0 is zero but I0 continues to ow in
the same direction through the freewheeling diode FD, thus average value of voltage

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and current say V0 and I0 will be always positive as shown in the graph.


Chopper First Quadrant



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In type A chopper the power ow will be always from source to the load. As the average

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voltage V0 is less than the dc input voltage Vs

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Type B Chopper or Second-Quadrant Chopper


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Chopper Second Quadrant

In type B or second quadrant chopper the load must always contain a dc source E .
When the chopper is on, v0 is zero but the load voltage E drives the current through
the inductor L and the chopper, L stores the energy during the time Ton of the chopper
. When the chopper is o , v0 =( E+ L . di/dt ) will be more than the source voltage Vs .

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Because of this the diode D2 will be forward biased and begins conducting and hence

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the power starts owing to the source. No matter the chopper is on or o the current
I0 will be owing out of the load and is treated negative . Since VO is positive and the

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current I0 is negative , the direction of power ow will be from load to source. The load

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voltage V0 = (E+L .di/dt ) will be more than the voltage Vs so the type B chopper is
also known as a step up chopper .

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Type -C chopper or Two-quadrant type-A Chopper

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Type C chopper is obtained by connecting type A and type B choppers in parallel.

We will always get a positive output voltage V0 as the freewheeling diode FD is present
across the load. When the chopper is on the freewheeling diode starts conducting and

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the output voltage v0 will be equal to Vs . The direction of the load current i0 will be

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reversed. The current i0 will be owing towards the source and it will be positive
regardless the chopper is on or the FD conducts. The load current will be negative if

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the chopper is or the diode D2 conducts. We can say the chopper and FD operate
together as type-A chopper in rst quadrant. In the second quadrant, the chopper and



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D2 will operate together as type B chopper.



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Chopper Two Quadrant


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The average voltage will be always positive but the average load current might be
positive or negative. The power ow may be life the rst quadrant operation ie from

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source to load or from load to source like the second quadrant operation. The two

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choppers should not be turned on simultaneously as the combined action my cause a

short circuit in supply lines. For regenerative braking and motoring these type of



chopper con guration is used.



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Type D Chopper or Two-Quadrant Type B Chopper

Two Quadrant Type B chopper or D Chopper Circuit

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The circuit diagram of the type D chopper is shown in the above gure. When the two
choppers are on the output voltage v0 will be equal to Vs . When v0 = Vs the two
choppers will be o but both the diodes D1 and D2 will start conducting. V0 the average
output voltage will be positive when the choppers turn-on the time Ton will be more
than the turn o time To its shown in the wave form below. As the diodes and
choppers conduct current only in one direction the direction of load current will be
always positive.

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Positive First Quadrant Operation and Negative Fourth Quadrant Operation

The power ows from source to load as the average values of both v0 and i0 is
positive. From the wave form it is seen that the average value of V0 is positive thus
the forth quadrant operation of type D chopper is obtained.
From the wave forms the Average value of output voltage is given by
V0= (Vs Ton-VsTo )/T = Vs.(Ton-To )/T

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Type E or the fourth quadrant chopper consists of four semiconductor switches and
four diodes arranged in antiparallel. The 4 choppers are numbered according to which
quadrant they belong. Their operation will be in each quadrant and the corresponding
chopper only be active in its quadrant.


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Type E chopper or the Fourth-Quadrant Chopper





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First Quadrant

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During the rst quadrant operation the chopper CH4 will be on . Chopper CH3 will be
o and CH1 will be operated. AS the CH1 and CH4 is on the load voltage v0 will be
equal to the source voltage Vs and the load current i0 will begin to ow . v0 and i0 will

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be positive as the rst quadrant operation is taking place. As soon as the chopper CH1
is turned o , the positive current freewheels through CH4 and the diode D2 . The type

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E chopper acts as a step- down chopper in the rst quadrant.

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Second Quadrant
In this case the chopper CH2 will be operational and the other three are kept o . As
CH2 is on negative current will starts owing through the inductor L . CH2 ,E and D4.

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Energy is stored in the inductor L as the chopper CH2 is on. When CH2 is o the current
will be fed back to the source through the diodes D1 and D4. Here (E+L.di/dt) will be

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more than the source voltage Vs . In second quadrant the chopper will act as a step-up
chopper as the power is fed back from load to source
Third Quadrant
In third quadrant operation CH1 will be kept o , CH2 will be on and CH3 is operated.
For this quadrant working the polarity of the load should be reversed. As the chopper
CH3 is on, the load gets connected to the source Vs and v0 and i0 will be negative and
the third quadrant operation will takes place. This chopper acts as a step-down chopper
Fourth Quadrant
CH4 will be operated and CH1, CH2 and CH3 will be o . When the chopper CH4 is
turned on positive current starts to ow through CH4, D2 ,E and the inductor L will
store energy. As the CH4 is turned o the current is feedback to the source through the

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diodes D2 and D3 , the operation will be in fourth quadrant as the load voltage is
negative but the load current is positive. The chopper acts as a step up chopper as the

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power is fed back from load to source.



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abdul basit adil May 27, 2015 at 1:19 pm
hi. i wants to know is there any use of chopper to be used as AC step up?

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curio April 8, 2015 at 7:18 pm

helped a lot


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Rudra Kumar Mishra December 12, 2014 at 8:22 am

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Very good content


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ahmad August 24, 2014 at 1:12 am

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Vince November 11, 2012 at 7:30 am

I need your permission to use the document for choppers, a use on my website. What we
thank you in advance.

Owner March 4, 2014 at 11:06 pm


lackson kasekwa March 21, 2012 at 10:22 pm

how are you?please,my problem is to know how trace the fault of tv or power supply.and
to have a tv circuit

sonu kumar March 6, 2012 at 10:39 am


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