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Chapter: Twelve: Brands, Packaging and product features

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Branding Strategy: Building Strong Brands.
Brand: Brand is a name, sign, symbol, number or combination of them intended to identify a
company’s products from competitor’s offerings.
Some analysts see brands as the major enduring asset of a company, outlasting the company’s
specific products and facilities. Thus brands are powerful assets that must be carefully developed
and managed.
Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer from
those of another. In fact, the word brand is derived from the Old Norse word brandr, which
means “to burn”, as brands were and still are the means by which owners of livestock mark their
animals to identify their animals.
Firms could not succeed in developing and managing products without effectively identifying
their products and services. Organizations identify their offerings by branding.
Brand is a name, sign, symbol or combination of these used to identify a product and distinguish
it from competitors’ offering.
According to American Marketing Association
A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them intended to identify
the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of
competition.
A brand is a complex symbol that can convey up to six level of meaning.




Attributes: a brand brings to mind certain attributes. Mercedes suggest expensive, well-built,
well-engineered, durable, high-prestige automobiles.
Beliefs: attributes must be translated into functional and emotional benefits. The attribute
durable could translate into the functional benefit, “ I would not have to buy to buy another
car for several years”, the expensive translate into the emotional benefit. The car makes me
feel important and admired.
Values: the brand also says something about the producer’s values. Mercedes stands for high
performance, safety and prestige.
Culture: the brand may represent a certain culture. The Mercedes represents German culture,
organized efficient and high quality.
Personality: the brand can project a certain personality. Mercedes may suggest no-nonsense
boss ( person).
User: the brand suggests the kind of user or consumer who buys or uses the brand. We would
expect to see a 55 years old top executive behind the wheel of a mercedes, not a 20 years old
secretary.

Trademark: Firms usually want exclusive use of their brands and take steps to prevent others from using them. logo. Sears. Chrysler’s New Yorker automobiles)  Brand based on animals or birds ( Dove soap. marketers have many choices over the member and nature of the brand elements they choose to identify their products. Such as General electric. Porshe Automobiles and Orville Redenbacher popcorn. brand mark or trade characters do not offer legal protection against use by competitors unless registered as trademarks. package design or other attribute that identifies a product and distinguish it from others. shell gasoline)  Use words with inherent product meaning ( lean cuisine. . Pantene and Head & Shoulders etc. For example.There are four types of brand designations such as are. Such as Scotch Brand ® Tape. In some cases. Just juice and Ticketron)  Important benefits or attributes ( Beatyrest mattresses. There are varieties of brand name strategies that exist in the world. Lipton tea. A trademark legally protected can be used only by its owner. design or distinctive coloring or lettering that cannot be spoken. Pampers. A trade character: a trade character is a brand mark that is personified. A brand registered with the patent and trademark office is called a trademark. Lexus stylized L crest. Lexus Automobiles or Compaq Computers) In sum. according to AMA is to be able to choose a name. Hewlett Packard (HP)  In other cases.  Company name is used essentially for all products. For example. A brand mark: A brand mark is a symbol. windows 2000. Agora and Nandan etc.  There are many names based on people (Estee Lauder Cosmetic. McDonald’s Ronald McDonald. manufactures assign individual brand names to new products that are unrelated to the company name such as P&G.  Retailers create their owner brands based on their store name or some other means. symbol. their Tide. Mustang Automobiles )  Brand based on things or objects ( Apple computer. Brand names. Wal-Mart. group of words or letters that can be spoken. Diehard auto batteries)  Scientific natural or prestigious ( Intel microprocessors. When used a registered trademark is followed by ®. The key to creating a brand. in creating a brand. i) ii) iii) iv) A brand name: it is a word. For example. letter( number).  Brand based on places ( British Airways. For example.

state or country) or idea ( a political or social cause). ii) The generic product level is a basic version of the product containing only those arributes or characteristics absolutely for its functioning but with no distinguishing features. Related to product performance of the brand or more symbolic. tennis racquet or automobile). retail store ( a department store. Thus a product may be a physical good ( a cereal. delivery arrangements. iii) The expected product level is a set of attributes or characteristics that buyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase a product. The new competition is not between what companies produce in their factories but between what they add to their factory output in the form of packaging. use or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. v) The potential product level includes all of the augmentation and transformations that a product might ultimately undergo in the future. a product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention.Brands versus Products It is important to contrast a brand and a product. . specialty store or supermarket) person ( a political figure. benefits or related services that distinguishes the product from competitors. customer services. i) The core benefit level is the fundamental need or want that consumers satisfy by consuming the product or service. emotional and intangible-related to what brand represents. service ( an airline. trade organization or arts group) place ( a city. services. This is basically a stripped-down. entertainer or professional athlete) organization ( nonprofit organization. customer services. Kotler defines five levels to a product. no-frills version of the product that adequately performs the product function. Competition within many markets essentially takesplace at the product augmentation level because most firms can successfully build satisfactory products at the expected product level. advertising. bank or insurance company). These differences may be rational and tangible. advertisings. warehousing and other things that people value. Product: According to Philip Kotler. acquisition. financing. Brand: A brand is therefore a product but one that adds other dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need. iv) The augmented product level includes additional product attributes. services.

Pepsi. Other brands create competitive advantage through non-product related means. Brand valuation is the process of estimating the total financial value of a brand. Measuring such value is difficult. American Automobile Association) Some brand create competitive advantage with product performance. brands reside in the minds of consumers.) a store ( safeway supermarket) a person ( Bill Clinton. prince tennis racquet) a service ( United airlines. A powerful brand offers the company some defense against fierce price competition. State of California) An organization ( Red cross. Brands represent consumers’ perceptions and feelings about a product and its performance-everything that the product or service means to consumers. Marlboros have become leaders in their product categories by understanding consumer motivations and desires and creating relevant and appealing images surrounding their products and services. Brand equity is the positive differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or service. For example. A powerful brand enjoys a high level of consumer brand awareness and loyalty. A measure of a brand’s equity is the extent to which customers are willing to pay more for the brand. Thus the proper focus of marketing is building customer equity.A branded product may be a physical good ( kellogg’s Corn flakes cereal. Ultimately. A brand with strong brand equity is a very valuable asset. CocaCola. with brand management serving as a major marketing tool. brands such as Gillete. . The real value of a strong brand is its power to capture consumer preference and loyalty. Therefore the fundamental asset underlying brand equity is customer equity. Michael Jordan) A Place ( the city of London. Bank of American. For example. High brand equity provides a company with many competitive advantages. Brand Equity: Brands are more than just names and symbols. Sony have been leaders in their product categories due to continual innovation.

Amazon. It should be extendable. It should be easy to pronounce. Crest.Major Brand Strategy Decisions: Branding poses challenging decisions to the marketer. Examples. target market and proposed marketing strategies. Examples: Tide. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) positioning by product attributes and benefits positioning by price/ quality positioning by use or application positioning by product class positioning by product user positioning by competitor positioning by cultural symbol Positioning by beliefs and values. Finding the best brand name is a difficult task. recognize and remember. Oracle etc. short name. . David Aaker and J. Puffs. Desirable’s qualities for a brand name include the following: i) ii) iii) iv) It should suggest something about the product’s benefits and qualities. Beautyrest. began as an online bookseller but chose a name that would allow expansion into other categories.com. Craftsman. Brand Name selection: A good name can add greatly to a product’s success. The major brand strategy decisions involve i) ii) iii) iv) Brand positioning Brand name selection Brand sponsorship Brand development Brand Positioning: Marketers need to position their brands clearly in the minds of target customers. But longer ones are sometimes effective. Gary discuss such strategies. It begins with a careful review of the products and its benefits. A number of positioning strategies might be employed in developing a promotional program. Kodak. The brand name should be distinctive. Merrie Maids etc. For example. Taurus.

Many firms try to build a brand name that will eventually become identified with the product category. aspirin. kerosene. C. www.samsonite.com) h) Foreign word ( Nestle.com) i) Combination of words.numbers etc( Head and shoulders. www. thermos and shredded wheat-are now generic names that any seller can use.sikids. their very success may threaten the company’s rights to the name.com) iii) If a new name is sought. Penney. trampoline. www. Linoleum. vi) It should be capable of registration and legal protection.headandshoulders. an existing name is used with a new product.scope-mouthwash. is to be able to choose a name. www. www.com) e) Personal name ( Neieken.com The key to creating a brand. A brand name cannot be registered if it infringes on existing brand names. Criteria for choosing brand elements: In general. logo. Brand names such as Kleenex. Before spending $ 100 million to change its name to Exxon. package design or other attribute that identifies a product and distinguish it from other others.hbo. Formica. John’s Bay-an apparel brand of J. the reseller specifies the name ( st. Standard oil of New Jersey tested several names in 54 languages in pronounced in Japanese. However. these alternatives are available: a) Initials ( HBO. Ziploc and Fiberglas have succeeded in this way.com) g) Dictionary word ( Scope mouthwash. Yo-Yo. there are six criteria in choosing brand elements i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Memorability Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability Protectability . www. Once chosen. Scoct Tape. www. Jell-O. shampoo. Heineken.com) b) Invented name ( Kleenex. ( sports illustrated for kids.com) f) Geographical name ( Air force. Levi’s. There are several potential sources when a firm chooses brand names: i) Under brand extension. the brand name must be protected.v) The name should translate easily into foreign languages.century21.kleenex. www. escalator. www.airforce. www.com) c) Numbers ( Century 21.nestle. symbol. Many originally protected brand names-such as cellophane. initials. www.com) d) Mythological character ( Samsonite luggage. These different components of a brand that identifies and differentiate it can be called brand elements.com) ii) For a private brand.jcpenney. according to the AMA definition.

First. Line extensions involve some risks. Or it might want to meet consumer desires for variety. Transferability: The fourth general criterion concerns the transferability of the brand element-in both a product category and geographic sense. ingredients or package sizes. logos and the like-their semantic content. low risk way to introduce new products. sizes and flavors of an existing product category. to what extent can the brand element add to the brand equity of new products sharing the brand elements introduced either within the product class or across product classes? Second. Under this concept. symbols. Brand Development: A company has four choices when it comes to developing brands. In other other words. to utilize excess capacity or simply to command more shelf space from resellers. forms. Two particularly important dimensions or aspects of the meaning of a brand element are the extent to which it conveys the following: a) General information about the nature of product category b) Specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brand. An overextended brand name might lose its specific meaning or heavily extended brands can cause consumer confusion or frustration. In terms of legal considerations. It can introduce 1) Line extension: Line extension occur when a company introduces additional items in a given product category under the same brand name. colors. existing brand names extended to new forms. brand elements often must be updated over time. to what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? Adaptability: the fifth consideration concerns the adaptability of the brand elements over time. A company might introduce line extensions as a low cost. Likability: Brand elements can be chosen that are rich in visual and verbal imagery and inherently fun and interesting. Because of changes in consumer values and opinions or simply because of a need to remain contemporary. the intrinsic nature of certain names. visual properties and so on may make them more attention getting and easy to remember and therefore contribute to brand equity. such as new flavors.i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Memorability: Brand elements can be chosen that are inherently memorable and therefore facilitate recall or recognition in purchase or consumption settings. it is important to a) choose brand elements that can be legally protected on an international basis b) formally register them with the appropriate legal bodies and c) vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement. Logos and characters can be given a new look or a new design to make them appear more modern and relevant. . Protectability: the sixth and final general consideration concerns the extent to which the brand element is protectable-both in a legal and competitive sense. Meaningfulness: Brand name must have a meaning. For example. Brand elements can also be chosen whose inherent meaning enhances the formation of brand associations.

In preparing a brand strategy. Honda created the Lexus brand to differentiate its Luxury car from the established Honda line. motorcycles. Barbie cosmetics and Barbie electronics to Barbie books. Multibranding offers a way to establish different features and appeal to different buying movies. a firm needs to determine its branding philosophy. Technics. Multibrands: Companies often introduce additional brands in the same category. Panasonic. 4. Barbie sporting goods and even a Barbie band-Beyond Pink Honda uses its company name to cover different products such as its automobiles. Seiko uses different brand names for its higher-priced watches ( Seiko Lasalle) and lower priced watches ( Pulsar) to protect the flanks of its mainstream Seiko brand. Manufacturer brands use the names of their makers. snow-blowers. Thus P&G markets many different brands in each of its product categories. Brand Sponsorship: A manufacturer has sponsorship options. For example. lawn mowers. 3. National and Quasar etc. Such as. 2. Mattel has extended its enduring Barbie Doll brand into new categories ranging from Barbie home furnishings. Brand extensions: A brand extension involves the use of a successful brand name to launch new or modified products in a new category. Japan’s Matsushita uses separate names for its different families of products. New Brands: A company may create a new brand name when it enters a new product category for which none of the company’s current brand names is appropriate. marine engines and snowmobiles. It also allows a company to lock up more reseller shelf space. Such brands identify who makes the products and provide .Another risk is that sales of an extension may come at the expense of other items in the line. This outlines the use of i) Manufacturer’s brand ii) Private brand iii) Generic brand iv) Family brand v) Individual brand Manufacturer’s brand: The product may be launched as a manufacturer’s brand as when kellogg and IBM sell their output under their own manufacturer’s brand names.

Fran for example employs family branding for all of its products and services. a company uses of its own brand names in conjunction with another firm’s often. These products have no brand name at all. Licensing: Some companies license names or symbols previously created by other manufacturers names of well-known celebrities or characters from popular movies and books. attract various market segments. any of these can provide an instant and proven brand name. Licensees sold more than $ 1 billion worth of licensed Coca-Cola products. Individual branding: Individual branding requires creating a different brand for every product. Lee Jeans or Chevrolet trucks etc. Craftsman tools. consumers must search out these brands. ranging from baby clothes and boxer shorts to earnings. a firm uses the same brand for most or all of its products. Typically. For example. Also. For a fee. Sears sells under its Kenmore brand. the fastest-growing licensing category is corporate brand licensing as more and more for profit and not for profit organizations are licensing their names to generate additional revenues and brand recognition. individual branding enables a firm to create multiple product positions. cereals. no-frill packages that identify only the contents. For example. crackers. Ford and Eddie Bauer co- . Generics are seldom advertised and receive poor shelf locations. In family branding. one name is used for two or more individual products. Private brand: A private brand is owned by a wholesaler or retailer. and paper goods are available as generics. Family branding is best for specialized firms or ones with narrow product lines. Coca-Cola for has some 320 licensees in 57 countries producing more than 10. Many grocery items such as canned vegetables. Co-branding: In co-branding. For example. Dreft. Co-branding occurs when two established brand names of different companies are used on the same product. problems with one product seldom influence the success of other products in the line. uniform and widely available product such as Butternut bread. These are usually sold in simple.the consumer with a nationally known. Era. Generic brand: Generic brands emphasize the names of the products themselves and not manufacturer or reseller at all.000 products. Ivory and Gain etc. Sears has created several names-Diehard batteries. Tide. in Procter and Gamble’s wide and deep north American product mix are eight brands of laundry detergent: Bold. wellknown image and promote a name regularly keeping promotion costs down. Many companies adopt this strategy to develop a product mix with a recognized brand name. Weatherbeater paints. Kenmore appliances. increase sales and marketing control and offer both premium and low priced brands. with individual branding. two or more brand names are used with the same product to gain from the brand images of each. via a licensing agreement. Cheer. Family brands: With family branding. Last year. Whirlpool makes the refrigerators. Companies capitalize on a uniform. a coca cola Barbie doll and even a fishing lure shaped like a tiny Coke can. It establishes separate identities for different products and thus helps target products to different market segments.

iii) Laddering up to find the brand essence: Brand essence relates to the deeper. the combined brands create broader consumer appeal and greater brand equity. For example. “ they look well built ( attribute). ii) Personifying the brand: people can be asked to describe what kind of person or animal they think of when the brand mentioned. There are three commonly used research approaches to get at brand meaning: i) Word association: people can be asked what words come to mind when they hear brand’s name. “ I can help them if they are in trouble” (brand essence) These why questions constitute a technique known as laddering up. They may mention some negative words such as high calories and fatty food. such as are i) Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values . friendly service. fun and children. Ultimately. They help the marketer get a deeper understanding of the person’s motivations. in the case of McDonal’s. a brand resides in the minds of consumers. more abstract goals consumers are trying to satisfy with brand.the Ford Explorer. Ask why someone wants to buy a Nokia cellular phone. McDonal’s would try to emphasize the positive and unique words and try to reduce the causes giving rise to the negative words. This process involve four main steps. fast food. Companies need to research the position their brand occupy in consumers’ minds. they may say that John Deere brand makes them think of a rugged Midwestern male who is hardworking and trusting. Co-branding allows a company to expand its existing brand into a category it might otherwise have difficulty entering alone.branded a sport utility vehicle. Strategic Brand Management: Strategic brand management involves the design and implementation of marketing programs and activities to build measure and manage brand equity. Here we briefly will explain the strategic brand management process. they probably would mention hamburgers. The brand person delivers a picture of the more human qualities of the brand. Because each brand dominates in a different category. Co-branding offers many advantages. Why is it important that the phone be well-built? “ it suggests that Nokia is reliable” why is reliability important?” Because collegues or family can be sure to reach me” why must you be available to them at all times.

Strong. To provide further focus as to what a brand represents. it is often useful to define a brand mantra also known as a brand essence or core brand promise. A brand mantra is a short three to five word expression of the most important aspects of a brand and its core brand values. Positioning often involves a specification of the appropriate core brand values and brand mantra. Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values: the strategic brand management starts with a clear understanding as to what the brand is to represent and how it should be positioned with respect to competitors. Core brand values and a brand mantra are thus an articulation of the heart and soul of the brand. favorable and unique brand associations can be created in a variety of different ways by marketing programs. The goal is to locate the brand in the minds of consumers such that the potential benefit to the firm is maximized.ii) Planning and implementing brand marketing programs iii) Measuring and interpreting brand performance iv) Growing and sustaining brand equity. The primary input comes from the marketing activities related to the brand. Planning and implementing Brand marketing programs: Once the brand positioning strategy has been determined. symbols. Core brand values are those set of abstract associations (attributes and benefits) that characterize a brand. In general. logos. Building brand equity requires creating a brand that consumers are sufficiently aware of and with which they have strong. i) Choosing brand elements: a brand element is visual or verbal information that serves to identify and differentiate a product. favorable and unique brand associations. characters. ii) Integrating the brand into marketing activities and the supporting marketing program: although the judicious choice of brand elements can make some contribution to building brand equity. packaging and slogans. Determining or evaluating a brand’s positioning often benefits from a brand audit. the actual marketing program to create. . Brand elements can be chosen to enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong. Competitive brand positioning is all about creating brand superiority in the minds of consumers. strengthen or maintain brand association can be put into place. this knowledge building process will depend on three factors. Brand positioning is defined as the act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer’s mind. The most common brand elements are brand names. favorable and unique brand associations.

by changing brand knowledge. The brand-product matrix is a graphical representation of all the brands and products sold by the firm.iii) Leveraging secondary associations: the third and final way to build brand equity is to leverage secondary associations. Profitable brand management requires successful designing and implementing a brand equity measurement system. creating secondary brand associations. Measuring and Interpreting Brand performance: To understand the effects of brand marketing programs. Managing brand equity over time: Effective brand management requires taking a long-term view of marketing decisions. Additionally. The brand value chain is a means to trace the value creation process for brands to better understand the financial impact of brand marketing expenditures and investments. A useful tool in that regard is the brand value chain. the marketer is borrowing or leveraging some other associations for the brand to create some associations of the brand’s own and thus help build its brand equity. accurate and actionable information for marketers so that they can make the best possible tactical decisions in the short run and the best strategic decisions in the long run. Growing and Sustaining Brand Equity: Maintaining and expanding on that brand equity can be quite challenging. short-term marketing mix actions. Brand equity management concerns those activities that take a broader and more diverse perspective of the brand’s equity-understanding how branding strategies should reflect corporate concerns and be adjusted. necessarily increase or decrease the success of future marketing actions. A long-term perspective of brand management recognizes that any changes in the supporting marketing program for a brand may. In essence. it is important to measure and interpret brand performance. A brand equity measurement system is a set of research procedures designed to provide timely. a long-term view results in proactive strategies . a brand association may be created by linking the brand to another node or information in memory that conveys meaning to consumers. Brand association may themselves be linked to other entities that have their own associations. affect the success of future marketing programs. Because consumers’ responses to marketing activity depend on what they know and remember about a brand. if at all. The brand value chain helps to direct marketing research efforts. The brand hierarchy reveals an explicit ordering of brands by displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand components across the firm’s products. In other words. by changing consumer knowledge. Defining the branding strategy: The branding strategy of the firm provides the general guidelines as to which brand elements a firm chooses to apply across the products it offers. Implementing such a system involves two key steps: conducting tracking studies and implementing a brand equity management system. over time or over geographic boundaries or market segments. Two main tools in defining the corporate branding strategy are the brand-product matrix and the brand hierarchy.

i) Organization i) Micro iii) Person iv) Concentrated v) Undifferentiated 5) One measure of _____________ is the extent to which customers are willing to pay more for a brand. It is critical that equity is built by careful positioning and design and implementation of marketing programs that reflect the specific knowledge and behaviors of those market segments. the use of co-branding has decreased dramatically in recent years. i) True ii) False 4) The skillful use of ____________ marketing can turn a person’s name into a powerhouse brand.designed to maintain and enhance customer based brand equity over time in the face of external changes in the marketing environment and internal changes in a firm’s marketing goals and programs. term. [Broad questions] a) Define brand. culture and market segment: an important consideration in managing brand equity in recognizing and accounting for different types of consumers in developing branding and marketing programs. i) Brand equity ii) Brand differentiation iii) Brand worth iv) Brand perceptions v) Brand value . i) Trademark ii) Brand iii) Symbol iv) Service mark 2) A private brand is a brand created and owned by product manufacturers. c) Briefly explain the brand strategy decisions with example. sign. What is meant by brand equity? b) Briefly explain the criteria for choosing the brand elements. symbol. Managing Brand Equity over geographic boundaries. or design. i) True ii) False 3) Due to the increased popularity of many brands. International issues and global branding strategies are particularly important in these decisions. [Multiple choice questions] 1) A ____________ is defined as a name. or a combination of these. that identifies the maker or seller of a product or service.

consumer product sales. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 7) Hersey’s and Cadbuy’s two candy companies have built-theme parks in their factories and they invite visitors to spend a day. Cisco system.S. i)True ii) False 7) Private labels yield lower profit margins for retailers than do manufacturer brands. adequate air intakes and exhausts are included into the i) Core benefit ii) Generic product iii) Expected product iv) Augmented product level 5) The product results in embarrassment from others.6) Private brands account for approximately 60% of all U. American Express have built strong corporate brands. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 2) McDonald’s Ronald McDonald. i) True ii) False 8) A brand extension gives a new product instant recognition and faster acceptance. This type of risk is i) Functional risk ii) Physical risk iii) Social risk iv) Psychological risk 6) Companies such as Sony. This tool is known as i) Trade shows ii) Public facilities . Here Ronald McDonald is a i) Brand name ii) A brand mark iii) Trademark iv) A trade Character 3) British Airways. i) True ii) False 9) A brand mark can not be spoken. an acceptable energy efficiency rating. Chrysler’s New Yorker. Here brand is based on i) Company name ii) Places iii) Things or objects iv) Animals or birds 4) Sufficient cooling capacity.

letter (group of words). Aspirin. Thermos and Shredded wheat-are now generic names that any seller can use these names for their product. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 14) Samsonite luggage and President Luggage are brand name that comes from i) Invented name iii) Personal name ii) Mythological character iv) Foreign word 15) Many originally protected brand names such as Cellophone.iii) Factory visit iv) Club and consumer communities 8) HBO television channel is the brand name which is the source of i) Initials ii) Invented name iii) Mythological character iv) Foreign word 9) The brand name should be distinctive. is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 10) A brand registered with the patent and trademark office is called a trademark. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 16) Optional features of Video Cassette Recorder might include hi-fi stereo sound. number that can be spoken is called i) A brand mark ii) A brand name iii) Trade character iv) Trademark 12) When the product does not perform up to expectations. Escalator. Linoleum. Yo-Yo. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 11) A word. VCR Plus and shuttle controls for easy backward and forward scanning that included into the . Kerosene. then it is called i) Functional risk ii) Physical risk iii) Financial risk iv) Social risk 13) Brand equity provides marketers with a vital strategic bridge from their past to their future. Trampoline.

use or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. special recognition and treatment programs are the subdrivers of i) Value equity ii) Brand equity iii) Relationship equity iv) None of the above 19) A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention. This definition is given by i) Philip kotler ii) Michael Porter iii) Lavine keller iv) None of the above 20) ---------------. acquisition.level includes all of the augmentation and transformations that a product might ultimately undergo in future.--------. Is the statement true or false? i) True ii) False 18) Loyalty programs. i) The core benefits ii) The generic product iii) The expected product iv) The potential product .i) Core benefit iii) Expected level ii) Generic level iv) Augmented level 17) The subdrivers of value equity are quality. price and convenience.