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Sofia Ali
Douglas
ENGL 2116
19 November 2016

Proposal for Research: Artificial Neural Network versus Traditional Rule-Based Approach on
Development and Maintenance of 3D Printed Organs
When any product is being made, it is important to test for any defects with the product.
This is true whether there be design flaws, accidental manufacturing mistakes, or safety
concerns. Numerous regulations on design and safety measures are in place, but a fault detection
system is still needed for any manufacturing mistakes, which are bound to happen considering
the quantity being made for this capitalist economy. If demand for manufactured goods continue
to increase like they have for the past decade, more of these manufacturing plants will turn to 3D
printing (Fernando). 3D printing is less likely to have errors than traditional manufacturing based
on the idea that each step is being carefully laid out and applied until the final product has been
completed successfully. While the previous statement is still true, no system is perfect. There is
still a need for error detection. Catching these mistakes as soon as they happen and being able to
diagnose the issue is key. 3D printing has already started to appear in areas of basic
manufacturing and will only continue to expand as time goes on. This expansion will soon
include the printing of human organs. There are currently over 100,000 people on the waiting
list, and this number will only increase as longevity increases. Development of this technology
will most likely be applied to the concept of making an appropriate inverted mold of the organ
and growing STEM cells around the mold until the organ is fully functional. Products being

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made today by 3D printers are made of some various of rubber/plastic. Considering the nature of
3D printing, we must also consider that the process may build the organs with human tissue in
the future. As with any product, these 3D organs will need a system to detect any
flaws/malfunctions. Fault Detection and Identification has long been the defining factor in
quality control among so many of our commercial products (Jiang).
As 3D printing expands its horizons from not just plastic guns and cellphone cases, but to
items as delicate and essential as organ printing, a more intricate defect detecting system is
necessary(Jiang). Detecting problems in organs being made will save the company millions in
lawsuits in the long run, as well as keeping customers alive and well. While prototypes of organs
made with real human cells are already underway, larger quantities of organs will not be
produced until current prototypes are perfected. 3D organ development will be available in the
near future, and since these are manufactured items that will be keeping the patient alive, it
should be dealt with the same standards as pacemakers and similar medical equipment.
Currently there arent any manufacturing guidelines for organs, but considering their
function some sort of quality checks and error detection should come standard. For common
commercial products, most products undergo manufacturing with rule-based error prevention.
Rule-based errors check for specific attributes and determine whether the product passes these
requirements or not. Rule based error management cannot detect errors it was not programmed
for. An example of rule based analysis is given in Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1

Considering the complexity of organs, even on the microscopic level, errors that were not
originally intended or thought about could very well appear and go undetected, causing problems
for the patient. New methods of error detection are necessary for the advancement of 3D organs.
This error detection need can be meet simply be applying current artificial neural network
systems. As an application to organ printing, these systems would have a mental map of an
organ that has printed correctly, and continue to add detail to the specifics that constitute a
healthy organ copy.
Artificial neural networks work in a different way. These processes
mimic the human brain by having the ability to learn (Aram). After given a
standard set of instructions of what is correct and what is not correct, the
network continues to gather more specific information about the
characteristics. In the context of organ printing, this would mean making

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sure veins and arteries were in the correct locations and went through the
entire organ. It may also analyze the thickness of the tissue that surrounds
each area of the organ and based on its findings determine whether the
current thickness is appropriate. While there is some differentiation on
certain measurements within anything being manufactured, an artificial
neural network could help minimize the current range(Buche). Neural
networks consider significantly more variables than a standard rule based
operation when analyzing for errors, and the characteristics that the system
is looking for do not necessarily have to be defined. For example, if a
network is programmed that a vein thickness of over .3 in is considered an
error, the system will display that there is an error just like the rule based
application would. However, the neural network may notice the pattern that
organs that have over a .3 thickness also tend to have shallow cavities. This
may then be taken as a correlation and find errors in production that not
even the original programmer was aware of. While this was purely a made
up example, the learning curve for artificial neural networks on basic
manufactured goods has been studied and found that it after analyzing
between 60-100 products, the neural network had a statistically significant
error detection rate in comparison to the existing rule based
system(Fernando). Neural networks are even being used to predict stock
trends and rates currently, particularly for coming up with companies that
make up mutual funds (Milai ).. This is done by developing patterns and
establishing these patterns known as algorithms (Milai ).. As more

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information is gathered and analyzed, the algorithms become more complex


and generally more accurate (Milai ).Refer to the Figure 2 for a visual
representation of an artificial neural network.

Figure 2

As technology advances in 3D printing, our need to detect functionality flaws in organs


will increase, meaning the most precise way to detect these mistakes is key. Just like a childs toy
can be manufactured with the same manufacturing process as all the other similar toys, it can still
end up being a defective toy if the errors are not found and corrected. Considering the recalls
and safety concerns that occur to toys, appliances, and medications, the most effective and
efficient system should be used to detect these errors. Artificial neural networks would provide

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this service for companies while also learning the most correct way to build as well as correct the
mistakes at hand. This research will be invaluable to any company that wishes to begin 3D
printing organs and molds because these findings will help promote the health and wellbeing of
the patient as well as avoiding as many unnecessary lawsuits as possible.

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Works Cited
Aram, Zainab. Using Chaotic Artificial Neural Networks to Model Memory in the Brain.
Buche, C. Simulation within Simulation for Agent Decision-Making: Theoretical Foundations
from Cognitive Science to Operational Computer Model. Authors:
Fernando, Heshan. An Unsupervised Artificial Neural Network versus a Rule-Based Approach
for Fault Detection and Identification in an Automated Assembly Machine.
Jiang, Xiaomo. Fuzzy Stochastic Neural Network Model for Structural System Identification.
Milai, Ljubia. Application of Artificial Neural Network with Extreme Learning Machine for
Economic Growth Estimation.
Move Product With a Fork Life. Digital image. Big Dog and Little Dog's Performance
Juxtaposition. Knowlege Jump, 22 Sept. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
Diagram of an Artificial Neural Network. Digital image. Tex. StackExchange, 13 Sept. 2013.
Web. 18 Nov. 2016.