You are on page 1of 14

TIME DEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CABLE

STAYED BRIDGES
Hassan I. Hegab(1), Osama M. Tawfik(2), Mohammed T. Nemir(3),
and Hesham E. Nour Eldeen(4)

ABSTRACT
A finite element formulation expressing both the geometric nonlinearity and time dependent
factors of cable stayed bridges is implemented. The formulation is used to design special software
NTDA which can perform a full geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis of prestressed
concrete cable stayed bridges. The considered time dependent factors are creep, shrinkage, aging
of concrete, and relaxation of prestressing steel. While the time independent ones are large
displacement, P-delta effect and sag of the stays. A numerical application is presented to
highlight the effect of time dependent factors.
Keywords: Cable Stayed Bridges, Creep , Geometric Nonlinear Analysis , Prestressed Concrete
, Shrinkage , Steel Relaxation ,Time Dependent Analysis .
1.

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this research is to present a full static geometric time dependent nonlinear
analysis of prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. The time-dependent effects considered are
creep, shrinkage, and aging of concrete. Time-independent effects considered are large
displacements, P-delta effect in girders and pylons, and sag effect in cable stays. Moreover, both
time dependent and independent losses in the prestressing forces are included.
The main difference between this research and previous studies is that, whereas most of the
earlier works were devoted to geometric nonlinearity, time-dependent analysis, separately, the
present research accounts for their combination (9,13,17). Furthermore, it takes their interacting
relation into consideration.
A complete finite element formulation is implemented taking into account both of the geometric
nonlinearity and time dependent factors. Based on the formulated algorithm, computer software
NTDA is designed. NTDA can perform a complete geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis
of prestressed concrete cable stayed bridges along consequent observation times.
2.

VALIDITY OF SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE

The principle of superposition is considered valid if the following conditions are maintained (3,4,8):
i.
the stresses are less than 45% of the concrete strength.
ii.
appreciable reductions in strain magnitude due to unloading do not occur.
1

Professor of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University.

Professor of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University.

Associate Professor of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University.

Bridge Engineer, Dar Al-Handasah Consultants, Saudi Arabia, hesham.nour@dargroup.com.

iii. there is no significant change in moisture content distribution during creep.


iv. there is no large, sudden, stress increase long after the initial loading.
Pursuant to the above mentioned conditions and since cable-stayed bridges are generally
designed to remain linear elastic, the principle of superposition will be applied in this
investigation.
The total strain can be found by the superposition of elastic, creep, shrinkage, and thermal strains,
if any. This can be expressed as follows:
[1]
( t ) = E ( t ) + C ( t ) + S ( t ) + T ( t )
where,
( t ) is the total strain,
E ( t ) is the instantaneous elastic strain,
C ( t ) is the creep strain,

S ( t ) is the shrinkage strain,


T ( t ) is the thermal strain,
3.

GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS

The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is believed to be nonlinear, even time effects are
ignored. This is due to three main reasons of geometric nonlinearity, namely; large displacements
and P-delta effect of the deck and pylons, besides sag of the stay cables.
Both of large displacements and P-delta effect of the deck and pylons can be accounted for
through establishing a geometric stiffness matrix together with using an iterative procedure to
solve the nonlinear equations arising through the finite element analysis.
To account for the sag of the stays, the cable stay is idealised to a straight linear elastic element
using an equivalent modulus of elasticity. This concept was firstly introduced by Ernst and has
been verified by several other investigators (7,8,11,12,16). The equivalent modulus of elasticity E eq
is given by:

E eq =

where,

and
4.

(wc Lh ) (Ti + T f ) AE
1+

24Ti 2T f2

E is the modulus of elasticity of the cable material,


wc is the own weight of the cable,
Lh is the horizontal projection of the cable,
A is the cross-sectional area of the cable,
Ti is the initial tensile force in the cable during the load increment,
T f is the final tensile force in the cable during the load increment.
2

[2]

TIME DEPENDENT ANALYSIS

In addition to the geometric nonlinear effects, several time-dependent nonlinear effects influence
the behaviour of prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. The time-dependent nonlinear effects
considered in this investigation are creep, shrinkage, aging of concrete, losses in the post
tensioning prestressing forces, and relaxation of prestressing steel.

4.1
Creep Strain Model
For constant uniaxial stress, , the strain may be written as:

(t j ) = .J (t j , t o ) + o (t j )
where,

[3]

(t j ) is the total uniaxial strain,


is a constant uniaxial stress,
J (t j , t o ) is the compliance (creep) function which represents the strain at
time t j due to a unit constant stress which has been acting since time t o .

And

o (t j ) is the stress produced strain.

ACI-209 (1) recommends the following expression to calculate the creep coefficient, (t j , t o ) :

(t j , t o ) =

(t j t o ) 0.6
10 + (t j t o ) 0.6

(t o )

[4]

where,

(t j t o ) is time since application of load,

And

(t o ) is the ultimate creep coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of the

assumed creep strain at infinite time to the initial strain at loading.


This ultimate creep coefficient, (t o ) , is a function of the environmental humidity, loading age,
minimum thickness of structural member, slump, cement content, percent of fine aggregate, and
air content(11015).
The creep function is given by:
1
[5]
J (t j , t o ) =
1 + (t j , t o )
E c (t o )
where, E c (t o ) is the modulus of elasticity at the age of application of load to.
Since stresses and strains are continually changing during the bridge lifetime, the expression
presented by Eq. 3 for creep must be adapted to situations of varying stresses. Using the principle
of superposition, the strain due to any stress history (t ) may be obtained by regarding the
history as the sum of increments d ( t o ) applied at increments of time, t o . Accordingly, Eq. 4
may then be rewritten as:

tj

( t ) = J ( t j ,t o ).d ( t o ) + o ( t j )

[6]

The numerical implementation of the integral ing Eq. 4 can be accomplished by using step-bystep time integration (18) as follows:
i
d ( i )
d ( j )
( i + 1 ) =
[ 1 + J ( t i +1 ,t i )] +
[ J ( t i +1 ,t j ) J ( t i ,t j )]
E( i )
E( j )
j =1

where,

( i + 1 ) is the total strain increment for time interval,


i + 1 is the end of the current time interval,
i is the end of the previous time interval,

[7]

and
j represents time intervals prior to i.
The first term on the right side of Eq. 7 accounts for the summation of the instantaneous and
creep strain in the time interval i to (i+1). The summation term accounts for the creep increment
of strain over the time interval i to (i+1) due to all previous increments of stress. To avoid the
necessity of retrieving the entire stress history for each new time interval, Eq. 5 can be converted
to a rate-type creep law. This can be done by approximating the kernel ( J (t j , t i )) by the socalled degenerate kernel which takes the following form (3,4,5,7,8,17):
m

J (t j , t o ) = ai (t o ) 1 e
i =1

where,

( t j t o ) i

[8]

t j is the time in days when the creep strain is desired,


t o is the time of loading,
i are retardation times which govern the shape of the creep curve,

And

ai ( t o ) are the creep compliance coefficients.


The following procedure (13) is then used to get a best-fit approximation of the data with the
degenerate kernel:
1. Choose the number, m, of coefficients, ai ( t ) , and retardation times, i (i=1,m), on a trial
basis.
2. Choose a particular loading age, t o .
3.
4.

Choose various observation times, t j (j = 1, 2, ..., n).


Calculate values of the creep function, J ( t j ,t o ) , using Eq. 5 while j = 1, 2, .., n.

5. Set up the following system of equations:


1 e ( t1 to ) / 1 1 e ( t1 to ) / 2 K K 1 e ( t1 to ) / m a1( t o ) J ( t1 ,t o )

( t t ) /
( t t ) /
( t t ) /
1 e 2 o 1 1 e 2 o 2 K K 1 e 2 o m a2 ( t o ) J ( t 2 ,t o )

M =
[9.a]
M
M
M
M

M
M
M
M

( tn to ) / 1
( tn to ) / 2
( tn to ) / m a ( t ) J ( t ,t )
1 e
K K 1 e
1 e
m o n o
or symbolically;
[9.b]
[A]n,m {a}m,1 = {b}n,1
6.

Solve the above system of over-determinate equations using the method of least squares as
follows:
[A]Tm,n [A]n,m {a}m,1 = [A]Tm,n {b}n,1
[10]

Solving for {a} gives,

{a}m,1 = [[A]Tm,n [A]n,m ]

7.
8.

[A]m ,n {b}n ,1
T

[11]

Choose different values for m and i and repeat steps 1 through 6.


Optimum values for m and i are based on the following criteria:

ai ( t ) , which is the ultimate creep strain, closely matches the ultimate creep strain.

( t t ) / i
The contributions of all ai ( t )1 e j o
terms are approximately equal.

The following coefficients, used by Van Zyl (18,20), Shushkewich (17), and Cluley (7,8) have been
found to have the best correlation with the ACI-209 (1) data and, henceforth, will be applied in
this investigation:
m=3
1 / 1 = 0.1
1 / 2 = 0.01
1 / 3 = 0.001

4.2
Shrinkage Strain Model
The shrinkage strain model, proposed by ACI-209(1) is a direct relation. This model is
mathematically easy to apply using a step-by-step numerical technique. ACI-209(1) recommends
the following expressions to calculate shrinkage strain at time t, from the start of drying time to:
(t t o )
sh (t , t o ) =
sh
(for moist curing)
35 + (t t o )
[12]
(t t o )
sh (t , t o ) =
sh
(for steam curing)
55 + (t t o )
where,
sh is the ultimate shrinkage.
The ultimate shrinkage depends on the age of the concrete member, relative humidity, member
thickness, and the composition of concrete. The procedure of calculating of the ultimate
shrinkage is detailed in ACI-209(1).

4.3
Aging of Concrete Model
Aging of concrete is intricately associated with creep and shrinkage. The most important effect of
aging is the changing stiffness of concrete over time. In general, this modification of stiffness is
represented by a modulus of elasticity, which is a function of time. ACI-209(1) recommends the
following two equations to expressed the increase the compressive strength and accordingly the
modulus of elasticity with regard to time.
E c (t o ) = 42.8 10 6 3 f cu 28

[13]

where, E c (t o ) is the modulus of elasticity at the age of application of load to,


fcu 28 is the 28-days compressive strength of the concrete.
to
[14]
and f cu (t o ) =
f cu 28
A + Bt o
where, f cu (t o ) is the compressive strength of the concrete at the age of application of load to.
Ec is in GPa ,
fcu(to) , fcu 28 are in MPa,
is the density of concrete in (Kg/m3),
and
A and B depend on the type of cement and curing conditions as shown in table 1.

Table 1: Values of the constants A and B for use in the ACI-209


Constants of Eq. 14
Type of cement
Curing condition
A
B
4.00
0.85
Moist
I
1.00
0.95
Steam

III

2.30
0.70

Moist
Steam

0.92
0.98

4.4
Losses in the Prestressing Forces
Losses of prestressing force depend on the properties of the materials used in the bridge, the
environment, and the stress levels at various loading stages. Accurate estimates of the
prestressing losses require recognition that losses resulting from different sources are
interdependent. Actual losses, greater or smaller than the computed values, have a little effect on
the design strength of the member. However, they affect the service load behaviour, i.e.
deflections, camber, and cracking load. At service loads, overestimation of prestressing losses
can be almost as underestimation, since the former can result in excessive camber and horizontal
movement.
In this investigation, the equations recommended by the AASHTO(2) are directly applied. The
considered prestressing forces losses are those resulting from friction, anchorage slip, and
relaxation of the tendons together with elastic shortening, creep, and shrinkage of the concrete
member.
4.5
Steel Relaxation Model
The phenomenon of the relaxation of the stay cables and prestressing steel is quite similar to the
creep of concrete. Stress relaxation of stay cables and prestressing steel is the loss in their stress
when they are prestressed and maintained at a constant strain for a period of time.
The effect of relaxation on stays and prestressing steel is commonly evaluated by a relaxation
test. The relaxation under constant strain as in a constant length test is referred to as intrinsic
relaxation, f pr . The intrinsic relaxation at any time for low relaxation strands is expressed by(3,9)
f pr

f po

where:

log (r t o ) f po
0.55
f

45
py

[15]

f py is the yield stress,


f po is the stress at time to ,

(r to ) is the period in hours for which the tendon is stretched.


f po
In case of
< 0.55 , which is the case of stay cables, the relaxation effect is negligible.
f py
And

5.

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION

5.1

Modelling of Deck and Pylons

The deck and pylons of the bridge are idealised to three-dimensional beam-column elements. The
beam-column element used is a two-nodes element with seven degrees of freedom at each node,
three displacements, three rotations, and the warping of the cross section (11,12,14,16).
To account for the P-delta effect, the elastic stiffness matrix [K E ] is modified by a geometric
stiffness matrix [K G ] to get the tangent stiffness matrix [K T ] ,

[KT ] = [K E ] + [K G ]

[16]

Moreover, the analysis is carried out in an iterative procedure to account for the large
displacements developed in cable-stayed bridges due to their inherent slenderness (11,12, 16).
The applied elastic stiffness matrix takes into account the linear torsional-flexural interaction,
while the geometric stiffness matrix takes into account the nonlinear torsional-flexural interaction
together with the P-delta effect. These two matrices are originally derived by M. Nemir(14) for
open sections and developed by H. Nour Eldeen to adopt the behaviour of box sections(16). The
same matrices are used by H. Hegab et al.(1112)
5.2
Implementation for Creep Strain
The numerical implementation of creep strain in beams is accomplished with the application of
the following general equations during each time step (3,4,7,8),

( t r t r 1 ) = i ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

i ( t r
i ( t o
where,

and

i =1

) = i ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i

[17.a]

+ ai ( t r 1 )( t r 1 )

[17.b]

[17.c]
)=0
t r is the time in days at the end of the current time interval,
t r 1 is the time in days at the end of the previous time interval,
(t r t r 1 ) is the creep strain increment over the current time interval,
i (t r 1 ) is the hidden material value which stores the past stress history,
i is the retardation time which serves to adjust the creep curve so as to fit
the ACI committee 209 (1) data or the experimental values if available,
ai (t r 1 ) is the pseudo-elastic modulus which is analogous to Youngs
modulus,
(t r 1 ) is a step function change in stress at time t r 1 .

5.2.1. Axial Load due to Creep


The specialization of Eqs 17.a through 17.c for the axial loads of a beam-column element takes
the following form(3,4,7,8):
m

N ( t r t r 1 ) = iN ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i
i =1

where,

And

[18.a]

N ( t r 1 )

iN ( t r ) = iN ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i + ai ( t r 1 )
Ac

[18.b]

iN ( t o ) = 0

[18.c]

N
N

is the axial strain due to creep,


is the increment in axial load at the beginning of the current time
interval,
is the beam cross sectional area.

Ac
Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain in Eq. 18.a are found as follows:

N ( t r ) = N ( t r t r 1 ) Ac Ec ( t r 1 )
where,
And

N
Ec

[19]

is the equivalent axial joint force,


is the effective concrete modulus of elasticity at the beginning
of the current time interval.

5.2.2. Bending Moments due to Creep


The specialization of Eqs 17.a through 17.c for the bending moment loads of a beam-column
element takes the following form(3,4,7,8):
m

M ( t r t r 1 ) = iM ( t r 1 ) 1 e ( t r t r 1 ) / i
i =1

where,

[20.a]

M ( t r 1 )

iM ( t r ) = iM ( t r 1 )e ( t r t r 1 ) / i + ai ( t r 1 )
Ic

[20.b]

iM ( t o ) = 0

[20.c]

M
M

is the beam curvature due to creep in radians due to creep,


is the increment of moment at the beginning of the current time
interval,
And
is
the moment of inertia of the beam.
Ic
Equivalent joint loads due to the axial creep strain in Eq. 20.a are found as follows:
M ( t r ) = M ( t r t r 1 )I c Ec ( t r 1 )

where,

[21]

is the equivalent beam joint moment.

5.3
Implementation for Shrinkage Strain
Effect of shrinkage is performed by using equivalent nodal forces, which requires an incremental
time analysis. Accordingly, the following rectification of Eq. 12 is essential:
For concrete which has been moist cured for 7 days:
t
t r 1
( sh )u
[22.a]
sh ( t r ) = r
35 + t r 35 + t r 1

For concrete which has been steam cured for 1 to 3 days:


t
t r 1
( sh )u
sh ( t r ) = r
55 + t r 55 + t r 1
The resulting equivalent axial joint loads are:
FxA = EAc ( sh ( t r ))
FxB = EAc ( sh ( t r ))
Equivalent joint loads at all remaining degrees of freedom are equal to zero.
5.4

Implementation for Prestressing Force

[22.b]
[23.a]
[23.b]

The authenticity and relevance of the analysis of a prestressed concrete member rests, first and
foremost, on the appropriate modelling of the tendon. Several different modelling schemes are
used to represent prestressing tendons.
In this investigation, prestressing tendons are modelled using a discrete modelling scheme(6). In
this scheme the tendon is modelled with a truss element connected to the beam-column element
through rigid links as shown in Fig. 1.

tendon element
rigid link
i

ei

ej

rigid link
j

beam-column elemnent
Fig. 1: Tendon idealization

In this modelling scheme, there is an implicit interaction between the deformation of the hosting
concrete segment and the force in the tendon, irrespective of the cause of deformation. As a
result, this scheme, directly, accounts for the losses due to creep and shrinkage.

5.5
Implementation for Aging of Concrete
Aging is accounted for by modifying the modulus of elasticity of the concrete as a function of
time. ACI-209(1) proposed the interpolation functions for the modulus of elasticity as explained
by Eqs. 13 and 14.
5.6
Stay Cable Modelling
Based on the concept of equivalent modulus of elasticity, stays are idealised to cable elements.
Consequently, the stiffness matrix in local coordinates for the cable element is given by(11,12,16):
AE eq 1 1
[24]
K=
L 1 1
where, Eeq is the equivalent modulus of elasticity defined by Eq. 2.

6.

COMPUTER PROGRAM

Based on the derived mathematical modelling of the time-dependent and independent factors, a
computer program NTDA is designed and programmed in FORTRAN Power station
environment. NTDA is an innovative designed software which can perform full time dependent
geometric nonlinear analysis together with stage analysis, however stage analysis is out of the
scope of this investigation. The combination of all these factors is the most important advantage
which gives NTDA the superiority over most of the available commercial software that can
perform time-dependent analysis.

7.

NUMERICAL APPLICATION

For the sake of numerical studies, a quite long span cable stayed bridge is chosen. The general
arrangement of the bridge is shown on Fig. 2. The bridge is analysed applying the finite element
formulation presented hereinbefore and using the designed computer program NTDA to perform
the analyses.

Dim. In Meters

Fig 2: General arrangement of the bridge and cross section of the deck
7.1.
Geometric Nonlinear Time-Independent Analysis
In this case of analysis, all the time dependent factors are suppressed and only the geometric
nonlinear factors are activated. The bridge is analysed under the effect of the permanent applied
load (henceforth it will be abbreviated as PAL). This PAL consists of the combination of dead
load (DL), superimposed dead load (SDL), and the prestressing forces induced in the stays.
7.2.
Geometric Nonlinear Time-Dependent Analysis
In this case of analysis, all the geometric nonlinear factors together with the time dependent
factors are activated and exercised. The bridge is checked at several intermediate observation
times. The last observation time is set after twenty years of construction.
7.3.
Comparisons Between The Two Different Analyses
To have a complete clear understanding of the effect of the time dependent factors, the following
categorised numerical comparisons are organised. The comparisons are performed between the
two cases of analyses as mentioned hereinbefore, namely; geometric nonlinear time independent
analysis and geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis. The comparisons are derived with
regard to deck vertical deflections, deck normal stresses, stay forces, and pylon elastic shortening.
7.3.1 Comparison of Deck Vertical Deflection
This comparison demonstrates that while the time factors affect strongly the vertical
displacement along the deck, time dependent factors preserve the configuration of the deformed
shape of the deck. This effect is very remarkable within the distance possessing high deflection
values where it goes to an increase of 40%. Fig. 3.b shows the details of this comparison.

A) General arangement

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

Vl. displacement
one stage analysis discarding time effect
-300

-250

-200

one stage analysis considering time effect


-150

-100

100

-50

(mm)

0
-100
-200
-300

B) Time effect on one stage analysis

-400

Fig 3: Comparison of vertical displacement


7.3.2 Comparison of Deck Normal Stresses
This comparison denotes that time dependent factors preserve the configuration of the normal
stress distribution along the deck. This comparison verifies that time dependent factors
redistribute the normal stress along the deck. On the side span, time dependent factors tend to
reduce the top fibres stress and increase the bottom fibres stress. This redistribution reaches its
maximum effect on the top fibres by a reduction of 23.5% at the side pier location. In contrast, it
reaches its maximum effect on the bottom fibres by an increase of 9.5% at 7 m apart from the
side piers. With regard to the main span, time dependent factors tend to increase the top fibres
stress and decrease the bottom fibres stress within almost the half span near to the side pier. This
redistribution reaches its maximum effect on the bottom fibres by a reduction of 29% at a
distance of 200 measured from the pylon. In contrast, it reaches its maximum effect on the top
fibres by an increase of 2.5% only at same position. With the half of the main span near to the
pylon, time dependent factors tend to reduce the stress at both top and bottom fibres. This
redistribution reaches its maximum effect near to the pylon with a reduction of 1.8% at the top
fibres accompanied with a reduction of 7.7% at the bottom fibres. Figures 4.b and c show the
details of this comparison.

A) General arangement

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

Fig 4.a: Comparison of deck normal stress

50

Normal stress MPa


instantaneous analysis

one stage analysis after 20 years


5

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0
-5
-10

B) Time effect on one stage analysis on top fibres stress

-15

Fig 4.b: Comparison of deck normal stress

.. instantaneous analysis
-300

-250

-200

Normal stress MPa

one stage analysis after 20 years


-150

-100

-50

0
-5
-10
-15

C) Time effect on one stage analysis on bottom fibres stress

-20

Fig 4.c: Comparison of deck normal stress


7.3.3 Comparison of Cable Forces
With regard to the cable force point, the comparison denotes that the general trend is that the
cable forces are reduced due to the time effect. This reduction reaches 12% at S33. However in
some cables, from S9 to S19, the forces are slightly increased. This increase is limited to 3% at
S14. Fig. 5 illustrates this comparison.
7.3.4 Comparison of Pylon Elastic Shortening
Table2 shows the elastic shortening of the pylon resulting from the two different methods of
analysis.
Table 2: Elastic shortening of the pylon
Analysis method
Pylon elastic shortening mm
geometric nonlinear time independent analysis and
44
geometric nonlinear time dependent analysis after 20 69
years
8.
CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES
The following conclusions can be extracted from the present investigation:
1. Time dependent factors have a significant effect on the deck stresses as well as stay cable
forces.
2. However the time dependent factors affects the displacements strongly, they preserve the
configuration of the deformed shape of the bridge.
3. As time dependent effects have a grand effect on the displacement of the deck and the
elastic shortening of the pylons, they should be carefully considered to calculate the
camber to achieve the required bridge profile.

With respect to areas of further research the following points should be considered:
1. Research into the refinement of creep and shrinkage predictions would help to fine tune
analyses such as that performed by the program developed for this research
2. Other areas of further research would be in developing computer routines which
automatically optimise the adjustments for camber and post-tensioning force levels which
are currently performed on an interactive basic in the program used for this research.
3. Investigation for the cases when the cracked sections are allowed to be used in the deck
and the properties of the cross section vary due to the cracking is required.
4. Research for time dependent analysis of cable stayed bridges with composite deck cross
section is suggested.
5. Numerical studies for the cases of having materials with different time dependent
parameters composing the bridge, such as steel deck with concrete pylons.
Geometric nonlinear time independent analysis

Geometric nolinear time dependent analysis

6000

5000

Stay Force KN

4000

3000

2000

1000

33

31

29

27

25

23

21

19

17

15

13

11

0
Stay No.

Fig 5: Comparison of cable forces


REFERENCES
"Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures",
1.
American Concrete Institute, ACI Committee 209, Report No. ACI 209R-82, 1982.
2.
"The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)"

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Bazant, Z. P., "Mathematical Modelling of Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete", John Wiley
& Sons, 1988.
Bazant, Z. P., Wittmann, F. H., "Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures", John
Wiley & Sons, 1982.
Bazant, Z. P., Wu, S. T., "Dirichlet Series Creep Function For Aging Concrete", Journal
of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. EM2, April, pp. 367 387,
1973.
Bijan, O. Alami, "Structural Modelling of Post tensioned members", Journal of Structural
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 2, pp. 157-162, February, 2000.
Cluley, N. C., "The Effect of Time-Dependent Phenomena on Force Redistribution in
Segmentally Erected Cable-Stayed Concrete Bridges", Ph.D. dissertation (unpublished),
University of California, Irvine, CA, 1993.
Cluley, N. C., and Shepherd, R., "Analysis of Concrete Cable-Stayed Bridges for Creep,
Shrinkage, and Relaxation Effects", Computers and Structures, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 337-350,
1996.
Cruz, P., J., S., Marf, A., R., and Roca, P., "Nonlinear Time-Dependent Analysis of
Segmentally Constructed Structures", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 124,
No. 3, pp. 278-287, March, 1998.
Ghali, A., and Favre, R., "Concrete Structures: Stress and Deformation, Second Edition",
E & FN Spon, 1993.
Hegab, H., Tawfik, O., Nemir, M. T., and Nour El-deen, H., " Geometric Nonlinearity
of Single-Plane Cable-Stayed Bridges During Cantilevering", Egyptian Society of
Engineers, Bridge Engineering Conference, March 2000, Sharm Elsheikh, Egypt, pp. 567578, Vol. 1.
Hegab, H., Tawfik, O., Nemir, M. T., and Nour El-deen, H., "Nonlinear Torsional and
Warping Analysis of Single-Plane Cable-Stayed Bridges", Egyptian Society of Engineers,
Bridge Engineering Conference, March 2000, Sharm Elsheikh, Egypt, pp. 579-590, Vol. 1.
Ketchum, M. A., Scordelis, A. C., "Redistribution of Stresses in Segmentally Erected
Prestressed Concrete Bridges", Report No. UCB/SESM-86/07, University of California,
Berkeley, 1986.
Nemir, M.T., "Finite Element Stability Analysis of Thin-Walled Steel Structures", Ph.D.
Thesis, University of Salford, U.K, 1985.
Neville, A. M., Dilger, W. H., and Brooks, J. J., "Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete",
Construction Press, 1983.
Nour El-deen, H., "Finite Element Analysis of Single Plane Cable-Stayed Bridges under
Construction by Cantilevering Method", M.Sc. Thesis, University of Menoufia, 1997.
Shushkewich, K. W., "Time-Dependent Analysis of Segmental Bridges", Computers and
Structures, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 95-118, 1986.
Tadros, M. K., Ghali, A., Dilger, W. H., "Time Dependent Analysis of Composite
Frames", Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. ST4, pp. 871 884,
April, 1977.
Van Zyl, S. F., "Analysis of Curved Segmentally Erected Prestressed Concrete Box Girder
Bridges", SESM Report No. 78-2, University of California, Berkeley, 1978.
Van Zyl, S. F., Scordelis, A. C., "Analysis of Curved Prestressed Segmental Bridges",
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 105, No. ST11, pp. 2399 -2417, November,
1979.