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EFFECT OF DIRECT MARINE EXPOSURE ON

STRENGTH OF BLENDED CONCRETES


A Thesis
Submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for
The award of the degree of

Master of Technology
With Specialization in Structural Engineering
By
Gundram Gowtham Sai Diwakar
(14H91D8730)
Under the supervision of

Chinthada Vinodh
M.E (Structures)
Assistant Professor, CIVIL Engineering Department

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


GOKUL INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
SCIENCES
(Approved by AICTE, permanently affiliated to JNTU Kakinada, graded B by NAAC and listed under 2(f)
and 12 (b) of UGC act)

Piridi BOBBILI 535 005 (A.P)


NOVEMBER, 2016

DECLARATION
The Thesis entitled EFFECT OF DIRECT MARINE EXPOSURE ON STRENGTH
OF BLENDED CONCRETES is a record of bonfide work carried out by me, submitted
in partial ful fillment for the award of Master of Technology in Civil Engineering with
specialization in Structural Engineering, submitted in the department of Civil
Engineering, Gokul institute of technological sciences, Piridi , Andhra Pradesh is authentic
record of my own work carried out under the guidance of

Sri. C Vinodh Assistant

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Gokul institute of technological sciences, Piridi


, Andhra Pradesh, India. To the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada. The
results embodied in this thesis have not been submitted to any other University or Institute
for the award of any degree or diploma.

Date:
Place:

G G SAI DIWAKAR

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled EFFECT OF DIRECT MARINE EXPOSURE
ON STRENGTH OF BLENDED CONCRETES is being submitted by G G SAI
DIWAKAR in partial fulfillment for the award of

Master of Technology in Civil

Engineering with specialization in Structural Engineering, submitted in the department of


Civil Engineering, Gokul institute of technological sciences, Piridi , Andhra Pradesh is
authentic record of his own work

to the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

Kakinada is a record of bonafide work carried out by him under our guidance and
supervision.
The results embodied in this thesis have not been submitted to any other University
or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Signature of supervisor
C Vinodh
Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Gokul institute of technological sciences,
Piridi ,
Andhra Pradesh,
India.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled EFFECT OF DIRECT MARINE EXPOSURE
ON STRENGTH OF BLENDED CONCRETES is being submitted by G G SAI
DIWAKAR in partial fulfillment for the award of

Master of Technology in Civil

Engineering with specialization in Structural Engineering, submitted in the department of


Civil Engineering, Gokul institute of technological sciences, Piridi , Andhra Pradesh is
authentic record of his own work

to the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

Kakinada is a record of bonafide work carried out by him under our guidance and
supervision.
The results embodied in this thesis have not been submitted to any other University
or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Signature of Head of Department

Professor and Head of Department


Department of Civil Engineering

Date of External Examination


Signature of External Examiner
Name and Designation of External Examiner
Date

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Its my great privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude and high regards to my guide
C Vinodh, Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering, Gokul institute of
technological sciences,

for their guidance, valuable Suggestions and constant

encouragement throughout the period of this work. The Affection and cooperation
received from them is beyond any word of acknowledgement. I feel it is a great
opportunity to be associated with them.
It is my privilege to express my gratitude to
technological sciences,. .

Principal, Gokul institute of

Head of the Department Gokul institute of technological

sciences,

It is my privilege to express heartfelt thankfulness to my faculty, for their


Suggestions and helping in many other ways to ensure timely completion of this work.
I expand my thanks to

, for their Valuable Support in the completion

of Project and all non-teaching staff members of Civil Engineering Department for their
support and concern through my project

Thanks to my friends and juniors for making my stay at Gokul institute of


technological sciences enjoyable and without them the study would not have
been successful.

Above all, I wish to extend my sincerest regards to my parents, relatives and


family friends whose well wishes and blessings have always played a key role in all the
walks of my life.

Date:
Place:
G G SAI DIWAKAR

Contents
SL

Title of Description

N0

Page
Number

Chapter-1

Chapter-2

Chapter-3

Chpater-4

Chapter-5
36

Results And Discussions

Chapter-6

List of Tables
Chapter-1

Chapter-2

List Of Figures
Chapter-1

Chapter-2

Chapter-4

Chapter-5

Abstract

10

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Several billion tons of water is annually used as mixing, curing and cleaning around the
world, in concrete industry. As there is a scarcity of fresh drinkable water around the
world; so there is a need to save fresh water and hence possibilities of using seawater as
mixing as well as curing water should be investigated seriously. Additionally, if use of
seawater as concrete material is permitted, it will be very convenient and economical in
the construction; especially in the coastal works. However; most of the reinforced concrete
codes do not permit the use of seawater due to risk of early corrosion of reinforcement.
The effect of seawater on concrete deserves special attention as the coastal and offshore
structures are exposed to simultaneous action of a number of physical and chemical
deterioration processes. Moreover, 80 percent of the earth is covered by seawater either
directly or indirectly (e.g. winds can carry sea water spray up to a few miles in land from
the coast). Concrete piers, decks, break-water, and retaining walls are widely used in the
construction of harbors and docks. The use of concrete offshore drilling platforms and oil
storage tanks is already on the increase (Akshat et al., (2015)).
Civilization in olden days took place along the sea shores or river fronts and it is
obvious that the structures were then subjected to marine environment. Hence all the olden
days constructions were obviously made of marine exposure resistant materials. Today
Concrete is the most sought after construction material and it is not resistant to marine
exposure. When the concrete is exposed to sea water, the action of carbon dioxide would
result in the formation of calcium carbonate thereby reducing the alkalinity of the
concrete, sulphates. This forms Ettringite and Gypsum and causing physical expansion and
leaching and chlorides would cause a reduction in alkalinity of the concrete and leaching.
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Clauses 5.4.3 and 5.4.4 of IS 456: 2000 outlined the use of sea water in concrete.
Accordingly mixing or curing of concrete with sea water is not recommended because of
presence of harmful salts in sea water. Under unavoidable circumstances sea water may be
used for mixing or curing in plain concrete with no embedded steel after having given due
consideration to possible disadvantages and precautions including use of appropriate
cement system. Water found satisfactory for mixing is also suitable for curing concrete.
However, water used for curing should not produce any objectionable stain or unsightly
deposit on the concrete surface. The presence of tannic acid or iron compounds is
objectionable.
The Clause 8.2.8 of IS 456: 2000 specifies the minimum grades of concrete to be
adopted when the concrete is exposed to marine environment. Accordingly concrete in
sea-water or exposed directly along the sea coast shall be at least M20 Grade in the case of
plain concrete and M30 in case of reinforced concrete. The use of slag or pozzolana
cement is advantageous under such conditions however qualitative advantage is nowhere
studied or documented. Special attention shall be given to the design of the mix to obtain
the densest possible concrete.
No construction joints shall be allowed within 600 mm below low water-level or
within 600 mm of the upper and lower planes of wave action. Where unusually severe
conditions or abrasion are anticipated, such parts of the work shall be protected by
bituminous or silicon-fluoride coating or stone facing bedded with bitumen.
In reinforced concrete structures, care shall be taken to protect the reinforcement
from exposure to saline atmosphere during storage, fabrication and use. It may be
achieved by treating the surface of reinforcement with cement wash or by suitable
methods.

12

ACI: 318-1983 gives no specific reference to sea water. It recommends that


mixing water shall be potable and free from salts. Mortar test cubes made with nonpotable mixing water shall have 7days and 28 days strength equal to at least 90% of
strength of similar specimen made with potable water.

1.2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY


The objective this study is to test hardened concrete for compressive strength to
ascertain the feasibility of blended concretes when concrete is subjected to marine
environment. Accordingly Compressive strength of concrete test at the age of 7 days, 14
days, 28 days and 56 days was tested for all 3 grades M30, M40 and M50 grades of
Normal, Fly ash and GGBS concrete .

1.3 CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONING


The mix design or concrete mix proportioning was carried out as per IS: 102622009 concrete mix proportioning - guidelines. Three types of concretes viz; Normal
concrete, Fly ash concrete and GGBS concrete were considered for the study and the
corresponding mixes were proportioned. Three concrete grades i.e. M30, M40 and M50 in
each type of said concretes were done. In addition to these concretes, a Reference concrete
was also made with both potable water mixing and curing using 53 grade ordinary
Portland cement.
Normal concrete means mix proportioning was carried out using 53 grade ordinary
Portland cement and all other remaining ingredients were unchanged. The mix
proportioning was also carried out with marine water for all the four concrete grades.

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Fly ash concrete mix proportioning was carried out with an optimum replacement
of 25% of fly ash in ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade. All other ingredients remain
unchanged.
Cement was replaced with 50% slag procured from Steel plant, Visakhapatnam
was used in the mix proportioning of concrete. The other ingredients such as fine
aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, marine water, super-plasticizer were unchanged.

1.4

PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION OF THESIS


Chapter 1 presents introduction, ingredients of concrete, properties, objective and

scope of present work. The literature review of sea water in concrete is presented in
Chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents experimental work. Chapter 4 presents results and
discussions while Chapter 6 presents the conclusions of the study. The scope of future
study and author bibliography is appended.

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CHAPTER-2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1

NORMAL CONCRETE EXPOSED TO MARINE WATER


Akinkurolere and school (2007) studied the influence of salt water on the

compressive strength of concrete. They have investigated compressive strength of concrete


considering salt water from Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria. Wegian (2010) investigated the
effect of sea water for mixing and curing on the compressive, tensile, flexural and bond
strengths of concrete. Mbadike and Elinwa (2011) conducted research work on effect of
salt water in the production of concrete. They considered three concrete mixes of
(1:1.51:4.01) with water-cement ratio of 0.47, (1:1.61:4.03) with 0.50 and exposed for
curing periods of 7, 21, 28, 60 and 90 days. Moinul et al., (2011) studied the suitability of
sea water on curing and compressive strength of structural concrete. As a part of their
study, concrete mixes (1:1.5:3) with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.45 and (1:2:4) with
water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.45 were considered and exposed for periods of 7, 28, 90
and 180 days. Sea water for both mixing and curing was used. Akinsola et al., (2012) in
their investigation on salinity effect on compressive strength of reinforced concrete,
concrete mixes of (1:3:6) and (1:3:5) were cast using lagoon, ocean water and fresh water.
Nobuaki et al., (2012) studied the possibility of sea water as mixing water in concrete.
Two types of cements OPC and BFS were considered with mixing of sea water. Ernesto
(2013) studied the effect of salt-contaminated mixing water and aggregates on time to
initiate rebar corrosion in concrete. Preeti et al., (2014), in their research work, studied the
effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. They
presented the results and findings of experiments on the effect of salt water on

15

compressive strength of concrete. Kucche et al., (2015) in their paper reviewed the
literature related to quality of water for making concrete.

2.2 STUDIES ON CONCRETE STRENGTHS USING FLY ASH CONCRETE AND


MARINE WATER
The geopolymer was claimed to be durable in some aggressive environments such
sulfate and fire (Bakharev, 2005; Kong et al., 2007). The geopolymer concrete could
resist synthetic seawater without strength degradation and significant weight loss
(Fernandez-Jimenez et al., 2007). Chalee et al., (2009) in their study, developed a model
for predicting chloride penetration in fly ash concrete under long-term exposure in a
marine environment is developed. Chalee et al., (2010), in their paper on Utilization of
fly ash concrete in marine environment for long term design life analysis, presented the
performance of 7-year fly ash concrete exposed to hot and high humidity climate in
marine conditions. Marthong and Agrawal (2012) studied the effect of fly ash additive
on concrete properties. Three grades of ordinary Portland cement i.e. 33, 43 and 53 were
used with a fly ash replacement by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% dosages. The period of
exposure considered in the study was 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. Olivia and Nikraz (2012)
investigated the properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete in seawater environment. They
presented the properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete subjected to continuous
immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution and accelerated wetting drying at 80C and 24-hour
cycle in NaCl solution. Three geopolymer mixtures and a control mix with target strength
of higher than 55 MPa were evaluated for change in compressive strength, effective
porosity, and weight. Saravanan et al., (2013) presented the State of the art review of Fly
ash based Geo-polymer concrete. They feel that Concrete usage around the world is
second only to water. Cheewaket et al., (2014) studied the chloride penetration and

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diffusion characteristics of fly ash concrete. According to them, concrete with high
resistance to the marine environment should have high compressive strength, a low
chloride diffusion coefficient (DC), and a high acceptable chloride level (Ac).

2.3 GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG (GGBS) CONCRETE


AND MARINE WATER
From the magazine Civil + Marine (UK) (2007), it was noted from an article in on
GGBS and concrete properties, that GGBS helps to avoid early age thermal cracking as
the setting time will be extended slightly. The authors studied the influence of salt
weathering on the properties of concrete. Four different concrete mixes, one with OPC,
two with 65% replacement of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and one with
35% rapid hardening Portland cement and 65% of GGBS. The total cementitious content
is 450 kg/m3. Pavia and Condren (2008) studied the durability of ordinary Portland
cement verses ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete exposed to silage effluent
(grass conserved as silage for winter feed). Daisuke et al., (2009) studied the effect of sea
water as mixing water on the hydration characteristics of blast-furnace slag cement. In
their investigations, cement paste with OPC was used with the replacement of BFS at
20%, 55% and 90%. Connell et al., (2012) studied the Performance of concrete
incorporating GGBS in aggressive wastewater environments. According to them, Concrete
is traditionally used as the main component of wastewater facilities. The sulfate and acidic
environment presents significant challenges. Nishida et al., (2013) studied the
applicability of sea water as mixing water in concrete. They have discussed the
possibilities of using sea water mixed concrete based on the literature based study and had
a positive opinion toward concrete mixed with sea water by adding the mineral admixture
such as blast furnace slag. Nobuaki et al., (2012) in their study on possibility of sea water

17

as mixing water in concrete introduced blast furnace slag powder as pozzolana material
expecting to fix the free chloride ion.

2.4 TERNARY CONCRETES (COMBINATION OF 2 OR MORE POZZALONA


AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT) IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Suvarnalatha et al., (2012) in their study conducted on estimation of GGBS and
HVFA strength efficiencies in concrete with age, replacement of HVFA from 0% to 70%
at the increment of 10% for M20, M40 and M60 grade concretes were considered with an
exposure period of 28, 90 and 180 days. The investigation revealed that the partial
replacement of cement with HVFA in concrete mix showed enhanced performance in
terms of strength and durability in all grades and this is due to the presence of reactive
silica in HVFA. It was also observed that there is an increase in the compressive strength
for different concrete mixes adopted in the study made with HVFA replacement. The
investigation reveals that compressive strength of GGBS at 40% replacement attains more
strength for M20 and M40 grades where as at 50% replacement more strength is attained
by M60. Compressive strength of HVFA attains more strength at 40% replacement in case
of M20 grade where as at 500% replacement the strength is more for M40 and M60
grades.
Swaroop et al., (2013) studied the durability of concrete with Fly ash and Ground
Granulated Burnt Slag (GGBS). They were chosen mainly based on the criteria of cost and
their durable qualities. Not only this, Environmental pollution can also be decreased to
some extent because the emission of harmful gases like carbon monoxide & carbon
dioxide are very limited. In this paper our study is mainly confined to evaluation of
changes in both compressive strength and weight reduction in five different mixes of M30
Grade namely conventional aggregate concrete (CAC), concrete made by replacing 20%

18

of cement by Fly Ash (FAC1), concrete made by replacing 40% of cement by Fly Ash
(FAC2), concrete made by replacing 20% replacement of cement by GGBS (GAC1) and
concrete made by replacing 40% replacement of cement by GGBS (GAC2). The effect of
1% of H2SO4 and sea water on these concrete mixes are determined by immersing these
cubes for 7 days, 28 days, 60 days in above solutions and the respective changes in both
compressive strength and weight reduction had observed and up to a major extent we can
conclude concretes made by that Fly Ash and GGBS had good strength and durable
properties comparison to conventional aggregate in severe Environment.
Ramya and Kashyap (2014) conducted an experimental study on Durability of
Concrete Using Fly Ash & GGBS for M30 Grade Concrete. In Concretes subjected to
severe environments, durability can significantly decline due to degradation. Degradation
of concrete structures by corrosion is a serious problem and has major economic
implications. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the durability of concrete
using the mineral admixtures like Fly Ash & Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
(GGBS) for M30 grade concrete. Cube Specimens were casted and are immersed in
normal water, sea water, H2SO4 of various concentrations and were tested after 7 days, 28
days and 60 days.
Sadaqat et al., (2014) reviewed the properties of fresh concrete including
workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral
admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS),
metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength
concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been
considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two
groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures.
Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete

19

but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral
admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of
hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of
mineral admixture are favorable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete;
however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by
adding effective super plasticizer.

2.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS ON LITERATURE


From the literature, it is clear that there are certain factors to be considered when
sea water is used for mixing and/or curing in concrete. Some international codes (Indian,
ACI etc.,) of practice accept use of sea water for concrete making under some special
conditions and recommend pozzolana blended cements for superior performance of
concrete exposed to sea water mixing / curing conditions. However, a qualitative
comparison is required. This study is an attempt in this direction.

20

CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL WORK

3.1

GENERAL
The experimental investigation was carried out in order to study the

strength performance of various concretes such as Normal concrete i.e. ordinary Portland
cement (OPC) concrete, Fly ash concrete i.e. ordinary Portland cement concrete with fly
ash replacement and GGBS concrete i.e. ground granulated blast furnace slag cement
concrete using both potable water and marine water. The cement selected is ordinary
Portland cement with 53 Grade. Hardened concrete was tested for compressive strength to
ascertain the feasibility of blended concretes when concrete is subjected to marine
environment. Accordingly Compressive strength of concrete test at the age of 7 days, 14
days, 28 days and 56 days was tested for all 3 grades M30, M40 and M50 grades of
Normal, Fly ash and GGBS concrete .

3.2

MATERIALS
The various materials used in the experimental investigation are ordinary Portland

cement, fly ash, GGBS cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, marine water.
3.2.1 Cement
Ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade (MAHA Cement) confirming to IS
12269:1987 (Specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland) was used in the present
experimental investigation. Its specific gravity is 3.15. The cement was tested as per the
procedure given in Indian standards IS 4031 (1988).
3.2.2 Fly ash
Fly ash is an industrial waste obtained from thermal power stations. In this
investigation, the fly ash was obtained from NTPC, Visakhapatnam. The physical
21

properties and chemical properties of fly ash that was used in the experimentation are
presented in Table and Table respectively.
Table Physical properties of Fly ash (Courtesy: NTPC Visakhapatnam)
Sl. No
Parameter
Test result
1
Specific gravity
2.0
3
2
Bulk density (Kg/m )
1000
3
Percentage passing 75 micron IS sieve
71.4 to 95.90
4
Percentage passing 45 micron IS sieve
45.0 to 88.80
2
5
Fineness (blains air method) cm /gm
3300 to 6250
2
6
Lime reactivity (kg/cm )
50 to 62.40
Table Chemical properties of Fly ash (Courtesy: NTPC Visakhapatnam)
Sl. No

Constituent

1
Loss on ignition (% by mass)
2
Silica as Sio2
3
Iron Oxide as Fe2O3
4
Alumina as Al2O3
5
Manganese as Mn
6
Titanium Oxide as TiO2
7
Calcium Oxide as CaO
8
Magnesium Oxide as MgO
9
Sodium Oxide as Na2O
10
Potassium Oxide as K2O
11
Phosphorus as P
12
Sulphate as So3
13
(2+4+3) above
3.2.3 GGBS

Values (% by
weight)
0.87 < 12
62.93 > 35
3.56
22.61
0.14
0.53
4.58
0.60 < 5.0
0.89 < 1.5
1.74
0.32
1.23 < 2.75
89.1 > 70

The Ground granulated blast furnace slag is obtained from Visakhapatnam steel plant.
Table Physical properties of GGBS (Courtesy: Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant)
Sl. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Parameter
Specific gravity
pH
Bulk density (kg/m3)
Insoluble residue
Percentage passing 75 micron IS sieve
Percentage passing 45 micron IS sieve
Fineness (blains air method) cm2/gm
Lime reactivity (kg/cm2)

22

Test result
2.9
4.6
1200
0.3
70 to 95
45 to 85
3500
50 to 62.40

Table Chemical properties of Fly ash (Courtesy: Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant)


Sl.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Values (% by
weight)
0.87
34.31
1
11
41
8

Constituent
Loss on ignition (% by mass)
Silica as Sio2
Iron Oxide as Fe2O3
Alumina as Al2O3
Calcium Oxide as CaO
Magnesium Oxide as MgO

3.2.4 Fine aggregate


Natural river sand conforming to Zone II as per IS 383(1987) was used. The fineness
modulus of sand used is 2.70 with a specific gravity of 2.70
3.2.5 Coarse aggregate
Crushed granite coarse aggregate conforming to IS: 383 (1987) was used. Coarse
aggregate of size 20 mm down having the specific gravity of 2.7 and fineness modulus of
7.20 was used.
3.2.6 Super Plasticizers
In this investigation CONPLAST SP 430 super-plasticizer of FOSROC Chemicals is used.
The super-plasticizers used for the study conform to IS: 9103(1999).The properties of this
super-plasticizer are given in Table 5.
Properties of Super-plasticizer
Sl.

Properties

No

Result

Physical State

Liquid

Colour

Brown

PH

7-8

Odour

Slight/Faint

Boiling Point/Range(C) >100c

Flash Point (Closed, C)

None

Auto Flammability

Not Applicable

Explosive Properties

Not Applicable

Water Soluble

Soluble

23

3.2.7 Potable Water


Ordinary potable tap water available in laboratory was used for mixing and curing of
reference concrete. It had a pH value of 7.1.
3.2.8 Sea Water
Sea water collected from the Bay of Bengal located at Visalakshinagar beach,
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. It had a pH value of 6.3. This sea water was
used in this study.

3.3

MIX PROPORTIONING

The mix design or concrete mix proportioning was carried out as per IS: 10262-2009
concrete mix proportioning - guidelines. Three types of concretes viz; Normal concrete,
Fly ash concrete, GGBS concrete were considered for the study and accordingly mix
proportions are calculated. Four concrete grades i.e. M30, M40 and M50 were designed.
The calculations of mix proportioning for M25 are presented here.
a) M30 GRADE CONCRETE
1)

STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING:


a.

Grade designation

: M30

b.

Type of cement

: Portland slag Cement


conforming to IS: 455-1989

2)

c.

Maximum nominal size of aggregate

: 20 mm

d.

Minimum cement content

: 300 kg/m

e.

Maximum water-cement ratio

: 0.55

f.

Workability

: 125 to 150 mm (Slump)

g.

Exposure Condition

: Mild

h.

Method of Concrete Placing

: Pumping

i.

Degree of Supervision

: Good

j.

Type of Aggregate

: Crushed aggregate

k.

Maximum cement Content (OPC)

: 450 kg/m

TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS:


a.

Cement used

: Portland slag cement


Conforming to IS: 455-1989
24

b.

Specific gravity of cement

c.

Specific gravity of

d.

e.

: 2.99

(i) Coarse aggregate

: 2.69

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 2.57

Water Absorption
(i) Coarse aggregate

: 0.5%

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 1.0%

Free (Surface) Moisture

f.

(i) Coarse aggregate

: NIL

(ii) Fine aggregate

: NIL

Sieve Analysis
(i) Coarse aggregate

: Conforming to Table 2 of IS 383

(ii) Fine aggregate

: Conforming to grading zone II of


Table 4 of IS 383

3)

TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING


fck' = fck + 1.65s
Where
fck'= target average compressive strength at 28 days
fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days = 30 N/mm2
s = Standard deviation
From Table 1, Standard deviation s = 4 N/mm2
.. Target strength = 30 + 1.65x4 = 36.6 N/mm

4)

SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT RATIO


From Table 5 of IS: 456, maximum water cement ratio = 0.60
Based on experience, adopt w/c as 0.56
0.56<0.60, Hence O.K

5)

SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT


From Table 2, maximum Water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 litre
Estimated Water content for 125 mm slump = 186 + (9/100) x 186= 202 litre

6)

CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT


Watercement ratio = 0.56
Cement content = 202/0.56 = 364 kg/m
From Table 5 of IS 456 minimum cement

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For mild exposure condition = 300 kg/m


364 kg/m > 300 kg/m, Hence OK.
7)

PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE


AGGREGATE CONTENT
Ref Table of IS: 10262-2009,
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and fine
aggregate (Zone II) for water cement ratio of 0.56 = 0.62
Volume of coarse aggregate = 0.62
Volume of fine aggregate = (1.0-0.62) = 0.38

8)

MIX CALCULATIONS
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:
a)

Volume of concrete

b)

Volume of cement

1m

=
c)

d)

e)

Volume of water

=
=

0.202 m3

Volume of all in aggregates =

[a-(b+c)]

Mass of coarse aggregate

0.1217 m3

[1-(0.1217+0.202)]

0.7048 m3

(e x volume of CA x Specific gravity


of CA x 1000)

f)

Mass of fine aggregate

0.7148 x 0.62 x 2.69 x 1000 =1198 kg

(e x volume of fine aggregate x


Specific gravity of fine aggregate x 1000)
0.71480.38 x 2.57 x 1000 = 698 kg

b)

M40 CONCRETE

1)

STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING:


a. Grade designation

: M40

b. Type of cement

: Portland slag Cement


conforming to IS: 455-1989

c. Maximum nominal size of aggregate

: 20 mm

d. Minimum cement content

: 300 kg/m

26

2)

e. Maximum water-cement ratio

: 0.50

f. Workability

: 125 to 150 mm (Slump)

g. Exposure Condition

: Moderate

h. Method of Concrete Placing

: Pumping

i. Degree of Supervision

: Good

j. Type of Aggregate

: Crushed aggregate

k. Maximum cement Content (OPC)

: 450 kg/m

TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS:


a.

Cement used

: Portland slag cement


conforming to IS: 455-1989

b. Specific gravity of cement

: 2.99

c. Specific gravity of
(i) Coarse aggregate

: 2.69

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 2.57

d. Water Absorption
(i) Coarse aggregate

: 0.5%

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 1.0%

e. Free (Surface) Moisture


(i) Coarse aggregate

: NIL

(ii) Fine aggregate

: NIL

f. Sieve Analysis
(i) Coarse aggregate

: Conforming to Table 2 of IS 383

(ii) Fine aggregate

: Conforming to grading zone II of


Table 4 of IS 383

3)

TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING


fck' = fck + 1.65s
Where
fck'= target average compressive strength at 28 days
fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days = 40 N/mm2
s = Standard deviation
From Table 1, Standard deviation s = 4 N/mm2
.. Target strength = 40+1.65x4 = 46.60 N/mm

4)

SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT RATIO

27

From Table 5 of IS: 456, maximum water cement ratio = 0.50


Based on experience, adopt w/c as 0.5
5)

SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT


From Table 2, maximum Water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 litre
Estimated Water content for 125 mm slump = 186 + (9/100) x 186= 202 litre

6)

CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT


Watercement ratio= 0.5
Cement content = 202/0.5 = 404 kg/m
From Table 5 of IS 456 minimum cement
For moderate exposure condition = 300kg/m
404 kg/m > 300 kg/m, Hence OK.

7)

PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE


AGGREGATE CONTENT
Ref Table 3 of IS: 10262-2009,
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20mm size aggregate and fine
aggregate (Zone II) for water cement ratio of 0.5 = 0.62
Corrected proportion of Volume of coarse aggregate for the water cement ratio of
0.46 = 0.62+0.008 = 0.628
(At the rate of -/+ 0.01 for every 0.05 change in water cement ratio)
For pumpable concrete these values may be reduced by 5 percent
Therefore, Volume of coarse aggregate = 0.628x0.95 = 0.596
Volume of fine aggregate content = (1.0-0.596) = 0.404

8)

MIX CALCULATIONS
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:
a) Volume of concrete

b) Volume of cement

=
=

c) Volume of water

d) Volume of all in aggregates

e) Mass of coarse aggregate

1m

(404/2.99)/1000 = 0.1324 m3

=
=

0.202 m3

[a-(b+c)]

[1-(0.1324+0.202)]

0.704 m3

(e x volume of CA x Specific gravity

28

of CA x 1000)

f) Mass of fine aggregate

0.704 x 0.596 x 2.69x 1000 =1129 kg

(e x volume of fine aggregate x


Specific gravity of fine aggregate x 1000)
0.7040.404 x 2.57 x 1000 = 731 kg

c) M50 CONCRETE
1) STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING:
a.

Grade designation

: M50

b. Type of cement

: Portland slag Cement


conforming to IS: 455-1989

2)

c. Maximum nominal size of aggregate

: 20 mm

d. Minimum cement content

: 340 kg/m

e. Maximum water-cement ratio

: 0.45

f. Workability

: 125 to 150 mm (Slump)

g. Exposure Condition

: Very Severe

h. Method of Concrete Placing

: Pumping

i. Degree of Supervision

: Good

j. Type of Aggregate

: Crushed aggregate

k. Maximum cement Content (OPC)

: 450 kg/m

l. Chemical Admixture type

: Super-plasticizer

TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS:


a.

Cement used

: Portland slag cement


conforming to IS: 455-1989

b. Specific gravity of cement

: 2.99

c. Specific gravity of
(i) Coarse aggregate

: 2.69

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 2.57

d. Water Absorption
(i) Coarse aggregate

: 0.5%

(ii) Fine aggregate

: 1.0%

e. Free (Surface) Moisture


(i) Coarse aggregate

: NIL

(ii) Fine aggregate

: NIL
29

f. Sieve Analysis
(i) Coarse aggregate

: Conforming to Table 2 of IS 383

(ii) Fine aggregate

: Conforming to grading zone II of


Table 4 of IS 383

3)

TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING


fck' = fck + 1.65s
Where
fck'= target average compressive strength at 28 days
fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days = 50 N/mm2
s = Standard deviation
From Table 1, Standard deviation s = 5 N/mm2
.. Target strength = 50+1.65x5 = 58.25 N/mm

4)

SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT RATIO


From Table 5 of IS: 456, maximum water cement ratio = 0.45
Based on experience, adopt w/c as 0.40
0.40<0.45, Hence O.K

5)

SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT


From Table 2, maximum Water content for 20mm aggregate = 186 litre
Estimated Water content for 125mm slump = 186 + (9/100) x186 = 202 litre

6)

CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT


Watercement ratio = 0.40
Cement content = 202/0.46 = 439 kg/m
From Table 5 of IS 456 minimum cement
For very severe exposure condition = 340kg/m
433 kg/m > 340 kg/m, Hence OK.

7)

PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE


AGGREGATE CONTENT
Ref Table 3 of IS: 10262-2009,
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20mm size aggregate and fine
aggregate (Zone II) for water cement ratio of 0.5 = 0.62
Corrected proportion of Volume of coarse aggregate for the water cement ratio of
0.40 = 0.62+0.02 = 0.64
(At the rate of -/+ 0.01 for every 0.05 change in water cement ratio)
For pumpable concrete these values may be reduced by 10 percent
30

Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate = 0.64x0.9 = 0.576


Volume of fine aggregate = (1.0-0.576) = 0.424
8)

MIX CALCULATIONS
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:
a) Volume of concrete

b) Volume of cement

1m

0.1448 m3

=
c) Volume of water

d) Volume of all in aggregates

e) Mass of coarse aggregate

=
=

0.202 m3

[a-(b+c)]

[1-(0.1448+0.202)]

0.7095 m3

(e x volume of CA x Specific gravity


of CA x 1000)

=
f) Mass of fine aggregate

0.7095 x 0.576 x 2.69x 1000 =1099 kg

(e x volume of fine aggregate x


Specific gravity of fine aggregate x 1000)
0.70950.424 x 2.57 x 1000 = 773 kg

Table Summary of Mix Proportioning - (Normal Concrete)


Sl.
No

Concrete ingredient

1
2
3
4
5

Cement (kg)
Water (kg)
Fine aggregate (kg)
Coarse aggregate (kg)
Water cement ratio

Grades of concrete (per cum.


quantities)
M25

M35

M45

364
202
698
1198
0.555

404
202
731
1129
0.500

433
202
773
1099
0.467

3.3.2 Mix Proportioning of Fly ash concrete


Fly ash concrete designated as F, means mix proportioning was carried out with an
optimum replacement of 25% of fly ash in ordinary Portland cement with 53 grade. All

31

other ingredients remain unchanged. The mix proportioning was made for all the three
grades of concrete i.e. M25, M35, and M45 and the summary is presented in Table.
Table Summary of Mix Proportioning - (Fly ash Concrete)
Grades of concrete (per cum. quantities)

Sl.
No

Concrete ingredient

1
2
3
4
5
6

Cement (kg)
Fly ash (kg)
Water (kg)
Fine aggregate (kg)
Coarse aggregate (kg)
Water cement ratio

M25

M35

M45

273
91
202
698
1198
0.555

303
101
202
731
1129
0.500

324.75
108.25
202
773
1099
0.467

3.3.3 Mix Proportioning of GGBS concrete


GGBS concrete designated as G, means that the concrete is prepared using cement
replaced with 55% slag content in the mix proportioning and other ingredients were
unchanged. The mix proportioning was carried out for all the three grades viz, M25, M35
and M45 and the summary is presented in Table.
Table Summary of Mix Proportioning - (GGBS Concrete)
Sl.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6

3.4

Grades of concrete (per cum.


quantities)

Concrete ingredient
GGBS (kg)
Cement (kg)
Water (kg)
Fine aggregate (kg)
Coarse aggregate (kg)
Water cement ratio

M25

M35

M45

182
182
202
698
1198
0.555

202
202
202
731
1129
0.500

216.5
216.5
202
773
1099
0.467

Specimens (Moulds)
Standard moulds were used for moulding concrete test specimens. A cube

specimen of size 150x150x150mm was selected for compression test so as to achieve


proper results. The moulds so selected were capable of making concrete with a largest

32

nominal size of the coarse aggregate of 20mm. All these specimens were of cast iron of
enough thickness to prevent distortion. The dimensions of moulds used for investigation
were also satisfied the tolerance limits.
3.5

Casting and Curing of Test Specimens


The ingredients of concrete were kept ready in the required condition before

casting the test specimens. Weigh batching was adopted for measuring the quantities of
various constituents of concrete before mixing the same. The quantities of cement, fly ash
in case of fly ash concrete, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, super plasticizer for
each batch were measured as per the standard laboratory practice before taking up mixing
process. The mixing of concrete was carried out in a mechanical mixer and ensured that all
the aggregates are surface coated with cohesive cement paste uniformly. It was also
ensured uniform color, homogeneous mixing and consistency before placing the concrete
into the moulds kept ready with oil coated surface. The moulds were filled with concrete
in three layers and then vibrated on vibrating table. The top surface of concrete was
strucked off to the level with a trowel finish to facilitate coding. The specimens were
allowed for air curing and de-moulded on the next day before curing. The curing tanks /
drums with potable water or marine water as the case may be were kept ready for keeping
the test specimens for curing as per the required duration.
3.6

Nomenclature of Test Specimens


A standard procedure has been adopted for identifying the test specimens to their

due date of testing. There are three types of concretes in addition to reference concrete
selected for investigation and they are designated as follows.
Fly ash concrete

GGBS concrete

Reference (Normal) concrete :

33

Reference concrete means that the concrete is made using 53 grade ordinary
Portland cement. Normal concrete is nothing but reference concrete. Fly ash concrete, the
term itself indicates that the concrete is made with fly ash replacement. Similarly the
GGBS concrete can be defined as ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete prepared
with ready to use slag cement.
The present study investigates three types of concretes such as Fly ash concrete as
F and GGBS concrete as G in addition to Reference concrete as R. Three concrete mixes
of grades M25, M35 and M45 are considered. The period of exposure for the above
concretes and grades was 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days. Three types of exposures
were adopted in the study. They were designated as PP for concrete mixing and curing
with potable water, PS for concrete mixing with potable water and curing with sea water
and SS for the concrete both mixing and curing with sea water.
3.7

Testing of Concrete
The objective of testing concrete is to determine the properties of fresh concrete

and hardened concrete. Accordingly Slump cone test was conducted for each batch of the
concrete. The Compression test was carried on hardened concrete at the age of 7 days, 14
days, 28 days and 56 days.
3.7.1 Tests on Fresh Concrete
As the workability is the property of fresh concrete which determines the ease and
homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, Slump test were conducted so as to
compare the achievement desired slump.
3.7.1.1 Slump Cone Test
The test is used extensively in site all over the world. The slump test does not
measure the workability of concrete, but the test is very useful in detecting variations in the
uniformity of a mix of given nominal proportions.

34

The slump test is done as prescribed by IS: 516.


The apparatus for conducting the Slump test essentially consists of a metallic mould
in the form of a cone having the internal dimensions as under
Bottom diameter: 200 mm
Top diameter

: 100 mm

The mould for slump is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm high. It is placed on a smooth
surface with the smaller opening at the top, and filled with concrete in three layers. Each
layer is tamped twenty five times with a standard 16 mm diameter steel rod, rounded at the
end, and the top surface is strucked off by means of sawing and rolling motion of the
tamping rod. The mould must be firmly fixed against its base during the entire operation.
This is facilitated by handles or foot-rests brazed to the mould. Immediately after filling, the
cone is slowly lifted vertically up, and the unsupported concrete will now slump and hence
the name of the test. The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of
highest point of subsided concrete is measured. This difference in height in mm is taken as
slump of concrete. The slump observations are presented in Table 3.22.
Table Slump observations
SL.
NO

Mix Designation

Slump (mm)

Normal water mixing and sea water curing


1.

M30 (25% Flyash)

150

2.

M40 (25% Flyash)

150

3.

M50 (25% Flyash)

145

4.

M30

150

5.

M40

150

6.

M50

135

7.

M30 (50% GGBS)

140

8.

M40 (50% GGBS)

140

9.

M50 (50% GGBS)

135

35

Normal water curing and sea water mixing


10.

M30 (25% Flyash)

135

11.

M40 (25% Flyash)

135

12.

M50 (25% Flyash)

130

13.

M30

150

14.

M40

145

15.

M50

140

16.

M30 (50% GGBS)

150

17.

M40 (50% GGBS)

150

18.

M50 (50% GGBS)

145

Sea Water mixing, Sea Water curing


19.

M30 (25% Flyash)

145

20.

M40 (25% Flyash)

150

21.

M50 (25% Flyash)

140

22.

M30

150

23.

M40

145

24.

M50

140

25.

M30 (50% GGBS)

150

26.

M40 (50% GGBS)

145

27.

M50 (50% GGBS)

140

Normal water curing and normal water mixing


28.

M30 (25% Flyash)

150

29.

M40 (25% Flyash)

142

30.

M50 (25% Flyash)

140

31.

M30

150

32.

M40

145

33.

M50

140

34.

M30 (50% GGBS)

140

35.

M40 (50% GGBS)

145

36.

M50 (50% GGBS)

150

36

3.7.2 Tests on Hardened Concrete


The objective of testing the hardened concrete is to determine the compressive
strength. Accordingly tests were conducted for all the concretes at the age of 7 days, 14
days, 28 days and 56 days.
3.7.2.1 Compression Test
Compression test was conducted on 150mm150mm150mm cubes. Concrete
specimens were removed from curing tank and cleaned. In the testing machine, the cube is
placed with the cast faces at right angles to that of compressive faces, then load is applied
at a constant rate of 1.4 kg/cm2/minute up to failure and the ultimate load is noted. The
load is increased until the specimen fails and the maximum load is recorded. The
compression tests were carried out at 7, 28, 90 and 180 days. For strength computation, the
average load of three specimens is considered for each mix. The average of three
specimens was reported as the cube compressive of strength.
Cube compressive strength

The compressive strength results are presented in Tables below & the testing of specimens
is presented at Fig.
Table Compressive Strength
Sl.
No

Mix Designation

Compressive strength (N/mm2)


7 Days

14 Days

28 Days

56 Days

Normal water mixing and sea water curing


1

M30 (25% Flyash)

25.67

30.62

36.30

38.12

M40 (25% Flyash)

32.32

39.20

45.39

48.28

M50 (25% Flyash)

37.30

45.74

53.76

54.97

M30

21.02

31.15

30.25

27.25

M40

31.25

35.83

35.75

36.06

M50

36.98

41.28

40.54

43.28

37

M30 (50% GGBS)

24.72

28.55

34.37

39.09

M40 (50% GGBS)

32.16

38.25

44.49

48.90

M50 (50% GGBS)

36.41

44.98

52.11

56.47

Normal water curing and sea water mixing


10

M30 (25% Flyash)

23.71

32.54

36.74

37.63

11

M40 (25% Flyash)

28.74

39.18

43.57

44.85

12

M50 (25% Flyash)

34.92

42.18

53.19

54.89

13

M30

18.15

22.28

23.15

25.18

14

M40

27.51

35.75

34.14

37.33

15

M50

33.17

35.82

40.28

42.20

16

M30 (50% GGBS)

22.12

29.27

31.98

33.09

17

M40 (50% GGBS)

27.95

35.14

38.15

43.17

18

M50 (50% GGBS)

34.23

41.28

48.27

53.11

Sea Water mixing, Sea Water curing


19

M30 (25% Flyash)

22.16

26.61

29.99

32.16

20

M40 (25% Flyash)

26.03

33.04

40.01

41.71

21

M50 (25% Flyash)

32.75

38.67

44.98

48.78

22

M30

17.15

21.64

22.79

27.44

23

M40

25.87

27.79

31.26

33.76

24

M50

31.86

34.16

36.75

39.41

25

M30 (50% GGBS)

23.75

27.25

31.01

32.57

26

M40 (50% GGBS)

29.75

34.18

40.11

42.19

27

M50 (50% GGBS)

33.98

40.18

47.58

50.89

Normal water curing and normal water mixing


28

M30 (25% Flyash)

20.79

24.57

30.94

39.11

29

M40 (25% Flyash)

28.22

34.13

39.12

49.98

30

M50 (25% Flyash)

32.94

38.07

38.33

56.56

31

M30

25.48

28.66

33.02

33.24

38

32

M40

32.55

35.28

39.15

43.25

33

M50

36.25

38.88

40.25

51.25

34

M30 (50% GGBS)

24.47

27.81

32.14

41.48

35

M40 (50% GGBS)

31.14

33.25

37.36

52.51

36

M50 (50% GGBS)

35.91

37.73

38.41

59.48

Based on the results presented above the following bar charts are presented for
understanding the performance.

Normal water mixing and sea water curing

Normal water curing and sea water mixing


39

Sea Water mixing, Sea Water curing

Normal water curing and normal water mixing

40

CHAPTER-4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1

GENERAL

4.1.1 Comparative performance of different concretes at different ages


Various graphs are drafted among different EXPOSURE conditions in terms of mixing
water and curing water so that the comparison of different grades of concrete at different
ages for normal , Fly ash and GGBS concretes can be studied.

For normal water mixing and sea water curing, Fly ash and GGBS concrete performed
almost similaly and better than normal concrete at 28 days and 56 days.

41

For sea water mixing and sea water curing, GGBS concrete, followed by Fly ash and then
normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and 56 days.

For Normal water mixing and sea water curing, Fly ash concrete , followed by GGBS
concrete and then normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and 56
days.

For Normal water mixing and Normal water curing, GGBS concrete, followed by Fly ash
and then normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and 56 days.

42

4.1.2 Comparative performance of each grade of concretes at different ages for


different types of concrete

Fig 1: Normal water mixing of M30 and sea water curing

Fig 2: Normal water mixing in M40 and sea water curing

Fig 3: Normal water mixing in M50 and sea water curing


43

From the above figure 1 3


For Normal water curing and Sea water mixing of M30, M40 and M50
1. Sea water curing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete
(M30, M40 and M50) when compared to other concretes (25% flyash or 50%
GGBS).
2. Sea water curing does not affect the compressive strength of concrete when flyash
is used as 25% in concrete.
3. Sea water curing does not affect the compressive strength of concrete when GGBS
is used as 50% in concrete.

Fig 4: Sea water mixing in M30 and normal water curing

Fig 5: Sea water mixing in M40 and normal water curing


44

Fig 6: Sea water mixing in M50 and normal water curing


From the above figure 4 6
For Sea water mixing and normal water curing of M30, M40 and M50
1. Sea water mixing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete
(M30, M40 and M50).
2. Sea water mixing has no effect on the compressive strength of concrete when
flyash is used as 25% in concrete.
3. Sea water mixing has also an effect on the compressive strength of concrete when
GGBS is used as 50% in concrete.

Fig 7: Sea Water mixing in M30 and Sea Water curing


45

Fig 8: Sea Water mixing in M40 and Sea Water curing

Fig 9: Sea Water mixing in M50 and Sea Water curing


From the above figure 7 9
For Sea water mixing and Sea water curing of M30, M40 and M50
1. Sea water mixing and curing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal
concrete (M30, M40 and M50).
2. Sea water mixing and curing affects the compressive strength of concrete when
flyash is used as 25% replacement of cement in concrete.
3. 50% of GGBS based concrete reached their ultimate strength slowly.

46

Fig 10: Normal water mixing and curing in M30

Fig 11: Normal water mixing and curing in M40

Fig 12: Normal water mixing and curing in M50


47

From the above figure 10 12:


For Normal water curing and Normal water mixing of M30, M40 and M50
1. Normal water mixing in concrete and curing with normal water has no affect on the
normal concrete
2. But other two blended concretes increase gradually their compressive strength from
28 days to 56 days.

48

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSIONS

5.1 Conclusions
Based on the compressive strength of concretes of different grades, blends and
EXPOSURE conditions in terms of mixing water and curing water, the following general
and specific conclusions can be drawn.
1. For normal water mixing and sea water curing, Fly ash and GGBS concrete performed
almost similaly and better than normal concrete at 28 days and 56 days.
2. For sea water mixing and sea water curing, GGBS concrete, followed by Fly ash and

then normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and 56 days.
3. For Normal water mixing and sea water curing, Fly ash concrete , followed by GGBS

concrete and then normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and
56 days.
4. For Normal water mixing and Normal water curing, GGBS concrete, followed by Fly

ash and then normal concrete performed in the decending order at 28 days and 56
days.
For Normal water curing and Sea water mixing of M30, M40 and M50
5. Sea water curing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete (M30,
M40 and M50) when compared to other concretes (25% flyash or 50% GGBS).
6. Sea water curing does not affect the compressive strength of concrete when flyash is
used as 25% in concrete.
7. Sea water curing does not affect the compressive strength of concrete when GGBS is
used as 50% in concrete.
For Sea water mixing and normal water curing of M30, M40 and M50
8. Sea water mixing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete (M 30,
M40 and M50).
9. Sea water mixing has no effect on the compressive strength of concrete when flyash is
used as 25% in concrete.
10. Sea water mixing has also an effect on the compressive strength of concrete when
GGBS is used as 50% in concrete.
For Sea water mixing and Sea water curing of M30, M40 and M50
49

11. Sea water mixing and curing has an effect on the compressive strength of normal
concrete (M30, M40 and M50).
12. Sea water mixing and curing affects the compressive strength of concrete when flyash
is used as 25% replacement of cement in concrete.
13. 50% of GGBS based concrete reached their ultimate strength slowly.
For Normal water curing and Normal water mixing of M30, M40 and M50
14. Normal water mixing in concrete and curing with normal water has no affect on the
normal concrete
15. But other two blended concretes increase gradually their compressive strength from
28 days to 56 days.
5.2 Recommendations
Sea water can be used for concrete compression members.
5.3 Further research is desirable in the area of
Corrosive inhibitors to expand the adoption of sea water.
Other cements and higher grades of concretes.
Other RCC elements.
Bond strength.
Long term durability studies.
Application of Sea water for structural Reinforced concrete tensile members.

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Akinkurolere and school (2007), The influence of Salt Water on the Compressive
Strength of concrete. Journal of engineering and applied sciences, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp.
412 415.
2. Akinsola et al., (2012), Investigation of Salinity Effect on Compressive Strength of
Reinforced Concrete, Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 5 No. 6, Published
by Canadian Center of Science and Education.
3. Bakharev T (2005), Durability of geopolymer materials in sodium and magnesium
sulfate solutions, Cement and Concrete Research. 35(6), pp. 1233-1246.
4. Chalee et al., (2009): Marine Structures, Volume 22, Issue 3, July 2009, Pages 341
353, Predicting the chloride penetration of fly ash concrete in seawater, W. Chaleea, C.
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