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MODERN

CONSTB
ENVELOP
ANDREWWATIS
MOD ERN CONSTRUCTION SERIES

fl SpringerWienNewYork

TION

2
INTRODUCTION
Int ro ductio n

6 METAL WALLS
6

Envelopes and digital


fabr ication

14

10

( I) Stick glazing:

74 CONCRETEWALLS 156
76

Syste m assembly

Fixing method s

Envelopes as form-defining
systems

( I) Sheet metal:

12 GLASS WALLS

3
( I) Cast in sit u /
cast -in-place:

Openings

Framing profi les

Parapets, drips and cills

Substrates and

Opening light s

Finishes

suppo rt ing wa lls

Corner s

As-cast finish

Corn er s, parapets

Spandrel panels

Was hed finish

and cills

Po lished finish
(2) Uniti sed glazing:

(2) Profiled metal cladding:

24

86

jo int ing panels

jun ct ion s

Opening light s

(2) Storey height


precast panels:

Parapets and gutters

Corner panels, parapets and cills

Panel ty pes

W indow/door o penings

Penetrations

Therm al Insulati o n

Insulation , liner trays

Silicone-bond ed glazing

joints

D evelopm ents

34

96

Patch plate glazing

(3) Small precast/GRC cladding

Parapets and cills

Clamped glazing

panels:

W indow/door o penings

Opaque glazing

Individually suppor te d

D evelopm ents

Sealing clamped glazing

panels

Corn er s

Self suppor t ing

Therm al br idges at cills

(4) Metal rainscreens:

(4) Bo lt fixed glazing:

44

106

stacked panels

Support meth od s

Parapets and cills

Bottom suppo rted glazing

Openings

Mater ials

Top hung glazing

Sand blasted finish

Fixing method s

Corner s

and t oo led finish

Backing walls

Seals and int erfaces

Constru ction sequence


W indow/door o penings

(5) G lass blocks:

Parapets and cills

11 6

Fixing glass blocks


Support fr ames and walls

(5) Mesh screens:

54

Cast glass channels

Rigid mesh
Meshes flexible in

(6) Steel w indows :

one direction

Small-scale glazing

Fully flexible mesh

Large-scale glazing

126

Mesh used o n curves


Perforated metal

(7) A luminium and PVC-U


w indows:

(6) Louvre screens:

64

132

W indows in o penings

Metal lo uvres

W indow wa lls

Glazed lo uvres

Composite w indows

Solar shading
W alkways

168

Ac id etc hed finish


(3) Clamped glazing:

(3) Composite panels:

158

(8) T imb er w indows:


Window wa lls
W indow design
W indows in op enings

146

178

CONTENTS

4
MASONRY WALLS

188
Plastic-based cladding

( I) Masonry loadbearing walls:


Brick, sto ne and
concrete block

( I) Sealed panels:
190

Mortars

( I) Cladding the t imber

242

GRP panels

Timber frames

Polycarbonate cladding

Ground level

264

Upper fl oors

Parapets
Cills and openings

(2) Rainscreens:

252

Flat polycarbonate sheet


(2) Masonry cavity walls:
Brick

frame:

Corners
Roof eaves and parapets

Multi-wall polycarbonate sheet


200

Profi led polycarbonate sheet

(2) Cladding panels

Plastic-composite fi at panels

and rainscreens:

W indow and door openings

UPVC board cladding

Timber boards

Eaves and parapets

UPVC windows

Finishes

GRP panels

Cladding panels and rainscreens

Ground level

Plywood sheets

(3) Masonry cavity walls:


Sto ne and concrete block 2 10
Wall structures
Ground level
Openings in walls
Eaves and parapets
(4) Stone cladding:

220

Fixings
Cladding to precast concrete
panels
Joints
Closed joints
Movement joints
Sto ne fi nishes
(5) Terr acotta rainscreens:
Manufacture of panels
Corner pieces
Fixing syste ms
Panel sizes
Openings

230

274

METAL ROOFS

284 GLASS ROOFS

( I) Metal standing seam

286

9
336

( I) Greenho use glazing and

Site-based meth od

capped systems

CONCRETE ROOFS 388


( I) Co ncealed mem brane

338

Mat erials

Prefabricated method s

Greenhouse glazing

Str uctural joint s

Sealed and vent ilate d ro ofs

Mo dern roof glazing

Parapet upstands

Roof o penings

Capped systems

Balustrades and plinths

Ridges and valleys

Rainw ater o ut lets


(2) Silicone-sealed glazing

Eaves and parapets

and roofii ghts


(2 Profiled met al sheet

296

Penetratio ns for pipes and ducts


348

Silicone-sealed syste ms

(2) Exposed membrane

Juncti on s

as substrates

Use of capped profi les

PVC membranes

Profiled met al roof sheet ing

Ro ofiights

FPO (T PO) membranes


Mechanically fixed method

Sealed and vent ilate d meth od s

Bo nded fixing meth od

(3) Bo lt fixed glazing: small scale

Tw in skin const r uction

ro ofiights

Ridges
Openings

Generic struct ural suppo rt

Eaves and parapets

meth ods

Ridges and valleys

Supporting brackets

306

358

(3) Planted

Bo lt fixings

System design

A rrangeme nt of bolt fixings

Planted roof com po nents


So il dept h
O verfiow s

Tw in wall panels

Roof junctions

(4) Bolt fixed glazing: large scale

Ridges
Verges

ro ofiight s

Eaves

Base of glazed ro of

Parapets and valley gutters

Exte rnal and int ern al fo lds

368

3 16

Larger roofiight s

Panel arrangement
(5) Bonded glass roofii ghts

Parapets

Generic conical roofiight

Mo no pit ch ridges and verges


Roof geomet ry

Generic rect angular roofiight

Roof soffits

Generic mo nopitch ro ofiight


Glass roof decks

(5) Met al cano pies


Bo lt fixed panels
Fixed metal lo uvre cano pies
Electrically o perate d louvres

326

Rainw ater o ut lets


Balcony planter s

Small glazed roofii ghts


(4) Rainscreens

Parapets and upstands


Ballasted ro ofs

Glazed unit s

Single wall composite panels

406

Po lymer-based membr anes

Profiled met al decks

(3) Composite panels

390

378

4 10

CONTENTS

10
TIMBER ROOFS

420 PLASTIC ROOFS

( I) Flat roof Bitumen -based


sheet membran es

( I) GRP ro ofi ights


422

462
464

Eaves and upstands

~~ ~
( I) ETFE cushions
Cushions

Th e mater ial

Verges

A ir supply

Roof build-up

A but ments

Th e mater ial

Solar protection

Sliding ro of panels

Fabri cation
Durabi lity

Fixing methods
Parapet upstands

(2) GRP panels and shells

Junction w it h til ed roof

Smaller panels and shells

Eaves and verges

Larger panels and shells

474

Performan ce in fire

(2) Single membrane:


Con e-shaped roof

(2) Pitched roofTil es

486

432

Plain t iles

496

Fabri c roof prin ciples


Fabr ic t ypes

Interlocking til es

Comparison of ty pes

Vent ilat ion

Th erm al insulati o n

Eaves

Aco ust ics

Ridges

Durability

Verges

Performan ce in fire

Hip s and valleys

Cond ensation

A but ments
(3) Single membrane:
(3) Pitched roof Slates

442

Barrel-shaped roof

Roof fo lds

Membrane roof fabrication

Vents

Membrane ro of edges

Mon op itch ridges

Suspension points

Dormer w indows

Membrane fold s

A but ments

(4) Pitched ro of Metal


Standing seam co ld roofs
Eaves and valley gutters
Ridges and abutm ents
Penetrations
Metal ti led ro ofs

452

506

I IN DEX

51

A ut horship

5 16

Index

518

Intra uction

MODERN CONSTRUCTION SERIES


Th e series is based aro und th e Mod ern Co nstr uct io n H andbook.Top ics from th e Walls and Roofs chapte rs from th e MCH
are develop ed to provide more comprehensive information.

CONCRETE WAL LS

Chapter 3
Th e Con crete chapte r compares in-sit u (cast-in-place) concrete, and its use of form work o n site, w it h precast concrete and

Bo oks in th e series discuss mater ial syste ms based o n th e pr ima-

it s use of mou lds in a factory away from th e site . In th e use of

r y mater ial used.Th e series current ly comprises Mod ern Con -

eit her t echnique, th e constraints of th e panel sizes imposed by cast-

st ruct io n Facades, Mo dern Co nstr uctio n Roofs and Modern

ing methods influence th e use of th e material.

Con stru ction Envelop es.

MASONRY WALLS
AIMS O FTHIS BOOK
Mod ern Con stru ction Envelo pes combines th e earlier Mod -

Chapter 4
In th e Masonry chapter th e construct ion meth od o logy is clas-

ern Co nst ruction Facades and Mod ern Con stru ction Roofs into a

sified by wall construction: loadbearing, cavity wall o r cladding

single book w it h updated illust rati o ns and more exploded views

attac hed t o a backing wall.W it hin each construct ion method , th e

of materi al systems.This is a t extbook for st udents of architect ure ,

use of materials is very similar from brick t o sto ne and concrete

as we ll as st udents of st ruct ural and enviro nmenta l engineering

block.Th e differences in th e specific use of a particular mater ial are

w ho w ish t o broaden th eir study beyon d th e information provid-

shown in th e details.

ed in th e Walls and Roofs chapte rs of th e Mod ern Co nst ructio n


H andbook. It shows th e pr inciples of th e main facade t ypes used
t oday and illustrates thi s th rou gh t ypical generic details.Th e six
chapte rs examine envelo pes from th e standpo int of th e pr imary
materi al used in th eir const ructio n, from metal t o glass, concrete,

T he Plastics chapte r explores th e range of plastics from cellu-

masonry, plastics and t imber. Each set of five doub le page spreads

lar mater ials, such as po lycarbonate, t o composite mat er ials such

explains a specific form of co nstr uct io n w hich is accompanied by

as GRP, w hich is a combinat ion of a wove n fibrou s mater ial and a

drawn and annotated det ails.Th e t echniques describ ed can be

polymer matri x. N ewer compos ite materials combine th e econo-

applied int ernati o nally.

my of plastic w it h th e durability and st iffness of metal in com posite


sheet materials.Th e recent re-introduction of plastics int o mainstream construct ion has been possible due t o th e improved quali-

METAL WALLS

ty and colour durability of th ese materials.A n advantage of plastics

Char:>ter I

in wa ll const ruction is th at th ey can provide translucency,rath er

Th e Metals chapte r explores th e use of sheet metal from a


materi al fully suppo rte d o n a subst rate t o its use as a self-sup-

th an t he transparency associate d w it h glass, combined w it h high


levels of th erm al insulation.

porting materi al in th e form of profiled decking and composite


panels.Th e use of profiled decking in th icknesses normally used
for shipping containers, rath er th an buildings,has led t o t he intro duction of semi-mo noco que co nstr uct ion w it h thi s materi al.
Some composite panel syste ms are being manufactured w it ho ut
an o ute r facing of metal sheet t o allow a separate wate rproo fing
layer t o be added.

T he Timb er chapte r shows bot h recent developments in tim ber walls and developm ent s in tradit ion al t echniques.Th e low levels of em bod ied energy in thi s materi al, parti cularly in locally
grown t imber, have helped th e revival in th e use of th is mater ial.
Traditionally shunned for large-scale applicat ions due t o its poor

GLASS WALLS

fire resistance, particularly in Europe, th e use of t imber is now bet -

Chapter 2

te r understood to reduce th e spread of fire.Timber ty pes are also

Th e Glass chapte r investigates th e range from framed systems


t o po int fixed glazing.W indows and shop fronts are discussed as
separate systems w hich can be used as full glazing syste ms in th eir
ow n right.

MC E

discussed as t heir selection has considerable enviro nmental impact.

METAL ROOFS
Chapte r 7
Th e Metals chapte r discusses th e use of met al sheet in ro ofs

PLASTIC ROOFS
Chapter I I
Po lycarb on ate panels have th e advantage of providing we ll

both as a substrate and as a wa te rt ight cove r ing.W hen used as a

insulated translucent panels th at are more eco no m ic th an th o se in

substrate, in th e form of profi led met al decking o r co m posite pan-

glass. Th ey are mu ch light er th an glass, allowing more visually deli-

els,a wate r proof membrane can be formed in different materials.

cate suppo rt str uct ures t o be used for th ese panels. G lass rein-

U sed as a cove r ing materi al, m etal sheet can be em ployed in

forced pol yester (G RP) can produce opaque ro of form s th at are

standing seams, profiled sheet and rainscreens. Solar shading devic-

free of joints, forming co nt inuo us roof str uct ures such as shells and

es formed from met al are also discussed.

dom es co m pose d of a mon olith ic, light w eight mater ial w it h a


watert ight finish o n its o utside face. A ll th ese ty pes are ex plained
in th is chapte r.

GLASS ROOFS
Chapter 8
Th e G lass chapte r sets o ut th e use o f th e mater ial as both
ro ofii ght s and as large glass ro ofs. St ick fr amed ro ofii ghts and
glazing syste ms are related t o th o se used for wa lls, but are usual-

Th e Fabr ic chapte r discusses t ensile ro of str uct ures, air sup-

ly fixed w it h pressure plates o n th e t w o sides parallel w it h th e

po rted t ypes and smaller scale cano pies. PT FE membranes can be

line o f slo pe . Bolt fixed glazing systems for roofiights and roofs

st retc hed ove r suppo rting st r uct ures, ty pically stainless stee l cables

fo llow principles used in wa ll co nst r uct io n. Bond ed glass decks

w it h tubu lar steel suppo rts. PTFE sheet is also used t o form inflat -

and roofiights are a developm ent o f glass bloc k deta ils, w hich are

ed 'air pillow s' th at are suppo rted o n an alum inium fr ame.Th eir

also discussed . Finally in th is chapte r. glazed cano pies are dis-

advantage o f high th erm al insulat ion and light ness in we ight is mak-

cussed, fo cusing o n th o se th at use point fixin gs w it h a minimum

ing th em an increasingly preferred o pt io n for ro of str uct ures.

of suppo rt st r uct ure .

QUALIFYING COMMENTS
CO NC RETE ROOFS
Chapter 9
Ro of decks co nstr ucte d in co ncrete are cove red w it h a var iety

Th e building t echniqu es discussed and th e built exam ples


shown are designed t o last for an exte nded per iod w it h a relati vely high perform ance. Co nsequent ly, buildings for ex hibit io ns

of wate r proof membranes and finishes.W hen th e membrane is

and for t emp orary use are excluded. In addressing an int ernati o n-

applied directly t o th e co ncrete, th erm al insulation and finishes,

al reader ship, references t o nation al legislation, buildin g regulation s,

such as plantin g, paving slabs or timber decking, are applied. Con-

co des o f practi ce and nation al sta ndards have spec ifically not been

str uct io n can also be finished w it h anot her ro ofing syste m, such as

inciuded.T his bo ok ex plains th e pr inciples of accepte d building

met al standing seams, o r rainscreens in ot her materi als.A ll th ese

t echniqu es curre nt ly in use. Building co des th rou ghout th e wo r ld

ty pes are discussed in th is chapte r.

are und ergoing increased harm on isat ion because of increased


eco no m ic and intellectu al glo balisat io n. Building co m po nents and
assem blies from m any different co unt r ies are ofte n used in a sin-

iTIMBER ROOFS
Chapter 10
Tim ber roofs are a traditi on al form o f co nstr uct io n th at use

gle buil ding. Since building co des are w ritte n t o protect users of
buildings by providing for th eir health and safety, goo d co nstr ucti on pract ice w ill always uph old th ese codes as we ll as assist th eir

mainly t iles, slates and shingles in hou sing proj ects. In recent years,

advanceme nt. T he co m po nents, assem blies and det ails shown in

th e increased use of met al sheet o n timber roofs has led t o an

thi s bo ok describe many of th e building t echniqu es used by th e

increase in more co m plex geo met r ies th at do not need t o fo llow

building indust ry t od ay, but t his bo ok do es not necessar ily

th e principles of th o se tradition al lapped ro ofing mater ials. Flat

endorse o r ju stify th eir use since t echn iques in building are in a

timber roofs, thin planting and met al sheet, in addit io n t o th e more

co nt inual state o f change and development. A ll deta ils shown aim

tradition al single m embrane finishes, are set out here.

t o d em on str ate co nt inuity in th erm al insulati o n and wate rproofing, t ogeth er w it h t w o defences against rainw at er penetrati on.
W here spec ific it ems are not clear ly present o n draw ings, th ese
prin cipl es sho uld st ill be foll ow ed.

MC E 7

Panelisation for manufacture , using 3-D parametric software,

Fixing detail for panels using a minimum set of cast and extruded components,

While th e building envelope syst ems

panels w ere eit her single curved or double

described in t his book are most ly described

curved t o pr ovide a co nt inuously curved sur-

through rectilinear building form s,th ey can

face made from a combinat ion of GRC (glass

equally be applied t o complex geo met ries

reinfo rced co ncret e) and GRP (glass rein-

and assoc iate d mass customisat ion t ech-

forced po lymer) t ypes,Th e GRC is used

niques described in t he int ro duction essays in

mainly o n surfaces t hat are walked upo n in

th e seco nd edit ion of t he Modern Con stru c-

th e plaza spaces aro und th e building,w hile

t io n H andbook,

t he GRP is used as roof cladding panels

A n example is describ ed here w here th e

Panelisation of geometry for manufacture,

MCE

w hich are light er in w eight and have a com -

aut hor, a directo r of N ewtecnic, facade

parable co lour and surface finish, Panels we re

designers based in Lo ndon, wo rked w it h t he

manufact ured w hich follow ed t he geomet ry

United A rab Emirates' based co nt racto r,A ra-

required by th e architect w it ho ut th e need

bian Profiles (A PL) o n an exte rnal envelope

for flat o r facetted panels, w hile being eco-

of complex geomet ry,T he proj ect w as a cul-

nomi c in th e met hod of manufacture.Thi s

tu ral cent re in A zerbaijan, w hich involved t he

o utco me was achieved by translating th e dig-

manufacture of 16,000 cladding panels.These

ital 3D mod el describin g th e geomet ry into

Triangulated roof structu re to which envelope system if fixed

12- - ---..,....,- -

::. .:-... .

....,

-,

.....

....

...,

~.-

:'-.

<,

Panelisation of geometry for manufacture,

Panelisation of geometry for manufacture ,

individual panels w it h data th at co uld be


used in flex ible mou lding t ables t o fabr icate

Panelisation of geometry for manufacture ,

Th e use of a flexible mou lding t able


allow s co mplex panel shapes form ed in single

th e panels using a meth od of mass customi-

curved geomet ry t o be manufactured quickly

sat io n.T he mou lding t able was designed by

and eco no mically t o a high standard. D igitally

th e manufacturer of th e panels,A PL, w ho

co ntro lled devices are used t o adjust th e

make envelope systems th at focus o n realis-

shape of th e panel w it h data provided by th e

ing ambit ious architect ural designs using mass

3D mod el. Informat io n for edge returns for

produ ct ion o r mass customisat ion t ech-

th e panels, used t o stiffen panels at th eir

niques,The three dim ension al form w as

edges, was pro vided by 'developed', o r

descr ibed by a grid of po ints linked by regu-

unro lled, shapes offset from th e curved

lar curve s th at create th e single curve d form s

shapes in th e 3D mod el generate d by th e

w it h non -r ectilin ear edges.T he flexible

architect,Thi s avoidance of purely hand craft -

mou lding t ables use digital input t o create

ed t echniques ensures th at th e manufacture

visually co mplex form s w it ho ut th e need for

of syste ms for co mplex buildings can be

hand-m ade co mpo nents w it h th eir associat -

applied t o large-scale building envelopes,

ed fabrication t o lerances,

Met hod of identifying panels for manufacture and installation

MC E 9

Envelope option of hexagonal unitised panels based on triangular units set into them.

Th is project, designed by N ewtecnic, for new

fJtJ~
....-

Sequence of assembly

MC E 10

create a single set of's hards' t o create a

facades of an exist ing airport building show

combined st ruct ure and envelope solut ion.

how tw o quite different approaches can be

The facade geomet ry is composed of a uni-

t aken w here th e exte rnal envelope is used

t ised syste m of glazing, insulat ed panels, and

t o re-mod el an exist ing building w it hout th e

integrated shading devices.Thi s approach

need for demolishing th e prim ary st r uct ure.

allows th e st raight forward removal of exist-

This approach ensures th at existing buildings

ing rectangular precast concrete cladding,

can be re-used, ofte n w it h quite different

w it h th e new facade panels being lifted int o

function s w it hin th e building.

position and fixed simply t o th e ex ist ing pri-

The design on th e left hand page is gen-

mary st ructure.Th is solut ion ensured th at

erate d aro und th e use of a cladding syste m

both facade and ro of used a secondary stee l

based on th e hexagonal shape of th e plan of

suppo rt syste m th at did not require changes

th e exist ing pr imary st r uct ure, a panel

t o th e exist ing pr imary st ruct ure.

geomet ry w hich lends itself in th e plane of

The design on th e right hand page is

th e ro of The hexagonal panel shape is also

based on a CFD (computat ional fluid dynam-

used for th e facades,spanning from flo or t o

ics) st udy of th e high-wind enviro nment of

floor. A covered at rium space is create d

th e site. The roofscape was digitally generat-

from th e cent ral courtya rd, w it h th e int er-

ed by draping th e existing building form and

face of th e ro of and wall foldin g down t o

applying the prevailing w ind condit ion t o the

Envelope option of rainscreen cladding panels on a continuous waterproof metal deck.The design is based on prevailing wind movement across the site.

,...

...-"",'

resultin g surface.T he flowin g fo rm, striate d

are made from GRP (glass reinfo rced po ly-

t exture and longit udinal glazing st rips fo llow

mer) as used in th e digita l fabrication exam-

t he aerodynam ic requirement s of visual fluidi-

ple in Aze rbaijan, in t he pr eviou s page spread.

ty and air flow, ensuring t hat t he exte rnal

T he design uses a lightweight rainscreen

envelope allowed w ind from th e prevailing

roo f assemb ly envelo ping th e exist ing building

directio n to slip across it s surface, away from

st ruct ure.T his system allows for th e realisa-

peop le ente ring t he building from th e adja-

ti on of curved geomet ries as th e result of a

cent car parking area.

combinat ion of suppo rt ing st ruct ure for

The external envelope co nsists of a do u-

facade and roo f. creat ing a smoot h, co nt inu-

ble-skinned rainscreen system and glazed

o us form. T he rainscreen is backed by an

facade co nnected by steel trusses.W hile th e

eco nomic st r uct ural deck, w it h incorporated

glazing is seen t o visually 'cling' t o t he ex ist ing

closed cell th erm al insulation and wate r-

building struct ure, t he ot her visually 'billows:

proofing memb rane; a co nstruct ion met hod

revealing t he steel t russes th at ho ld t he

w hich provides a visual co nt inuity t o th e

exte rnal envelope in place.T he glazed roof

fo rm of t he exte rnal envelope, in co nt rast

syste m is used t o visually cut th rou gh th e

w it h th e panel compo nent -based so lut io n of

roof t o define new spaces w it hin t he existing

t he hexagonal panel design.

building struct ure as we ll as draw ing light int o


th e internal spaces.T he o paque roo f panels

Panel connections for the hexagonal based option


on previous page.

M C E II

METAL WALLS
(I) Sheet metal:
Fixing methods
Openings
Substrates and

supporting walls
Comers. parapets and (ills
(2) Profiled cladding:
Junctions

Parapets and gutters


Window/door openings

Insulation. liner trays


Developments

(3) Composite panels:

Parapets and cills


Window/door openings

Developments

Comers
Thermal bridges at cills
(4) Metal ralnscreens:

Materials
Fixing methods
Backing walls

Construction sequence
Window/door openings

Parapets and cills


(5) Mesh screens:

Rigid mesh

Meshes flexible in

o ne directio n
Fully flexible mesh
Mesh used on curves
Perforated metal

(6) Louvre screens:


Metal louvres

Glazed louvres
Solar shading

Walkways

MC E

I]

f1 etalWalls 0 I
Sheet metal

I D
Horizontal Section I : I0, Seam profile options

0)

CD

I 0
\'

3-D cut-away view of typical folded metal sheet


cladding construction ,Type 2

3-D view of wind ow inserted into


folded metal facade,Type 2

Verti cal section & elevation I :S0, Sheet metal cladding with
vertical jo int s

Sheet met al is used for t he rich surface t ex-

Fixing method s

450mm t o 600mm ( 18inx24in) square and

t ures t hat can be achieved w it h relati vely soft

T here are t hree fixing meth ods for co nt inu-

are set in eit her hori zont al and ver t ical edges

mater ials applied t o a cont inuo us suppo r t ing

o usly suppo rted sheet metal wa lls:co ntinu-

o r at a 45 angle, Other angles can be used

substrate ,T his meth od does not provide t he

o us sheet, lapped t iles and recessed joint s,

but are harder t o co-o rdinate w it h t he edges

sharp lines and fiat surfaces associated w it h

Co nt inuous sheets are laid in vary ing

of co rne rs and o penings, W indow and door

rainscreen panels or composite panel co n-

w idt hs w it h standing seams in vert ical joint s

o penings are usually enclosed in a met al strip

struct ion.T he m ost commo n metals used are

t hat run co nt inuo usly from t op t o bottom of

aro und t he reveal of t he o pening, w it h a

copper. lead, zinc. Mo re recent ly,sta inless

a wall,Thi s gives th e facade a characte ristic

shadow gap o r proj ectin g co rne r deta il.T iles

steel has come int o use, but primarily as a

st riped appearance w it h stro ng shadows

are not folded int o openings due t o t he

roofing material. Co pper sheet is a ductile

across t he sta nding seam joint s in sunlight.

complexity of jointin g and t he difficulty of

mat er ial, but not as malleable as lead. It s char-

Th e sheet met al is fixed o n th e hori zo nt al

getting t hem to fo ld neatly at half way across

acte ristic green patina w hen fully weat hered

jo ints w it h fiattened seams t hat allow rainw a-

t he panels, Shadows across t he surface of a

gives a consiste nt appearance, Lead sheet is

t er t o drain off easily, Hori zontal joints are at

ti led wa ll have small stro ng lines w hich give a

extremely durable, and it s soft ness allows it

distances t o suit t he visual appearance of t he

very t extured appearance t o t he facade.Tiles

t o be formed over co mplex geomet ries and

design but 12,0 metres (39ft 4in) t o 17,0

are lapped o n four sides t o give a cont inuo us

panels w it h a high amo unt of surface relief

metres (55ft 9in) is t he maximum depending

wate rt ight joint o n all edges,

Z inc is durable, th ough more brittle th an

o n th e metal used.Vertical joints align w it h

copper but is suscept ible t o corros ion from

t he edges of w indows and doo r openings,

met al laid over a specially form ed subst rate

it s underside if not vent ilate d, Stainless steel

H ori zo nt al joint s are usually staggered t o

t o prod uce recessed lines, w hich are usually

is a very durable materi al, but it st ill has an

form a patt ern rather th an t ry t o achieve a

horizont al.The material is occasionally

uneven surface w hen laid t hat provides a

co nt inuous st raight line w hich is difficult t o

recessed o n fo ur sides and set o n a plyw ood

richness of reflection.T he main disadvantage

keep comp lete ly straight and hori zontal.Thi s

backgroun d w it h projecting panels form ed by

of wo rking in stainless steel is it s hardness,

is because ho rizont al joint s are broken

t he plywood , How ever.t his t echnique is sel-

making it difficult t o wo rk w hen forming fo lds

between each vertical seam,

do m used any more due t o th e increased

in jointing,
MCE

14

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Lapped ti les are made approximate ly

Recessed joints are formed in sheet

use of metal rainscreen panels w it h th eir

Vertical section :I0, Folded metal sheet parapet


detail

3-D views of folded metal sheet with


angled seam lines

Details

---------.r--CD
CD
Horizontal section I: I0, Folded metal sheet
connection to aluminium curtain wall type window

I,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.

Folded metal sheet


Fixing battens
Standingseam joints
Window frame
Waterproof membrane, typically
bitumen based paint
Internal finish
Metal clips fixed at centres
Timber window cill
Substrate in plywood or timber
board
Folded metal coping
Thermal insulation
Backing wall - timber/metal frame
with plywood facing
Vapour barrier
Ventilated metal drip
Structural concrete wall

Vertical section I: I0, Folded metal sheet connection


to aluminium curtain wall type window head

Vertical section I:I0, Folded metal sheet connection


to aluminium curtain wall type window cill

CD
@

I
@

3-D view of aluminium window in folded metal cladding system

Vertical section I,I0, Ground level cill

MC E

15

fl etalWalls 0 I
Sheet metal

Ho rizontal section I 10. Simple seam details at


corners

Details
Ho rizontal section I :IO. Internal corner junction
with wall

Hori zontal section I:I O. External corner formed


from folded metal sheet

6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
I I.
12.

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.

---- Wv~1IfNft -

13.
14.
15.

Folded metal sheet


Fixing battens
Standingseam joint s
W indow frame
W at erpro of membrane,typically
bitumen based paint
Internal finish
Metal clips fixed at centres
Timber window cill
Substrate in plywood or timber
board
Folded metal coping
Thermal insulation
Backing wall - timber/metal frame
with plywood facing
Vapour barrier
Ventilated metal drip
Structural concrete wall

Horiz ontal section I: IO. Internal corner connection


with folded metal sheet

Horiz ontal section I 10. External corner with seam


connection

advantage of flat ness of panel and close fixing

facade. For all ori ent ation s of sheet met al.

t o lerances, providing crisp lines at joint s

w indow and doo r o penings have separate

a w indow t hat is designed fo r use w it ho ut

w hich are more difficult to achieve in a sheet

met al sheets forming reveals o n all sides.

such a finish.Th e usual altern ative is to use

met al cont inuo usly suppo rte d on a profiled

A lt ho ugh t his can result in some awkward

eit her a po lyester powd er coate d o r PVDF

cladding w ill always be a decorative finish t o

background. How ever.t his t echnique may

pieces of met al to form junction s aro und

paint finish on aluminium t o match th e col-

find favour again due t o it s rich surface t ex-

w indows, in practice t hey are pract ical and

o ur of t he adjacent met al, o r use a different

t ure. D rips are incorpo rat ed at hori zont al

eco no m ic t o fo rm o n site due t o t he site -

mat erial such as t imb er w indows .A paint fin-

recessed joints to avo id st aining occurrin g as

based nature of fixing metal sheet. Sheet

ish is o bviously much easier t o match if th e

a result of dirt being washed off th e flat sur-

metal cladding is ideally suite d t o t he com-

sheet metal finish is pre-patinated (pre-

plex juncti on s associated w it h non -rectilin e-

we at hered) so t hat it s final colour w ill be

ar geomet ries.A ttempts t o make th e mate-

very similar to t he colo ur of th e metal w hen

Op enings

rial appear too regular can produce disap-

inst alled.Thi s is much more difficult in

Where ver t ical jointed sheet metal is used,

pointing results, parti cularly w here a pure

unweathered metals.Th e use of galvanised

w indow and door o penings are usually posi-

rectilinear grid is attempte d. In t his inst ance,

steel w indows and doors w it h zinc is not so

tioned so th at a joint falls o n th e edge of an

met al rainscreen panels w o uld probably be

commo n due t o th e increased performance

opening.T his gives a clean, co-o rdinate d

more suit able.

of paint coat ings. How ever.galvanised finishes

faces of t hese joint s.

appearance to th e facade, but op enings th at

W indows and doors are glazed w it h

are ever-increasing in th eir durability and may

are set deliberately 'off grid' from t he vertical

almost any available t echnique, but t he ever-

event ually be used as a durab le finish for

joint s also look visually dramatic.A recent

increasing use of do uble glazed units both t o

w indow frames.

developm ent has been to use sheet metal

conserve energy and avo id co ndensat ion o n

Buildings clad partly in sheet metal are

w it h vert ical joint s inclined at angles up t o

t he w indow o r door surface has led t o t her-

beginning t o use large-scale glazed openings

45 from th e vert ical so th at th ey co nt rast

mally broken sect ions being used very com-

using a com plete ly different system such as

w it h rectilinear w indow o penings, giving t he

monly.W indow frames are ofte n clad in t he

bo lt fixed glazing.W hereas t hese two syste ms

sheet metal th e appearance of a cont inuo us

same sheet metal as used in th e adjacent

previou sly seemed incomp atible, w it h sheet

'no n-gridded' t exture acro ss a complete

facade, but thi s is expensive since th e metal

metal as an economic system and bo lt fixed

MC E

16

Ir
r
r
I

Ho rizontal section I 10, External corner with seam


connection

Horizontal section I : I0, External corner with seam


connection

Vertical section I: I0, Parapet detail in folded metal


sheet with projecting joints

Horizontal section I: I 0,W indow detail in folded metal sheet with projecting joints

Vertical section I : I0, Timber window cill detail in


folded metal sheet with projecting joints

Vert ical section I: I0, Ground level cill detail in


folded metal sheet with projecting joints

3-D view of folded metal sheet cladding with projecting joints.Type I

MCE

17

fl etal W alls 0 I
Sheet metal

Vert ical section I: Ia,Aluminium window head detail


in folded metal sheet with recessed joints

3-D view of folded metal sheet with recessed seams, Type I

Deta ils
I,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
I0,
I I,
12,
13.
14,
15,

MC E

Folded metal sheet


Fixing battens
Standing seam joints
W indow frame
W at erproof membrane,typically
bitumen based paint
Internal finish
Metal clips fixed at centres
Timber window cill
Substrate in plywood or timber
board
Folded metal coping
Thermal insulation
Backing wall - timber/metal frame
with plywood facing
Vapour barrier
Vent ilat ed metal drip
Structural concrete wall

18

Vertical section I:Ia,Aluminium curtain wall type


window cill detail in folded metal sheet with
recessed joints

glazing as an expe nsive syste m, t he two are

are not used,Timbe r boards are used but are

now used together increasingly w he re a

usually more ex pe nsive, as is profile d metal

de libe rate co nt rast of surface t extu re is

sheet. W he re t imber fram ing is used fo r t he

so ught.W hile bo lt fi xed glazing has a smoot h,

wa ll co nst ruct ion, t he t imb er subst rate fo rms

co nt inuo us surface uninterrupt ed by visible

an integral part of t he exte rna l wall. provid-

fram ing, shee t metal has joint s in a direction

ing d iap hragm stiffness in t he fram e , Profiled

at 400mm ( Ift 4in) to 600mm (2ft) ce nt res ,

metal sheet is increasingly used as a sub-

w it h a co mparat ively uneven surface finish,

strate fo r zinc, since zinc is more rigid t han


ot he r metals such as co ppe r o r lead. Profiled

Substrates and suppo rt ing walls

met al sheet can span t he gap betwee n t he

Shee t metals can be laid direct ly o nto a sub-

peaks of th e cladding, w hile providing a vent i-

st rate , typically plywood , w it h t he exce pt ion

lated zo ne be hind to avoid co rros ion of t he

of zinc, w hich needs vent ilat ion o n its int erior

zinc.The add it ion of a vent ilat ion mat pro-

face to avoid co rros ion, Plywoo d is preferred

vides a full gap betw een t he zinc and t he

for its d urab ility, since if it beco mes we t

profi led metal.

before a rep air can be undertaken , t he mate-

Shee t metal is increasingly fi xed t o walls

rial can dry o ut w it ho ut be ing damaged ,

co nst ructe d in a w ide range of mat erials:t im-

Other materials such as particle board s are

ber frames, precast co ncrete, co ncrete block

not resistant to moisture pen etration and so

and lightw e ight ste e l frames made in cold

I
Vertical section I: I0, Parapet detail in folded metal
sheet with recessed joints

Horizontal section I: I 0, External corner detail in


folded metal sheet with recessed jo ints

Vertical section I: IO,Timber window head detail in


folded metal sheet with recessed joints

Horizontal section I: I0, Panel to panel junction with


recessed joint

Horizontal section I: I 0,Junction between timber


window and folded metal sheets with recessed
junctions

Horizontal section I: I0, Junction between curtain wall type window and folded metal sheets with recessed
junctions

fo rm ed sect ions,
In Type I, timber fram es use sheet metal
as a cladding in a fair ly traditional form of

ance combined w it h small-scale st anding


seam joints make it ideal for a sealed metal

Vertical section I: IO,Timber window cill detail in


folded metal sheet with recessed joints

cladding w here profiled metal sheet o r com-

const r uction, or as infill panels t o a timber,

posite panels have t oo 'indu strial' an appear-

concrete o r stee l frame.The overall cross

ance, InType 2, t herm al insulati on is set o n

sect io n of th e w all remains th in due to th e

t he o utside of t he concrete st r uct ure in

inclusion of th erma l insulation w it hin th e

o rder to use its th erm al mass as we ll as to

fr ame rather t han o n an o utside face,A

keep t he st r ucture at as even a t emperature

vapo ur barri er is needed on th e w arm- in-

as possible,Th e metal cladding is th en set for-

w inte r side (in a t emp erate climate) t o avo id

ward of t he insulati on,A new develop ment is

vapo ur reaching th e insulation from inside,

th e use of profi led metal cladding as a sub-

T he vapo ur barrier is needed in t he same

st rate in Type 4,W here zinc is used t he vo id

place in Type 3, w here pressed stee l, o r 'light

fo rm ed by t he profiled sheet provides a ven-

gauge' stee l sect ions are used.The all-metal

ti lation zone w it ho ut th e use of timber.A

const r uction ofType 3 is undergoing refine-

plastic-based drainage mat is set between t he

ment for use in housing,w here almost all its

zinc and th e profi led sheet to complete t he

compo nents can be eit her recycled o r

vent ilat ion,

Vertical section I: I0, Ground level cill detail in


folded metal sheet with recessed joints

unbo lted and modified w it h th e same kit of


parts durin g its lifet ime, It s fiatness of appear-

MC E

19

fl etal Walls 0 I
Sheet metal

Vertical section I: I a. Ground level cill detail with


interlocking folded metal panels.Type 3

Verti cal section I: I a. Parapet detail with


interlocking folded metal sheets

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
I a.
I I.
12.

Vertical section I: Ia.Typical wall build-up with


interlocking folded metal panels

Vertical section I: I a. Recessed aluminium


window in interlocking folded metal facade

Corners, parapets and cills

co rrect vert ical o r inclined alignme nt.

Shee t metal can be joine d at co rne rs in

13.
14.
IS.

Folded metal sheet


Fixing battens
Standingseam joints
W indow frame
W at erproof membrane,typically bitumen
based paint
Internal finish
Metal clips fixed at centres
Timber window cill
Substrate in plywood or timber board
Folded metal coping
Thermal insulation
Backing wall - timber/metal frame with
plywood facing
Vapour barrier
Ventilated metal drip
Structu ral concrete wall

Cills are formed in a similar way, but w it h

An adva ntage of sheet metal is th at para-

projecting o r flush drips to throw water clear

facades wit h e it he r recesse d o r proje cting

pet co pings and cill drips at th e base of wa lls

of th e base of th e cladd ing.W he re unweath -

cove rst rips.The cove rs need a t imber o r ply-

at w indows can be formed in th e same mate-

e red metal is used, care sho uld be t aken th at

wood suppo rt under th em to provide rigidity

rial w it h an identi cal fini sh.This is unlike many

rainwater run off from ox id ising metal does

Corn ers for vert ically set metal sheet can also

ot he r metal cladding syste ms, w he re ext rude d

not stain paved surfaces at th e base of th e

be formed by sett ing st anding seam joints at

aluminium o r pressed steel o r aluminium are

wa ll. Slot dr ains o r gravel edges can be used

th e co rne r, o r close to th e co rne r o n e it he r

most co mmo nly used for parapets and cills.

both t o provide dr ainage and avoid visible

side of th e edge .W it h tiled shee ts, co rne rs

The ability to form met al o n site in junction s

staining. Drips are often reinforced w it h a

usually w rap aro und, igno ring th e co rne r li ke

of shee t metal wa lls wit h parapet co pings is

steel o r aluminium angle to create a stro ng,

a co nt inuo us patt ern folded aro und th e co r-

use d e it he r to form a recessed joint, w hich

straight edge . Compatibility between th e clad-

ner.Altern at ive ly, co rne rs can have cove rst rips

allows th e sta nd ing sea m joint in th e cladd ing

ding material and suppo rt material must be

th at break th e patt ern from o ne facade to

t o be tapered down to th e li ne of th e co ping,

e nsured to avoid bimetallic co rros ion.W he re

anot he r. There is an increased use of presse d

o r a proje cting parapet co ping w hich allows

t he vo id behind met al cladding is used for

metal clips and rails, as used in profiled met al

th e sta nding sea m to butt up to the und er-

vent ilat ion, parapets and cills are used to

cladding, to suppo rt sheet metal subst rates ,

side of th e co ping.W it h e it he r solut ion, an

introdu ce fresh air. Insect mesh is introdu ced

typically plywo od . Clips and rails are made as

undercloak fl ashing o r wate rproof laye r is

wit hin th e jo int, but its presen ce does not

propri etar y syste ms w hich can be fixed t o th e

need ed undern eath th e co ping to provide

alte r air fl ow rates signifi cant ly.

backing wa ll quickly and eas ily adjuste d to

addit ional wate rproo fi ng.

MC E

20

Horizontal section I : IO. Interlocking metal panels.


External corn er with metal fold
3-D view of folded meta l sheet
with recessed seams.
Type 4

@
Horizontal section I: IO. Interlocking metal panels.
Internal corner with join t

3-D view of folded meta l


sheet w ith recessed seams.
Type 4

1Inn I I
I I I

I I

~n""rrgrn""n

I I_I

&

t _ U ~U.J I

I J ,-

H orizontal sectio n I : IO. Interlocking meta l panels.


External corn er with joint

---i.

(0-----'--- - -

Horizontal section I : I O. Interlocking metal panels.


Window junct ion

3-D view of fo lded metal sheet wit h recessed seams

MCE

21

Metal Walls
Sheet metal

01-- - - - - - - Deta ils


I. Foldedmetal sheet

2:F'xlngbattens
3. Standing seam joints
5.Waterproof

4,W,ndow frame

membrane. typICa lly


brturren based pa int

7 Met I

'

e.toternal f.nish

a des fixed at centres

9. Substrate ill p~mber Window (ill


or timber board
10. Folded metal coping
12, Backing waUI I .Thermal insulation
- l imbe r/metal frame
wlthp'''~
., ~ facing

13.Yapo ur berner
14.Ventilated metal drip

3-D exploded view of horizontally set folded metal sheet facade with angIed seam lines

\,
,
"

.::7 ~~( ~~

\\\\ l\~

~~ @

\~

3-D exploded voew


v' set folded metal sh
Me
E_ 22 - ot horzontan 0
eel facade with angled seam toes
'
'=

":

~:::

~-

"

.;;=

3-D exploded view of corner condition in tiled


metal rainscreen system

3-D exploded view of folded metal sheet with


horizontal recessed seams

3-D exploded view of corner condition in tiled


metal rainscreen system

3-D view of folded metal sheet with recessed seams

3-D exploded view of construction of horizontally set folded metal sheet


facade with angled seam lines

3-D exploded view of folded metal sheet with


vert ical recessed seams

3-D view of folded metal sheet with recessed


seams

3-D exploded view of window opening in horizontally set folded metal


sheet facade with vertical seam lines

MC E 23

fletal Walls 02
Profiled metal cladding

3-D view of horizontally set profiled metal sheet

3-D view of ve rt ically set profiled metal sheet

An advantage of profiled metal cladding is

ding is used mainly for industrial buildings in

16ft 6in) cent res, depending o n th e floor

th at it can be easily integrated w it h a similar

conjunction w it h a portal fr ame in eit her

height. In buildings of more th an o ne storey,

syste m used for cladding th e roof A lso,small

stee l or concrete , it pro vides an economic

an inner lining t o th e wall is usually added

areas of ro of can be easily accommodated as

cladding syste m for larger framed st r uct ures.

since th e gap create d between th e cladding

steps w it hin th e facade w it h simple junction s


between vert ical and shallow pit ch ro ofs.At
th e junction w it h th e t op of th e ro of an

Th e mater ial can be set eit her vert ically


o r hori zontally t o suit th e design.
Horizontally-set cladding is used w here

and th e floor slab is difficult t o seal economically at floor level in a way th at w ill allow
peop le t o wa lk o n it.T he addit ional inner lin-

undercloak flashing is used t o ensure wate r

it s st ro ng horizontal lines are used for linear

ing may exte nd up t o 1.0 metres (3ft 3in)

running off th e wall is sent on down th e roof

emphasis. Like vertically-set cladding,th e pro -

above th e finished floor level and may be

and not int o th e jo int at th e base.A t th e bot-

filed sheet is suppo rte d at 3.0 t o 5.0 metre

eit her a metal lining tray forming part of th e

t om of th e ro of, eit her an exposed gutter o r

( l Oft t o 16ft 6in) cent res by posts o r st ruc-

proprietary cladding syste m, o r be a concrete

a concealed parapet gutter is used t o collect

tural columns.This direction allow s th e mate-

blockw ork wall aro und 100mm (4in) thi ck.A

th e rainw ater.Ver y small areas of roof can be

rial t o enclose a building w it h a curve d sec-

smo ke seal o r fire barri er may be required

dr ained w it hout a gutter by proj ecting th e

ti on.A useful aspect of profil ed metal sheet -

between th e floors enclosed by th e cladding

roof beyond th e cladding, allow ing th e rain-

ing is it s ability t o be curved in one direction.

but th is is very much dependent upon it s

wate r to be thrown clear of th e cladding and

This makes it an ideal cladding material for

parti cular applicat ion.A lt ho ugh hori zontal

avoiding staining of th e wall below.Th e effect

buildings w it h a curved vertical sect ion. Slight

rails can be set at w ide cent res, addit ional

of throwin g wate r clear of th e building needs

irregularities in th e surface finish o r setting

rails may be needed eit her t o accommo date

t o be int egrat ed w it hin th e overall design.

o ut of th e curve are concealed by th e profi le

w indows and doors o r t o increase th e stiff-

it self Po lished stainless stee l has been used

ness of th e wall w it ho ut using a much deeper

for hori zont ally-set cladding in public build-

profil e, w hich wo uld also increase st iffness.

Profiled metal cladding is most commo nly


used in large single sto rey buildings such as
factories o r wa rehouses w here it spans verti-

ings w here it s high cost is balanced by longer

cally from gro und t o ro of w it ho ut th e need

durability th an coate d aluminium o r coate d

Junctions

for addit ional suppo rt. This makes it a very

m ild stee l typ es.

W hen laid vert ically, sheets are jo ined by lap-

economical solut io n for enclosing th ese


building ty pes.A lt ho ugh profil ed metal d ad-

MC E 24
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vert ically-set sheet ing has hori zontal cladding rails at 3.0 metre t o 5.0 metre ( l Oft t o

ping th em by aro und 150mm (6in) at vertical


joints. Hori zontal joints are also lapped w it h

r~,~=

HI

;--

...-""

r--

.....

.....

""

,/

/""

F-

KD

Details
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,

:-

F-

8>

7,
8,
9,

8>

10,
I I.
12.

13.

.--i

14.
15.
16.
17.

F-

Metal cover st rip set


Ho rizontally-set profiled sheet
Vert ically-set profiled sheet
Z section steel fixing rails
Thermal insulation
Backing wall. typically
t imber/meta l frame with
pIyM:xxJ facingandwaterproof
membrane. or concrete block
Vapour barrier
Int ernal finish
Roof.typically profiled
metal sheet
Curved eavesprofile
Concealed gutter
Exposed gutter
Supporting structural frame
Structural slab
Window frame
Metal tri m to w indow
Metal parapet coping

,1--1'
~,

"

,,
)
J

,
\ ~
I

8)

t--

,
"

:---:I

F-

8>
Vertical section I :25,Vertically set profiled metal
cladding with gutter

8>

rl

~-

Vertical section I:25V ert ically set profiled metal


cladding with gable end

Vertical section I:25, Horizontally set profiled metal


cladding with parapet

_ _ .r1. _ _, " - - -

Vertical section I: I0, Roof junction at gable end

Typical profiled sheet profiles

MCE

25

Vertical section I: IO. Gutter detail for large span enclosure

Vertical section I: IO. Parapet detail

Vertical section I 10.Ground level cill detail

3-D view of profiled metal sheet as roof material

th e upper sheet set ove r th e low er o ne in

seal along a potent ially vulnerable jo int as

th e traditional manner.W hen laid hori zont ally,

we ll as a crisp line t o th e corne r. Regardless

horizontal joints are formed w it h laps as

of sheet o rientat ion, edging and jo inting piec-

w hen laid vert ically, but horizontal jo ints are

es are clearly visible, making th em an impo r-

not usually lapped in th e same w ay,Thi s is

ta nt part of th e design.W hereas profil ed

mainly because it is difficult t o form a co nt in-

sheet can be lapped t o give a co nt inuous

uous straight line in a joint th at moves in and

appearance o n a large area of facade, th e

o ut w it h th e shape of th e profi le. Instead a

edging and joint ing pieces of parapets, cills

recessed t op hat sect io n o r proj ecting cover-

and co rne rs are clearly visible.T he visual

plate is used.Th e profi led sheet is butted up

impact of th ese junct ion s can be reduced

t o th e C-shaped sect io n and sealed w it h sili-

w it h recessed joints.Th e use of curve d eaves

co ne or mastic.Th e same pr inciple is used for

sheet s and curved (in plan) co rne r sheets

a projecting coverplate .

was develop ed t o avoid th e need for visible

Co rne rs are treated in a sim ilar w ay, Co rners t o vert ically- and horizontally-set clad-

available, from some manufacturer s, th at can

ding use proj ecting o r recessed coverst rips.

be lapped smoot hly over adjacent profi led

Th e profiled sheets th at meet are lapped

metal sheet s.

how ever.t o pro vide a w eat hert ight seal and


Vertical section I 10.Meta l door detail

MC E

26

co rner pieces.90 co rner sheets are now

th e coverplate, pro vides both an addit ional

IV

o l

@
3-D view of gutter at connection between profiled metal wall and roof system

Vertical section I 10, Sloping roof junction at gable end

@
@

[-""'--,

Vertical section I : I0, Gable end with external metal gutter

Parapets and gutters

m itred corne r panels to allow a curved pro -

Parapet s are usually fo rm ed by eit her pro -

file to be used continuously arou nd a building.

jecting th e pro filed sheet above th e roof line

Visible gutters are fixed on th e outside

in o rder t o conceal th e roof complete ly,

face of th e cladding.The roof projects over

w hich is ofte n in th e same material in th e

th e t op of th e cladding in o rder t o dr ain rain-

case of industrial buildings,A lte rnat ively, a low

wate r into th e gutter. resulting in th e ro of vis-

parapet is formed at th e level of th e intersec-

ually proj ecting fo rw ard of th e wa ll. unlike a

t ion of wa ll and ro of, w it h a recessed gutter

parapet gutte r.A n advantage of t his method

set immediately behind th e parapet. A varia-

is th at rainw ater is kept o ut side th e building,

t ion on t his latter so lut io n is t o use curve d

avoiding th e need t o run vertical rainw ater

eavest o give th e idea of complete cont inuity

pipes w it hin a building,th en runnin g rainw a-

between walls and roof w it h o nly a recessed

t er back o ut th rough t he found atio ns below

gutter creat ing a line between th e two.T he

gro und level. Since gutters are needed o nly

recessed gutter in any of th ese configurat ions

at th e base of ro of slopes, gutters are often

is useful w hen a pitched ro of is used. On th e

not needed o n all facades, giving an uneven

gable elevat ion th e parapet can remain th e

appearance t o th e building.A solut ion t o

same height w hile th e roof rises and falls

making gutters wo rk o n all facades is t o

independently of th e cont inuing line of th e

design a hipped roof th at drains equally into

parapet o n all sides,Curved eaves have

all gutters, but thi s can complicate roof

Verti cal section I :IO. Roof junction at gable end

D etails
I.
2.

Metal cover strip set


Horizontally-set profiled sheet
3. Vertically-set profiled sheet
4.
Z section steel fixing rails
5.
Thermal insulation
6.
Backing wall,typically
timber/metal frame with
plywood facingand waterproof
membrane, or concrete block
7.
Vapour barrier
8.
Internal finish
9.
Roof,typically profiled
metal sheet
10, Curved eaves profile
I I, Concealed gutter
I 2, Exposed gutter

MC E

27

rl etal W alls 02
Profiled metal cladding

Vertical section I 10, Curved eaves with hidden gutter

Vertical section I:I 0, Curved eaves without gutter

Details
.--

I,
2,

Metal cover strip set


Horizontally-set profiled sheet
3. Vertically-set profiled sheet
4,
Z section steel fixing rails
5,
Thermal insulation
6,
Backing wall,typically
timber/metal frame with
plywood facingand waterproof
membrane, or concrete block
7,
Vapour barrier
8,
Internal finish
9,
Roof,typically profiled
metal sheet
10, Curved eaves profile
I I, Concealed gutter
I 2, Exposed gutter
I 3, Supporting structural frame
14, Structural slab
15, Window frame
16, Metal trim to window
17, Metal parapet coping

3-D view of curved eaves connection with hidden gutter

=.:::::_=.--_

F=:==:=::::::::::::::::::=___
Vertical section I: I0,Junction with roof

MC E

28

---=Vertical section I: I0, Roof junction at abutting wall

..

3-D view and cut-away of profiled metal sheet assemblywith gutter

design. Gutter s require suppo rt by brackets

t ors to ensure a co nsistent co lour through-

Insulation and liner trays

back t o primary st r ucture in o rder t o sup-

o ut t he project.A n alte rnat ive approach is t o

A lt ho ugh profiled met al sheet is capable of

port th e we ight of w ate r w hen in use.The

reduce reveals t o a small dept h and use a

lo ng vert ical spans, t he th erm al insulat io n and

suppo rt ing brackets usually need t o pene-

colour fo r t he w indows different from t hat

int ern al finish mat erial require addit ional sup-

trate th e cladding, requirin g seals aro und th e

of th e adjacent cladding. For example, w it h

port.The insulation cannot be fixed directly

penetratio ns in order t o make t hem weat h-

a silver met allic finish fo r cladding, a darker

t o t he metal sheet w it ho ut being bo nded t o

ert ight. If t he roof construct ion is required t o

grey might be used fo r w indow frames w it h-

it. Fixing br ackets t o t he pro filed sheet wo uld

be vent ilate d t hen th e dept h of th e gutter

o ut creat ing any cont rast betw een th e two

involve penetratin g th e sheet. creat ing a pos-

w ill increase if th e roof is int ended t o be hid-

colours used.

sible po int for w ate r ingress.Welding a sup-

den fro m view. D eep gutters have a stro ng


visual presence o n th e facade.

Cills are formed in pressed met al w hich

port bracket wo uld be both expensive and

is inclined t o drain w ate r from its horizont al

easily distort t he surface of th e cladding.

surface and has a pro jecting dr ip t o avoid

Bond ing t he insulati o n t o t he liner w ould be

W indow and door openings

dirt. washed off t he cill, runnin g onto th e

th e next practical method, but thi s is done as

T he reveals for w indows and doo r s are

cladding below, w hich wo uld cause staining.

a composite panel, w hich has const raints and

formed in flat met al sheet. usually th e same

Some drips have rising edges at th e sides t o

is dealt w it h in th e next section.

met al and same colo ur as t he profiled sheet-

avoid wate r runnin g off at t he sides t hat

ing. In pr actice th e colour matching can be

causes st reaking in lines below th e edges of

mediary sheet ing rails th at are also used t o

difficult if t he coat ing (usually po lyester pow -

t he o penings. Cills at gro und level o r at t he

suppo rt an inner metal lining sheet. Sheeting

der coat ing o r PVDF) is applied in different

base of t he cladding are eit her flush o r pro -

rails are made from pressed steel sections.

wo rksho ps or by different coat ing applica-

jecting,t o suit visual requirement s.As w it h

Since t he lining sheets are usually flat, t o cre-

t o r s. Cont rasting colo urs are somet imes

sheet met al cladding, t he cill is usually rein-

ate a smoot h finish w it hin t he building, t hey

chosen for t his reason .This is also tru e of

forced both t o ensure it lies in a st raight line

do not span very far and require sheet ing

w indow sect ions,w hich are usually supplied

and protect it from accidental damage.

rails set at close cent res.T he rails can be used

Flexible insulati on quilt is fixed t o int er-

predated by a different manufacturer. Close

to give addit ional rigidity to th e o ute r profi led

co- o rdinat io n is needed between cont rac-

sheet. but thi s requires penetrating th e sheet

MCE

29

fl etal ails 02
Profiled meta l cladding

Vertical section I : I0. A luminium window recessed


into profiled metal cladding system

3-D view of recessed aluminium window in profiled metal facade

w it h screw fixings w hich are sealed from th e

not suite d t o cladding since t he st anding

o ut side w it h plasti c caps and w ashers.

seam joint. w hich is not designed t o be tightly

A n inner lining tray can also be form ed

folded t ogether, does not wo rk w hen set in

from th e same metal profi led sheet. as used

t he vert ical plane.This pr inciple is also tru e of

in wareho use buildings w here a smooth inner

wall cladding types w hich are lapped and are

wall finish is not needed. Som e interm ediary

not suite d t o use in ro ofs, w here th e seam is

sheet ing rails are still required t o suppo rt th e

not high enough t o be submerged under

th erm al insulati o n.A more econo mic form of

wate r during rain.A recent developm ent has

lining w all th at does not interfere w it h th e

been th e use of flat metal rainscreen panels

o ute r profiled cladding is concrete blockwork.

fixed directly t o a profi led sheet.This provides

In thi s instance, closed cell th erm al insulation

a smoot h finish visually t o th e outside face of

is fixed t o th e out side face of th e wa ll.

t he cladding, w hile maintaining th e economy


and st r uctural efficiency of t he profiled sheet.

3-D views of head and cill details of recessed aluminium window in profiled metal facade

Developments

A lt ho ugh th e oute r metal panel is fixed t o

Th e range of profi le ty pes is steadily increas-

th e profiled sheet w it h screws o r rivets th at

ing, w it h w ider,deeper profi les th at we re

penetrate it. th e pin jointed rainscreen config-

o riginally designed for use as ro of decking

uration protects t he fixings from th e wo rst

being used as w all cladding. How ever, some

effects of w indblow n rain.

of th e inter locking ty pes used on roofs are

MC E

30

Vertical section
enclosure

10. Gutter detail for small span

Vertical section
upstand

10. Cill connection to concrete

Vertical section I 10, Roof connection to composite metal roof system

Horizontal section I :I0, Internal corner

'3

-'t]'- r

Horizontal section I: I0. External corner

n U l ILVllLdl :::.eCLlUII I . I v . \.....UlllleClIUII LV Illeldl UUUI

Deta ils
I,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,

7,
8,
9,
10.
I I.
I 2.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Metal cover strip set


Horizontally-set profiled sheet
Vertically-set profiled sheet
Z section steel fixing rails
Thermal insulation
Backing wall,typically
timber/metal frame with
plywood facing and waterproof
membrane, or concrete block
Vapour barrier
Internal finish
Roof,typically profiled
metal sheet
Curved eaves profile
Concealed gutter
Exposed gutter
Supporting structural frame
Structural slab
Window frame
Metal trim to window
Metal parapet coping

3-D view of rear of recessed aluminium window in profiled metal facade

MCE

31

fletal Wa Is 02
Profiled metal cladding

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Metal cover strip set


Horizontally-set profiled sheet
Vertically-set profiled sheet
Z section steel fixing rails
Thermal insulation
Backing wall,typically
timber/metal frame with
plywood facingand
waterproof membrane,
or concrete block

7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Vapour barrier
Internal finish
Roof,typically profiled
metal sheet
Curved eaves profile
Concealed gutter
Exposed gutter
Supporting structural frame
Structural slab
Window frame
Metal trim to window
Metal parapet coping

3-D detail view of profiled metal


sheet connection to blockwork wall

3-D detail view of profiled


metal sheet with gutter

3-D exploded detail view of profiled metal sheet connection to blockwork wall

MC E

32

3-D exploded view of profiled metal sheet assembly with gutter

3-D exploded view of horizontally set folded metal sheet

3-D exploded view of vertically


set folded metal sheet

3-D view of recessed aluminium window in


profiled metal facade

3-D view and exploded axonometric of window head detail

3-D exploded view of recessed aluminium window in profiled metal facade

3-D section of recessed aluminium


window in profiled metal facade

3-D view and exploded axonometric of window cill detail

MC E

33

Metal W alls 03
Composite panels
------

l
- @--

@-

CD
Horizontal section 1:5. Panel to panel

connect ion with visible cap

CD

Horizontal section 1:5. Panel to window


connect ion with visible cap

3-D view of compos ite panels fixed to aluminium supporting frame


with inter locking joints on two sides with vertical (right) and horizon tal (left) capping pieces

(2)

Horizontal section 1:5. Connection


between composite panel and curta in
wall type glazing with cap

(2)

Horizontal section 1:5.Connection


between composite panel and curta in
wall type glazing with metal flashing

Comp osite metal panels require few er com-

w here made specifically as part of a proprie-

th e trim projects beyond th e face of th e

pon ents th an for th e 'kit of parts' used in th e

t ary system. In pr actice, w indows are usually

cladding t o th row wate r clear and prevent

assembly of profiled metal cladding. Like pro-

supplied by a specialist manufacturer.

staining t o panels below.The back of th e dr ip

filed metal.panels are set eit her vert ically o r


horizontally.Some panels int erlock o n tw o

T he steel suppo rt fr aming is set o n th e

proj ects up th e back of th e upper panel t o

face of th e slab, making it easier t o take up

prevent wate r from penetrating th e jo int.

sides,w hile ot hers interl ock o n four sides.

deflect ions in floor slabs. However, as is th e

Panels are also suppo rte d o n eit her an inter-

Four-sided panels require no separate int er-

case w it h curtain wa lling,th e gap between

locking frame o r occasionally th ey span

face com po nents for jo inting but it is more

composite panel and floor slab needs filling

between columns if panels are st iff enough t o

difficult later t o remove a damaged panel.

w it h a smo ke seal o r fire barri er.Th e floor fin-

span unassisted.A n additional method of fix-

ish usually has a metal angle t o close off th e

ing panels is t o position th em between floor

Horizontally-set composite panels can


be easily int egrat ed w it h ribbon w indows

gap at slab level and at th e soffit level below.

slabs spanning from floor t o ceiling w hen

and suit building facades covering several

Four-sided int erl ocking panels use t he same

used as part of a rainscreen syste m. Panels sit

floors. Panels are stacked o ne above th e

prin ciple for fixing o n all four sides.This also

o n th e floor slab w it h th eir o ute r face flush

ot her w it h th eir vert ical joints closed by rub -

makes it easier t o integrate w indows w it hin

w it h th e edge of th e slab.Th e oute r rain-

ber-based gaskets, recessed channel sect ions

th e system since a w indow panel is locked in

screen is set forw ard of th e composite panel,

in alum inium, o r proj ecting coverst rips in alu-

like any ot her panel.

minium. Panels are fixed back t o t he pr imary

Vertically-set composite panels are more

str uct ure o r o n a secondary stee l frame, typ-

commo n in single storey applicat ions, but

concealing both th e panels and th e edge of


th e floor slab.
Interl ocking vert ically-set panels are of

ically box sect ions, fixed t o th e sides of floor

multi-storey applicat ions are used increasingly.

several ty pes, unlike horizontally-set types,

slabs if colum ns are spaced t oo far apart o r

Panels are int erlocked at vert ical jo int s, w hile

w hich have a ste pped jo int t o avoid rainw a-

columns are not position ed o n th e edge of

hori zont al joints are formed by using a cill-

te r penetration.T he most commo n type for

floor slabs.

t ype detail similar t o th at used in a transition

vert ical jo ints is also a stepped jo int w it h a

from vert ical panel t o low pitc hed roof A cill

recess o n th e oute r face.A n alte rnat ive is t o

in extruded o r fo lded aluminium o r stee l

have projecting nibs o n th e sides of th e panel

opening.T his is because w indows are not

(de pending o n w hich met al is used for th e

t o w hich a coverp late is fixed over th e gap

suppo rted by th e composite panels except

composite panel faces) is used.Th e front of

between th e t w o panels. Rubber-based seals

W here w indows are used in a facade,


addit ional support is needed t o frame th e

MC E 34
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Details
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
I I,
12,
I 3,
3-D view of framework supporting composite panels interlocking horizontally with vertical capping
piece

3-D view of framework supporting composite panels interlocking horizontally with vertical capping
piece

14,
15,
I 6,
17,
18,
19,

Vertically-set composite panel


Horizontally-set composite panel
Silicone-based seal
Outer metal facing
Inner metal facing
Inner insulation core
Metal capping
Concealed fixing
Supporting structure
4-way interlocking composite panel
Window frame
Sectional roller shutter formed from
composite panels
Roof construction, composite panels are
shown
Metal trim
Exposed gutter
Concealed gutter
Metal parapet coping
Stick glazed curtain walling
Door frame

,~

P
r-

r'I

f-i

CD
@

L ?1

CD

.c!

3-D view of profiled composite panel fixed to steel


supporting structure with vertical capping piece

CD

~'~

In

l~

"r1 ~
Vertical section I: I0, Parapet and cill with curtain
walling type window set into c1adding.Typical in
industrial applications

3-D view of horizontal interlocking joint between


profiled composite metal panels

Vertical section I: I O~Parapet and ground '


level cill

MC E

35

,,""'"'

Details
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
I I,
I 2,

3-D view of concealed gutter detail

I 3.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.
I 8.
19.

Vert ically-set composite panel


Horizontally-set composite panel
Silicone-based seal
Outer metal facing
Inner metal facing
Inner insulation core
Metal capping
Concealed fixing
Supporting structure
4-way interlocking composite panel
W indow frame
Sectional roller shutter formed from
composite panels
Roof construction. composite panels
are shown
Metal trim
Exposed gutter
Concealed gutter
Metal parapet coping
Stick glazedcurtain walling
Door frame

Vertical section I:I O. Junction with roof including concealed gutter.


Integrated windows flush with face of composite panels

3-D view of junction with window frame

are set int o th e depth s of all th ese jo int ty pes.

panels.A large number of different panel

A not her jo int is a C- shaped channel profile

ty pes cannot be produ ced economically for a

w hich interl ocks w it h th e profil e of th e adja-

single proj ect. A lt hough folded metal fiashings

cent panel.The o utside face of th e panel has

and ext r usions can appear more visually

a slight ly projecting edge instead of a

int r usive th an a specially made composite

recessed joint in th e st epped joint types.

panel, thi s meth od is far more fiexib le for

A ll th ese panel ty pes use jointing methods th at avoid th erm al brid ges. Drips often
penetrate from o ut side but th e low condensat ion risk is assessed durin g th e design stage.

dealing w it h varied parapet and gro und level


junction s. parti cularly for complex junctions.
Like fully suppo r t ed sheet metal facades.
parapets can be set eit her level w it h th e ro of.
t o create a cont inuo us smoot h envelope, o r

Parapets and cills

be stepped t o allow th e roof profile t o be

Parapet copings and dr ips at gro und level can

concealed.T he same pr inciples apply as

also be made as com posite panels. form ing

th ose for cont inuously suppo rt ed sheet

an integrated part of a proprietary syst em.

met al parapets and cills.

Th is can be an advantage w hen seeking a

3-D view of junction with ground slab

MC E

36

seamless effect across a facade, but set s limi-

Windows and door openings

t ations o n th e variety of junction s (in t erm s

Th ere are two meth od s of creat ing an o pen-

of w idt h and height) at parapet and base due

ing in a composite panel for both hori zont al-

t o th e need for repetiti on in specially made

ly- and vert ically-set panels.Th e fir st method

I
Vert ical section I: Ia. Cross section through roof
with integrated parapet

3-D view of spandrel panel connection

1
3-D view of composite panel facade assembly with
flush glazing and concealed parapet

Vertical section I : I a.lntegrated parapet. window


and doors all flush with face of composite panels.

is a special reveal panel t hat int erl ocks w it h

t o avoid penetrating eit her o ute r o r inner

t he composite panels.W it h vert ically-set pan-

face of t he panels. Instead it is fixed back t o a

els t he w indow inter locks into vert ical joints

floor slab or t o th e prim ary struct ure.

and has coverstrips on hori zont al joint s.

Since th e inclusio n of reveals is not really

W here ho rizont ally-set panels are used. t he

in t he nature of composite panel detailing,

w indow int erlocks w it h t he horizont al jo ints

and th e wall has littl e depth, th e addit ional

and has coverstrips applied o n t he vert ical

fr ame is also used t o suppo rt th e w indow,

joints.Th e second meth od is t o use metal

t ypically aluminium framed w it h a th erm al

sheet t o form a reveal.A single sheet of

break and doub le glazed units. More ofte n,

metal, 1200 or I SOOmm w ide coil (4ft o r Sft),

w indows and do ors are fixed w it h th e o ute r

is fixed t o a light gauge steel frame w hich is

face of th e glass o r door aligned w it h th e

insulated.The inner framed w all has a vapo ur

o ute r face of th e adjacent composite panels.

barrier and an inner met al sheet, usually

A n alte rnat ive form of glazing to w indows

mat ching t he adjacent inner face of t he panels.

and door s is t o use curta in walling.T herm ally

Heads and cills of openings are form ed in

broken stick systems are fixed directly against

t he same way w it h eit her a purp ose-made

t he adjacent com posite panels w it h a seal set

corne r panel (t he cill is an inclined surface) o r

against th e prim ary struct ure forming th e

w it h sheet metal and t hermal insulati on.

o pening (ty pically vert ical sheet ing rails). If

How ever,th e lightweight metal fr ame is not

hori zont ally-set panels are used. th en th e

usually fixed back t o th e composite in order

curtain w alling can be sealed against adjacent

Vertical section 1:5. Metal door set flush with face of


composite metal panel

MC E

37

fletal ails 03
Composite panels

views of composite panel curtain wall with recessed window with deep metal reveal, with cill and gutter detail

0..;;;..

CD

I
I

I
'---

CD
Vertical section I: I0. Parapet with concealed gutter
and curtain wall type wind ow recessed with deep
metal reveal.

Details
I.
Vertically-set composite panel
2.
Horizontally-set composite panel
3.
Silicone-based seal
4.
Outer metal facing
5.
Inner metal facing
6.
Inner insulation core
7.
Metal capping
8.
Concealed fixing
9.
Supporting structure
10. 4-way interlocking composite panel
I I. W indow frame
12. Sectional roller shutter formed from
composite panels
13. Roof construction , composite panels
are shown
14. Metal trim
IS. Exposed gutter
I 6. Concealed gutter
17. Metal parapet coping
18. Stick glazed curtain walling
19. Door frame

MC E

38

Horizontal section I: I0. Door jamb with metal sheet forming


panel in door reveal.

composite panels w it h a vert ical cover st rip

D evelop ment s

used for all vertical joints.

Th e use of composite metal panels is increas-

W here many w indows are requ ired at a

ing int o building ty pes beyond industrial

parti cular height o n a facade, as w hen pro vid-

buildings, into office buildings and spo r ts facil-

ing light into an upper floor, it is co mmo n t o

ities. In th e case of office buildings, th ey pro -

create a co nt inuous ribb on of w indows t o

vide an eco nomic spandrel panel w here cur-

avoid small infills of composite panels

t ain wa lling is not always effective. In spo rt s

between w indows.Th e cont inuo us line of

facilities, composite panels enclose large

w indow s is fixed back t o a secondary frame

indoo r spaces w it h a durable, crisply-made

of steel box sect ions, w hich may be exposed

and relatively eco nom ic cladding system.

in th e building or be co ncealed behind an

A lt ho ugh th e appearance of th e exte rnal face

inner finish such as a plasterb oard lining. Co n-

is smoot h and gridded, th e suppo rting st ruc-

tinu ous w indows can also be glazed int o hor-

t ure is visible and usually set on t he inside

izo nt ally-set panels int erlocking o n two sides,

face t o avoid penetration s t o th e o utside

o r fou r-sided panels.Thi s can avoid th e need

th rou gh th e joints betw een panels. If th e

for addit ional suppor t framing. In th is instance

exposed st ruct ure is enclosed w it h an eco-

th e w indows are br aced back in th e same

nomi c lining wall co ncealing th e st r uct ure, thi s

way as th e composite panels.

addit ional element can add considerable cost

10

3-D view of cur ved internal corner panel with partially interlocking joints

Ho rizontal section 1:5. Partially interlocking curved


internal corner

Horizontal section 1:5. Partially interlocking connection between composite metal panel and window

3-D view of partially interlocking joint between composite panel and win dow

t o th e cladding, making it much less econo m ic.


For th is reason, suppo rt ing st r uct ure th at

be dictate d by t he direction in w hich panels


are laid. H orizontally-set panels do not have

is designed t o be seen, such as tubular stee l

w indows arranged ho rizont ally.Tr ansitio ns

post s, is increasingly used.Th e co m po site

between w indow o penings and com po site

panels span betw een st eel posts o r tru sses

panels are becom ing mo re eco no m ic w it h

w it h littl e o r no int er locking suppo rting

standard extr usions and rubber-based seals.

str uct ure . In o rder t o keep t he suppo rt ing

T his is ever-mo re t he case w it h fo ur-sided,

str uct ure as visually elegant as possible, truss-

int er locking panels, w here w indow panels

es o r posts are spaced as far apart as possi-

and met al panels are fixed in t he sam e way.

ble.Thi s has led t o panels getting lo nger,w it h

Increasingly, irregular facade gr ids are being

a maximum length current ly aro und 15

develop ed in designs t o create a richer mix

metres (49ft) . Some prop r iet ary syste ms

of panel sizes in visual patchw o r k of different

include edges t o panels w hich are deeper,

sizes of panels.

Ho rizontal section 1:5. Partially interlocking external


corner

making t he co nt inuo us vert ical joint s and


hori zontal joints more rigid, allowing t hem t o
span greate r distances, and t hus reducing t he
amo unt of visible supporting str ucture needed.

Horizontal section I :5. Insulated corner connection


detail

Increasingly, w indow o penings need not

MC E

39

- - -Metal Walls 03-

....

Com osite l2anels

Horizon ta l section I:5. Joint between co mposite


panels w~h fu l~ interlockin g connection

Horizontalsection 15 Panels interlocking on 4 sides


spanning either vertically or horizontally

~
I

@U

Horizontal section 1:5 Jointbetween composite


panel and curtain w all type glazing w ith fully interlocking co nnection

3-D view of partiallyinterlocking panels with


Aush window and curved comer panel

Horizontal section I :5.Joint between com po site

panel and concrete wall with fully interlockingconnection

Vert ical section 1:10, Fully interlocking composite


panels w ith curved eill and window set into reveal in
cladding

Corners
Composite panels are connected at comers

by one of two methods. Either specially made


comer panels are used (typically why 90" is
standard) or a cove-strip is addedto cover

the junction w here the panelsmeet Comer


panels are more suited to vertically-set
arrangements. though panels for horizontallylaid panels are sometimes used for visual
effect Wh ere comer cover-strips are used.
their appearance resembles t hat of profiled
metal cladding,w hich can give a facade an
overall framed appearance. Metal trims at the
parapet base and corners can give this
appearance. For this reason, the special corner panelsand parapet panelsare used

Vertical section 1:5 Curved parap et deta il w ith fully


interlocking connections

Me E 40

Ver t ical section I S-Aluminium window set into

reveal in cladding

increasingly.

Ho rizontal section I :5. Insulated corne r connection


betwe en composite panels with fully interl ocking
connection

Hori zontal section 1:5. Fully interloc king external


corner panel

D etails

Horizontal section 1:5. Fully interl ocking curved


internal corner panel

I.
Vert ically-set composite panel
2.
Hori zontally-set composite panel
3.
Silicone-based seal
4.
Outer metal facing
5.
Inner metal facing
6.
Inner insulation core
7.
Metal capping
8.
Concealed fixing
9.
Supporting structure
10. 4-way interlocking composite panel

Hori zontal section 1:5. Fully interlocking internal


corner panel

I I . W indow frame
12. Sectional roller shutter formed from
composite panels
13. Roof construction , composite panels
are shown
14. Metal t rim
15. Exposed gutter
16. Concealed gutter
17. Metal parapet coping
18. Stick glazed curtain walling
19. Door frame

Horizontal section 1:5. Fully interl ocking curved


external corner panel

Thermal bridges at cills


A weakness in composite panels syste ms has
been th e use of pressed metal sect ions o r
alum inium extrusions t hat pass from o ut side
t o inside w it hout a th erm al break.This is
being remedied by th e use of insulated cills,
made in t he manner of composite panels.
Thi s reduces th e th erm al brid ge, in some
cases a break in t he section from o ut side t o
inside can be formed by turning th e metal cill
int o t he inject ed foam o r polystyrene in t he
same way as a co mposite panel.

3-D views of fully interlocking corner pieces with square and rounded corners

MC E 4 1

Metal Walls 03- Com osrte


. l2anels

3-D view of com


flush glazing and coree, panelfacade with
ncealed parapet

'~~,

Exploded axonom
'
as>emb~
with flusheug1az,ng
-c viewand
of ccom posrte pane l facade
oncealed parapet

@
J ,,"
. , 'J
"

Details
,
2I. Y,erncally-set
com
3'
_

6.
7.

89_

10
II

l-lorizontalfy-set cposite panel


Sitcone-based ompoSlte panel

seal

uter metal fae i

Inner metal' ' r;g


I
'
laCing

nner insolat

Me
' '0<1 core
tal caopmg
Coneeaeo
I fixing
~upport l ng structure
-way Interlc ckin

12' W indow frame g composite panel

Sectional roller sh
13 composite panelsutter formed from
Roofshown
construct;011, composite panels
are

15_
14

16.

Metal tr im

sed gutter

17. Concealed gutte r


Metal par
18. Stick I apeteoping
19, Doorgazed
framecurtarn walling

3-D detail view of floor to wall junction

MC E_ 4 2

3-D detail view of


and support
window frame
,rig structure

3-D detailview of gutter

3-D view of composite panel curtain wall with


recessed window with deep metal reveal

3-D exploded view of composite panel curtain wall with recessed window with deep metal reveal

<

3-D view of frame detail

Exploded axonometric frame detail


I

~r0
~

I
I

@ ~I

("

I
I

0:[ ~

r-

3-D section of composite panel curtain type wall


with recessed window with deep metal reveal

!I

3-D view of gutter detail

Iq

I
I

exploded axonometnc gutter detail

MC E 43

D etails

CD

I . Backing wall or structural wall


supporting rainscreen
2. Supporting Frame
3. Support Bracket
4. Met al rainscreen panel
5. Open joint
6. Closed cell thermal insulation
7. W at erpr oof membrane
8. Internal finish
9. Supporting structu re
10.Pressed metal cill
I I . Pressed metal coping
12. Continuity of waterproofing layers of
wall and roof

Horizontal section I : I O. External corner connection


between rainscreen panels

0lYVN0N
Horizontal section I : I O. Extern al corner connection
between rainscreen panels and junction with window

A much w ider range of mater ials is used in

Th ere has been a recent increased use of

sheet s of aluminium are bond ed o n both

semi-lapped assemblies th at co nceal th e vo id

sides of an inner core sheet of plastic of

Copp er and zinc have th e advantage of being

behind th e metal cladding.Th ese usually have

th ickness 3-Smm (0. 118in t o 0.2in) o r by a

easier to form than steel o r aluminium, par-

visible fixings at panel joints but allow th e

minimum 3mm (0. 118in) thi ck aluminium

ti cularly w here site -based co nstruct ion meth-

jo ints between panels t o be less in shadow

sheet , o r approximate ly I mm th ick steel

od s are pr eferred for eit her eco nomy o r in

th an is th e case w it h ot her fixing meth od s.

sheet, depending o n panel size. Hon eycomb

dealing w it h co mplex o r curve d geomet ries.

Th ere has been a gradual developm ent of

panels are also being used.A metal hon ey-

Th is meth od of fixing rainscreens avoids th e

rainscreens as visual screens rather th an as

comb layer. abo ut Smm (O.2in) th ick, is bond -

need for off-site fabrication of a large

weat her-excluding panels. For example, per-

ed t o thin metal sheet s o n eit her side.A lu-

numb er of different panel t ypes w it h different

forated metal screens in mild stee l or alumin-

minium is most commo nly used. One of th e

curve d geomet ries.Th ey can be made eco-

ium are used t o creat e both mod elling t o a

o ute r sheets is factory paint coate d from th e

nomi cally on -site.

facade and solar shading set fo rward of

ro lled co il from w hich it is cut, giving th e

glazed w alling. In such designs th e back of th e

materi al a high level of co lour co nsiste ncy


over large areas of panel.

rainscreens th an was th e case five year s ago.

The 'ti ling' or 'shingling' of panels in co pper has been develop ed from sheet metal

rainscreen panel is visually as imp ortant as

cladding.Th is departs from metal rainscreen

th e o ute r visible face w here th e panel is seen

designs in th at th e surface appearance has a

through glazed openings in a facade. Fixings

Fixing methods

deliber ately uneven t exture th at emphasises

for such rainscreen panels ofte n have screws

Th e three main fixing ty pes used for metal

th e o il-canning effect th at gives th e appear-

and bolts th at are set into th e fixing rather

rainscreens are ( I) visible point fixed, (2)

ance of a layered, t iled surface.Th e move

th an having project ing threaded bo lt and

horizontal o r vertical rails w it h partially

away from th e emphasis o n flat metal panels

exposed nuts.

exposed br ackets (hung panels) and (3) ver-

in rainscreen co nst ruct ion includes an

t ical and hori zontal rails w it h parti ally inter-

increased use of pr ofiled and curve d metal

Mat erials

panels.A major advantage is th at fixings can

Rainscreen panels can have a flatness th at is

Th e choice of fixing method is ofte n

be co ncealed by semi-int er locking panels in

difficult t o achieve w it h ot her method s. Panel

determ ined by w hat is seen through th e jo int

th e manner of sheet metal cladding or in th e

flatness is achieved by eit her use of compos-

from th e o ut side . If dark shadow s are sought

manner of traditional ro of coverings.

ites such as proprietary laminates w here t wo

at th e joint th en th e backing wall sho uld have

MC E 44
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

locking panels and co ncealed fixings.

3-D views of fully interlocking comer pieces with


square and rounded co m er s.Type 3

Horizontal section I: IO. Internal corner connection


between rainscreen panels

Verti cal section I : IO. Metal rainscreen wall assembly


3-D views of fully int er locking corner pieces with square comers. Type 3

MCE

45

fl etalW alls 04
Metal rainscreens

CD
CD

3-D views of semi interlocking rainscreen panels.Type 2


Left: Horizontal rails support cladding panels with vertical interlocking joints.
Right Vertical rails support cladding panels with horizontal int erlocking joi nt s.

a consiste nt dark colour. In th is case, short

Semi-inter locking panels are fixed by

lengths of bracket may be sufficient t o sup-

screw ing th e t op of th e panel t o hori zontal

are secured t o th e framing member s rather


th an th e o ute r skin of th e backing wall. In

port th e panels, since th ey w ill not be visible.

rails t o suit th e o rientat ion of th e panels.Th e

some cases, if th e o ute r skin is th ick eno ugh,

If th e backing wa ll is likely t o be visible

adjacent panel is lapped into th e panel next

say 6mm (O.25in) aluminium sheet, rain-

through th e open jo ints, such as if th e backing

t o it, both t o secure it and conceal th e fixing.

screens can be fixed directly t o th e sheet

wall is clad in exposed polystyrene insulation

Th e joint in th e ot her direct ion is eit her fixed

materi al rather th an th e fr ame. If a light -

board, th en th e jo ints w ill need t o be

w it h a similar semi-inte rlocking edge t o form

we ight backing wall cannot accept addit ional

screened by a cont inuo us channel.

a t iled appearance, or has a cover st rip.

Panels w hich are point fixed have eit her


counte rsunk screws set flush w it h th e panel

Unlike masonry-based rainscreens such


as t erracotta o r sto ne, metal rainscreen pan-

loads from rainscreen cladding o nto it (as


w it h composite panels), th en suppo rt rails
span from floor t o floor as posts.

face, o r dom e headed screws w hich make a

els are lightw eight in com parison and need

visible featur e of th em.The screws are fixed

t o be mechanically fixed at a minimum of

t hermal insulati on is usually set o n t he o ut-

into rails set t o suit th eir position.Yertical

o ne or two points,usually at th e bottom of

side face in o rder t o keep th e struct ure

rails are often preferred since wate r can easi-

th e panel if th e panel is hung from th e t op.

eit her warm o r coo l, depending o n th e geo-

ly drain down th em.

Fixing screws are usually applied at th e jo int,

graphical locati o n.The wate rproo f layer is set

Hung panels are hooked o nto suppo rt ing

W it h concrete block backing wa lls, th e

unless it is fixed w it h exposed fixings through

direct ly on th e o utside face of th e concrete .

brackets. Panels are fixed by cutting slots int o

th e panel it selfThis means th at part of th e

Th e th erm al insulati on used is closed cell

th e sides of th e rainscreen panel durin g man-

bracket is usually visible. Sho rt lengths of

ty pe in order for it not t o absorb wate r

ufacture and hooking th em o nto dow els pro-

brackets th en becom e visible and need t o be

w hich wo uld dr astically reduce it s perform -

jecting from C-shaped brackets.These br ack-

incorpo rat ed as a visible part of th e design.

ance.T he insulati o n is also used t o protect


t he wate rproof membrane but thi s makes it

ets are in t urn secured t o ver t ical rails set at


vert ical jo ints between panels.Th e rails also

Backing walls

necessary for support brackets t o be fixed

act as screens t o close off views into th e cav-

Suppo rting wa lls t o rainscreen panels are

th rough th e insulation t o th e suppo rt ing wall

ity. Horizontal jo ints are formed by an

usually concrete block, w hich allows suppo rt -

behind. Som etimes ho les have t o be cut in

upstand formed in th e t op or bottom edge

ing panels t o be fixed at any point across its

th e insulation, w hich reduces its effect iveness,

of a panel.

surface, or fr amed, w here rainscreen fixings

but it is always better if th e fixings for sup-

MC E

46

-@
,- I l

l=----;;j_l_-'__Y_()

Horizontal section I : IO. Internal corner connection


between metal rainscreen panels with interlocking
horizontal joints and open vertical joints

Horizontal section I: IO. Internal corner connection


between metal rainscreen panels with open horizontal joints and interlocking vertical joints

Horizontal section I : I O. External corner connection


between metal rainscreen panels with interlocking
horizontal joints and open vertical joints

Horizontal-se&n-' ~ I O:Extemal-cohier-connection
between metal rainscreen panels with open
ho rizontal jo ints and interlocking vertical joints

Details
I . Backing wall or structural wall
supporting rainscreen
2. Supporting Frame
3. Support Bracket
4. Metal rainscreen panel
5. Open joint
6. Closed cell thermal insulation
7. Waterproof membrane
8. Internal finish
9. Supporting structure
10. Pressed metal cill
I I . Pressed metal coping
I 2. Continuity of waterproofing layers of
wall and roof

3-D view of semi interlocking metal rainscreen with


angled joints and aluminium window recessed into
the facade.Type 3

Vertical section I: IO. Metal rainscreen with interlocking horizontal joints , parapet and recessed window

MC E

47

fletalWa Is 04
Metal rainscreens

Horizontal section I 10. Connection between metal rainscreen and curtain wall type glazingwith flush
finish

,
I

I
I

I
I

I
I

Vert ical sect ion I: I O. Metal rainscreen with curtain


wall type glazingset flush with face of cladding.
3-D view of curtain wall type glazing set fiush with metal rainscreen cladding.Type 3

D e t a ils
I.

Backing wall or structural wall


supporting rainscreen
2.
Supporting Frame
3. Support Bracket
4.
Metal rainscreen panel
5.
Open joint
6.
Closed cell thermal insulation
7.
W at erproof membrane
8.
Internal finish
9.
Supporting structure
10. Pressed metal cill
I I . Pressed metal coping
I 2. Continuity of waterp roofing layers of
wall and roof

port rails can be fixed at th e same t ime as

Co nstruction sequence

th e insulation in o rde r to co -o rdinate th em

An esse nt ial aspect of rainscreen co nst ruc-

and avoid lat e r cutting of th e insulatio n.

t ion is th e seq ue nce in w hich th e various

W it h lightweight backing wa lls in t imber

mal insulation , wate rpro o fi ng laye r and rain-

w it hin th e frame .A wate rproofi ng laye r is set

scree n pane l are brou ght togeth e r. Alt ho ugh

o n th e inside (wa rm in winte r) face.An inte r-

th e rainscreen principle is very effect ive and

nal finish laye r is then set in front of th is

ofte n ve ry eco no mic, its effectiveness can be

vapo ur barrie r. Rainscreen fi xings for suppo rt

reduced if sea ls are not prop erly applied o r

rails are fixed directly to th e o uter wate r-

insulatio n is damaged because e leme nts are

proofing laye r using sea ling washe rs th at

asse mb led o n site in th e w ro ng o rder.Typi-

avoid leaks throu gh th e fixing po int.Th e

cally, windows are sealed against th e backing

framed backing wa ll is designed to rece ive

wa ll before th e rainscreen pane ls are set in

fixing bracket s at points w hich transfer loads

place. An adva ntage of this form of co n-

down to th e primar y st ructure .The use of

st ruct ion is th at t he externa l wa ll can be

framed backing wa lls wit h rainscreen s makes

made waterproof before th e rainscreen

it ne cessar y to co-o rdinate t he two e leme nts

pane ls are fixed.

of co nst ruction during th e des ign rather than


d uring the co nst ruct ion.

MC E

48

e leme nts of th e backing wa lls, w indows, th er-

o r presse d steel, th ermal insulation is set

A typical co nst ruction seq ue nce is to


build th e backing wall first and set th e wate r-

-I

3-D vIew of vertical r ail system w ith rainscreen


panels spanning horizontally.Type I

I- I
('l.j

-1=1 0

.'

verucat section 1:10, Horizontally spanning meta l


r ainscre en panels with vertical rail system

3-D view of horizontal rail system with


r ainscre en panels spanning vertcally.Iype I

proofing layer and insulat ion in place. W in-

nat ure of the construction usually dictates

dows are then set into the backing wall and

t hat the rainscreen panel is set in a way that

are sealed against its waterproofing layer

avoids a view through the joint to the back-

Thermal insulation, if set outside the line of

ing wall beyond.

the waterproofing layer (asin in-situ con-

crete. precast concrete or concrete block)

W indow and doo r openings

makes it easierto set the thermal insulation

Becausewindow and door openings are usu-

on the backing wall after the wi ndows and

allyset into an opening before the raoscreen

doors have been fixed. Support rails for the

panels are set.reveals are sealed w ith either

rainscreen panels are then fixed to the bark-

individual rainscreen panels or with sheet

ing wall,followed by the metal panels them-

metal trims similar to those used for sheet

selves. Panels are usually fixed in horizontal

metal construction. Unlike sheet metal con-

rows from the bottom up so that comer

struction however, a gap is usually maintained

panels and panels at window openingscan

between the trim and the window in order

be fi xed from t he outside from the top of

to maintain the Joint principle.Similarly gaps

the panel. Metal panels can then be set in a

between reveal trims and adjacentwall pan-

correct alignment with the windows in

els are also separated by an open joint Since

terms of their position and in setting the

w indows and doors are sealed against the

required joint width. The open jointed

waterproo fing layer behind the raoscreen

Vertical section 1:10 Vertica lly spanning meta l


raJnscre en panels w ith hori zontal rail system

MCE

49

Horizontal section I : IO. Internal


corner of met al rainscreen shingles

3-D view of meta l


rainscreen shingles with
folded metal parapet

Horizontal section I : IO. External


corner of metal rainscreen shingles

panel rath er t han t o t he panel it self, t hese

screen panels by providing a shadow o r may

separat ions are st raightforward t o achieve.

be lapped in t he manner of fully suppo rted

T hese o pen joint s aro und o penings are made

sheet met al cladding.T he wate rproo fing layer

in a way t hat conceals t he wate rproo f layer

w ill form a cont inuous seal w it h th e adjacent

behind, t hus protecting it from both accidental

roofing membrane. Cills at t he base of t he

damage fro m building user s and from t he

wall are detailed in a sim ilar way w it h met al

possible effects from sunlight heat ing up t he

being cont inuous but w it h joints eit her

membrane or attac king it w it h UV light. W in-

recessed o r lapped.

dow s and doo r s are usually provided w it h an


addit ional w ider frame o r trim at th eir edges
in o rder t o allow t herm al insulati o n in t he cavity t o provide cont inuity at th e o pening and
allow t he rainscreen panel t o lap against it.

Parapets and cills


Parapets have an o pen joint between th e parapet flashing and t he panel below but hori zontal joint s between flashings are usually
closed t o protect th e parapet from accidental
damage t o t he wate rproo fing undercloak
beneath o r from th e harmfu l effects of sunlight from above acting o n it s hori zont al surface.Jo int s between flashings may be recessed
to match th e visual appearance of t he rain-

MC E

50

3-D view s showin g recessed t imb er window


opening in metal rainscreen shingle cladding system

Horizontal section I: I 0, Connection between metal


rainscreen shingles and timber window

Deta ils
I.

Vertical section I: I0, Connection between metal


rainscreen shingles and timber window

Backing wall or structural wall


supporting rainscreen
2.
Supporting Frame
3. Support Bracket
4.
Metal rainscreen panel
5.
Open joint
6.
Closed cell thermal insulation
7.
Waterproof membrane
8.
Internal finish
9.
Supporting structure
10, Pressed metal cill
I I , Pressed metal coping
12, Continuity of waterproofing layers of
wall and roof

Horizontal section I :I 0. Co nnectIon etween


metal rainscreen shingles and tim ber window

Vertical section I :I0, Metal door recessed into


metal shingle rainscreen construction

3-D view recessed timber window in metal


rainscreen shingle cladding system

Vertical section I:I0. Semi-interlocking metal


rainscreen shingle system with parapet, timber
window and finish at ground level

MC E 5 1

,...- - MetalWalls 04:- - ,


Metal ramscr eens

De tails
I,

e..clong wall or structu ral w all


SUppClftng rainscrl-en

~Fra-ne
~ &'ac:l<et
Metal ramscreen panel

3.

4,

5.

OpenjOOt

6.

Cbsed eel tho'maI nsulatJon


Waterproof membrane

7.
8.

Internal finisl1

9. Support.ng strvctlTe
10. Pressed metal til

I _ Pressed metal copong


12. COn1 lnurty of w aterproofIng layers of

wall af'Id roo(

,I

:.I

3-0 expcoec view of metal ramscreen paner systern woth

~rlapplng tIleSas panels

)-0 exp loded view of p;irapet condrtion

]-0 exploded view of top of WIndow opeoirla

] 0 exploded VIeW of ramSlfeeo panel system

3-D exploded view of rainscreen panel system assembly

..

---_..

~---

t.
0

!I ~

h ~
il
rl
3-D exploded view of opening in raiosc-een panel system

j
3-D exploded view of typical window opening

fletalWalls 05
Mesh screens

5
)

--\1
Verti cal section I :2. Edgefixing variations for rigid mesh supported on frame

Vertical section I:2. Steel rod


incorporated into mesh weave and
supported from eyelets fixed to
backing wall

Vertical section I:2. Mesh cable


formed into eyelet and hung from
metal rod

Details for mesh


I.
2.

3.
4.
S.
6.
7.

3-D views of edge fixing details for frame supported mesh

8.
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Vertical section and elevation I:2. Mesh hung from shaped metal bracket bolted to
supporting structure

MC E 54
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D view of mesh hanging detail

Metal support edge frame


Stainlesssteel mesh
Stainless steel spring
Metal fixing bracket
Metal support rod
Fixing bolt to tension mesh
Floor slab or backing wall
Adjacent curta in wall

(
IJl

-I

---;8

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J-

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-.

Vertical section and elevation I :2. Mesh weave and suppo rt variation s

Stainless steel mesh screens have been intro-

ti on, and mesh th at is flexib le in t wo direc-

duced int o mainstream building co nstruct ion

t ions w hich is made from woven w ire only.

(0.25in x 0.08in). Because th ey cannot be


t ension ed, rigid meshes are eit her held in a

on ly in th e last t en years.Thi s metal is preferred for mesh screens due t o it s durab ility

form o penings of aro und 6mm x 2mm

Rigid mesh

cont inuo us edge frame o r suppo rted at

and we at her resistance w hen used exte rnally.

Rigid mesh is made in relatively small sheet

points in th e manner of bo lt fixed glazing.

Their appearance as a t extile rather th an as a

sizes and is suitable mainly for balustrades or

They are most commo nly used in balustrad-

sheet mater ial has led t o th e use of mesh as

areas of facades w here th e mater ial can be

ing w here rigidity of mater ial is an essent ial

'wraps' to facades in a similar way, in visual

suppo rte d o n a visible fr ame. It is also used

requirement.Th e eco nomic nature of th e

t erm s,t o rainscreens.Their purp ose is ofte n

as exte rnal solar shading w here it s light ness

mater ial allows it t o be used as both balus-

t o pro vide a smoot h,t exti le-like surface

in we ight allows it t o be moved in a motor-

trading and full height screening as part of

across a w all that can conceal a variety of dif-

ised system.Th e mater ial is made in both

th e same design.W hen used as a balustrade,

ferent facade elements imm ediately behind it.

mi ld stee l and sta inless stee l but mild steel

th e ex posed edges of th e material are held

It has also found favour in car park design,

requires painting. Polyester powd er coat ing is

capt ive in a protective edging if not fixed into

w here open mesh decks are given hom oge-

t he most co mmo n finish. Rigid mesh cannot

a full suppo rting frame.Th is avoids injury t o

neity w it h a w oven mesh screen.T heir vary -

be t ension ed and so it is clamped in a fr ame

building user s.A fold ed fiat sheet o r a pair of

ing levels of translucency can be exploite d

at it s edges.

fiats are co mmo nly used.

both in daylight by pro viding depth t o a

Thi s material is usually made in relatively

facade th at gives some pr ivacy t o building

small panels of aro und 1800 x 1500mm (6ft

Meshes fiexibl e in o ne direction

user s, and from a night t ime glow across it s

x 5ft). Stainless stee l bars are wove n in t wo

These meshes are made w it h rigid sta inless

surface generate d by elect rical light w it hin

directions, giving th e material a st iffness com-

steel rod in o ne direction woven and stain-

parable t o aluminium sheet but w it h a sur-

less stee l cable in th e ot her direct ion .A n

face t exture much more undulating th an per-

advantage pr esented by th e cables is th at

forated metal sheet. Rigid mesh can pro vide

th ey can be t ension ed at each end t o pr o-

direction made as woven w ire w it h rod s in

up t o aro und 50% shading. Rod thi ckness is

vide a large cont inuo us fiat area of translu-

one direction and w ire in th e opposite direc-

ty pically l .5mm (0.054in) diameter wove n t o

cent metal.

t he building.
Meshes are of three essent ial ty pes: rigid
mesh made from rod , mesh flexible in one

MC E

55

CD
CD

CD

CD

Horizontal section I: I0, Regular panels forming internal corner

Vertical section I: I0, Parapet detail

CD

Vertical section I :I0, Panel to panel connection


detail

Horizontal section I 10,Internal corner using special corner panel

CD

Vertical section I :I0, Panel to panel connection


detail

Details for mesh


I,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,

MCE

Metal support edge frame


Stainless steel mesh
Stainless steel spring
Metal fixing bracket
Metal support rod
Fixing bolt to tension mesh
Floor slab or backing wall
Adjacent curtain wall

56

3-D exploded view of mesh panels clamped to frame and supported on steel frame

Horizontal section I 10,External corner formed with special frame


extrusion

3-D view of panel connection between mesh screens

CD

Hori zontal section I 10,Connection between frame supported


metal mesh panels
3-D view of external corner of mesh screen

by t ension ing th e cables at each end.T he

A pplicat ions of mesh using w ide strips are

mum w idt h of aro und 7500 mm (25ft) , Since

cable is usually set ver t ically t o avoid sag

increasingly commo n, in w idt hs from 5 t o

th e mater ial is made as a cont inuo us run , it

associate d w it h horizontal laying,The cables

7met res, ( 16ft t o 23ft) hung from co nt inuous

can be made in very long lengths, making it

are loo ped in a secure loo p at each end

rod s and restrained back t o a frame at 1,0 t o

ideal for use in a single run of mater ial from

aro und a ro d o r bar.On e end is fixed w hile

1,5 metre (3ft 3in t o 5ft) cent res,

t op t o bottom of a facade w it hout joints, In

th e ot her is t ension ed by springs set at inter-

t erm s of transparency, th e mater ial can vary

vals along th e length of th e horizontal bar.

Fully fiexible mesh

from aro und 25% light transmission t o 65%

Springs are usually set at th e bottom so th at

Th is mater ial is made as a wove n-wire cloth

depending o n th e w eave,Th e amo unt of light

th e mesh is fir st hung, th en secured and t en-

o r as a crimped w ire panel.W ires are

transmission can be varied by increasing th e

sioned at th e bottom , Lateral st abilit y t o th e

crimped down th e length of th e mater ial and

Most of th ese meshes corne in a maxi-

th ickness and frequency of cables,Th e dis-

mesh over a long run of th e mater ial is pro-

straight w ires acro ss its w idt h,Th e wove n

t ance between ro ds cannot be varied by

vided eit her by bars w oven or fixed into th e

cloth ty pe is manufactured prim arily for small

reducing th e thi ckness of th e cable, allowing it

mesh, or by point fixings,Th e point fixings

solar shading screens, It is also used for balus-

t o be more tightly w oven, but more cables

comprise discs set eit her side of th e mesh t o

trades in co nt inuo us long lengths and as ver-

are usually int roduced t o compensate for th e

ho ld th e mater ial in place,A bo lt run s

t ically- or horizontally-set bands of solar

loss of st rength in th e cable w hen t ension ed.

th rou gh an o pening in th e mesh between th e

shading material. Large panels are not inter-

Cable th ickness can vary from 2,Omm t o

t w o discs,w hich is secured back t o th e sup-

rupted by jo int lines,The mater ial is fixed by

2.5mm (0,08in t o 0, I in) diamete r.Rod thi ck-

porting struct ure, t ypically a floor slab or

t ensionin g it vert ically. Closely wove n meshes

nesses can vary from 2,Omm (0,08in) up t o

backing wa ll. Meshes w ill span 2,0 t o 2.5

have a light transmission of between I % and

4mm (0, 15in) diameter.The weave pattern can

metres (6ft 6in t o 8ft) vertically between

5%, w hile crimped w ire screens vary from

vary from 4mm x 10mm (0, 18in x 0.37in) to

points of lateral restraint. A djacent sheet s can

25% to 50%,T he tightly w oven ty pes are

4mm x 100mm (0, 18in x 4in), giving very dif-

be fixed t ogeth er by using a br acket w it h two

made in w idt hs from aro und I 800mm t o

ferent visual effects from dense t o very open,

bolts in th e manner of bolt fixed glazing o r by

2400mm (6ft t o 8ft) and are made in very

In addit ion, vary ing densities can be wove n

lapping th e mesh panels and using a single

lo ng lengths.T he more o pen weaves have an

bolt in th e manner of a popper o n t extil e

appearance similar t o th ose w it h cables, using

cloth s as used in denim jeans, for example,

straight rod in o ne direction , w eaving rod in

into a single panel, o r length, of material.


Meshes flexible in o ne direction are fixed

MC E

57

fV1etal als 05
Mesh screens
:.;;,-

Deta ils for mesh

..

.i

I.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.

,-

'-

Metal support edge frame


Stainless steel mesh
Stainless steel spring
Metal fIXing bracket
Metal support rod
Fixing bolt to tension mesh
Floor slabor backing wall
Adjacent curtain w all

"

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ff-

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u-

CD
Vert ical section I: I0, Metal mesh supported from
steel structure on top of regular rainscreen clad
structure

3-D view of metal mesh fixed to steel frame with


maintenance deck behind

MCE

58

3-D view of metal mesh clamped to supporting frame

th e ot her direction aro und th e fiat rod.Th ese

lengths on-3 metres (6ft 6in t o l Oft) by set -

o pen w eave types are made in w idt hs of

ting o ut th e cables on a curve t op and bot-

aro und 6000mm (20ft) th ough th ese sizes

t om w hich forces th e th in ro ds in th e oppo-

are difficult t o use in facade panels since th e

sit e direction t o th e curve . How ever, meshes

suppo r t grid of aro und 2000mm (6ft 6in) is

are being develop ed w hich can t ake up

usually needed t o restrain th e material. Since

curves more easily for complex geomet ries.

th e material is made from rod. metals ot her

Instead of using cables, loop s of stainless steel

th an stainless st eel can be used, th ough t ypi-

strip are wove n in loo ps between row s of

cally copper and bron ze are th e most com-

rod s.This allows th e rod s t o be bent around

mon alte rnat ives.They are less rigid th an

a form o r bow ed o ut by brackets, w hile

stainless steel but can produ ce quit e dramatic

allow ing th e loop s t o be individually

visual effects.A grid of 3mm x I.5mm

stretc hed between each row of rod s.Varia-

(O. 125in x O.0625in) is commo n in th is more

t ions o n th is ty pe of mesh are set t o grow

o pen w eave material.

over th e next t en years.

Mesh used on cur ves

Perforated metal

Regular mesh th at is rigid in o ne direction is

N on -rectilinear o r irregular geomet ric shapes

difficult t o curve, as it is suit ed t o fiat, rectilin-

in fiat o r curve d form can more easily be

ear designs. Curves can be formed over

achieved in perforated metal.Although panel

-I

CD

3-D view of metal mesh supported on


steel framework with maintenance deck

Elevation & horizontal section I :25. Frame hung metal mesh supported from curtain wall glazing syst em

sizes are much smaller than ten sion ed mesh,

achieved. Squares and various decorative

a greate r range of form s can current ly be

motifs are also made but wit h less co nt rol on

mad e more economically. Perforated metal in

precise perforation percentages.

each mild stee l (paint o r po lyester powd er

Steel and aluminium shee t are co mmo nly

coate d) and aluminium (po lyeste r powd er

available in sizes up to around 3 metres x 2.5

coate d or PVDF coate d) are used. Both

metres ( lOft x 8ft) in 3mm (0. 118mm) thick

materials are manufactured wit h perforation s

shee t allowing panels to be reason ably large ,

of diffe rent shapes and percentages of perfo -

dep end ing o n w ind load co nside rat ions. In

ration s. Circular holes are th e mo st co mmo n-

ge ne ral.th e higher th e percentage of perfora-

ly used as th ey are st raightfo rward t o manu-

t ion, t he lowe r th e wind load o n th e perfo-

facture .They are also able to have a close ly

rated metal panel. Perforated metal panels

co nt rolled percentage of perforation by vary-

are usually fixed back to an edge frame mad e

ing both th e size of th e holes and t heir prox-

from angle o r profile in t he same material.

imity.This makes th e materia l very useful if a

The edges of th e metal are usually not perfo-

precise shading coeffic ient (pe rce ntage of

rated in o rde r to co nceal th e frame beh ind.

solar shading) o r light transmission is spec i-

The increased use of wate r jet cutt ing

fied for a facade . By varying both th e ho le

machines allows for a much greate r co nt rol

diameter and th e ce nt res of th e holes, differ-

of th e exte nt of patt ern on a sheet. Perforat-

e nt visual effects of transparen cy can be

ed metal panels are th en fixed back to th e

3-D view of metal mesh supported curved steel


frame

MCE

59

fleta Walls 05
Mesh screens

CD

CD
-e-

~ - f-

f- - f"

Vertical section I :2. Flexible mesh top support

.-

;--

;-

~-

~-

;-

- -; - -

CD

It'

;-

;-

CD

Elevation & vertical section I : I O. Flexible metal mesh supported top and bottom with tensioning springs
Vertical section I :2. Flexible mesh intermediate
support

-(1

CD

Horizontal section I 10. Flexible metal mesh supported on vertical edges with tensioning mechanism

CD

Vertical section I :2. Flexible mesh lower support


with tensioning spring

3-D view of metal mesh fixed to steel rod with


tension spring

MC E

60

3-D view of metal mesh fixed in front of glazed facade to provide solar shading.A maintenance walkway
occupies the space between the two systems

3-D vievvs showing meshscreen supported on


bracketsin front of typicalwall build-up to act as
solar shading mechanism

~
>C!2
~

(j)

-:
pri mary structure with a variety of hanging
brackets. ties and struts to suit the des ign.The
supporting structure is visually very refined if
visible through the metal, particularly at night if
the panel assembly is visible from lighting within the building.A series o f fo rked pin connec-

Elevation and ver tical section I : 10. Mesh screen soppo-ted on brackets
in front of typical wall build-up t o act as solarshading mechanism

tions or cast moment connectors are increasingly being used, with tapered tubular fram ing
members o r bo x section s with complex sections increasingly being the norm. Because the
metal framing is exposed to the effects of
weather; a high specification paint is used for
steel.and either polyester powder coating or
PVDF coati ngs are used for alum inium. Anodising has become more popular in recent
years but req uires very close control in the

Details for mesh


I.
Metal support edge frame
2. Stainless steel mesh
3. Stainless steel spring
4. Metal fixing bracket
5. Metal support rod
6. FiXIng bolt to tension mesh
7. Floor slab Q(' backing wall
8. Adjacent curtain wall

factory to avoid visible colo ur differences


between adjacent anodised panels.

MC E

61

05- - - - - - ..

- - -Metal Walls
Mesh screens

Details for mesh


I,

Metal support edgeframe

2.
3.

Stainless steel mesh


Stainless steel sprog

4,

Metal fixir>g bracket


Metal support rod
Fixing bolt to tension mesh
Floor slabor backing wall
Adjacer'lt curtain wall

5.
6.
7.

8.

30 exp loded view of metal m esh fixed in front of

glazed facade wrth rnasuenance wa lkway

3-0 exp loded deta il vrew of m etal mesh fiXIng m eth od


and uppe r floo r junct ion

Me E 62

30 exp loded detai l view of glazIng m nnectioo in meta l


m esh and glazed facade

3-D exploded corner view of metal mesh panels


fixed to steel supporting frame

3-D exploded view of hooked metal mesh fixing

3-D exploded view of clamped metal mesh fixing

1---

3-D exploded corner view of metal mesh panels


fixed to steel supporting frame

3D view of metal mesh panels fixed to glazed


masonry facade

3D view of mesh panel in isolati on

3-D exploded views of metal mesh panels fixed to steel supporting frame

MCE

63

fletalW alls 06
Louvre screens
---,rr---------------("i'"}--,-~---------------_,_r_---

Vert ical sect ion I: I OVertically set metal louvres

Details
I,

2,

II
1\

Elevation & horizontal section I: IO. Metal louvre


screen with integrated door

3,
4,
5,
6,

Extruded aluminium
frame
Stick curtain walling type carrier system
Extruded aluminium
louvre blades
Backing wall
Louvre panel door
Thermal insulation

Metal lo uvres are typically used for two pur-

are made as a v-shape in o rde r to drain

th ickness.These bars are not visible directly

poses: as weat he r-resisting scree ns to natural-

wate r away into th e side s of th e frame

from th e o ut side but can be see n from

ly vent ilated spaces such as plant room s, as

whe re it is ejecte d t o th e o ut side at th e cill.

below if lo uvres are set at an angle th at

t ermin ations to th e e nds of air-handling du cts

Open gauge mesh is usually set at th e back

allows views through th em. Lou vre blades are

whe re th ey pen etrate th e exte rnal wa ll, o r

of th e lo uvre panel to prevent th e passage of

fixed to th e stiffene rs wit h ext rude d alumini-

alte rnat ively as solar shading o n th e o uts ide

birds. Lou vres wit ho ut drainage channels are

um clips to stiffen th e blades. Corn ers of

of facades in front of glazed walls o r w in-

used in shelte red areas and also whe re rain

frames t o lou vre panels are mitred and

dows. Glazed lo uvres are also used to pro -

th at is blown throu gh th e lo uvre will not

screwed o r we lde d The edge has diffe rent

vide natural vent ilat ion to winte r garde n

damage th e building fabric. Drained lo uvres

profiles t o suit being glazed into adjacent cur-

spaces whe re th ey also provide light, as in

are used whe re more weat he r protection is

tain wa lling, and has eit he r recessed joints

high level c1erestorey glazing o r in glazed

need ed , usually w he re expos ure to th e

between pane ls, o r a wide frame , to suit th e

walls in winter garde ns in hou sing. Glass lo u-

weat he r is more seve re and whe re wate r

type of addit ional suppo rt need ed for th e

vres are ge ne rally adjustable. Metal lo uvres

penetration through th e pane l must be

co mplete lo uvred panel widt h.

are used for air handling ducts o r plant

redu ced .These dr ained lo uvres allow a little

room s, and can be in single, double o r triple

less air movem ent th an th e st andard types,

Vert ically-set lo uvres have blade s set at


an angle (in plan) such th at water dr ains

bank dep ending o n th e amo unt of weat he r

and more lou vre area is usually pro vided t o

down th e face of th e lou vres and is drained

resistance requ ired

co mpe nsate for th is.The use of a double

away at th e bottom of the frame.They are

bank lou vre e nsures th at wate r blown ove r

deep er th an th e simplest horizontal types

Metal louvres

th e t op of th e o ute r blad e w ill run down

and perform in a similar way to th e dr ained

Lou vre panels can be set eit he r horizontally

th e face of th e inne r blad e and be dr ained

horizontal types,Their depth also e nsures

o r ve rt ically. Horizontal louvres have inclined

away.The free area from th e lo uvres is

th at views through th e louvre panels are

blades mounted in a frame of the same

aro und 50 %.

seve rely redu ced Profiles for vert ical lo uvres

material.Some lo uvres throw th e wate r clear


of th e edge of th e blade at th e front. Others

Horizontally-set blades are set 50 mm


apart. Stiffener bars are set at ce nt res from

can be both v-shaped and ellipt ical.The free


area is also aro und 50%. Pane ls are asse m-

whe re more weat he r protection is need ed,

1000mm (3ft 3in) t o 1500 mm (3ft) ve rt ical

bled in a factory for co upling t ogeth er o n

have e it he r a drainage channel at th e front, o r

ce nt res, dep ending o n blade size and material

site .Typical panel sizes are aro und 1.5 metres

MC E

64

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D detail view of frame supported metal louvres used as a shading


device in front of glazed curtain wall

3-D detail view of metal louvres

a:

Horizontal section I : IO.Junction between vertically


set metal louvre panels and metal door

C::::::::::-tI_..-L--

IOJUIioM

=-

31

~ -

Horizontal section I : IO.Junction between vertically


set metal louvre panels
Profile options for metal louvres

CD

l ed

Horizontal section I : IO. Corner arrangement for vertically set metal louvre panels

Vertical section I: IO. Door with


vertically set metal louvres

3-D view of frame supported metal louvres used as a shading device in front of glazed curtain wall

MCE

65

fletalWarls OiS
Louvre screens

...
~

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CD
3-D view of frame supported metal louvres

- .1

~I

ft ~

3-D view of frame supported metal louvres

;~

0-


ij

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0) ~

"=

Horizontal section I: IOVertically set metal louvres used as shading device

Vertical section I: I Q Vertically set metal louvres


used as shading device

x 2.5 metres (5ft x 8ft) for both vert ical and

co nnect s all th e blades t ogether and w hich is

6in), th ough as w it h all louvre ty pes, larger

hori zont ally set louvres, Larger panels can be

pushed up and down by a separate motor o r

panels can be specially made,

fabr icated, but transportation t o site

is co nnected t o a manual w inding rod.

becom es more difficult. Louvred panels can

Doors are made in t he same w ay as lou-

Glazed louvres

be arranged in heights up t o aro und 4

vre panels but have stiffer fr ames t o suit

Th ese have traditionally been poor excluders

metres ( 13ft) w it h extruded aluminium mul-

m ovement.Th ey are designed w it h louvre

of air (high air infiltration rates) but th ey have

lio ns,A bove th is height. addit ional st eel posts

panels and are ofte n th e same size in o rder

improved significant ly in recent year s.T he

are requ ired behind panel jo ints t o provide

t o co nceal th eir appearance,

both suppo rt and lateral restraint.


Louvre panels can also be set at inclined

Sandt rap louvres are designed for use in


sandy and dusty co ndit ions t o pr event most

amo unt of o pening can be closely co nt ro lled.


Th ey consist of glass blades held in an aluminium fr ame or in aluminium clips,secured

angles but resistance t o rain penetration is

airbo rne sand and dust from passing through

o n pivots int o an edge frame made from

significantly reduced o n inclined walls th at can

th e louvre, Th ey co nsist of vertically-set

extr uded aluminium profil es,Some clips

be seen from below, Louvres can be set

C-shaped aluminium profi les w hich inter lock

ho lding th e glass in place are made from

upside down t o avoid views th rou gh th e

t o provide a co nt inuo us barrier.A ir passing

polyprop ylene rather th an aluminium, t o

screen, but th ey provide no weat her protec-

through th e lo uvre passes round th e int er-

avoid ratt ling between th e tw o compo nent s,

ti on , In both cases, an addit ional vert ical lou -

locking pro files w hile sand is trapped by th e

Th e most recent developm ent has been in

vre is set behind t o exclude rain,

inner profi le and falls t o th e bottom of th e

th in aluminium clips and th e use of bolt fixed

fr ame.The cill is inclined t o ensure th at sand

glazing t o hold th e glass in place,

Banks of louvre blades can also be made

Louvre glass blades are usually made in

t o t ilt t o suit vary ing vent ilat ion requ irement s,

falls o ut of th e bottom of th e panel at th e

such as in buildings w it h a high degree of nat -

fron t. Sandtrap lo uvres remove most of th e

laminat ed glass for safety,th ough float glass is

ur al vent ilat ion, Panels can o pen and close

sand and dust parti cles before t he air reaches

somet imes used for small-scale applicat ions,

from rain and w ind sensors form ing part of

th e filters on mechanical vent ilat ion equip-

So lar cont ro l glasses are ofte n used t o match

th e BMS (building management syste m) ,

ment. Insect screen is also usually provided

adjacent areas of glazing, Single o r doubl e


glazed units are available, Glass lo uvre panels

Panel sizes are similar t o th ose of fixed pan-

and th is has littl e effect o n air flow rates,

els, th at is, 1,5 x 2.5 metres (5ft x 8ft) ,T hey

Maximum sizes are similar t o th ose of ot her

are eit her hand o perated by a w ire cable-

have a single rod set into th e edge fr ame th at

louvre ty pes in 1.5 x 2,0 metres (5ft x 6ft

t ype w inding handle or are elect rically o per-

MC E

66

Vertical section I :IO. Frame supported metal louvre


screen

Vertical section I:I O. Metal


louvre panel supported in
curtain walling system

Vertical section I: IO. Metal louvre


panel in rainscreen type facade

Vertical section I: IO. Door with


horizontally set metal louvres

------------------

Details
I.
2.

3.
3-D view of frame supported metal louvres
4.
5.
6.

Extruded aluminium
frame
Stick curtain walling type carrier system
Extruded aluminium
louvre blades
Backing wall
Louvre panel door
Thermal insulation

Vertical section I ; IO. Metal louvre canopy


var iatio ns

3-D view of frame supported metal louvres at


ground level

Vertical section I; IO. W alk on metal


louvre canopy

3-D view of metal louvre canopy

MC E

67

(i)

3-D view of mechanically controlled opening glass


louvres in open position

(i)

Vertical section I : I O. Mechanically controlled opening glass louvres in closed position

Vert ical section I: IO. Mechanically controlled opening glass louvre s in open position

ated with rods as used in metal louvres. Elec-

mum length of a panel is 1200mm (4ft), but

tr ically operated units are generally 1500mm

two are commonly joined to provide an

(5ft) high to suit the length of t he rods. Pan-

overall maximum panel length of 2400mm

els are coupled vertically or horizontally to

(8ft).The thicker frames give less free area for

form a large-scale screen of panels.They can

ventilation of around 50%.Although the glass

also be glazed into curtain walling systems.

is insulated for reasons of energy conserva-

Maximum sizes are bigger than metal louvres

tion,frames are not yet thermally broken.

in 2400mm x 2400mm (8ft x 8ft) approxi-

Condensation risk when windows are closed

mately, but maximum length of ventilato r unit

is assessed for each application.

is around 1200mm (4ft).Automatic opening


types are used as smoke vents in the event

Solar shading

of fire.They provide around 70% free area

Metal louvres are also used as solar shading

when fully open.

on glazed facades. Louvres are located either

W here double glazed units are used,they

3-D view of mech anically controlled opening glass


louvres in closed position

MCE

68

in panels set away from the external wall or

are typically in 24mm thick overa ll units of

horizontally projecting from the facade as

4/ 16/4 (glass/cavity/glass) .The o ute r 4mm is

cant ilevered panels. Louvres are set either

slightly thicker ifa laminated glass is used for

horizontally or vert ically to suit the protec-

safety Like single glazed louvres,the maxi-

tion needed from varying sun angles.Yertical-

T
rr

"

T"""

..
0)

,I

.i

---

,
0)

,
-

,1lll
~.

"I

3-D view of fixed gl,m louvreswith option of integrated pboto-voaac <ells

Ver tical sectco & elevation I :25. Horizontal fixed


glass louvres

.,~

"
Iy-set louvres are positioned forward of the

much further than tho se used in 1100mm

glass. usually a minimllTl of 6()(Xnm (2ft) to

(4ft) w ide opening louvre pane ls. and need

allow a person to pass between the external

to be more rigid as a result Panels project a

wall and louvres for maintenance access and

maximum o f around 10000m (3ft 3in)

cleaning. The shading devicesare fixed to ver-

without add itional diagonal tie rods to prop

tical posts or mullions which usually coincide

the panels. Most proprietary systems can

with the module of the glazing behind. Hori-

re ach 2000mm (6ft 6in) with an additional

zontally-set panels consist of fixed kxNres.

diagonal brace.

USUdIIy

inc~ned

at 450 to the Yertical in order

Elliptical and

aerofo~ -shaped

ali.mini.....,

to maximise the shading effect The Iowres

profiles are most c()ll'Vll()O/y used since their

are fixed to mild steel channels or T-sections

shape is seen outside the building and from

which are in tlfll fixed to support brackets

inside. More tradtionaJ

projecting ttvough the external wall.'vVhere

files are also used An advantage of horizon

Z-shaped louvre pr0-

glazed curtain walling is used. the support

tally-set IolNres c:r.<eI" projecting canopies is

bracket goes through the munioo (vertical

that they do no t require rainwater drainage

member") .......here it can be properly sealed

that is needed for a coouooocs horizontal

against water penetration. Lowres for both

so-ace. Small louvre blades are made asa

-.e1ical andhorizontal shading usually span

single extrusion. but larger louvres. ~ to

Details

,~

I.

Extruded ak.m.... om
frame~~

e:

2.

StICk curtain wallong type (arTIer 5y<;tem to

1
4.

S.
6.

7.
B.
9.

"""""
..Extruded
"""""
Backng"""
waI providwlg
alrOOiom

"""""
AdJacent

panel
wal oonstr\ICtIOn

Phot~

AdJacent roof (onstruetJOn

larTwlated glass Ioo.M"e blade

Porrtixng (bolt or c1.:wrll)


10. Hroge
II .

12.
13.

Hyd'"auIicaIy ope.-ated TTl


to opet'att' Ioo..Nr'e5
Extruded~ ~

to glas5 louvre
Double gLued tnt fomwlg

"""""

....

.,

",
"

"-1

Vertical Secbon 1:25. GI.m 1ouvre5 fixed to 5teel

""""""'

MC E 69

fl etalWalls 015
Lo uvre screens

Vertical section I:I a.Single glazed louvre window


panels set into metal raincreen facade

Horizontal sect ion I:I a.Single glazed louvre window panels set into metal raincreen facade

MC E

70

D etails
I. Extruded aluminium frame supporting louvres
2. Stickcurtain walling - type carrier system to
louvre panels
3. Extruded aluminium
louvre blade
4. Backing wall providing support
5. Photovoltaic panel
6. Adjacent wall construction
7. Adjacent roof construction
8. Laminated glass louvre blade
9. Point fixing (bolt or clamp)
ro. Hinge
I I. Hydraulically operated arm to operate louvres
12. Extruded aluminium frameto glass louvre
I 3. Double glazed unit forming louvre

Vertical section I:I a.Single glazed louvre window


panels in closed position

3-D view of single glazed louvre window system in


open position

aro und SOOmm ( Ift Sin) in w idt h are made

ty of sect io n profi les and are set o n transom

from an extr uded alum inium co re t o w hich

(ho r izontal) sect io ns th at are co nnecte d back

curve d or fiat alum inium sect io ns, usually

t o mu llion s o r direct ly back t o th e externa l

3mm (0. 1I Smm) th ick, are fixed.Th e ends o f

wa ll.Vert ical lo uvre sect io ns using an ellipt ical

profil es are fitted w it h extr ude d alum inium

o r aero fo il profil e can span up t o aro und

end caps both for visual reason s and t o pro-

3000 m m ( lOft) vert ically w it ho ut need for

t ect th e inside surfaces from co rros io n. A lu-

add it io nal st iffeners.

m inium lo uvres are finished in eit her PVDF


o r polyester powd er coat ing. Blades are usu-

Walkways

ally fixed at th eir ends fr om th e cent re of th e

H orizontally-set louvres can also be used as

extr usio n at a single point at each end.

maintenance wa lkways if th ey are made suffi-

W here louvres are rnotor ised th ey are

cient ly r igid.T-sect ion alum inium profi les are

fixed at single pivot point s t o vert ical po sts.

used , and have a serrate d t op t o provide an

Link rod s are set into th e suppo rt po st join -

ant i-slip surface .A fall ar rest system is used t o

ing each blade in o rde r t o o perate a set of

secure maint enance per sonn el t o t he wa lk-

lou vr es from a single motor. Pivots have

way.T his co nsists of a co nt inuo us cable or

nylon bushes fitted t o avoid lo ng t erm rattle

tube fixed t o a co nvenient point alo ng th e

and noi se from th e moving parts.

wa lkway.A maintenance per son in a harn ess

Vert ically-set louvres use th e same varie-

is th en linked t o th e co nt inuo us cable o r tube

-Horizontal section I: I0, Double glazed louvre window system set fiush with metal rainscreen cladding

'1n.=,-==~:b!!bb::!d!b~ @'1iQF

-=''''''''='''=~~''liF~iTiF=r==~=""=""a,,,~

Vertical section I: I0, Double glazed louvre window


system in open position

3-D view of double glazed louvre wind ow system


in open position

by a secure line,Th e aluminium T-section s are

changing sun angles at different t imes of day

fixed t o st eel I-sections or channels w hich

and different tim es of year th rou gh a change

span between column suppo rts adjacent t o

in th e angle of th e blade o nly,Thi s system is

th e exte rnal wa ll, ty pically at aro und

used o n both ver t ical and horizontal planes,

7500 mm (24ft 6in) cent res,Th e main sec-

fo r examp le o n large glass facades as we ll as

ti ons suppo r t ing th e T-sect ions are fixed t o

proj ecting areas of hori zont al glazing w it hin

stainless st eel o r aluminium brackets th at

th e facade,Th e use of more complex metal

project through t he exte rnal wa ll from th e

profiles w here blades int erlock, t ogeth er

edge of th e floor slab,

w it h different perforated metals and th eir

A recent developm ent in metal louvre

connect ion t o a BMS (building management

design is in movable ty pes, Louvres are set o n

syste m) is sure t o make significant develo p-

a moving rack w hich allow s th em to be

ments over th e next t en years, Such co nt ro ls

moved from open to closed, using perforated

can reduce energy consum pt io n w it hin a

alum inium sheet t o form louvr es,W hen

building by reducing th e amo unt of mechani-

closed, th e lo uvres create a t ranslucent

cal coo ling needed as we ll as cont ro l glare

screen w it h 20% t o 50% light transmission

from direct sunlight.

(depending on th e degree of perforation in


th e st eel) t o 100% light transmission w hen
open.This allow s a glazed wall t o deal w ith

Vertical section I : I0, Double glazed louvre window


system in closed position set flush with metal rainscreen cladding

MC E 7 1

Details
I.

2.
- f-D detailedviews

or frame supported solar control glass

louvres used as a shading device in front of glazed curtain


wall

3.
4.
5.
6.

Extruded aluminium
frame
Stick curtain walling type carrier system
Solar control glass
louvre blade
Backingwall
Louvre panel door
Therma l insulation

3-D exp loded view of frame supported solar control


glasslouvres used as a shading device in front of glazed
curtain wall

3-D exploded view of frame supported solar control glasslouvres used


as a shading device in front of glazed curtain wall
Exploded axonometric view of frame supported solar control glass
louvres used as a shading device in front of glazed curtain wall

MC E 72

~j

3-D exploded view of single glazed louvre window system

I
I

Exploded axonometric of single glazed louvre


window system

Exploded axonometric of mechanically controlled


opening glass louvres

Details
I.
2.

Extruded aluminium frame supporting louvres


Stick curtain walling - type carrier system to
louvre panels
3. Extruded aluminium
louvre blade
4.
Backing wall providing support
5.
Photovoltaic panel
6.
Adjacent wall construction
7.
Adjacent roof construction
8.
Laminated glass louvre blade
9.
Point fixing (bolt or clamp)
10. Hinge
I I. Hydraulically operated arm to operate louvres
12. Extruded aluminium frame to glass louvre
I 3. Double glazed unit forming louvre

3-D exploded view of mechanically controlled


opening glass louvres

Detailed views of the system

Detailed views ot the system

MC E

73

GLASS WALLS
(I) Stick glazing:

System assembly
Framing profiles
Opening lights

Comers

Spandrel panels

(2) Unitised glazing:


Jointing panels
Opening lights

Comer panels. parapets and cills


Silicone-bonded glazing
(3) C lamped glazing:
Patch plate glazing
Clamped glazing
Opaque glazing
Sealing clamped glazing
(4) Bolt fixed glazing:

Support methods
Bottom supported glazing
Top hung glazing

Comers

Seals and interfaces

(5) Glass blocks.


Fixing glass blocks

Support frames and walls


Cast glass channels

(6) Steel windows:


Small-scale glazing

Large-scale glazing
(7) A luminium and PVC-U windows:
Windows in open ings

Window walls
Composite windows

(8) Timber windows:


Window walls
Window design
Windows in open ings

MCE

75

Glass Walls 0
Stick glazing

-r---.----_

11

JIIIiiiiiio--......~...

8)
(2)

@14

I -- - @- - -

11
Vertical section I :25. Stick curtain wall with opaque
glassspandrel panel

3-D view of curtain wall with opaque glass spandrel


panel

Verti cal section I :25. Floor to ceiling glazing with


insulated panel at ground level

Comparison w it h unitised glazing

serv ice th e co nstruct ion of th e pr imary

higher dependence o n site- based work t o

Framed glazing syste ms are of t w o types:

st ruct ure ofte n being built at th e same t ime,

achieve th e quality of const r uction of th e fac-

stick and uniti sed. Stick syste ms are assem-

th ough usually several flo ors higher or several

t ory-based unitised systems.

bled mainly o n site, w hile unitised systems

bays away from th e glazed wa lling.

are assemb led in a factory.Stick syste ms are

For low ri se buildin g, or w here th ere is a

System assembly

we ll adapte d for non -m odul ar const r uction.

high degree of var iat ion in th e facade mod -

A n essent ial aspect of st ick syste ms is th at

W hile unitised systems require a repet ition in

ule, stick glazing is ofte n pr eferred, since th e

th ey should be drained and vent ilate d in

panel sizes in o rder t o keep th e types t o a

wa ll is assem bled in place o n site rather th an

o rder t o avo id wate r being dr awn through

small numb er in o rder t o remain eco nomic,

in a wo r ksho p, making it very eco no mic

th e rubb er-based seals int o th e building. Rain-

stick systems allow a high degree of freedom

w hen co m pared t o uniti sed glazing.

w ate r penetrating th e o ute r seal is dr ained

in modu le size and in facade design. Mullions

A lt ho ugh off-site fabri cation savestim e and

away in a vent ilate d zone th at pro vides pres-

and transoms do not need t o be cont inuo us;

can be of higher quality, it is ofte n more

sure equalisat ion between outside and inside

glazing bars can set o ut in staggered grids

expensive. Sometim es mu llion s and tran-

th e system. Pressure equalisat ion avo ids

and can be changed easily from smaller grid

soms are pr e-assemb led int o carrier fr ames

wate r being drawn int o th e syste m by a pres-

sizes t o larger o nes. Compl ex geomet ries can

th at are lift ed in place and fixed w it ho ut

sure difference between two chambers,

be t aken up much more easily by stick sys-

glass.Th is 'sem i-un itised' approac h can save

resulting in wate r being drawn through a

t ems th an by unitised syste ms. Stick systems

tim e o n co nst ruct ion w here th ere is some

joint. A ny rainw ater ente ring thi s zone is

are ofte n preferred for low -ri se building,

degree of repet ition .

dr ained away t o th e o utside fo rw ard of th e

w here scaffo lding is used, but th e increased

A crit icism of stick syste ms has tradition-

inner seal forming a second line of defence

use of mast climb er s (moving platforms) is

ally been of th eir poorer quality of assembly

against air and w ate r infiltration. Mo st stick

making st ick systems viable for taller buildings

w hen compared t o unitised glazing, but th is is

syste ms now pr ovide a full th erm al br eak

( 10 t o 20 storeys) w here uniti sed glazing

much less th e case today. Ho w ever. bringing

through th e aluminium profil es rather th an

wo uld ot herwise have been used.Th e

all th e compo nents t ogeth er at th e site, of

th e partial th erm al br eaks provided o n previ-

increased dependence on mast climber s is in

doubl e- or single glazed units,aluminium pro -

o us syste ms.Thi s reduces co ndensat ion risk

part due t o th e need t o be independent of

files, rubb er-based gaskets and seals,fo lded

o n th e inside face of th e fram ing in t emp er-

site cranes,w hich are increasingly needed t o

metal flashings and co pings, involves a much

ate climates.In hot and humid climates,th e

MC E

76

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D view of glazed curtain wall with maintenance walkwayand glazed

solar shading panels in front

De tails
Extr uded alum inium transom
Extru ded alum inium m ullion

13. O uter glazed screen

Fixing bracket
Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit

14
I S.

16.

t-laintenance access deck

app lication

17.

5.
6.

Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal

W indow glazed in
curtain wa lling

18

Metal honeycomb panel

7,

19.

Slot in mullion t o receive

8.

Therm al break
Metal-faced or opaque gjassfaced insulated pan el

9,

Cover cap

I.
2.

1
4.

10, Floo r slab


I I , Floor finish
12. C eiling finish

walkwayand glazed solarshading panels in front

.. ..... ,-.
wi'

3-D view of curtain wall g1azing on steel carrier frame

Thermal insulation
Metal sheet seal

f,xlng bracelet for


external screens, etc
20. Steel hollow sect ion
2 1. Adjacent wa ll.Meta l ra in
screen shown
22. Smo ke sea l
Vert ical sect ion I :25 Curtain w allglazing on steel
carr ier frame

Vertical section I:25 Glazed curtain wa ll w ith maintenance

-...

providing solarshading

= =I!=;;:;=
Horizo nt al sect ion I :5. Curtain wall glaZIng on steel
earner frame

MC E 77

GassWalls 01
Stick glazing

Section I:S.Junction between doub le glazed units

Vertical section 1:5.Top of slab con nection w it h


insulat ed slab capping

Sectio n I :S.Junction between do uble glazed unit


and glass spandrel panel

Vertical section I:S. Underside of slab connectio n


with insulated slab capping

Sectio n I:S.Junction bet w een doub le glazed unit


and metal honey comb panel

Vert ical Section I :S.Junctio n bet we en doub le glazed


unit and t o p of inw ard opening w indow

Section I :5.Junctio n between do uble glazed unit


and botto m of inw ard o pening wi ndow

MC E

78

Vertical section I:S.Junction with top and bottom of


slab

@
Sect ion I:S.Junction bet ween doub le glazed units
using reduced frame size

Section I:S.Junction bet ween double glazed units


using slim fram e pr ofile

condensati on w ill occur harmlessly o n the

the pressure plates t o conceal the pressure

outside face of the frami ng if th e interior is

plates as well as th e self tapping screws hold-

coole d by mechanical vent ilat io n. In all cli-

ing th e glass in place. Somet imes th e cappings

mates, a th erm al break improves th e U -val-

are omitted but care must be t aken t o

ue of t he glazed w all, t hus reducing energy

ensure t hat t he screws are pro perly aligned

consumpt io n w it hin th e building for eit her

and th at the pressure plates are cont inuo us

heating o r coo ling.

and jointed carefully

Stick glazing is assembled mainly on site.

Stick systems are fixed fro m floo r to floo r

Mullions (verticals) are fixed to floor slabs

at either side of the floo r slab o r o n t op.The

w it h transom s (horizo nt als) spanning

design of t he connectio n is depend ent mainly

between th e mullions to w hich th ey are fixed.

o n th e meth od of form ing th e edge of the

These framing member s can be pre-assem-

floo r constr uct io n o n floor dept hs o r uses of

bled into 'ladder s' o n t he gro und and lift ed

t he adjacent floor zone, and any addit ional

int o place by crane in o rder t o reduce t ime

elements such as brackets for solar shading

o n sit e.The glass is set in place and pressure

or mainte nance walkways w hich penetrate

plates fixed th rough thermal breaks back to

the stick glazing.The glazing is either hung

t he carrier frame of mullions and tran soms.

fro m each floor level o r sits o n each floor

De corative cappings are usually applied to

level. Hanging is usually preferred but con-

D etails
I. Extruded aluminium transom
2. Extruded aluminium mullion
3. Fixing bracket
4. Single glazed or double glazed unit to suit
application
5. Pressure plate
6. Rubber-based seal
7. Thermal break
8. Metal-faced or opaqueglass-faced insulated
panel
9. Cover cap
10. Floor slab

I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Floor finish
Ceilingfinish
Outer glazed screen providingsolarshading
Thermal insulation
Metal sheetseal
Maintenance access deck
W indow glazed in curtain walling
Metal honeycomb panel
Slot in mullionto receive fixing bracelet for
external screens, etc.
20. Steel hollow section
21. Adjacent wall. Metal rainscreen shown
22. Smoke seal
Horizontal section 1:5.Junction between double
glazed unit and insulated metal panel

=::: J
~-

J
1\

I-

CD

---

--------

""--""11
@

------------

CD

3-D view of glazed curtain wall with cut glazing caps

Vertical section 1:5.Junction with double glazed


unit and opaqueglazed panel with bonded
insulation

str aint s imposed by th e str ucture o f t he

is fixed direct ly t o th e floor slab as w ell as

building may req uire t he glazing t o be sup-

form ing part of t he curtain w all system.Th is

ported at t he base o f each mulli on . Mulli on s

ensures t hat t he spand rel rem ains in place

are linked by spigots so th at th e restrained

lo ng afte r th e adjace nt curta in wa lling has

end of o ne mulli on fit s int o t he suppo rte d

co llapsed d uring a fire.T he spandrel panel

end of t he ot her mu llio n.

itself is usually protect ed w it h a fire resistant

Because glazed wa lling is set forward of


t he edge o f th e slab, th e gap between th e

Vertical section 1:5. Opaque glass spandrel panel


with ventilated spandrel zone

board as part of t he bar r ier.


Where glazing is inclined significant ly

two is clo sed w it h a floor finish. Seals

from t he ver t ical. t w o -edge glazing is used t o

between adjacent floors are designed as

allow th e w at er t o run do wn unimped ed

eit her sm o ke seals or as flame barri er s.

w it h transom s.Thi s is a standard m ethod for

Sm o ke seals co m prise a mi ner al woo l o r

glazed ro ofs,w here mulli on s are capped. but

glass w o o l barri er, held in place and sealed

transom s running acro ss th e w idt h of th e

w it h galvanised stee l sheet above and below .

slo pe are sealed w it h a flush silico ne join t.

Flame barri ers, usually of o ne ho ur o r 90


minu t e ratin g are provided by a spec ially pro-

Framing profiles

t ected spand re l panel at t he level of t he flo or

Car r ier fr am es are m ade from a w ide var iety

zo ne.T he spand rel panel forming th e barri er

of sect io ns.Th e shape can usually be adapted

Vertical section 1:5. Metal honeycombspandrel


panel with ventilated spandrel zone

MC E

79

Glass W alls aI

Stick glazing

Horiz ontal section 1:5, Internal corner connection


between double glazed units

3-D view of connection betw een double glazed units

3-D view of framed internal corner connection


between double glazed units

Hori zontal section 1:5, External corner connection


between double glazed units

3-D views offramed external corner connection between double glazed units

D etails
I,
2,

3.
4,
S,
6,
7,
8,
9,
I 0,
I I,
I 2,
I 3.
14,
15,
I 6,
17,
I 8,
19,
20,
21,
22,

Extruded aluminium transom


Extruded aluminium mullion
Fixing bracket
Singleglazed or double glazed unit to
suit application
Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal-faced or opaque glass-faced
insulated panel
Cover cap
Floor slab
Floor finish
Ceiling finish
Outer glazed screen providing solar
shading
Thermal insulation
Metal sheet seal
Maintenance access deck
W indow glazed in curtain walling
Metal honeycomb panel
Slot in mullion to receive fixing bracelet
for external screens, etc.
Steel hollow section
Adjacent wall. Metal rainscreen shown
Smoke seal

MC E

80

Ho rizontal section 1:5, External corner connection


between double glazed units

for a specific proj ect.Th e most commo n

ally too deep or if th e glazing syste m is fixed

t ypes are rectangular box sectio ns th at use

back t o a steel frame forming part of th e pr i-

th e full w idt h of th e joint, and narrower

mary structure,The front part of th e ext ru-

T-shaped and I-shaped sections th at are nar-

sion containing th e seals is fixed direct ly t o a

row er th an th e joint w idt h,A lt hough th e

mild stee l box or l-section.The glazing is th en

depth of th e profi le is determin ed by st r uc-

fixed t o thi s extrusion in th e convent ional

tural requirement s, th e overall shape can be

way, If th e steel fr ame has variable or com-

adapte d t o suit ot her needs,such as incor-

plex curves th en t he ru bber-based seals are

porating ro ller blind guides int o t he sides of

set onto th e steel fr ame w it hout an ext ru-

th e ver t ical profil es, Mullions and transom s

sion w it h a t echnique commo nly used in

are ofte n not of th e same depth , for st ruc-

glazed roof st r uctures,The glass is fixed w it h

tural reason s, but can be made so if

pressure plates directly t o t he steelwo rk w it h

required t o suppo rt blinds, for example, o r

a ru bber-based profile set between th e glass

for visual reasons,

and support ing steel.

W here framing member s have long vert ical or horizontal spans, mild steel sections

Opening lights

are somet imes used instead of a rectangular

W indow s, doors and smoke vents are fixed

box section in aluminium, particularly if th e

into stick glazing as items w it h th eir ow n

equivalent aluminium section wo uld be visu-

fr ame rather th an using t he cur tain wall fram-

3-D view of junction between double glazed unit and insulated


external corner panel

Horizontal section 1:5.Junction between double glazed unit and insulated external
corner panel

3-D view of external corner connection between double glazed units

Horizontal section 1:5. External corner at spandrel level with opaque glasspanels
and vent ilat ed spandrel zone

ing directly.This is because th e op ening light

Parapets, cil ls and penetrat ion s

usually needs it s own dr ainage and we at her-

Parapet co pings are glazed int o th e curta in

proofing profi les and seals.This gives th e

w alling w it h a pre ssure plate in t he same w ay

appearance of a thi cker fr ame aro und op en-

as adjacent glazing. Copin gs usually proj ect to

ing light s th an aro und th e adjacent fixed

align w it h th e face of th e cappings on th e

light s. Drips and seals form a part of th e sec-

pressure plates or slight ly fo rw ard of th em to

ondary frame in th e same w ay as if t he light

protect th e glazing beneath from t he vert ical

we re glazed into any oth er form of co nst r uc-

m ovement of maint enance cradles. Copings

ti on such as an o pening in a masonry wa ll.

slope inw ards t ow ards a gutter rather t han

The op ening light is glazed into curta in w aIl-

sloping fo rw ards to avoid dirt accumulat ing

ing around it s edge w it h a th inner fram e t hat

o n th e top of co ping being w ashed down th e

correspo nds t o th e th ickness of t he glazed

facade by rain.Th is also avoids th e need for

units, allowin g it to be fixed in place w it h th e

th e co ping to proj ect beyond th e face of th e

same t echnique as if it we re a doub le glazed

glazing and form a drip. It sho uld be noted

unit.Th ese edge nibs are positioned on th e

th at proj ecting drips on copings are st ill good

fram e t o t he o pening light in a way that

pr actice in masonry co nstruct ion, w here an

ensures that th e glass of th e op ening light is

impervious co ping w ashes rainw ater onto a

in th e same plane as th e adjacent glass.

perm eable masonry material beneath, causing staining. Cills at th e base of stick glazing

Horizontal section 1:5.Junction between curtain


wall glazing and rainscreen cladding system

MCE

81

Glass Walls 0 I
Stick glazing

Horizontal section 1:5. Glazingframe


supported directly on steel structure

Horizontal section 1:5. Framed


external corner

Horizontal section 1:5. Glazing frame


with thin frame

Det ails
I. Extruded aluminium transom
2. Extruded aluminium mullion
3. Fixing bracket
4. Single glazed or double glazed unit to
suit application

Horizontal section 1:5.Junction between insulated


metal spandrel panels

Horizontal section I:5. Inward opening


window fixed into curtain wall system.
Right: 3-D view of glass louvre fixed to
inside of glazing frame

5. Pressure plate
6. Rubber-based seal
7.Thermal break
8. Metal-faced or opaque glass-faced
insulat ed panel
9. Cover cap
10. Floor slab

@
Horizontal section 1:5. Glass rainscreen supported
from bracket fixed to inside of glazing frame

are formed w it h a pressed aluminium profi le

is glazed int o t he curtain w alling at t he t op

w it h a clip at t he bottom w hich pro vides a

end, and project s down over t he adjacent

clean line at t he bottom of t he w all, and

wall in a manner t o suit t he det ailing of t he

pro vides rigidity to t he pro file.W here cill

wall beneath.

drips can be seen from below, t he folded

Horizontal section 1:5. Glass louvre fixed to inside


of glazing frame

MC E

82

edge pro vides a smoot h painted edge w hich

Corners

is also protected from weat her corrosion.

Both int ernal and exte rnal corners are

W here stick glazing abuts an adjacent

form ed by glazing in a folded aluminium strip

area of wall in a different mat erial, a blocking

int o t he mullion on each side of t he corner.

profi le is glazed int o t he edge of t he glazing

A lte rnat ively, a mullion set at 45 is used to

profile, faced w it h an EPDM foil.The foil is

give a t hin edge t o t he facade, w it h a joint

t hen bonded t o t he adjacent wall.W here

w idt h similar t o t hat of joint s elsewhere on

glazing abut s metal rainscreens, w hich is a

t he facade. Som e manufactur er s provide

commo n combinat ion, t he edge of t he met al

int erlocking mullions for use at corners t o

return t o t he rainscreen can also be glazed

allow varying angles at corners on a single

int o t he edge mullion or t ransom.W here a

building w it h a constant abutting of mullions

pro jecting cill is required at t he base of t he

on t he inside face.

w all, for example, a proj ecting aluminium cill

Jlt

II

II
I
--", ' --- - - - - - lIT- - - - - - -''

II

Jill

11 11

II
II
II
II

--", ''--------,lr~----

--;

.1111

II
,I I

II
II

][
0

II
I I0

;II;;

II
, I I,

m
1[1

...I

-->

, ,

l[

- g CD

....,.

IlL

II

III

----"1..

Elevation,verti cal & horizontal I :50, Curtain wall glaZIng with glass solar shading panels in front

I I. Floor finish
12. Ceiling finish

11 Outer glazed screen provOding solar shading


14 Thermal insulation

IS. Meta l sheet seal


16. t-taotenaoce access deck
17Window glazed in curta in walling

Spandrel panels

18 Metal honeycomb panel


19, Slot in mullion to receive fixing bracelet for

Spandrel panels are made either as a contin-

external screens.etc.

uo us sealed panel. draining in the same way

20. Steel hollow section


21 .Adjacent w all. Metal rainscreen shOVlIn

as the glass panels. or as a ventilated box.


Where metal is used, spandrels can be

22. Smoke seal

formed as t rays glazed int o the frami ng with


insulatio n between. Glazed spandrels are
made either with rigid insulati o n bo nded to
the back of laminated glass or on a sheet of
laminated glass with a ventilated void behind
both to coo l the glass and avoid either a visual read-through of the insulation from the
outside or risk of t he insulation delaminating
from the glass. When glass is used it is made
opaq ue (w ith either method) by screen
printi ng.etch ing or a combination of both.
3-D view showingcurtam wall glazing with glass
solar shadingpanels in front at upper floor junction

MC E

83

- - - GlassWalls
Stick glazing

Ol r-------..

3-D e;.q)k:x.led _

of stICk. glazed Curtain wall with glazed solar shading pane ls n front

.' /

Details

I. Extruded a1<.mni1.rn transom

./

2. Extruded alnw1i.m I'l'WJIIon


1 fixing bracket

."

4.

--

- -

SUIt appIicat.Qn
5_~plate

6. Ri..ttler-based sW
7.Thermal break

8.l"1et.-faced or opacp..oe glass-f.xed


nsulated panel
9. CoYer cap
I (l Aoor slab
I I. Aoor linrsh
11 CeWng Iinrsh

13. Outer glazed screen

""".,

~ solar

14.Thermal nsulabon
IS. Metal sheet seal
16. r-tentene-ce access dec k
17. W ItldrJ.N glazed in a.rtaon walhng
18. Metal honeycOO"b panel
19 Slot n mullion to receee fixing
braceletfor extemal screens.etc.
20. Steel hollow sectco
21.Adjacef1t wall, Metal raoscreeo

.oown

22. Smoke seal

3-D ~

MCE

Single glaZed Ot' double glazed l.rMl. to

84

VIeW 0( strl

glazed W'1ain wal at lIoorp,etJon

8)
@
@

3-D exploded view of stick glazed curta in wall

3-D exploded view of stick glazed curtain


wall with glazed solar panels at fioor juncti on

_-

.... .....

3-D exploded view of corner junction between


double glazed units

I
I

3-D view of corner junction between double glazed


units

3-D exp loded view of stick glazed curtain wall w ith cut glazing caps
3-D view of stick glazed curtain wall with glazed
solar panels at fioor junction

MCE

85

0_
Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between unitised double glazed units with glazing fixed from
outside

Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between unitised double glazed units with glazing fixed internally

'-':L.---0 Horizontal section 1:5. Outward opening window


glazed into unitised panel

Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between unitised panels with insulated metal panels fixed from
inside

Vertical section 1:5. Connection between externally


glazed unitised panels with double glazed units and
inulated metal panels

T he main advantages of uniti sed glazing in

glazed wa lls,visually, t hat have height s greate r

are used w hich pr oject from t he sides of t he

const r uct ion are of speed of installati on o n

t han aro und four metres betw een floo r slabs,

mullion/transom section.T his result s in int er-

site and of quality co nt rol of assembly wo rk-

th at is,greate r th an a single panel height.Th e

nally glazed sect io ns usually being w ider than

sho p co ndit ions over t hose o n site. Fo r t aller

fram ing can appear t o be visually very stro ng,

t hose glazed exte rn ally. W hen glazed exte r-

buildings,for t hose over five or six storeys,

and instead frameless co nstruct ion is often

nally, a maintenance cradle is used w it h th e

scaffo lding becomes much less pract ical, and

prefer red as eit her bolt fixed or clamped

capacity t o lift glass and allow t he panel t o be

so wo rking from inside th e building on a

glazing. It s mo st commo n use is in modules

lifted in place.Thi s method allows glass t o be

fioor slab is a safer and faster method. Uni -

of 1200mm o r I SOOmm w ide (4ft or Sft)

replaced w here it is eit her impractical to

t ised panels are assemb led and glazed in t he

w here it suits t he int ern al planning of office

carry t he glass t hrough t he building o r w here

factory.O n site th ey are secured by brackets

buildings, but st orey height panels 3 metres

glass sizes are too large to ente r stairwells o r

fixed t o th e fioor slab and set side by side,

w ide are used. Because of th e cost of setting

lifts.W hen intern ally glazed, glass unit s are

t hen rising floo r by floo r; usually from t he

up jigs and t oo ls in t he factory, uniti sed glaz-

carried up eit her in a lift or by stairs and are


installed ent irely from t he floo r plate.

bottom of t he building upw ards. Panels are

ing is suite d to use w it h a small number of

made eit her as panels set side by side, so t hat

panel types t o create a high level of repet i-

th ey can be replaced as complete panels if

ti on .Thi s suits very modu lar facades w it h rel-

Jointing panels

accident ally damaged, o r be semi-inte r locking

at ively few panel t ypes. Glazed unit s are fixed

Most panels are made o ne sto rey-height. but

w here t he glass is replaced w it ho ut mo ving

eit her w it h pr essure plates, o r are silicone-

larger panels are made to span two fio ors

t he panel.The fully uniti sed type has w ider

bo nded t o a light frame aro und t he edge

and o ne bay w ide or o ne storey high and

site lines (ove rall fram e w idt h) at aro und

and th en mechanically fixed t o th e fr ame of

several bays w ide.Th ose larger panels are

80mm (3in), than th e semi-inte rloc king ty pe

th e panel.

usually done w here installation tim e is crit ical.

at aro und 6Smm (2.Sin). A comparable st ick

Glazed unit s are fitted eit her exte rn ally

Like st ick glazing, panels are eit her hung fro m

syste m w o uld have a joint w idt h of aro und

o r intern ally depending on th e glass replace-

th e t op o r are supporte d at th e bottom .

SOmm 2in). From t he visual point of view, t he

ment meth od.W hen glazed exte rn ally, mul-

Instead of a st raightforwa rd spigot between

w ider site lines of uniti sed glazing over st ick

lio ns and transoms are adapte d to have a clip

storey height lengths of mullion, panels are

glazing is t he main disadvantage of t his system.

o n t he outside t o form a pressure plate.

t ied t oget her w it h a 'st ack' joint. so-named

W here glazed units are intern ally glazed, clips

from t he co ncept of panels being stacked

Unitised glazing is much less suite d to t all

M C E 86
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

}- - - - --'""- . . . . . ~- 0--Horizontal section 1:5. Outward opening window


glazed into unitised panel

Vertical section 1:5. Connection between unitsed


double glazed panels with externally fixed glass

;;

CD
- 1,0

-.

~ , ~. ~
Horizontal section I :5. Stick mullion in unitised
panel

Vertical section 1:5. Stick transom in unitised panel

0- - -=
Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between unitised panel and structure

Vertical section 1:5. Unitised panel connection at


ground level

Vertical section 1:5. Outward opening window


glazed into unitised panel

Deta ils
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.
18.

Interlocking transom
Plain transom
Interlocking mullion
Singleglazed or double
glazed unit to suit application
Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal parapet coping
Metal-faced or opaque glassfaced insulated panels
Floor slab
Floor finish
Ceiling finish
Outer screen providing
solar shading
Thermal insulation
Sheet metal seal
Cover cap
Smoke seal
Support bracket

3-D view connection between unitised double glazed panels

MC E

87

GlassWalls 02.
Unitised glazing

3-D view of frame less glasscomer

Horizontal section 1:5. Framed glass connection


within unitised external corner panel

-----l.:"'==d

===!!:.L-

Horizontal section 1:5. Frameless external glasscorner in externally glazed unitised panel

above one anot her.Th e complete bottom

in a pressure equalised chamber th at stops

horizontal edge of th e panel int ersects w it h

wate r getting any further.This is drained

th e t op edge of th e panel below .This joint

through th e forw ard baffle and out of th e

comprisest wo lines of defence against air

front of th e panel.At th e back of th e joint is

and wate r infilt rati o n, and a furth er air seal at

an air seal. In warm humid count ries, th is rear

th e interior face of th e panels. In st ick glazing,

chamber is usually vent ilate d t o th e o utside

seals are provided by a set of pressure plates

as we ll as t o release condensat ion t hat inevi-

applied w hen th e carrier frame and glass are

tably forms in th e full depth of th e profi le. In

already in place. In unitised glazing,th e wate r-

th is detail, th e performance of th e inner air

pro ofing is mostly fixed t o th e panel before

seal is crit ical t o th e success of th e system.

inst allati o n and has t o wo rk w hen panels are

88

Th e vert ical jo int between two panels is

simply slotted int o place.A n o ute r line of

form ed as a vert ical cont inuity of horizontal

defence is provided by rubb er-based baffles

joints.Th e forw ard baffle form s an o ute r seal,

set o n each panel so th at th ey press t ogether

th e inner seal is lapped onto th e horizontal

t o form a seal.A n aluminium drip profil e is

joint, and th e inner air seal is cont inuo us w it h

somet imes added t o th e outside of th is as a

it s horizontal counte rpart.

fir st barri er against w ind, but allow ing wate r

MC E

CD

Both hori zont al and vert ical aluminium

t o drip out again behind thi s profi le. A ny

profi les have a th erm al break set near th e

wate r passing through th is profile is sto pped

exte rnal face t o avoid th erm al br idging. How -

---.

Vertical section 1:5. Parapet connection detail at top of unitised glazing panel

Vertical section 1:5. Outward opening window


glazed into unitised panel

3-D cutaway view of parapet connection at top of opaque unitised panel

ever. since exte rnal air is allowe d deep int o

unlike st ick glazing w here doors are glazed

t he joi nt, th erm al calculat ions are undertaken

into th e st ick syst em, making th e overall

t o check t hat t he dewp o int falls in t he pres-

w idt hs great er. H owever.air infiltrati on rates

sure equalised drainage cavity Spandrel pan-

for doors are usually half th at of uniti sed glaz-

els are fo rmed in t he same way as w it h st ick

ing at aro und 300 Pascals for doo rs w hen

glazing w it h metal or glass panels.T he tran-

compared w it h 600 Pascals for unitised glaz-

som dividing spandrel and glazing beneath is

ing. Stick glazing pro vides similar levels of air

formed as one division w it hin th e uniti sed

infiltration .Th e poorer perform ance of tradi-

panel, t hough it can somet imes be at t he

t io nal doors can somet imes lead t o t he use

position of th e stack jo int if t he panels are

of w indow profi les as doors since th ey have

seat ed o n t he fixing bracket at slab level rath -

much lower air infiltrati on rates, so me mat ch-

er t han hanging fro m it.

ing t hose of curt ain w alling.

Opening lights

Corner panels, parapets and cills

Opening light s such as smo ke vent s are

A n advantage of uniti sed glazing is its ability

fo rmed w it hin each panel w it h a seco ndar y

t o have frameless glazed corn ers, w hich is dif-

fr ame inserted w it hin th e edge frame of th e

ficult t o achieve in st ick glazing, since th e seal-

panel. D oors are usually made as separate

ing joint between th e two glazed units has t o

it ems t hat are glazed int o t he adjacent frame,

be achieved on site, w here curing of t he sil i-

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.
lB.

Interlocking transom
Plaintransom
Interlocking mullion
Singleglazed or double
glazed unit to suit application
Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal parapet coping
Metal-faced or opaque glassfaced insulated panels
Floor slab
Floor finish
Ceiling finish
Outer screen providing
solar shading
Thermal insulation
Sheet metal seal
Cover cap
Smoke seal
Support bracket

MCE

89

Glass ails 02
Unitised glazing

Vertica l section I :5. Unitised panel hung from top


of slab with opaque glasspanel to hide slab edge

Irr

>-

r---,

>>>-

>. i"~

'----

Vert ical section 1:5. Connection between opaque glassspandrel panel and double glazed
unit with stick transom at suspended ceiling level

~=

I I~I~

I~

7--J

I~
I~
1-<

I ~i:l
'-I

~I

Horizontal section 1:5. Uniti sed curtain wall supported from fioor slabs with opaque spandrel panels

MC E

90

cone is much more difficult th an in th e facto-

t o th e doub le glazed unit visually w idens th e

ry.Corn er units w it h frameless corne rs are

jo int t o aro und 40mm . Panels can be formed

made by suppo r t ing th e glass on three sides

eit her as equal corne rs, w it h up t o aro und

in a fr ame and bondin g th e t wo sides t ogeth-

1500mm (5ft) from each corne r t o a short

er. Usually a small square aluminium sectio n,

corner of 1500mm (5ft) o n o ne leg and

30mm x 30mm ( I .lin x l .Zin) appro ximate ly

300mm ( I ft) o n th e ot her leg.As th e size of

t o match th e thi ckness of th e dou ble glazed

th e corne r panel increases, it becom es more

units,is used t o suppo rt th e co rner of th e

difficult t o lift and set in place, and conse-

panel w hen it is lift ed by crane.T his makes

quent ly becom es more expensive.A corne r

th e corne r of th e panel slight ly less all-glass

unit w it h a framing member at th e corne r

th an can be achieved by a doub le glazed bay

can be made eit her w it h a fr ame visible, o r

w indow for example, w it h a fully glazed cor-

visible o nly from th e inside, w it h a glass-to-

ner. In such a bay w indow th e glass can be

glass junction as descr ibed in th e paragraph.

jo ined w it ho ut th e need for an addit ional alu-

Som etim es th e jo int occurs o n th e corne r of

minium post using eit her a stepped o r mitred

two fiat panels, w it h eit her a mitred corne r

jo int. In a fully glazed corne r in a unitised

o r a square corne r w it h an infill piece.

panel. th e appearance of th e corne r is st ill


aro und 40mm ( I.Sin), since th e visible edging

Both parapets and cills are form ed in a


similar way t o th ose used on stick systems,

..:=-_-_-_---:::0.

Vertical section 1:5. Unitised panel connection to top of fioor slab


with insulated metal slab capping

Vertical section 1:5. Unitised panel connection to underside of fioor


slab with insulated metal slab capping

3-D view of unitised panel connection to top of fioor slab

3-D view of unitised panel connection to underside of fioor slab

but are formed as separat e panels unlike st ick

Silicone-bonded glazing

syste ms w hich are glazed int o th e t op tran-

A development over th e past t en years has

som at roof level.

been in silicone-bo nded glazing.A lt ho ugh t his


is used in uniti sed syste ms, it is also used par-

Penet ratio ns

t ially in st ick glazing.Th e glass is restr ained on

Penet ratio ns t hro ugh glazing for bracket s,

t w o vert ical sides by pressure plates and two

usually fixed at floor level t o fix th em back to

ho rizont al sides by silico ne.A lte rnat ively, t he

th e floor slab, occur at joints betw een panels

glass is bonded on all four sides by silicone.

t hro ugh mullions o r t ransom s.T his is because

T his met hod avoids t he need for visible cap-

th e bracket can be far more easily sealed at

pings for mu llion s and/o r transom s w hich are

t his po int, w here t he glazing syste m is drained

ofte n aro und 1.5 t imes w ider t han an equiva-

and vent ilate d int ern ally,th an thro ugh span-

lent stick syste m.Th e use of silico ne allows

drel panels, w here it is difficult t o apply a seal

th e joint betw een glass unit s t o be flush rath-

and w here no mechanical pressure can be

er t han using a pressure plate w hich is set in

applied t o th e spandrel panel since th ere is

front of th e glass.Thi s allows th e facade t o

no framing mem ber behind.

have no visible fr am ing on t he o ut side. Sili-

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I O.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.
18.

Interlocking transom
Plaintransom
Interlocking mullion
Singleglazed or double
glazed unit to suit application
Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal parapet coping
Metal-faced or opaque glassfaced insulated panels
Floor slab
Floor finish
Ceiling finish
Outer screen providing
solar shading
Thermal insulation
Sheet metal seal
Cover cap
Smoke seal
Support bracket

co ne is also used in th e joint since thi s mater ial cannot be com bined w it h an EPDM, such

MC E 9 1

Glass Walls 02
Unitised glazing

- -0
Horizontal section 1:5. Connection between unitised double glazed units with glass bonded to
frame

_8

Horizontal section 1:5 . Connection between double


glazed unit and opaque glass unit with glass bonded
to frame

as neoprene, used in seals in pr essure plate

is secured by addit ional short clips along th e

syste ms.

horizontal edges t o increase th e safety of th e

The glass unit s are bond ed to aluminium

th e glass.Th e glass is th en mechanically fixed


w it h screws t o th e carrier fram e o n site. T his
t echniqu e is increasingly used in unitised syst ems w here damaged glass can be remo ved
w it hout th e need t o remove th e complete
panel.A lt ho ugh silicone-bo nded glazing
allow s a facade to appear from th e o utside as
a cont inuo us glass surface int errupt ed o nly
by smoot h and narro w joints,w it h 20mm
(O.78in) rather th an SOmm (2in) m inimum
w it h pressure plates,th e op aque zo ne across
th e fram e is th e same overall w idt h as w it h
pressure plates.Thi s is because th e area
behind th e doub le glazed units is made
opaqu e w it h screen printing in o rder t o co nceal th e w idt h of th e carrier frame behind.
Som e manufacturers bond a light aluminium fr ame aro und th e edge of th e fram e
w it hin th e depth of th e doub le glazed unit,
fixing th e glass w it h shor t lengths of pr essure
plate in th e co nvent ional manner, th en applying sealant int o th e jo int. Som et imes th e glass

MC E 92

system, but building codes aro und th e wo rld


differ in th is requirement.

Horizontal section 1:5. Stick mullion in unitised panel

0_

Horizontal section 1:5. Outward opening window within unitised panel with glass bonded to frame

profi les t o form a light fram e at th e edge of

0- -

3-D view of unitised double glazed panel with glass


bonded to frame

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Vertical section 1:5. Stick mullion in


unitised panel

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10

I I.
12.
13.

CD
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Interl o cking transom


Plain tra nsom
Interl o cking mullion
Single glazed or doub le
glazed unit to suit application
Pressure plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal parapet coping
Metal-faced or opaque glassfaced insulated panels
Floor slab
Floor finish
Ceiling finish
Outer screen providing
solar shading
Therma l insulati on
Sheet metal seal
Cover cap
Smoke seal
Suppo rt bracket

CD

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8)

Vertica l section I :5. Outward


opening wi ndow within unitised
panel with glassbo nded to
frame

Vertical section I :5. Connection


between unitised double glazed
units w ith glass bo nded to frame

CD

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Horizontal section 1:5. Unitised corner panels with glass bonded to frame
3-D view of unitised panel hung in front of slab incorporating double glazed
unit and opaque spandrel panel

----"'.~~

0-

11J-l---0 - - - - - - Horizontal section 1:5. Framed internal corner within unitised panel using bonded glass

Horizontal section 1:5. Framed external corner


within unitised panel using bonded glass

Horizontal section I :5. Internal corner connection


between unitised panels with bonded glass

MC E 93

Glass ails 02
U niti sed glazing

3-D view of unitised w indow w ith louvre system in front

3-D exploded view of window and louvres

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I O.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

MC E

94

Interlocking transom
Plain transom
Interlocking mullion
Single glazed or double
glazedunit to suit applicat ion
Pressune plate
Rubber-based seal
Thermal break
Metal parapet coping
Metal-faced or opaque glassfaced insulated panels
Floo r slab
Floo r finish
Ceiling finish
Ou ter screen providing
solar shading
Thermal insulation
Sheet metal seal
Cover cap
Smoke seal
Support bracket

)- D exploded view of slab connection at


top and bottom of unitised panel

Exploded axonomentric view of slab connection at top and bottom of unitised panel

)-D voew of slab cco-ecuco at top


olI1d bottom of uMJSed P'eI

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] -0 exploded view ol p.1rapet ccooectoOn at top of lhtrsed

3-D_

of

ConnectlQn at top of unMed panel


Exploded axonometric Vlf!W of parapet
coonectron at top of unrtrsed panel

GassWals 03
Clamped glazing

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Vertical section I :25.Clamped glazingouter layer in


double skin facade with maintenance walkway

Details

CD

Horizontal section & elevation I:25. Glass clamped at corners to fixing suspended from
cable support.

MC E 96
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.

Stainless steel patch plates


Singleglazed or double glazed unit to suit
application
Silicone seal
Glass fin
Support bracket
Floor slab
Ceiling finish
Floor finish
A ccess ladder
Clamped glazed wall
Inner framed curtain walling
Fixing bolt
Maintenance access deck

3-D view glazing clamped at corners and supported from cables

3-D view of corner clamped glazing system

T his glazing m et hod is suite d primar ily t o sin-

ex pensive stainless steel angle-ty pe bracket s

gle glazing but doub le glazed exam ples are

t o be used Th ese cont rast both in th e

scree n prin ciple has been develop ed further

being const r ucte d th at avoid some of th e

appearance and higher costs associate d w it h

t o avoid fixing clamp s direct ly t o th e glass but

ings in areas of high am bient no ise.Th e rain-

w ide jo ints resulting from t he visible black

bo lt fixed glazing.A disadvantage of clamped

instead to silicone bond an edge frame

edges of double glazed unit s.Th e sealant

glazing is th at glassthi cknesses are usually

aro und th e glass and fix th e frames back t o

between doub le glazed units is also usually

t hicker than th ose in bo lt fixed glazing, w here

suppo rt ing st r uct ure w it h clamp s.T his sili-

black to match th e unit edges.

th e distances between fixings are redu ced

co ne-bo nded variat ion of clamped glazing is

(reducing th e span of t he glass) by setting

very useful in o paque o r t ranslucent glazing

th em into th e materi al.

in a full rainscreen to an o paque backing w all.

Comparison w it h bolt fixed glazing


As a method of frameless glazing, clamped

Th is com binat ion o f easily fabr icated, eas-

Joi nt s betw een t he glass can be sealed w it h

ily modified brackets and fixing through th e

rubber-b ased strip s t o avoid dirt getting into

glazing.W hereas bolt fixed glazing requ ires

joi nt allows a geomet rically com plex facade

t he vo id behind th e glass and staining th e

dri lling of glass, clamped glazing do es not, as

to be fixed back t o a recti linear,eco no m ic

back of th e glass.Th e advantage o f thi s sys-

glass is fixed w it h patches o r clamp s th at pass

suppo r t ing str uct ure .Thi s cont rasts w it h th e

t em is in clampin g th e glass by means of a

glazing is more econo m ical than bo lt fixed

through th e joint between th e glass sheets o r

need t o repeat ex pensive bo lt fix ings w here

secondary frame t hat avoids penetrating an

doub le glazed units.Th e ability of clamp

th ere is little possibility of changing th e

o ute r seal, thu s m aking it suita ble for glass

bracket s to be sim ple and easily made allow s

geomet ry t o allow for different fixing po si-

rainscreen wa lls w it ho ut visible fr aming and

th e glasst o be suppo rted at different angles

t ion s of th e glass.

w it ho ut th e need for cleaning th e inner face

to on e anoth er in a ti led, non -planar manner.

Clamp ed glazing is increasingly used in

of th e glass sheets.

Glass has been lapped in th e m anner o f tra-

rainscreen configurat ion w it h o pen joint s o r

dition al patent glazing and t iled in t he m anner

o pen, lapped joints w it h an accessible area

Pat ch plate glazing

of w ood shingles, w here glass is lapped on

behind, as used in 'twin w all' glazed facades.

T his m ethod uses angles and plates th at are

two edges t o give a rich, undu lating t extu re

T he o ute r scree n acts primarily as a weat her

bo lted t hrough th e glass rath er t han t hrough

across glass facades. Because th e facade is

barri er, allowing th e inner wa ll t o have o pen-

th e joints.Thi s is an ear lier form of frameless

more visually vibrant, t he fitt ings th em selves

ing w indows w here th ey wo uld ot herw ise

glazing and was t he fo rer unner of bo lt fixed

can also project from t he facade t o allow less

not be po ssible, as in t all buildings or build-

glazing.A lt ho ugh cheaper th an bo lt fixed glaz-

MC E

97

Glass Walls 03
Clamped glazing

3-D view of glazing supported


by spider clamp hung from
cable truss

ing, it is restricted t o single glazing, Glass

3-D detail view of glazing


supported by spider clamp
hung from cable truss

also hung in order t o accommo date move-

it self is very transparent, th e patch fittings


have a stro ng visual presence,

sheets are fixed at th eir corne rs w it h a patch

ment in th e suppo rt ing struct ure, Similarly, if

fitt ing th at connects four sheets t ogether. Like

th e glazed wa ll is suppo rte d at it s base th en

fr amed glazing in eit her stick o r unitised sys-

th e door sho uld also be suppo rted at floor

Clamped glazing

t ems,th e glazing is eit her hung from th e t op

level. If th e glazing is hung and th e door is

This method avoids dri lling through th e glass

w it h eit her brackets o r cont inuo us stainless

suppo r te d different ly,at it s base, th en a differ-

by passing through th e joint between glass

steel angles fixed back t o th e prim ary st r uc-

ence in movement between wa ll and door

sheets or units rather th an by dri lling holes in

ture, or seate d o n suppo rt angles at it s base,

w ill eit her damage th e door o r prevent it

th e glass it self Th is allows doub le glazed units

Patch fittin gs are not usually at t op o r base of

from wo rking prop erly

t o be used, since plates eit her side of a unit

a wall. Instead, cont inuo us angles o r a glazing

T he use of bo lts through th e glass

can be clamped at it s edge st rip,

channel is visually preferred both t op and

makes th e size of each patch plate relatively

bottom in o rder t o provide a weat her t ight

big com pared w it h ot her clampin g meth od s,

th e joint is secured t ogether and fixed back

seal. Clamped angles are used w here th ey

w it h up t o four bo lts per fix ing in elevat io n,

t o a supporting cable, rod or tub e structure,

are concealed beneath floor finishes, Glazing

Thi s meth od is ofte n used w it h glass fins,

This method is more economic th an th e

channels are used eit her for convenience o r

th at provide stability, in an all-glasswa ll,Th e

patch plate type, but still requires compara-

Th e disc or square plate eit her side of

w here th e channel is visible at floor level.

br acket s secur ing th e fins can have from

ti vely large discs t o secure th e glass,Th e use

W here glazed balustrades are used, th ese

four t o six bolts per br acket, giving a very

of discs has been combined w it h stick glazing

clamps are not sufficient for cant ilevered

st ro ng appearance, Since sta inless stee l

w here th e discs are used t o secure th e glass

glass, th at is,w here th e glass is fixed only at

br acket s and bo lts are required for durabili-

t o stick glazed aluminium extrusions, Glass is

floor level and not restrained at th e level of

t y (mild stee l is not sufficient ly durable) ,

set int o rubb er-based gaskets fixed t o th e

th e handrail. D oors are fixed using patch

th ese br acket s are finished as po lished t o

carrier fr ame and discs are used t o ho ld th e

plates w here th e door is hung, and are seat-

avoid surface t arnishing,Th e use of th is po l-

glass in place,Th e gap betw een t he doub le

ed o n pivots, w it h a floor spring w hen th e

ished finish gives th is glazing a very particu-

glazed units is filled w it h silicone sealant T his

door is suppo rte d at floor level.W here patch

lar appearance w hich is difficult to adapt t o

has th e advantage of being a dr ained and

plate glazing is hung from th e t op, doors are

somet hing light er.A lt ho ugh th e glazed wa ll

pressure equalised (vent ilate d) syste m,

MC E

98

I
f

- - _:

Details
I. Stainle ss stee l patch plates
2.Single glazed or oocbie glazed
unit to sot applicatio n

1 sacore sear
4, Glass fin

5. Support b-aoet
6. FIoof- 51ab
7.CeilIng fin'~
8. Floor fin,m

s.eccess ladder

10. ClYrced glazed walt


I I . Inner- framed o.Jrtaon waYll'1g
12.Filmg bolt
II J"1aIITIenanc;e access deck
14. Foong bracket
IS. Extruded ak,m11l.m m.Aons
16. Opaque Glazrlg

17. ero..n::lSlab
18. Badong W all
19. InclIne<j and ~ glass
20.~~
21 .Corner~

22 Cast rretar foong brad<et


23 ,~~

ertu

24. MeuI par.tpet coprog


25.Thermal insl.Jlaton

sectJOn & elevatoon 1 : 2S _ ~ giazvlg

~ed from cable truss


eeoc-ere slabs

spatTWIg ~

, ,
MC E 99

Glass Walls 03
Clamped glazing

Elevation 1:5. Spider clamp suppo rt ing glass panels

3-D detail view of glazing supported by spider clamp hung from cable truss

Vert ical section 1:5. Spider clamp hung fro m cable


truss supporting glass panels

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Horizontal section I :5. Spider clamp hung from


cable truss supporting glass panels

MC E

10 0

Th e glass is fixed back t o eit her cables o r

funct ion norm ally. D oors are usually set int o

rod s if th e glass is hung, o r back t o a t ube if

a separate fram e and do not form part of

th e glass is bottom suppo rte d. If t op hung,

th e cable st r uct ure. If th e glazing is suppor t ed

cables o r thin rod s are hung from th e t op

at its base, th en suppo rting st eel tub es pro -

and t ensioned at th e bottom .Th e glass is

vide much more stiffness in th e glazed wall,

fixed t o th e cables w it h discs, usually at th e

but w it h a more visible suppo rt ing st r ucture.

edges of th e glass t o reduce th e numb er of

A n advantage of such a suppo rt ing st r uct ure

cables t o a minimum. If w ide sheets of glass

is th at th e glass can be fixed w it h a w ide

are used, th en th e glass may be suppo r te d in

range of different geomet ries. Lapped glazing

from th e edge.Th e use of cables provides a

o r 'fishscale' or 'shingled' glazing is possible.

very th in wa ll, but w it h deflection s th at are

Glass is held in a br acket th at can suppo rt

much higher th an a framed wall. Maximum

th e bottom of th e glass in a different position

deflection s can reach up t o 600mm t o 800 m

from th e t op of th e glass below. W it h doub le

(2ft t o 2ft 8in) for walls aro und 20 metres

glazed units th e glass can be drilled t o com-

(65ft) high, but thi s can be safely accommo -

bine th e advantage of clamped glazing w it h

dated w it hin th e struct ural design.The usual

th e seals pr ovided by ext r uded silicone gas-

difficulty is in accommo dating doors w hich

ket 'flippers' th at exclude rainw ater w it hout

can deflect only t iny amo unts in order t o

being punctured by th e br ackets, w hich pass

D et ails
I. Stainless steel patch plates
2. Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
3.Silicone seal
4. Glass fin
S. Support bracket
6. Floor slab

7. Ceiling finish
8. Floor finish
9.Access ladder
10. Clamped glazed wall
I I. Inner framed curtain walling
12. Fixing bolt
I 3.Maintenance access deck
14. Fixing bracket
I S. Extruded aluminium mullions
16. Opaque glazing
17. Ground slab
18. Backing wall
19. Inclined and lapped glass
20. Cablesupport
21.Corner clamp
22. Cast metal fixing bracket
23.Clamp bracket
24.Metal parapet coping
25.Thenmal insulation

Horizontal section I:5.Double glazed units fixed to


supporting frame with 'toggle' connection and
silicone sealed

3-D view of togglefixed glazing connection

through ho les in th e glass beneath. Such

in th e factory,allowing th e wall t o be built in

brackets are 'shoes' w hich suppo rt th e glass

th e manner of unitised glazing w it hout th e

usually away from co rne rs t o avoid th e co r-

need for site scaffo lding. Un its are fixed from

ner of th e glass being unevenly suppor te d.

mast climber s o r from scaffolding.

The glass is not st ruct urally suppo rte d along


it s vert ical edges as it is easier t o sit th em in

Opaque glazing

th e shoes. Som etim es clips along vertical

Thi s system co mprises single glazing bond ed

joints are used for lateral restraint but thi s

back t o aluminium frames w hich are clamped

depends very much o n th e specific design.

t o a suppo rt ing st r uct ure, ty pically a co n-

A n alte rnat ive method of fixing th e glass

crete blockw ork wall o r hollow t erracotta

is t o use a silicone-bo nded fr ame aro und th e

block. Clamps are fixed betw een jo ints from

glass and fixing th at to cables o r st eel tub es.

th e front as sho rt lengths of pressure plate.

The joint between th e glass is sealed w it h

A lte rnat ively, panels may be hooked onto

extruded silicone gaskets th at can provide

rainscreen-typ e suppo rt br ackets before

two lines of defence against w indb lown rain

being clamped in place. Unlike rainscreen

instead of th e single line provided by site -

co nstruct ion,th e jo ints between panels are

applied silico ne sealant.T he use of extruded

sealed w it h an ext ruded profi le o r rubb er-

silicone allows th e seal t o be fixed t o th e unit

based seal o nto w hich th e glass is fixed. Para-

3-D view showing spider clamp hungfrom cable


truss supporting glass panels

MC E

101

Glass Walls 03
Clamped glazing
@

Horizontal section I : I 0, Conn ectio n between wall


and glazing unit clampe d to aluminium carrier frame

Horizontal section I : I0, Connection between


glazing units clamped to aluminium carrier frame

- - - - - - - -0---------'
Horizontal section I: I0, External corner connection
of glazing clamped to aluminium carrier frame

D etails

Horizontal section I : I0, Internal corner connection of


glazing clamped to aluminium carrie r frame

I, Stainless steel patch plates


2, Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
3, Silicone seal
4, Glass fin
5, Support bracket
6, Floor slab
7, Ceiling finish
8, Floor finish
9, A ccess ladder
10, Clamped glazed wall
I I , Inner framed curtain walling
12,Fixing bolt
I 3. Maint enance access deck
14, Fixing bracket
15, Extruded aluminium mullions
16, Opaque glazing
17, Ground slab
18, Backing wall
19,Inclined and lapped glass
20, Cable suppo rt
21, Corner clamp
22, Cast metal fixing bracket
23. Clamp bracket
24, Meta l parapet coping
25,Thermal insulation

pets are parti ally vent ilated t o avoid most of

struction such as a reinforced concrete wall.

th e wate r ingress but allow some vent ilat ion,

Th e edge channel o r fixings must allow th e

Th e bottom is also vent ilate d, allow ing moi s-

glass to rotate w it hin it to t ake up movement

ture t o find its way o ut. Opaque glazing can

from deflection in a cable suppo rt ing th e

be easily int egrat ed int o adjacent areas of

ot her end of th e glass, Seals are usually

clear glazing by setting th e alum inium ext r u-

form ed by glazing channels or steel angles

sion away from th e edge and fixing th e edge

th at provide a weat her t ight seal. H igh

of t he glass into th e adjacent glazing system,

amo unts of movement can be taken up at


junction s w it h a flexible metal strip th at is sili-

Sealing clamped glazing

cone-bo nded t o th e edge of th e glass t o pro -

W it h all form s of clamped glazing, th e move-

vide a flexible seal.

ment o r deflection of any fixed edges must


be compat ible w it h th at of th e general support system,Th is is particularly im po rt ant in
th e case of cable-suppo rte d glazing, w here
high deflection s associate d w it h th e cables
must be integrated w ith th e small amo unt s of
Vertical section I 10, Glazing clamped to aluminium
carrier frame

MC E

10 2

movement w hen th e glass at th e edge of th e


wall is fixed o nto an adjacent form of con-

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Vertical section I :5. Lapped glazing in clamped
fixing supported on steel frame

~
Vertical section 1:5. Double glazed units clamped
to steel frame

0- Horizontal section 1:5. Lapped glazing in clamped


fixing supported on steel frame

Horizontal section 1:5. Double glazed units


clamped to steel frame

Horizontal section I :25. Clamped glazing in lapped and flush panel arrangement

Vertical section I :25. Clamped glazing in lapped and


fiush panel arrangement

3-D views showing lapped , clamped glazing fixing method supported on steel frame

MCE

10 3

- - -Glass Walls

03- - - - - - ..,

Clamf2ed glazin

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3-0 exploded detail overview of glazing system clamped at


comers and supported from cables

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3-D exploded over view of one storey of giazing system


clamped at comers and supported from cables

:~
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. "
"

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2

Stainless steel pat ch plates


Single glazed or doeble glazed

3
4

unit to suitapplication
Siliconeseal
Glass fin

S
6

Support bracket
Floor slab

7
8

Ceiling finish
Floor fon ish

Access ladder

17. Ground stab

104

"

"
16. Backing wall
19. Inclined and lapped glass
20,
Cab le suppor t
21,

22.
Cast metal fixing bracket
23.
Clamp bracket
24.
Metal parapet coping

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Comer clamp

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10. Clamped glazed wall


II . Inner framed curta in walling 25.
Therma l insulation
12. Fixing bon
26. Single or double glazed unrt
11 r-taotenaoce access deck
14. Fixing bracket
IS. Extruded aluminium mullions
16. Opaque glazing

Me E

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Details

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----

3-D fragmentviews of lapped, clamped glazing system, in-tact and exploded

3-D exploded view of fixingdetail for glazing


supported by spider clamp hungfrom cable truss

~
3-D exploded fragmentview of one storey of glazing system
clamped at comers and supported from cables

{I

3-D exploded detail view of lapped. clamped


glazing system fIXing

MCE

105

Glass W als OLl


Bolt fixed glazing

[
CD
Vertical section I : 10. Section through
bolt fixing element

Vertica l section I: I O.Section through


glazing

3-D views of cable supported 4 po int


'spider' fixing element

Elevation I: IO. 'H ' style bolt fixing connection

Support method s

w it h th e glass for thi s purp ose. A ny sleeve

high degree of t ransparency provided by t he

In co m mo n w it h some oth er glazed wa ll

t hat is set over t he t hreaded rod behind t he

bolts w hich replace th e need for metal fram-

t ypes, bo lt fixed glazing is eit her hung fr om

disc is po sition ed so th at it do es not interfere

Like clamped glazing,bo lt fixed glazing has a

ing around t he edges of t he glass sheet or

t he t op of t he un it o r is suppo r te d at t he

w it h t he free movement of t he ball joint.

doub le glazed units. On e of t he main advan-

bottom. W hen hung from th e t op, bo lt fix -

Support brackets t o bo lts are eit her cast or

tages of bo lt fixed glazing is th e small size of

ings are secured t o st ainless steel cables o r

are machined and we lded from plate.The

t he fixings w hen compared t o t he larger and

rod s fixed at th e t op and t ension ed at th e

choice w ill depend largely o n shape and th e

more frequent clamped fixings.This system

bottom . Fixing t o ler ances are provided in

number of brackets needed, since castings

can also be doub le glazed much more easily

t hree direction s: ver t ically, ho r izo nt ally and

are economic o nly in large numbers cast

since a spacer can be introduced int o do uble

lat erally. Because t he join t s betw een t he

from a single mould. Castings can be fo rmed

glazed units durin g manufacture, away from

glass units or sheets are visible, and need

to take up complex geomet ries that look

t he edge of t he glass, w here it also has th e

to be we ll aligned, and th e fact th at t he

very cumbersome in we lded plate, but are

advantage of reducing th e glass span, thu s

glass is dr illed during t he manufactu re of

more expensive and tim e-con suming to pro -

minimising glass t hickness. However.t he sight

th e glass, fixin g t o lerances have to be pro-

duce, except in large quantities.T he cho ice of

lines associated w it h doub le glazed units are

vide d by t he bo lt fixin g and it s co nnect io n

painted mi ld stee l or stainless steel (po lished

almost t he same as t hose for stick glazing,

t o t he suppo r t ing br acket.

o r bru shed) for t he suppo rt bracket is very

w it h th e black line aro und t he edge of two

Th e bo lt fixings th emselves vary in com-

much a visual decision, parti cularly w here a

adjacent units,plus a 20mm (0.78in) average

plexity from economic t ypes w here a t hread-

large amount of we lding is required. If th e

joint in silicone giving an overall SOmm (2in)

ed bolt is secured w it h nuts t o a fixing brack-

we lding is not perfo rmed t o t he highest

thi ck joint w idt h in a dark colo ur.Since th e

et, t o sophist icate d types w here all t hreads

standards th en th e results can be visually dis-

edges of doub le glazed units are made

are concealed behind sleeves t o give a very

appo int ing. How ever.t he bo lts t hemselves

opaqu e to conceal th e edging strip, translu-

smoot h appearance.A ll bo lt ty pes allow rota-

are always in st ainless steel.Junctions

cent silicone is not used in t he joint between

t ion t o occur between t he glass and t he fix-

between mild stee l and stainless stee l are iso-

two o paque edges. Instead, a dark coloured

ing usually t o a maximum of 12 degrees.A

lat ed t o avoid t he st ro ng elect ro lytic corro-

silicone is used, usually black.

ball joint is hou sed w here t he fixing int ersects

sion th at occur s between th ese two metals.

MCE

10 6

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

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ertcat section 1 25. Double skin glazed facade


bo It fixed to steel framework

Details
I.
Cast steel connector
2. M ild stee l or stainless stee l

J
4.

- -

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angle bracket
Single glazed or double
glazed unit to sort

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Vertical section 1:10, Open jomed bolt fixed


connection between glass units

Outer sncooe seal with

5.
6.

inner rubber-based
extruded seal
Insulated panel
Bolt-based cable end

7.

Stainlesssteel bolt foxing

8.

Steel connector fixed to

9.

Stainlesssteel cable

10
I I.

Floor slab/structural wall


Glazing channel at

stee l t ube

0)

nco-

level

12

Structu ral co lumn


Ccoc-ete shovvn

13

Steel arm for lateral

14

suppo rt
Steel rod

15

Glass fin

16

Single glazed solar shading


glass

0)

0)
3-D view of 'H' style bolt fixing connection

Elevation 1:10, ' X' sty le bolt fixing connection

MC E

107

04- - - - - - ....,

- - -Glass Walls

Bolt fixed glazing

-~- -~~

IJtllI CD
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Vertical section I :10. Silicone sealed connection


between bolt fixed glazing at nco- level

Vert ical section I: I0, Silicone sealed comer connection


between bolt foxed glazing with external structure

Vert ical section I: I0, Silicone sealed comer connection between bo lt

foxed glazIng wFth external structure

Vert ical section I: 10, Silicone sealed connection


between bolt foxed glazing with external structure

Construction tolerances between sup-

to be set in a fixed relationship w ith t he sup-

porting structure and glass panels are accom-

porting truss or column. If th is adjustment is

modated between the glass and the bolt fix-

instead formed between spider and primary

ing. between the bolt fixing and the support

structure.then the glass remains in perfect

bracket or 'spider' and between the support

alignment but the alignment between spider

bracket and the supporting column or t russ.

and column/truss will vary The choice of

The gap between glass bolt and fixing is to

where to posit ion the dimensional adjust-

allow three of the typical four bolt fixings on

ment varies between designs and is largely

a glass unit to move freel)' while the fourt h

based on visual preference.

unit is damped t ight without damaging the

3-D view of cast aluminium spider clamp for bolt


fixIng glazing

Me E

108

Because all components in bolt fixed

glass at t he edge of the hole. If adjustment is

glazing are visible,both from inside and out -

provided between bolt fixing and support

side.the choice of fixing bolts and screws is

bracket in order to take up dimensional dif-

visually very significantas is the extent of visi-

ferences between glass and supporting struc-

ble thread on the bolt fixing itself. Counte r-

t ure then this results in different joint widths

sunk bolts and pig-nose bolts (those w ith

between glass units,with slightly uneven cor-

two small holes on their face to provide

ners where four glass units meet.This meth-

points for tightening) are often preferred to

od does, however. allow the support spider

the more common hexagonal head types.

0)

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Verti cal section & elevation I :50. Bolt fixed glazing supported on glass fins

3-D view show ing glass fin supported within bo lt fixed glazing syste m

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fer

Vertical section & elevation I: I O. Bolt fixed glazing supported on glass fins

Bo lts wit h Allen keys (a square hole cut into

vious top ic in o rde r to provide maximum

a circular bo lt head t ighten ed wit h a socket

transparen cy w it h a minimum of metal sup-

wrench) are also prefe rred as are smoot h

po rting struct ure .

circular washe rs wit h small ho les for tightening drilled int o t he ir edges.

The glass units and fins are clamp ed at


t he ir base to t he fl oo r slab. Because t he
clamp ing plates are big, sec ured by fo ur to six

Bottom support ed glazing

bolts which pass t hro ugh t he glass, t hey are

Glass suppo rted at its base can be fixed by a

ofte n co ncea led below th e finished floo r

variety of meth ods. Glass units are most

level.The fl oo r slab suppo rt ing t he glazed

co mmo nly suppo rted wit h glass fins o r steel

wall is eit he r step ped down t o acco mmodate

posts.W he n glass fins are used, t he glass is

t he base clamps o r fo rm part of a raised

stacked from its base , wit h th e dead load

floor zo ne .W it h e it he r meth od , th e pocket

passing partly to t he fins, and partly t hro ugh

form ed can also be used to acco mmo date

t he bolt fixings to t he glass below, dep e nding

co nvecto r heating used to red uce down-

o n th e design.The glass fins se rve prima rily to

dra ughts in t emp erate climates. Above th e

stiffen t he glass wa ll and resist w ind loads.

base level, glass unit s are fixed w it h bo lt fix-

This method is very much a deve lopme nt of

ings th at transfer loads from the t op glass to

t he patch plate syste m described in t he pre-

lower o nes.

Det ails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.

Cast steel connector


Mild steel or stainless steel angle
bracket
Singleglazed or double glazed unit
to suit application
Outer silicone seal with inner
rubber-based extruded seal
Insulated panel
Bolt-based cable end
Stainless steel bolt fixing
Steel connector fixed to steel tube
Stainless steel cable
Floor slab/structural wall
Glazing channel at fioor level
Structural column . Concrete shown
Steel arm for lateral support
Steel rod
Glass fin
Singleglazed solar shadingglass

MC E

109

Glass Walls O't


Bolt fixed glazing

-----/'
u

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Vertical section I : IO. Connection at ground level
with glassbolt fixed to steelwork

St r uct ural posts, usually in mild steel. are


an alte rnat ive meth od of suppo rt ing t he glaz-

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Vertical section I : I O. Connection at ground level
with glass bolt fixed to steelwork

Vertical section I : IO. Sealed connection at ground


level with glazing fixed to slab

both by th e position of th e ho les in relation

levels. Bo lt fixings are secured w it h br acket s

t o t he edge as we ll as by t he meth od of fix-

t hat are secured directly t o t he cable o r rod.

ing w it ho ut intro ducing a visually intrusive

ing th e br acket back t o its suppo r t ing struc-

T hey usually fit t ogeth er in t w o halves w hen

element, t ho ugh concrete columns are

t ure. Positio ns of t he holes are usually so as

secured t o cable.W here rod is used, t he

somet imes used w here t hey fo rm a neces-

t o reduce t he span of t he glass in order t o

mat erial is usually in lengths t hat co nnect

sary part of th e pr imary str uct ure.This

keep it w it hin an eco nomic t hickness, ty pically

into a fixing made as a single piece.

meth od has t he advantage of allow ing each

12mm (O.S in).A n essent ial aspect of bracket

Again, t he mixture of stainless steel and

glass t o be individually suppo r te d. In generic

design is in accommodat ing fixing tol erances.

mi ld steel requires separators t o avoid

exam ples,t he glass is fixed back t o a steel

Since t he suppo rting st ructure is erecte d

bimet allic corros ion, caused by co ntact

post at each vert ical joint. Lat eral restraint is

before t he glass, t olerances are introduced

betw een different met als in t he presence of

provided by ver t ical o r hori zont al w ind t russ-

int o t he bo lt and bracket fixing t o t ake up

rainw ater.W hile mild stee l ro d can be paint-

es in eit her steel tub e o r cable. Cable is pre-

th e differences.

ed t o match ot her parts of th e co nst ruct io n

ferred for it s visual light ness.T he size (diame-

such as adjacent suppo rt ing st r uct ure, care

t er) of t he suppo r t ing posts o r t r usses can

Top hung glazing

must be t aken during assembly o n site t o

be reduced by add ing o ut rigger br ackets t o

Suppo rting st ructure t o bo lt fixed glazing can

ensure t hat factory-coated compo nents and

posts set at w ider cent res.T his reduces t he

be made visually very lightweight by t he use

assem blies are not damaged. W here sta inless

number of suppo rt posts by two t hirds, but

of cables o r rods hung from t he t op and t en-

stee l is used inst ead of eit her mild stee l ro d

each post w ill necessarily be bigger.T he o ut-

sioned at th e base. Stainless steel cables o r

o r stainless stee l cable, th e diamete r of th e

riggers can also be reduced t o become lat er-

painted mild stee l rod s are used.T he cho ice

rod w ill be bigger t han eit her of t he ot her

al restraints o nly by intro ducing small diame-

is usually made for visual reason s. How ever,

t w o o pt io ns.

t er posts, ty pically aro und IOmm (OA in), t o

like clamp ed glazing t his meth od is associate d

t ake t he vert ical load.

w it h high deflections under w ind load.Th is

Corners

can be accepted eit her in th e design (some

Corn er s are made by either introdu cing sup-

In all cases th e bo lt s suppo rting t he glass


are fixed back t o steel columns w it h brackets

cable-assisted wa lls deflect up t o 800mm/2 ft

porting struct ure at t he corne r o r alte rna-

or t o o ut riggers w it h similar br ackets.The

8in at th eir cent re) o r be restrained w it h

ti vely by cant ilevering o r fixing t he glass at th e

general shape of t he bracket is determined

cable t russes o r o ut riggers, ty pically at floo r

corner and pinning t he glass t ogether w it h

MC E

11 0

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Elevation I :50. Bolt fixed glazingsupported by branching steel framework

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Horizontal section I:50. Bolt fixed glazingsupported


by branching steel framework

....

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Horizontal section I :50. Bolt fixed glazingsupported by branching steel framework

.........;.~.....

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.

Cast steel connector


Mild steel or stainless steel angle
bracket
Singleglazed or double glazed unit
to suit application
Outer silicone seal with inner
rubber-based extruded seal
Insulated panel
Bolt-based cable end
Stainless steel bolt fixing
Steel connector fixed to steel tube
Stainless steel cable
Floor slab/structural wall
Glazing channel at floor level
Structural column
Steel arm for lateral support
Steel rod
Glassfin
Singleglazed solar shading glass

........

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.,

--.
Horizontal section I :I O. Bolt fixed glazing
connection fixed to branching steel framework
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3-D view of supporting branching steel framework structure for bolt fixed glazing

... . .

3-D view of bolt fixed glazingsupported by


branching steel framework

MCE

III

Glass Walls 04
Bolt fixed glazing
3-D views showing clamped
glazing system w ith steel
structu ral support system

Details
I. Cast steel conne ctor
2. M ild steel or stainless steel
angle bracket
3 Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
4. Outer silicone seal with inner
rubber-based extruded seal
5. Insulated panel
6. Bolt -based cable end
7. Stainless steel bolt fixing
8. Steel connector fixed to steel
tube
9. Stainless steel cable
10. Floor slab/structural wall
I I. Glazing channel at floor level

Vertical section I : I O.Top of bolt fixed glazed wall


supported from cable spanning between slabs

CD

Vertical section I : I O. Silicone sealed connection in


bolt fixed glazed wall supported from cable
spanning between slabs

t w o bo lts forming a co rne r br acket. W here

extrusions are slowly being int ro duced t o

st r uct ural suppo r t is pr ovided at a co rne r, a

make installati o n easier.T he dept h of double

special br acket is usually requi red, t ho ugh

glazed unit s (o fte n aro und 30mm/ I.2in)

manufacturer s are increasingly providing

allows a small drainage channel t o be intro -

standard co rne r br acket s as part of t heir

duced.T his info rmati on can be found in t he

syste m s.Variat io ns of co rne r co ndit io n are

sect ion on Clamp ed Glazing.

usually as eco no m ic as o ne anot her.W here


do uble glazed unit s are used , care is t aken

W here bo lt fixed glazing int erfaces w it h


adjacent glazing syste ms,th e edge of th e glass

t o avoid exposed edges of glass w here t hey

is usually glazed-in direct ly t o t hose systems.

are vulnerable t o damage, usually from

W here it meets a wall t ype in a non -glazed

cleaning equipme nt.

mat erial, t he bo lt fixed glazing is usually t er-

Seals and int e rfaces

th at are fixed t o th e adjacent wa ll.T he deta il

minated by a glazing channel or metal angles

Ver t ical section I : I O. Base of bolt fixed glazed wall


supported from cable spanning between slabs

MC E

11 2

Like clamp ed glazing, bo lt fixed glazing has

is formed in a way t hat co nceals t he angles,

essent ially a single barrier to w at er penetra-

leaving o nly th e glass visible.W here bo lt fix-

t io n.The workmanship of t he silicone sealant

ings are used at t he int erface w it h anot her

o n sit e is crit ical t o its successful applicat ion.

materi al, half bracket s are used.

In co mmo n w it h clamped glazing, silicone

12. Structural column. (Concrete shown )


13. Steel arm for lateral suppor t

14, Steel rod


IS. Glassfin
16. Single glazed sotar shading glass

..

30 vIew shO'Nlng 4-point glass co nnection

s
3-D exploded v'.ew showing4-point glass connection fixingdetails
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3-D view showing 4-po int glass conn ectio ns as part of steel str uctural support system
with branchIng steel frameworl<. structure for bolt fixed glazing

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3-D exploded view showing clamped glazing system with steel


str uctura l support system

MC E

11 3

- - - Glass Walls 041- - - - - - .....,


Bolt fixed glazing

..
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)-0 exploded view bolt fixed glazing system support ed from cables

)-D close up view; of

truss elementson cable


supported system

)0 exploded detail view of bolt fIXing met hod

MCE

114

3-D exploded detail view of glazing fixings

CD

3-D exploded view of cable supported 4 point 'spider' fixing element

3-D exploded view of cable supported 4 point 'spider' fixing element

CD

Details
I.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Caststeelconnector
Mild steelor stainless steel
angle bracket
Single or double glazed
unit to suit application
Outer silicone seal with
inner rubber-based
extruded seal
Insulated panel
Bolt-based cable end
Stainless steel bolt fixing
Steelconnector fixed to
steeltube
Stainless steelcable

10. Floor slab/structural wall


I I.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Glazing channel at floor


level
Structural column
Steel arm for lateral
support
Steel rod
Glass fin
Single glazed solar shading
glass

3-D exploded views of bolt fixed glazing


supported on glass fin

MC E

11 5

Glass Walls 05
Glass blocks

(j)

"

(j)

(j)

Elevation I :50. Glass blocks and w indows set int o concrete frame to form glazed wall

(j)
r

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Elevation & section I :50. Glass blocks suppo rt ed by concrete


frame to fo rm glazed wall

Glass blocks are used to form a robust, trans-

General properti es of glass blocks are as

3600 x 3600mm ( 12 x 12ft) t o around 4500

lucent and fire resisting glazed wa ll construc-

fo llow s:

x 4500mm ( 15ft x 15ft) depending on block

t ion. Glass blocks are made as eit her solid o r

th ickness.Th is overall area can be adapte d t o

hollow compo nents, but th e hollow ty pe has

Th erm al conduct ivity approximate ly


0.88 W/m 2 C (0.5 1 Btu/hrftF)

better th erm al and acoust ic insulati o n due t o

Light transmission

th e parti ally air evacuate d vo id w it hin and is

block

= 75% for ho llow

most commo nly used in w all construction.


Glass blocks are made by pressing

suit a maximum height of aro und 6000mm


(20ft) and a maximum w idt h of aro und
7500mm (25ft) .
W hen used as fire resisting construct ion,

A lt hough glass blocks are set in courses

glass blocks can reach 90 minutes fire integri-

ty, but above 60 minutes fire resisting con-

t ogether two half blocks of glass w hich are

in th e manner of masonry const r uction, th ey

held at high t emp erature.Th e half blocks are

are used as a non -loadbearing mater ial.

struction, a metal channel restraint is used in

made as eit her pressed o r cast shapes.As

Blocks are arranged in a rectilinear grid o r

th e jointin g for its greate r reliability in fire

th e block coo ls afte r manufacture, a parti al

'stack bond ' of cont inuo us ver t ical and hori -

over mortar o r silicone ty pes materials. On e

vacuum is create d as th e air pressure drop s

zontal joints th at give th is mater ial th e

hour fire rated panels of glass block can be

w it h t emp erature.

appearance more of glazing th an of masonry

made t o a maximum size of approximate ly

const ruction. Recently th ere has been a

3000 x 3000mm (9ft x 9ft) w it h a maximum

The most commo n sizes of glass block for

developm ent in design by setting glass blocks

of 4000mm ( 12ft) in eit her height o r w idt h,

walls are as fo llow s:

forward of floor slabs inst ead of being seate d

depending o n individual building codes.T her-

o n th em, in th e manner of glazed curtain

mal insulation of glass block is poor com-

190mm x 190mm th ick (met ric size)

wa lling.W it h th is meth od , a stiffening frame is

pared t o doub le glazed units, w it h some con-

8 x 8 x 4in thi ck (imperial size)

set w it hin th e joints between blocks, w it h

densation risk on th e inside face in t emper-

150mm x 150mm (nom inal 6 x 6in)

addit ional suppo rts set aw ay from th e glass

ate climates.For th is reason, blocks are often

200mm x 200mm (nom inal 8 x 8in)

blocks visually t o light en th eir appearance.

used w it h concrete and steel frames th at do

200mm x 100mm (nom inal 8 x 4in)

Glass blocks are most commo nly eit her set

not have th erm al insulation, often w here th e

300mm x 300mm (nom inal 12 x 12in)

int o concrete o r masonry backing wa lls or

int erior face of th e wa ll is vent ilate d but not

Typical thi ckness 100mm (nominal 4in)

are set into a reinforced concrete o r stee l

heated, as in semi-exte rnal circulat ion areas.

suppo rt fr ame. For non -fire rated const r uc-

A n ideal enviro nme nt for glass blocks is in

ti on, maximum panel sizes vary from around

region s w hich have a warm t emperate c1i -

MC E

11 6

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

CD
CD

Vertical section & elevation I:25. Glass block


wall supported from steel frame

Vertica l section & elevation I:25. Glass


block wall supported between steel
framewo rk

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Glass block
Bedding reinforcement
Bedding compound. mortar
or silicone-based bond .
A djacent blockwork wall with rainscreen
A djacent concrete wall
A djacent light gauge steel framed wall
Reinforced concrete frame
Steel box section
90 corner block
45 corner block
Steel I-section, usually speciallyfabricated
Steel angle
Inside
Outside
Floor deck
SteelT-section
A djacent brick cavity wall construction
Thermal insulation
Extruded aluminium sections providing
support
A djacent reinforced concrete wall

CD

CD

Typical glass block types

MC E

11 7

Glass Walls 05
Glass blocks

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Vertical section I : IO. Glass block window with intermediate steel box frame set into cavity wall construction

Vertical section I : I O. Glass block


window with intermediate steel section
set into cavity wall construction

3-D view of glassblock window set in cavity wall construction

==:!IJ===0 =

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Horizontal section I : IO. Glass block window supported on thermally broken aluminium framework

MC E

11 8

D etails
I.
Glass block
2. Beddingreinforcement
3. Beddingcompound. mortar or
silicone-based bond.
4. Adjacent blockwork wall with
rainscreen
5. Adjacent concrete wall
6. Adjacent light gauge steel
framed wall
7. Reinforced concrete frame
8. Steel box section
9. 90 comer block
10. 45 comer block
1I. Steel l-section. usually specially
fabricated
12. Steel angle
13. Inside
14. Outside
15. Floor deck
16. Steel T-seetion
17. Adjacent brick cavity wall
construction
18. Thermal insulat ion
19. Extruded aluminium sections
providing support

20.

II

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::::~eo' reinforced mo,~,[--

3-D view of glass blockwindow supported on thermally broken aluminium framework

@
A
.

Vertical section I:IO. Glass block window supported


on thermally broken aluminium framework

mate for most o f th e year,w here th erm al

rey height frames, th ou gh half sto rey fr ames

minimum radius dim ension s for different

insulati o n is not required.

can also be used t o reduce th e th ickness of

block sizes as fo llow s:

th e block as we ll as t he need for addit ional

Fixing glass blocks

bed reinforcement. Blocks are set o n th e

150mmx 150mm blocks: 1200mm min. radius

Blocks are fixed in different ways.W hen sup-

edge o f th e fioor slab. Block co urses are laid

(6in x 6in blocks: 4Sin m in. radius)

ported o n reinforced co ncrete fioor slabs,

o n a bed o f m ortar w it h th e head o f each

200 mmx200 mm blocks: 1600mm min . radius

th ey are bedd ed in mortar o n all jo ints. w it h

panel of glass blocks allowing for th e str uc-

(Sin x Sin blocks: 65in m in. radius)

a fiexi ble joint (somet imes w it h an addit ional

tural defiection of fioor slabs.A reinforced

300 mmx300mm blocks: 2500 m m min. radius


( 12inx 12in blocks: 9Sin m in. radius)

alum inium edge frame) at th e t op and sides

co ncrete fioor slab spanning 7500 mm (25 ft)

t o allow for st r uct ural m ovem ent. Blocks can

between co lum ns can have a defiection of

also be glued t ogeth er w it h bond ing silicone,

aro und 20m m (O.S in) at it s cent re.Th is

using a sealing silicone o n th e o ut side faces.

defiect ion is allowed for th e head of th e

of st raight and curve d panels.T hese joints

Blocks can also be fixed t ogeth er w it h

block w it h an alum inium channel restr aint

usually serve also as st r uct ural joint s fo r th e

extr uded alum inium clips th at ho ld all th e

used at th e perimeter t o ho ld th e glass

blocks.

blocks t ogeth er.A ngle-shaped clips are used

blocks in place but allow th e slab above t o

t o fix th e glass block panels t o t he st r uct ural

defiect under load.

opening w it ho ut th e use o f a per imet er

Glass blocks can be laid o ut in visually

Movem ent jo ints are set at th e jun ction

In alte rnative gener ic exam ples, glass


blocks are set in o penings in a reinforced
co ncrete wa ll. Openings in th e wa ll have t o

fr ame. th e clips allowing for st r uct ural move-

co nti nuo us lengths. but are divided up w it h

be form ed in close t ol er ances in o rde r t o

ment bet w een th e panel of blocks and th e

stee l T-sect ion s at 2.0 - 3.0 metre (6ft 6in -

have even edges if th e co ncrete is t o be left

str uct ural o pening.T he o utside faces are also

l Oft) cent res t o provide th e later al st abilit y o f

ex posed. W here o penings cannot be form ed

sealed w it h silico ne.

th e panels.Th e addit ional T-sect ion results in

so accurate ly, th e glass blocks are set int o an

a w ider jo int th an th ose used elsewhere in

alum inium edge frame th at laps ove r th e

Support frames and walls

th e panel but in a lon g run o f glass blocks t his

co ncrete o r fo rms a shadow gap aro und th e

In a gener ic exam ple, glass blocks are fixed in

is barely visible from th e o ut side . th ough visi-

o pening. If th e co ncrete wa ll is clad in a dif-

panels t o a maximum of aro und 3500 m m x

ble o n th e inside. C urve d panels have t he

ferent materi al. such as m et al o r masonry

3500 mm ( I 1ft 6in x I 1ft 6in) square , in sto-

advantage of inherent str uct ural stability but

rainscr een panels, th en th e cladding can be

MC E

11 9

GlassWals 0
Glass blocks

..
@

...

CD

Horizontal section I : IO. Connection between glass blocks, conc rete wall
and conc rete column

Horizontal sectio n I : IO. Corner


glass block

CD

Horizontal section I: IO. Connection between glass


block and insulated external wall

i=

CD

Horizontal section I : IO. Spacer


forming 45 corner

Horizontal section I : IO. Connection between glass blocks, and supporting steel section

f,

6)=

Horizontal section I: IO. Connection between glass


blocks supported by steel box frame

Ie]!

==~ III1==:CD

Ho rizontal section I : IO. Connection


between glass blocks & cavity wall

Horizontal sect io n I : IO. Glass blocks


supported by steel sections

Ho rizontal section I : IO. Detail of door


set into glass block wall

Horizontal section I : IO.


Glass end block

adjusted to meet th e glass blocks neatly

as a st ro ng fr ame w hen lit intern ally at night,

w it ho ut th e makeup piece in th e o pening

from o utside.

being visible.

A complete frame of ro lled st eel sect ions


can suppo rt glass blocks by setting th e blocks

Steel support frames

directly onto th e steels.This meth od requires

Glass blocks can also be suppo r te d o n stee l

close dimensional co-o rdinat ion of stee l size

fr ames.Th ese have th e advantage of making

and block w idt h in order for th e blocks t o be

th e glass blo cks appear t o have a co nt inu-

aligned o n th e o ute r face t o drain wate r

o us surface unint errupted by suppo r t ing

down th e face of th e stee l w it hout th e need

st r uct ure.

for a drip , w hich is visually o bt r usive.

In ot her cases, steel T-section s suppor t

Isometr ic view of glass


block wall assembly

MC E

120

A recent developm ent in glass block

th e blocks for modest spans, w hich can be

design has been t o insert a st eel suppor t

increased from 1.5 metres t o 3.0 metres (5ft

fr ame int o th e jo ints between individual

t o l Oft) w it h th e use of a box section set

blocks. This is made more economic by using

behind it t o form a cont inuous suppo rt ing

th e largest 300 x 300mm ( 12in x 12in)

fr ame both vert ically and horizontally.W it h

blocks and adapt ing th eir edges in o rder t o

both o pt ions, th e frame is parti ally visible

conceal t he st eel box section w it hin.This

from o utside, as a shadow line in daylight, and

concealed steel fr ame can be suppo rte d by

Horizontal section I: IO. Glass block wall supported by


steel framework

CD

CD

Horizontalsection I:IO. Framed comer in


glass block wall

3-D view of connection between glass blocks


supported by steelbox frame

CD

CD

3-D view of glass block wall supporte d between


steel framework

such as t ube s.Alternatively.th e con cealed

Masonry and timber framed


w indow o penings

steel frame can be made t o hang or sit on

G lass blocks cannot be bedded directl y int o

supp orting structure in th e manner of curtain

mason ry w alls, such as con crete blo cks, since

w alling, using steel posts to provide lateral

any movement at joints between blo cks w ill

stability throug h its height. Glass blo cks are

result in a crack in the nearest glass blocks .

brackets back t o secon dar y vertical po sts,

bo nded together w it h silicone w hich allow s

For t his reason w hen glass blocks are held in

fo r the highe r amounts of structural m ove-

mason ry o pe nings,they can be set d irectly

m ent assoc iated w it h stee l suppo rts than

o nto a concrete cill if o ne is used. Sometimes

those in reinfo rced co ncrete str ucture s.T he

t he co ncrete cill can fo rm a complete rein-

co nt inuo us surface of blo cks, unint errupt ed

forced co ncrete fr am e, aro und 50 -75m m

by floo r slabs o r co ncrete beam s, do not

(2 in- 3in) w ide in w hich t he glass blo cks are

require any drips t o t hrow w ate r clear of

set. Openings in t im ber fr amed w alls, and

t hese surfaces, giving an ove rall sm oot h

o penings in cavity w all co nst r uct io n (t ypically

appearance t o t he glass blo ck wa ll.

brick o uter leaf, air gap and inner blo ck/t im ber wa ll) use an extr ude d alum inium frame

D etails
I. Glass block
2. Bedding reinforcement
3. Bedding compound, mort ar or
silicone-based bond.
4. Adjacent blockwork wall with rainscreen
5. Adjacent concrete wall
6. Adjacent light gauge steel framed wall
7. Reinforced concrete frame
8. Steel box section
9. 900 corner block
10. 450 corner block
I I. Steel I-section, usually specially fabricated
12. Steel angle
13. Inside
14. Outside
15. Fl oor deck
I6. SteelT-section
17. Adjacent brick cavity wall construction
18. Thermal insulation
19. Ext ruded aluminium sections providing
support
20. Adjacent reinforced concrete wall

to ho ld t he glass blocks in place, w hich is usually po lyester powder co at ed.T he alum inium

MC E

121

Glass Walls 05
Glass blocks

Vert ical section I:Ia.Vertically set glass channels


used aswindow

3-D view of storey height glass channels ascladding system

fram es are t herma lly broken, fixed to t he

A n advantage of cast glass channels o r

performance soft coat ings are required t o be

masonry o pening, usually w it h screws, Similar

'p lanks' ove r glass blocks is t hat t hey are self-

sealed as do uble glazed unit s in t he factor y,

alum inium sect io ns are used between some

suppo r t ing, w it h th e ability to span th eir full

w hich is not possible w it h cast glass channels

joints t o pro vide additi on al suppo rt if

length of aro und 2.5 metres (Bftj .T he glass is

as th eir ends are o pen unti l installed in th e

required.W here glass blocks are set int o an

held in place w it h t hermally broken alumini-

aluminium edge framing already descr ibed.


Cast glass channels are sealed t ogeth er

op ening in a timber frame, th e alum inium

um ext r usions at its ends, using sect ions simi-

pro file edge can be co mbined w it h a t imb er

lar t o t hose used fo r glass blocks in w indow

w it h silicone, w it h translucent w hite being t he

cill t o give a co nt inuo us t imb er appearance

o penings,T he ext r usions are anodised or po l-

most commo nly used co lour,t o match th e

both int ernally and exte rn ally.

yester powd er coate d t o suit t he design,

glass as closely as possible. U nlike glass blocks,

Light t ransmission is aro und 85%, reducing t o

cast glass channels can provide o nly very lim-

Cast glass channe ls

70% if two channels are int erlo cked t o fo rm

it ed fire resistance of aro und 30 minutes

The effect of translucency pro vided by thi ck

a wall of doub le thi ckness t o improve th er-

w hen th e length of th e plank is restricted t o

glass can also be pro vided by cast glass chan-

mal insulati o n and increased sound reduction

aro und 2.5 metres (8ft) .T he glass is rein-

nels,T hese are like half blocks in section

t hro ugh t he wall.A double t hickness of int er-

forced w it h a grid of w ires, giving t he appear-

w hich are made in lengths up t o aro und 2.5

locking channels can pro vide a sound reduc-

ance of traditional w ired glass, and jo ints use

metres ( I ft 6in), Most are aro und 250mm

ti on similar t o t hat of a double glazed unit in

a fire retardant silico ne.

w ide x 60mm deep ( l Oin x 2.5in) w it h glass

a glazed wa ll of aro und 40dB, w it h t hermal

aro und 6-7mm (0,25in) t hick, Planks can be

insulation also similar t o th at of a doub le


glazed unit at aro und 2,0 W /m 2 K if a hard

set both vert ically and ho rizont ally, but ver t ical applicat ions are th e most co mmo n as

low emissivity (lowe) coat ing is applied t o

t hey are far easier t o fix,W hen set ho rizon -

t he inner face of t he o ute r channel.A n

t ally,glass planks cannot sit on t op of o ne

advantage of cast glass channel glazing is t hat

anot her ; each plank is suppo r te d individually

it is much cheaper th an a co nvent ional glazed

at it s end t o pro vide a wate rproo f seal

wall syste m,T his coat ing changes t he surface

between planks th at can accommo date t her-

appearance slight ly,A hard coat ing allows th e

mal movement.

channels t o be assembled o n site ,T he higher

MC E

122

'[

>

CD

CD

3-D view of storey height glass channels used as cladding


system

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Glass block
Bedding reinforcement
Bedding compound , mortar
or silicone-based bond .
Adjacent blockwork wall with rainscreen
Adjacent concrete wall
Adjacent light gauge steel framed wall
Reinforced concrete frame
Steel box section
90 0 corner block
45 0 corner block
Steel l-section, usuallyspecially fabricated
Steel angle
Inside
Outside
Floor deck
SteelT-section
Adjacent brick cavity wall construction
Thermal insulation
Extruded aluminium sections providing support
Adjacent reinforced concrete wall

Horizontal section I: IO.Vertically set glass channels


used as window

....---

Vertical section I:IO. Interlocking horizontally


set glass channels used as window

Vertical section I:IO. Horizontally set glass


channels used as window

3-D view of ope ning set


in glass channel facade

MC E

12 3

ails 0
Glass blocks

--~G l ass

3-D exploded view of glass block system with


supporting structure

CD

3-D view of glass block facade system with


supporting structure

3-D exploded view of top of glass block facade system and fioor slab connections

Details
I.
2.

Glass block
Bedding reinforcement
3. Bedding compound, mortar or
silicone-based bond
4.
A djacent blockwork wall with
rainscreen
5.
A djacent concrete wall
6.
A djacent light gauge steel framed
wall
7.
Reinforced concrete frame
8.
Steel box section
9.
90 corner block
10. 45 corner block
I I . Steel I-section, usually specially
fabricated

MC E

124

I 2.
13.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.

Steel angle
Inside
Outside
Floor deck
SteelT-section
Adjacent brick cavity wall
construction
18. Thermal insulation
19. Extruded aluminium sections
providing support
20. Adjacent reinforced concrete wall

3-D exploded view of glass block facade system


with supporting structure

3-D exploded view of junctions in 'kinked' glass block


wall configuration

3-D view of bottom of glass block window


set in cavity wall construction

3-D exploded view of bottom of glass block window set in cavity wall construction

3-D view of top of glass block window set in cavity


wall construction

3-D exploded view of top of glass block window set in cavity wall construction

MC E

125

GlassWals 01)
Steel windows

~1
@

@
-

====

FL

'i! ___

=-

-= _.::

C0 @

Ii
j

~0L

I~

II

I~

Elevation and section I:25. Storey height steel window assembly


3-D view of rolled steel window details

D eta ils

Steel fram ed w indows are a rob ust w indow

ened w it h a fr ame formed from integral

I.
2.

const r uct ion t hat is ofte n used as a fire

stee l fins th at pass through t he w indow.

resistant glazing. Steel glazing was develop ed

These narrow w indow sect ions cannot

primari ly for single glazing,w here th e main

incorporate a th erm al break.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.

Outside
Inside
Steel supporting structure
Transom
Mullion
Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
Fixing bead
Fixing lug
Projecting transom
Rubber-based seal
Fixed light
Inward opening light
Outward opening light
Window cill
Condensation tray
Damp proof course (DPC)
Internal finish
Drip
Packing
Aluminium clip to secure
double glazed unit
Steel cill
Meeting stile
Pressed steel frame

MC E 126
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

advantage was t heir t hin sight lines w hen

W indow walls w it h larger panel sizes can

compared t o t hose in aluminium.T he t hin,

be formed in larger pressed stee l sect ions

rigid, rolled stee l sect ions we re also more

and ro lled hollow sect ions rath er t han t he

economic t han th eir aluminium co unte r-

smaller G-shaped or T-shaped sect ions.Their

parts.The rolled sect ions can accommo date

sight lines are very similar t o t hose in alumini-

doub le glazed unit s of most thi cknesses, but

um, t hat is considerably w ider th an hot rol led

are not t hermally broken.These rolled sec-

sect ions. Pressed stee l sections are w ider and

ti ons are used w it h small w indow sizes up to

deeper in sect ion th an th e ro lled types but

a maximum of aro und 3000 x 1800m m

t hey have t he advant age of being able t o be

( l Oft x 6ft) and a minimum of 250mm x

form ed int o larger walls as we ll as being able

400mm ( l Oin x 16in) w it h doub le glazed

t o incorp orate a th erm al break.Therm al

unit s. Fully glazed walls made fro m w indow

breaks are held in place by folding t he mate-

sect ions can be made using thi s relatively

rial tightly over t he ends of t he polymer

small w indow size.The 'w indow wall' is st iff-

mat erial, w hich is current ly t oo difficult t o do

Vertical section I: I0, Internally


glazed rolled steel frame

Ver t ical section I: I0, Internally


glazed rolled steel frame

Ho rizontal section I : I0, Internally glazed ro lled steel frame

eco nomically in thin hot ro lled sect io ns,


The most commo n use of steel w indows

3-D view of rolled steel window details

Horizontal section I : I0, Externally glazed ro lled steel frame

w here a co nsiste ncy of appearance is


required over a cont inuo us facade w it h dif-

is in fire resistant glazing, typically w here

ferent requ irement s for fire protect ion in dif-

glazed w alls enclose a fire resisting compart -

ferent areas of th e same facade,

ment.Th e fire integrity is usually between 30


minutes and I hour, but 2 hour int egrit y Can

Small-scale glazing

be achieved w hen used w it h fire resisting

Fixed and o pening light s framed in sizes up t o

glasses,A lt ho ugh st eel glazing pro vides st r uc-

3000mm x 1800mm ( l Oft x 6ft) use a stand-

tura int egrity during a fire, it does not pro -

ard single section w hich is used for both hor-

vide th erm al insulation t o co unte r th e heat

izontal and vertical glazing sect io ns as we ll as

generate d by fire.Th is is dealt w it h eit her by

for o pening light s,W here o pening light s

pro viding sprinklers th at drench th e wall t o

occur,th e profi le used for th e w indow frame

keep it coo l o r else th e wa ll is position ed in a

is different, as is th e profi le for th e o pening

way th at building user s do not come int o

light it self A lso, profiles are different for

direct contact ,A reas of fire resisting glazing

inw ard and o pening lights, Unlike aluminium

Can be combined w it h areaS of unprotected

fr amed glazed walling, w here a single ext r u-

glass w it ho ut changing th e outward appear-

sion is used throughout, w it h o pening light s

ance of th e glazing,Th is is a big advantage

glazed int o th e syste m, small-scale stee l glaz-

J-LJ view ot Junction with adjoining cavity wall

MC E

127

Glass Walls Ob
Steel windows

'--t.ULI
. 1

(})

CD

Vertical section I :I O. Rolled steel frame with


singleglazing

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

MC E

Outside
Inside
Steel supporting structure
Transom
Mullion
Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
Fixing bead
Fixing lug
Projecting transom
Rubber-based seal
Fixed light
Inward opening light
Outward opening light
W indow cill
Condensation tray
Damp proof course (DPC)
Internal finish
Drip
Packing
A luminium clip to secure
double glazed unit
Steel cill
Meet ing stile
Pressed steel frame

128

CD

1
Vertical section I:I O. Rolled steel frame with
singleglazing

Vertical section I :I O. Rolled steel frame with


double glazed unit

ing requires a family of different pro files t o

wall, mild st eel T-sect ion fins are set betwee n

create a single glazed wa ll. For t his reason,

th e w indows t o form a st iffening frame.T he

manufactu rers offer a small range of stee l

adjacent fr ames are screw ed t o t he fins in

w indow ty pes in o rder t o remain economic.

o rder t o cont ribute t o th e overall st iffness of

Because sectio ns are ro lled rather t han

t he frame. Unlike aluminium, t he T-sections

ext r uded, t here is very littl e possibility of cre-

used are different fro m t hose set vert ically in

at ing a new profile for a specific project. Sin-

o rder t o provide a projecting drip. Profiles

gle glazed panes of glass w ere traditionally

are designed so th at th ey are glazed from

fixed w it h stee l pins and glazing putty like tra-

eit her t he inside o r t he o utside.T he choice of

dit ional w indow fr ames, but th e pract ice has

syste m is usually dictate d by th e method of

given way t o t hin steel channels and angles.

glass replacement , w hich may be fro m an

Mo re recent ly,aluminium ext r usions are used,

intern al fioor o r from an exte rnal ladder or

w hich are clipped int o place.T he ext rusions

cleaning and maint enance cradle.

are both more reliable in t he long t erm and

O utw ard o pening light s have pro files w it h

far easier t o replace, parti cularly in large-scale

edges th at proj ect over th e front of th e sup-

glazed wa lls.

porting frame t o exclude rainw ater.A pro-

W hen w indows, eit her fixed o r o pening


light s, are joined t ogether t o fo rm a glazed

jecting drip is prov ided at t he t op to prot ect


t he vulnerable t op joint. A ny rainw ater t hat

~-06
@

Ho rizontal sect ion I 10. Rolled st eel frame with single glazing and outward
op ening light

@
@

=====;kLOm===
Horizontal section I 10. Meet ing stile on rolled steel frame with double
glazing

Vertical section I : I O. Inward opening


rolled steel frame with double glazed
unit

Vert ical section I: I O. Outward


opening rolled steel frame with
double glazed unit

-~~=;;:;:=4J=~=='@'=====

CD

.~ 0~

CD

Ho rizontal section 1:5 . Junction between steel window and adjoining cavity
wall construction

Ho rizontal section I : I O. Rolled steel frame glazed internally

drip s into th e inner surface of th e frame is

direct ly th rou gh th e fr ame into th e suppo rt-

dr ained away aro und th e edge of th e fr ame

ing mater ial.

and o ut at th e bottom of each frame. Rub-

A ddit ional st iffening for larger walls is

ber-based seals are now used t o assist w it h

provided by tub e or box sect io ns set away

reducing air infiltration th rou gh th e w indow.

from th e glazed w all.T he glazing is fixed t o

Inw ard o pening light s use th e same pro -

th e suppo rt fr ame w it h steel cleats and

files w it h th eir proj ecting edges set against

br ackets.Th ese provide a meth od of taking

th e frame in a similar w ay At th e w indow

up tolerances and alignme nt adjust ments

head, a projecting fin is not needed as a dr ip,

between t he w indows and th eir suppo r t ing

since th e oute r frame is lapped over th e

fr ame.

inner light. Rubber-based seals are used t o

CD

Doors are fixed t o t he suppo rting fr ame

reduce air infiltration .W indows and glazed

in t he same way as w indows, but th eir con-

walls are fixed t o adjacent masonry walls

st ruct ion is more robu st.They have th icker

w it h stee l lugs t hat allow th em t o be fixed

sect ions at t he cill and have a horizontal rail

away from th e edge of th e concrete o r

at mid -height t o provide st iffness. Some also

masonry These lugs are co ncealed by int ernal

have m ild stee l plates, glazed in at cill level as

finishes.W hen fixed into a timber or pressed

kicking plates.The plate s have an internal

steel edge fr ame, stee l glazing can be fixed

insulati on co re if used in co njunct ion w ith

3-D view of steel glazing set in cavity wall


construction

MC E

129

Glass Walls OiS


Steel windows

Ho rizontal sections I : 10.Various pressed steel window configurations with double glazing and thermall y bro ken

0- Horizontal sections I: I O. Pnessed steel frame win dows with double glazingand thermally broken.
Junction with cavity wall construct ion

Horizontal sections I: 10. Pressed steel frame


windows w ith double glazingand thermally
broken. Junction with cavity wall construction

3-D view of various pressed steel frame wind ow configurations with double glazingand thermall y broken

Details

do uble glazing.Th e thinn ess of st eel w in-

front t o allow fixing t oggles t o be inserted

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

dow fr ames in relation t o aluminium allows

int o it. Rubber-based air seals are set against

7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

MC E

Outside
Inside
Steel supporting structure
Transom
Mullion
Single glazed or double glazed
unit to suit application
Fixing bead
Fixing lug
Projecting transom
Rubber-based seal
Fixed light
Inward opening light
Outward opening light
W indow cill
Condensation tra y
Damp proof course (DPC)
Internal finish
Drip
Packing
Aluminium clip to secure
double glazed unit
Steel cill
Meet ing stile
Pressed steel frame

130

doo r cills t o be visually more discrete t han

t he carrier frame onto w hich t he double

th o se in aluminium, w it h a low upstand

glazed units are set.The glass is secured w it h

formed by t he cill at flo or level. D oors, in

pressure plates and int egral ru bber-based

commo n w it h ot her cills, have a co ndensa-

seals in th e same w ay as aluminium glazed

t ion channel w hich co llects wate r at t he

wall syste ms.The pressure plate is fixed w it h

bottom of th e glazed wall and directs it t o

a bolt th at is secured into the t oggle. In alu-

t he outs ide .These channels are needed

minium const r uction, a projecting groove

since t he fr ame is not t herm ally brok en and

forms part of t he ext r usion t o w hich t he bolt

co ndensat ion can occur on t he int ern al face

is fixed. Rolled or pressed st eel cannot incor-

in te mperate climates.

porate such a complicated and rigid profile.


The ru bber-based air seals fixed t o t he box

Large-scale glazing

sect ions have an addit ional lip w hich t ucks

Large-scale glazing uses a carrier frame of

down over th e top of th e do uble glazed unit

mullions and t ransoms form ed in steel box

below.T his provides a sealed inner chamber

sect ions similar t o t hat in aluminium.The car-

for drainage and pressure equalisation in t he

rier fr ame has an indented groove at th e

manner of aluminium glazed walls. Manufac-

--,J
3-D view of double glazed steel frame w indow set
in cavity wall construction

Ver tical section I: I a. Outward op ening double glazed


st eel frame wi ndows set in cavity w all con~~:~~~~n

@
Vertical section I :I a. Fix ed light double glazed
steel frame windows set in cavity wall
construction

Hor izont al section I :I a.Vertically set glass channels


used as window

tu rers provide systems to suit different glaz-

be combined wit h a glazed roof. In thi s det ail

ing layo ut s and spans.T he shape of th e box

a co ping is glazed int o the roof member adja-

section can also vary. fro m t hin long boxes,to

cent t o th e wall at o ne end and glazed int o

a rectangular box. t o a po inted aerofo il-type

th e t op t ranso m of the w all at its other end.

sect io n.The overall sight lines are t hinner

The coping profile is usually formed to project

t han an equivalent in alumini um. Special cor-

slight ly forward of t he top face of the pres-

ner pieces are made w it hin manufacture rs'

sure plate in order t o pro vide protect io n fro m

systems w hich are similar to those in alumini-

maint enance equipment and ladders th at can

um.Th ese special profiles make co me rs more

damage th e parapet co ping. Cills at gro und

elegant t han t hey wo uld be by combining

level have met al fiashings glazed int o th em t o

struct ural sections,w hich w o uld necessitate

pro ject dow n over adjacent co nstr uct ion, such

th e adding of sheet metal in co rners.

as an insulat ed co ncrete upstand.A n alumini-

Parapet s are form ed by glazing a metal

um o r EPDM fo il is also glazed in behind t he

fiashing int o t he transom (horizont ally) at th e

fiashing t o pro vide a wat ert ight seal against

t o p of th e w all and exte nding th e fiashing

adjacent co nst ruct io n such as a fioor slab. Slot

down th e parapet w all behind w hich t he roof

dra ins at cili level are increasingly used t o co n-

build-up is retained.A n advantage of steel

ceal t he minimum I SOmm (6in) upstand

glazed walls in box sect ions is t hat t hey can

required between th e low est transom and t he

3-D view of double glazed steel framed wi ndow set


in cavity wall construction

MCE

131

Glass Walls 06
Steel windows

Vertical sections I : I O. Pressed steel singleglazed fire resisting


doors without thermal breaks

Vertical section I:I O. Pressed steel doors with thermal breaks. Outward opening
(left) and inward opening (right)

Horizontal section I: I O. Fixed pressed steel singleglazed fire


resisting doors without thermal breaks

Horizo ntal section I: I0, Outward opening pressed steel door with thermal
break

Horizontal section I :I O. Inward opening pressed steel single


glazed fire resisting doors without thermal breaks

Jr
-

Horizo ntal section I


break

'

Horizontal section I :I O. Outward opening pressed steel single


glazed fire resisting doors without thermal breaks

Details
I.

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
I O.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Outside
Inside
Steel supporting structure
Transom
Mullion
Singleglazed or double
glazed unit to suit
application
Fixing bead
Fixing lug
Projecting transom
Rubber-based seal
Fixed light
Inward opening light
Outward opening light
Window cill
Condensation tray

16. Damp proof course


(DPC)
17. Internal finish
18 Drip
19. Packing
20. Aluminium clip to secure
double glazed unit
21. Steel cill
22. Meeting stile
23. Pressed Steel Frame

3-D view of outward opening pressed steel door with thermal break

3-D view of outward opening pressed steel singleglazed fire resisting door without
thermal break

MC E

132

Horizontal section I: I0. Steel framed cur t ain walling details at var ious junctio ns

exte rnal gro und level for wate rproofing pur-

fixed t hro ugh t he fr ame int o t he adjacent

poses.The use of an exte rnal slot drain also

st ruct ural wa ll.A n EPDM foi l or silicone seal-

allows t he exte rnal level t o be t he same as

ant is th en used t o seal th e gap between th e

based seals. Similar ly, doors can have a mod-

t he int ernal fioor level w hile providing a

stee l w indow/door and t he adjacent co n-

est t her mal break int roduced t hat avoids

semi-co ncealed upstand.

crete or mason ry wa ll.

co ndensat ion fo rm ing o n t he inside face of

Met al fiashings and an EPD M foi l behind


it are also used t o seal steel glazing against

Steel glazing w ith box sections has a lim-

Steel glazing w it h box sections has a limited th erm al br eak provided by th e rub ber-

t he door in t emp erat e climat es. D oors and

it ed th erm al break provided by t he rubb er-

o pening light s have rubb er-based seals

areas of adjacent co nstruct ion such as

based seals.Similarly,doo rs can have a mod -

between t he light and t he carrier fr ame t o

masonry and co ncrete wa lls. O pening light s

est t hermal br eak int ro duced t hat avoids

reduce air infilt rati on . Steel glazing is usually

and doo rs are set int o stee l glazing as sepa-

co ndensat ion forming o n th e inside face of

finished as eit her galvanised o r po lyester

rat e it ems glazed w it h an opening.As w ith

t he door in t emp erate climates. D oo r s and

powd er coate d. PVDF is not used o n steel.

alum inium glazed walls, t he door or o pening

o pening light s have rubb er-based seals

Somet imes a co mbinat ion of galvanising and

light has an addit ional frame w hich is visible

between t he light and t he carrier frame t o

coat ing is used, but galvanising can distort

from t he o utside. D oor and w indow light s

reduce air infilt rat io n. Stee l glazing is usually

small co mpo nents, making it much less po pu-

are formed from pressed steel sections

finished as either galvanised or po lyest er

lar t han polyester pow der coat ing.

w hich are fold ed t ogeth er t o form a family of

powd er coate d. PVDF is not used o n stee l.

pro files t o suit different sizes and glass ty pes.

Somet imes a combinat ion of galvanising and

Steel fr amed w indows and doors are also

coat ing is used, but galvanising can disto rt

made as separate items for glazing into o pen-

small compo nents, making it much less popu -

ings in mason ry wa lls. In t his inst ance t hey are

lar t han polyester powd er coat ing.


MCE

13 3

ails 06---~--'"

- - -GI

Steel windows

Details
I. """'"

2._
1 Steel supportrog wueture
-s.Transom

S. Mu11'on
6. SlI'Igle g\aled or double gLued
l.I1ct to ~ applatoOn

7. Fomgbead
8.Fi>arIg Ug

9. PrOjectl'lg tranSOffi

,O. Rubber-based seal


II . Fixed light
12.Inward opening Iigtlt
13. Ovtwara openrog light
I"'Wndow61

15.Cc:nOensabon tray
16.Damp proof ccc-se (DPC)
17. Internal fin,sh

- ""'"

18. Drip
19. Packing
20.A!l.rniruum clipto secure

III
)-0

~KPloded

VIew of pressed steel

oxx system

3-D secbOnaI_ of pressed steel door ~em assembly

MC E

134

"'"

21. Steel dI

21 Meebng stile
21 Pressed steel frame

I
I

I
I

..,

3-D ~ _

of ruIIed steel facade

l
II

3-D view of pressed steel window detail


~ masonrycavity wal constructJon

3-D exploded view of pressed steel window set


wttIWl ~ waf

--

3-0 exploded VIeW of pressed steel

MC E_ 135

GlassWalls 07
Al uminium and PVC- U w indows
~

0-

T0~
/

n~

====t

/
I

/
I

(0

<?
/
/

/ (0

(0

~7
~

-~

~,

,ll
\
\

Vertica l section I: I O.
Inw ard open ing door

f--'

I ~~

,----

~- -~ -~---)
(0

\--

=1 H
i :
1 =1J.=0

f~

__

l=

(0

=iIfM4-

(0

I
,-; ~

EO

p =.0 ]

--r------,--

Vertical section
I : I O. Meeting stile

..

HOrizontal. vertical section and elevation I :25. Inward opening alum inium doors
with extemal balustrade

A luminium w indows are used eit her as indi-

fianking sound passing from apartment t o

vidual light s set int o a structural opening o r

apartment. 'W indow wa lls' of w indows linked

as 'w indow w alls' w here w indows are st ill set

by glass o r metal panels is ofte n pr efer red

int o op enings, but are linked t oget her w it h

w here a fire separat ion zone is needed

metal or opaqu e glass panels t o give t he

between apartment s,w hen combined w it h

appearance of a cont inuo us glazed w all.

t hermal and acoust ic mass.

T he essent ial difference between alumini-

3-D view of aluminium opening doors


and fixed lights

MC E 136
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

um w indows and aluminium glazed w alls (o r

Window s in openings

'curta in walls') is t hat w indows are set indi-

W hen fixed into a str uctu ral op ening in a

vidually into structural op enings,w hereas

w all formed in another mat erial, aluminium

curta in w alling uses a co nt inuous carrier

w indows have dri ps and flashings t o seal

fr ame fixed fo rw ard of t he suppo rt ing struc-

against t he adjacent materi al. Specific inter-

t ure.W indows are not t echnically inferior t o

face det ails of w indows w it h adjacent mat eri-

curta in wa lling, but are a different met hod of

als are discussed elsewhere in t his book,

glazing.W indow systems are we ll suite d t o

under t he heading of each wall typ e.T his sec-

apar t me nts, w here t he discontinui ty of fram-

t ion deals specifically w it h t he issues of glaz-

ing is prefer red for acoust ic reasons,avo iding

ing aluminium w indows and doors into any

Vertical
section I: I O.
External
opening
door

~r~-.----1

8'"'

L ............._ - - '

Vertical sections I: I O. Aluminium windows fixed into openings in masonry concrete walls

1--J--;tu~U;=:ll!i;~ Horizontal
section I: I O.
Internal
opening
door

0.
'--

Horizontal sections I :I O. Aluminium wlnaows fixe Into openings in masonry/concrete walls

---J

Horizontal

~\; il:~L~==l' section I: I O.


External
opening
door

fL-Jn-~=:::::::::J

~ ..!:::=~EU~1l

struct ural opening.


A luminium w indow s and doors are often

st r uct ural stability.


In commo n w it h aluminium curtain walls,

preferred for th eir th erm al and acoust ic

aluminium w indows are pressure equalised

insulation prop erties, t ogether w it h low lev-

and internally dr ained, providing two lines of

els of air infiltration .They have a generally

defence against rainw ater ingress.The oute r

D et ails

higher performance in th ese areas th an stee l

line of defence is provided by a rubb er-based

I.
2.

or timber fr ames, and th eir dur able finish

seal fixed t o th e w indow frame.A ny rainw a-

gives th em a consist ent appearance over 20

t er penetrating th is oute r seal is dr ained away

years, depending on th e t ype of finish used.

in a vent ilate d cavity w it hin th e w indow

Their main disadvantage is th e w ide sight

fr ame and is released back t o th e outside

lines required t o accommo date smoot h

through th e cill profile.

movement of th e opening light in t he fr ame

Horizontal
section I :I O.
Internal
opening
door

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Opening door or window


Fixed light
Floor slab
Thermal insulation
Surrounding wall
Internal finishes
W indow cill

There is an increased use of 'flipper' seals

as we ll as th e seals and th erm al breaks

w it hin w indow frames t o both keep any rain-

required. Manufacturer s are ever-st riving t o

wate r th at penetrates th e oute r seal in a

make th e sight lines th inner but th is usually

chamber at th e front of th e section (similar

results in th e depth of th e w indow and door

t o unitised cur tain walling) and t o provide a

increasing substant ially in order t o maintain

th erm al break in th e void w it hin th e w indow

MC E

137

GassWalls 07
A luminium and PVC- U w indows

i,

------

Ii-

Plan, I : 10

CD
~

CD

.~

......J ~
~~

Horizontal section and elevation 1:25.


Door fixed into a stick curtain wall system

'I-

1,....-

~~

.J_'

Vertical sections I 10,Comflosite aluminium and timber wind ows

Ho rizontal section I :25, Door fitted into a stick curtain wall system

fr ame.This prevent s air t emper ature and

in o rder t o provide much low er levels of air

humidity levels in th e outer chamber from

and w at er infiltr ation, D oor fr ames are gen-

passing all th e way through th e void in th e

erally w ider so as t o provide stability for th e

fr ame and reaching th e inner seal.T he inner

infill panel of glass but are not usually th er-

seal is th en used only as an air seal rather

mally broken in o rder t o provide a rigid

th an a full weat hert ight seal.T his meth od is

fr ame t o suppo rt th e infill glass,W indow

similar t o th at used in unitised curta in wa lling,

fr ames are often used for doors w here th ese

w here t wo air chambers are used at th e joint

low er levels of air and wate r infilt rati o n are

between panels,Th ere has been an increased

required, as in doors t o balconies in apart -

use in recent years of th erm al breaks in both

ment s, for example, D oors using door pro -

th e frame and th e o pening light in aluminium

files can reach 3.0 t o 3.5 metres in height

w indows ,The breaks are position ed t o coin-

w it hout w ide sight lines w hereas thi s is not

cide w it h th e rubb er-based flipper seal t o

th e case for doors using w indow fr ame pro-

reduce th e th erm al brid ge across th e com-

files w hich can reach a maximum of around

plete w indow sectio n,

2.4 metres high (2400mm) ,A bove thi s height.

A luminium frames for doors and w in3-D view of window fitted in to unitised glazing

MC E

138

it is difficult t o use th e frame t o support th e

dow s differ subst ant ially in th at w indow

glass, For doors exceeding 2.4 metres in

fr ames are narrow er but deeper th an doors

height using w indow sect ions, it is visually

CD
I

.---

~.

CD

IAA

JJ

bL.

,AA

11'

~~ ~

~
~

CD

J.

3-D view of alumnium window

l'"r!

CD

k ...

CD

CD

CD

CD

Verti cal section I: I O.


Outward opening thermally broken door. Fixed
into stick curtain walling

Vertica l section I: 10.


Inward opening door with
no t hermal break.Fix ed
into stick curtain walling

Ho rizontal section I:25.A luminium doors fixed into a stick curtain wall system

D et ails
I.
2.

3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
Hori zontal sect ion I: I O. Junctions between fixed light and opening door and window

Meet ing stile I: I0

necessary t o silicone bond th e frame t o the

both by th e minimum manufacturable size of

glass so th at th e fr ame and glass become a

double glazed unit and by th e need t o open

single structural component.The glass is th en

th e light smoot hly.

used t o stiffen th e fr ame rather than being a

Opening door or window


Fixed light
Floor slab
Thermal insulation
Surrounding wall
Internal finishes
W indow cill

Top hung light s, ofte n set above fixed alu-

non-structural infill panel w it hin th e fr ame.

minium w indows and opening door s t o pro-

This is more expensive and also difficult t o

vide night t ime natural vent ilat ion, have a

replace th e glass if broken w it hout replacing

minimum height of abo ut 800mm t o 900mm

th e comp lete frame. If t he fr ame is replaced

in order t o accommodate the o pening mech

th en t he colour of th e replacement door

anism. Fixed light s above doors can be

may not match th e surro unding framing.

reduced t o a height of around 200mm.Top

Maximum w idt hs of aluminium glazed doors

hung, bottom hung and t ilt!t urn w indows use

are a function of th e height, in order t o

similar sections t o side hung w indow s.Tilt!

restrict the overall we ight of th e door leaf,

turn w indows have t he advantage of combin-

but 850mm w ide doors (for a 1700mm w ide

ing th e functions of side hung w indows w it h

pair of doo rs) are commo n.The minimum

th eir ability t o open complete ly, and th e abili-

w idt h of th e opening door is abo ut 250mm

t y of bottom hung w indows t o provide high

t o 300mm depending on door height and

level natural vent ilat ion has led t o th eir

w idt h.The minimum dimension is determ ined

increased use.

3-D view of alumnium window

MC E

139

Glass Walls 07
Aluminium and PVC-U windows

0)

0)

::::

It l eD
-

CD
CD

CD
...

Ir

Vertical Sections I : I 0
W indow s set into glass
rainscreen

;-

0)

~ eD
0)

H orizontal section I: I O.Window s set int o a glazed rainscreen

Horizontal & vertical section 1:25.


Aluminium windows set into a glazed rainscreeen

3-D view of top hung aluminium window

MC E

140

3D view of side hung aluminium window

Horizontal & vert ical section I: I O. Sliding aluminium doors

1~0
~LL -f3-

:~ ~

~;
' ~r=

CD

_ 0-

Ho rizontal & vertical section I:I O.


Alum inium w indows set into masonry openings

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

O pening door or w indow


Fixed light
Floor slab
Thermal insulation
Surrounding wall
Internal finishes
W indow cill

.,i~ ~

lR' =
. -',

CD

CD

~l=

1
u1 8

CD-l

10
Sliding doors are usually t op hung, sliding
on ro llers set at th e door head.The bottom

ti ons,creating w ider sight lines.


W hen aluminium w indows are glazed

CD

1
CD

0~

proof backing wall used in thi s ty pe of construction.This method makes it necessary to

of t he door is rest rained by guides t hat both

int o a st ructural opening, t he joi nt between

fix t he w indows and seal t hem t o t he backing

hold th e do or in place and allow it t o move

w indow and adjacent wall is made eit her

wall before th e exte rnal cladding is fixed.This

w it hout being o bstr ucte d by dirt and grit

w it h a sealant, such as silicone, or w it h an

is often an advantage, w here aluminium w in-

accumulat ing in t he bottom of th e cill pro -

EPDM foil glazed int o th e w indow fr ame and

dow s and backing walls provide a weat her-

file. Bottom rolling doors, w hich are sup-

sealed against th e face of t he surro unding

t ight enclosure at an ear lier stage t han wo uld

ported on th e cill profi le and are restrained

wall.The choice of seal is dependent upon

be achieved w it h more traditional method s

at th eir head, are much less commo nly used

th e material used in th e surrounding wall, but

w here t he w indows are glazed in afterwa rds.

for exte rnal doors since dirt and grit can

silicone seals are generally used w here th e

The ear ly date for weat hertight enclosure

hinder t heir movement.There are t w o t ypes

adjacent wall is of sealed const r uct ion, such

allows construct ion wo rk int ernally t o com-

of sliding door: th ose th at ro ll in a constant

as an open joint ed wall, sheet metal or

mence at the same tim e as th e exte rnal clad-

plane and th ose w hich lift o ut and th en

render on concrete . EPDM foil is used w here

ding is being installed. Forming a seal w it h

slide.Th e fir st t ype has higher levels of air

th e adjacent wall has an open joi nt ed finish in

sealant, w it h silicone or a polysulphide for

infiltration associate d w it h side hung door

front of th e struct ural wall, as in rainscreen

example, rather th an EPDM, allows th e w in-

profiles.Th e second type has much low er

construct ion, in metal or sto ne, for example.

dow t o be installed afterwa rds. Since t he

levels of air infiltration but has w ider sec-

The EPDM foil is sealed against th e wate r-

joint s are visible, and are formed w it h a t ool

MC E

141

G assWans 07
Alum inium and PVC-U w indows

3-D view of aluminium window as part of a unitised glazingsystem

3-D view of aluminium window as part of a unitised glazingsystem

3-D views of frame details

B.

Deta ils
/

3-D detail view of aluminium glazing

MC E

142

I.
2.

D.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Opening door or window


Fixed light
Floor slab
Thermal insulation
Surrounding wall
Internal finishes
Window cill

B,

c.

D,

from outside, care sho uld be t aken t o choo se

wa rd of th em on br acket s, If th e w indow is

Comp osite wi ndows

a colour w hich is compat ible w it h both t he

sitting o n a suppo r t , t hen t he o paque panel

A recent developm ent has been in t he use of

w indow and th e adjacent const ruct ion,

adjacent t o it is usually set fo rw ard of th e

aluminium w indows w it h an inner frame in

w indow in o rder t o accommo date it s t her-

timber t o suppo rt th e o ute r aluminium pro -

Window walls

mal insulati on ,W hen t he w indow is set fo r-

file,T his is effectively an aluminium w indow

This syste m is parti cular ly useful w here a dis-

wa rd of th e o pening, th en th e glazing in th e

wall w it h a timber carrier frame, From th e

cont inuity is required, usually for fire o r

aluminium w indow can be aligned w it h t he

int erior,t he framing has an all-wood appear-

acoustic reasons,w hile maintaining an overall

o paque glazing.Thi s glazing t ype is commo n-

ance, However,th e glazing sect ions used are

modular facade,T hey are usually less expen-

ly used w it h both ribbo n w indows and row s

t hose from w indows rather th an curtain waIl-

sive th an glazed cur tain walling,Th e o paque

of individu al w indows,

ing, Som e manufact urers make w indows w it h

areas are usually filled w it h eit her an alum ini-

A n advantage of w indow wa lling is th at

timber frames behind th em t o form a timber

um sheet (coate d t o mat ch t he colour of t he

t he o paque spandrel panels can be made in a

fr amed uniti sed system,T he o ute r joint is an

adjacent w indow frames) o r w it h o pacified

different form of construction from t he w in-

o pen joint ed rainscreen.This protects t he

glass,T hese infill panels are suppo rte d by t he

dow s, Insulat ed composite panels can be

inner seals between t imber frames fro m t he

w indow frames and do not have a suppo rt

used for exam ple as metal rainscreen panels,

wo rst effects of w indblow n rain,T he t imb er

fr ame behind as wo uld be used in cur tain

o r o pen joint ed o paque glazing,T his can

fr ames are screwe d o r bo lted t ogether.Th e

walling syste ms,

make t he system very economic w hen com-

complete carrier fr ame is fixed back t o floo r

pared t o curtain wa lling. If th e spandrel pan-

slabs w it h stee l o r aluminium brackets in th e

visible fro m o utside is adapte d t o give t he

els are not set int o a framing system t hat is

manner of glazed curta in w alling.T hese

same appearance as th e junction betw een

internally drained and vent ilate d like th e w in-

brackets are describ ed in th e section o n st ick

o paque spandrel panels,T his gives t he

dow s, t hen t he vo id behind t he o paque pan-

glazing and unitised glazing.

exte rnal fr aming an ove rall consiste nt

els must be drained at t he head of th e w in-

appearance associate d w it h ot her modu lar

dow below, In addition, th e th erm al insulation

In a w indow wa ll, th e aluminium profi le

glazed wa ll t ypes,W indows are suppo rte d

behind t he spandrel panel fo rms a cont inuity

eit her direct ly o nto a floor slab o r co ncrete!

w it h th e doub le glazed unit of th e w indow,

block upst and, o r alte rnat ively are set for-

MC E

14 3

Glass Wa Is 07
Aluminium and PVC-U windows

1'1
3-D exploded view of wall with aluminium window

MC E

Exploded axonometric view of wall with aluminium window

3-D view of top hung aluminium window open

3-D frame detail of top hung aluminium window open

3-D view of side hung aluminium window open

3-D detail of side hung aluminium window frame open

144

3-D view of wall with aluminium windows

Exploded axonometric drawing of wall with aluminium windows

D etails
I.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.

Opening door or window


Fixed light
Floor slab
Thermal insulation
Surrounding wall
Internal finishes
Window cill

3-D exploded view of wall w ith aluminium window

3-D view of aluminium window

3-D view of aluminium window exploded from wall


3-D exploded view of aluminium window

MC E

145

Glass W aifs 08
Timber windows

CD

Elevation I:25.O pening casement door~ With fixed sIdelight

Verti cal section I :5.Inward


opening casement dOO<"S
Hor izontal section 1:5. Fixed casement window

Elevation I :25.Fixed casement window

::::::J*~_~2i 7 ~ :--:~
H~~ta t sectonlS.Jnward openc g door ~lr

Of"

Vert ical section 1:5.Fixed


"""-,-'-"" casement window

---~~

Like aluminium w indows. timber windows are

to avoid much larger equivalent sections in

used either as individual components or as

timber In common w ith other framed glaz-

assemblies o f 'w indow walls' of opening win -

ing systems. t imber windows are required t o

dows and fixed lights wh ich are linked

be held in a rigid frame. w ith only small

together

structural deflections allowed under wi nd


load. For t his reason, cable-assisted st ruc-

3-D views showing side hung and fixed light


windows

M C E 146
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

W indow walls

tures are seldom used, since they are associ-

These are formed either as individual w in-

ated with higher deflections than framed

dows linked togeth er and reinforced by a

supporting structures.These reinforcements

secondary frame. usually steel flats. or are

or addit ional supports are usually set inside

formed as full curtain walling systems.Where

the building to avoid penetrat ing the exteri-

t imber sections form the full structural sup-

or seal o f th e timber frame s.W hereas alu-

port for t he glazing.the glazing is secured

min ium glazing systems can accommodate

w ith timber glazing beads.Where individ ual

support brackets penetrating the oute r seals

w indows are linked together with steel rein,

with rubber-based gaskets and silicone seals.

forcement, addit ional support may be need-

the high moisture movement associated w ith

ed fro m a secondary structure. Steel tubes.

wood makes thi s much less practical w ith

T-sect ions or box sections are typical ly used

timber w indows .

D etails

I.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

I
I

I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Fixed light
Supporting structu re
Outside
Inside
Head
Cill
Metal stiffening insert
Timber infill panel
Thermal insulation
Singleglazed or double
glazed unit to suit
application
Fixing bead
Rubber-based seal
Inward opening light
Outward opening light
Damp proof course

(DPC)
16.
17.

Internal finish
Flashing to seal against
adjacent wall
18. Vertically sliding sash
19. Sliding door frame top
hung or bottom rolling
20. W indow or door
jamb
Elevation I :25. Side hung window

-:

Vertica l section I :5.Top hung


w indow

I>

HOrizontal section I :5. Side hung windows In window wall With different framing methods

~-=.~.',

_ _ _----'LL..L'--"-''----

W here w indows are linked t ogether and

t imb er sect ions over aluminium extrusions is

reinforced w it h a mild st eel flat a drainage

t he ability of t imber t o be routed t o form a

groove is cut int o t he o utside of t he fram e as

variety of juncti on s between mullion (ver t i-

part of a st andard w indow frame. A ny w at er

cal) and tran som (ho rizontal). Slots and con-

t hat passes through t he o ute r seal is dr ained

t inuous gro oves can be cut int o t he sectio ns

away in t he groove w hich is used on all fo ur

t o give t hem a visual richness t hat is ofte n

sides of a t ypical fr ame.W ate r is dr ained

lacking in metal glazed w alls. Support brack-

away t o th e outside at th e cill.T he reinforce-

ets fixed t o th e inside face are form ed in alu-

ment does not exte nd forward of t he drain-

minium or mild st eel.

age groove t o allow wate r to be drained

Timber framed w indow wa lls ty pically

away unimpeded. A ll-t imber frames, in t he

span up t o two floors, due t o t he self we ight

manner of glazed cur tain w alling, may have

of t he panels.This is due t o t he need t o bind

mullion s and transoms of different dept hs,

t he frame int o large single unit s t o avoid t he

reflecting t heir different struct ural require-

effects of t hermal movement fro m shrinking

ments,and each may be in a different wood

of th e sect ions. If timber sect io ns are not ti ed

typ e. Hardwoods and softwoods can be

t ogether.t hey t end t o warp and t w ist w hen

mixed, but moisture movement needs to be

exposed t o outside eleme nts. Even if th e sur-

t aken int o account. A n advantage of solid

faces are painted o r sealed w it h varn ish, any

---

I
I
I

,
I

I
I

I
I

' ....... .

'-.

..
I

-,

3-D view showing side hung window

MC E

147

Glass

ails 08

Timber windows

"'-'-'----- --0

__-----'LL..4""'--'-'-----

Horizontal section 1:5. Side hung window

/'/ 8

/...-

---

<

<,

---'

<,

/
/'

<,

<,

---

-<,

<,
<,

...-

<,

/
/

/'

<,

-<,

<,

<,

....

<,

....

Elevation I :25. Side hung windows

Elevation I :25. Horizontal sliding wind ow

Horizontal section 1:5. Horizontal sliding window


Vert ical section 1:5. Sliding window

movement due t o moisture w ill crack th e

add it io nal st iffness at th e co rne r, bindin g

o ute r finish and allow further movement t o

t he three t imb er sect io ns int o a single

occur.Timber sect ions are jointed w it h eit her

st r uct ural co mponent.

t ongue-and-groove o r rebated jo ints.W here


t ongue-and-gro ove joints are used, th e linking

Window design

materi al can be a durable hardw ood o r alu-

W indows in recent years have develop ed by

m inium. Sections can also be bo lted t ogether

providing better airt ight and better wate r-

if th e sectio ns are of sufficient size,such as

ti ght barri ers in th eir design.A ir infiltr ation in

aro und 75 x 50mm (3in x 2in).


Glazed wa lls can be jo ined relatively easily t o adjacent wa ll const ruct ion w it h seals

MC E

148

o pening light s has been reduced, w hen th e


w indow is closed by th e addit ion of rubb erbased seals, often held in place by aluminium

and lapped edges associate d w it h traditional

clips so th at th ey can be replaced w hen

w indows . Corn er s are st raightfo rw ard to

wo rn-o ut. Wate rtight ness of opening light s

form as eit her a structural corne r o r as a fully

has been improved by th e use of pressure

glazed corne r.St ructural corne rs have t wo

equalised rebates in th e w indow sectio n so

glazing sectio ns brought t ogether. w hich are

th at any wate r ente ring th e profi les at th e

reinforced w it h an addit ional co rne r post.

sides is drained away from an oute r cavity

This post is set into routed grooves in th e

w it hout being drawn into th e inner seal by

edges of t he two w indow frames t o provide

capillary action (pressure different ial)

3-D section t hro ugh side hung window details showing different framing methods

~-r---_0_~.....,.. ~

-e-

~
1

=== ~

J-

Horizontal sections I:5. Slid ing sash w indow

between inside and outside th e framing.


An out er seal prevents excessive w at er
infilt ration w hile t he inner air seal also serves

also been improved by th e use of fo lded alu-

Details

m inium and UPVC profi les.These profiles are

I.
2.

set fixed o n all edges of th e w indow by set-

as an acoust ic barrier. providing better sound

t ing them into a groove in the w indow frame

insulation than t radit ional w indows wi t ho ut

and projecting them over th e face of the sur-

th ose seals.The inner rubber-based air seal is

ro unding w all.This makes th e sealing of the

usually 'vulcanised' or fused at th e corne rs of

gap between w indow and surrounding w all

the frame t o maintain performance around

much easier by avoiding th e need t o seal the

the complet e perimete r of th e w indow.The

butt jo int created by setti ng t he w indow

drainage groove or channel around th e frame

directly int o th e opening.This projecting pro-

of ope ning light s somet imes has an alumini-

file is more reliable t han the traditi on al

um profi le attached to allow th e timber pro-

weat her bar used in th e cill with sealed butt

file t o be simp ler. Holes are drilled int o th e

joints o n th e jambs and head.

alum inium profile at cill level t o allow wate r

T here has been an increased cont ro l of

t o dr ain t o th e o utside of t he frame.This

moisture movement of t he t imber used.

met al profi le is painted t o reduce th e visibility

W hen timb er is kiln-dried t o reduce its w ate r

w hen th e w indow is o pen.

conte nt prior t o manufacture, t he pro cess is

Seals betwee n th e w indow and t he


open ing into w hich the w indow is fixed have

now better controlled t o avoid excessive

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I O.

I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
I 8.
19.
20.

Fixed light
Supporting structure
O utside
Inside
Head
Cill
Metal stiffening insert
Timber infill panel
Thermal insulation
Single glazed or double
glazed unit to suit
applicat ion
Fixing bead
Rubber-based seal
Inward opening light
O utward opening light
Damp proo f course
(DPC)
Internal finish
Flashingto seal against
adjacent wall
Verti cally sliding sash
Sliding door frame t op
hung or bottom rolling
Sliding w indow or
door jamb

shrinkage afterwa rds.T imber s are dried to

MCE

149

Glass Walls 08
T imber w indows

3-D view of vert ical sliding sash window

Vertical section I:5, Vertical sliding sash


window

D etails
I,
2,

Fixed light
Supporting structure
3. Outsid e
4,
Inside
5,
Head
6,
Cill
7,
Metal stiffening insert
8,
Timber infill panel
9,
Thermal insulation
10, Single glazedor double glazed unit to
suit application
I I, Fixing bead
12, Rubber-based seal
13, Inward opening light
14, Outward opening light
15, Damp proof course (DPC)
16, Internal finish
17, Flashing to seal against adjacent wall
18, Vertically sliding sash
19, Slidingdoor frame top hung or bottom
rolling
20, W indow or door jamb

MC E

150

aro und 15% moisture conte nt, depending on

w it h coat ings t o aluminium profi les, it is very

t he species used.Treatments t o timb er s are

difficult t o coat t he edge of a sharp corne r.A

also changing t o avoid t oxic run off w hile pro -

radiused edge allow s th e protective coat ing

viding some protectio n against colour fading

t o maint ain a better constant t hickness at t he

fro m UV radiati on fro m sunlight.T imber st ill

vulnerable corne rs,Typically, ro unded edges

requires re-coating and cleaning t o avoid th e

allow an 80% layer thi ckness of coat ing (w it h

surface visually fading and causing damage t o

100% on adjacent flat surfaces) compared

t he t imber it self. Some more eco nomic t im-

w it h around 5% coat ing t hickness for a sharp

ber w indows have traditi onally suffered from

angle,W it h th e increased use of doub le

poo r jointin g at t he corne rs of t he fr ame,

glazed unit s in t imb er w indows, rubber-based

Th ese have been imp roved across all w indow

gasket s are also increasingly being used t o

t ypes in recent years w it h t he use of do uble

allow t he moisture movement of t he w indow

mortice and t enon jo ints and wood glues

fr ame and timb er glazing beads t o move

w it h better resistance t o heat and moisture,

w it hout reducing t he w at er ti ghtness of th e

W it h t he improvement in protective

seal between t he frame and do uble glazed

coat ings for timber w indows, parti cularly

unit. Soft seals,including th ose made from

t hose on t he o ut side face, has come t he use

wet -applied silicone, o r silicone extrusions,

of ro unded edges t o profi les,As is th e case

perform much better in thi s respect th an th e

'It!,

lnf

Elevation I SO. Sliding doo rs

TYPE I

TYPE2

TYPE 3

Horizontal section 15. Sliding doors

3-D view of vertical sliding sash window

harder and more brittle putties and sealants

are fixed onto the face of the o pening.T he

used prev iously.

position of the w indow in the o pening has

A luminium trims are also used to secure

more infiuence over the junction with the

the glass, but the appearance fro m outside is

surrounding wa ll than the cho ice of material

ob viously a mixture of timber and aluminium

for the wall.

rather than all-timber. making the window

In generic examples. the window is fixed

more o f a composite design associated with

to the outs ide face of the wall, wh ich would

timber window walls.Th is tre nd will probably

typically be reinforced co ncrete or co ncre te

conti nue due to the greater rel iability of alu-

block This would be used where a massive.

minium for glazing beads and t rims.

sound insulating structure, such as an apartment building. is clad in a different material

W indow s in openings

such as timber rainscreen panels or terracc t -

Where t imber windows are set into an

ta. w hich are often used in a smooth continu-

op ening rat her t han being part o f a wi ndow

ous plane without reveals.This construction is

w all.the most common mate ri als used are

ideal for remscreen construction. It allows the

masonry block, bric k or timber boarding .

w indow to be sealed to the structural wa ll,

W ith all these materials,timber w indows are

or backing wall, w ith a lapped jo int around

fixed eithe r into the reveals of the o pening or

t he opening and allowing it to be fitted inde-

3-D view of side hung timber window

MC E

151

Glass W alls 08
Timbe r w indows

,
3-D view showing horizontal section through timber sliding door

CD

Horizontal sections 1:5. Sliding doors

pendently of th at opening.This permits t he

case needs t o allow wate r t o drain t he t op

w all t o be set out on a precise grid t hat

of t he opening t o t he sides, as in masonry

would be difficult to achieve by setting t he

cavity wall const r uct ion. In th e previous case,

w indow int o t he opening.This is because t he

t he w indow does not have t his addit ional

const r uction tolerances associated w it h con-

requirement and so is protected from w ate r

crete frame construct ion are considerably

penetration by t he w all it self H ow ever. rain-

higher than tho se used for timber w indows.

wate r needs t o be dr ained at t he bottom of

W indows wo uld ty pically be sealed against

t he opening, w here a cill is pro vided. The

t he concrete w all w it h projecting pro files t hat

w indow is lapped over t he cill, ofte n w it h an

wo uld lap under a wate rproo f layer on th e

additional weat her bar for protection against

surro unding wall.This creates a deep reveal

w ate r ingress through capillary action.

on t he inside face of t he wall w hich has fin-

The w indow can also be set int o a

ishes applied to create a t idy junction w it h

ste pped reveal.This has t he advantage of giv-

t he int ernal face of t he w indow.

ing greate r construct ion t olerance w hen fit -

In some cases, th e w indow is set into th e

tin g th e w indow as we ll as creat ing a lapped

reveal of t he opening. Because t he w indow

joint between t he structural opening and t he

has to be smaller th an t he opening size in

w indow, w hich is easier to seal th an an equiv-

order t o install it, t he joint w idt h has t o be

alent butt joint w here a backing strip is

accurately form ed around th e w indow.

needed t o give a surface t o w hich t he sealant

Sometim es th e w indow fram e is built in to

can adhere.

t he wall as t he surro unding wall is co nst ructe d, or else a t emp late is used to avoid
accident al damage t o t he w indow during
const r uction.
A lte rnat ively, t he w indow could be set
int o t he oute r wall const r uction and in t his

MC E

15 2

3-D views of sliding door junctions

Details
I.

Fixed 'ttl!.

2.

Supportong str1.lCtl.n

"""""
iosoe

4.

"""

GO

Metal stdfenong II'lSef't


TIr1'Oe<" onlil proeI
9. Thermal nsUabon
10. SlrlgIe glazed or double
gIa=:Il.II"olt to SUfl applicatJOll
I I. Foor>g bead
12. R..kJber-based s.e,JI
13. Irrw.Ird openong 'ttl!.
14. Outwa-dopenr.g 'ttl!.
15. ~ pnxl ccc-se (Df'C)
t 6. Irrtemal inIsh
17. Flas/'wIg toseal~

7.

8.

~==

---

18, Vett.1Ily slidon& sash


19, 510d0ng door frame top tul&
or bottom roklg
20. 510d0ng wncbN or door jan"b

ve-tcal sectco I:5.Outward opening casement doors

3-D _

of b'J'itler> wndows and doors on waI system

MCE

153

Glass W alls 08
Timbe r w indows

Details
I.

Fixed light

2. Supporting structu re
3. Outside
4.

Inside

5. Head
6. Cill
7. Metal stiffening insert
8. Timber infill panel

9. Thermal insulat ion


10. Single glazed or double
glazed unit to suit application
I I. Fixing bead
12. Rubber-based seal
13. Inw ard opening light
14. Outward opening light
15. Damp proof course (DPC)
16. Intem al finish
17. Flashing to seal against
adjacent wall
18. Vertically sliding sash
19. Sliding do or frame top hung
or bottom ro lling
20. Sliding window or doo r
jamb

3-D view of storey-height timber window


construction

3-D exploded view of storey-height timber window construction

3-D exploded detail view of storey-height timber window construction at upper


fioor level

MC E

154

3-D exploded detail view of storey-height timber window


construction at upper fioor level

3-D views of tercer w indow ccooectcos to


cavity brick wall (above)
3-D exploded view of timbe r w indow
construction (bek>w)

30 view of timber window set in cavrty brick wall

3-D exploded VIew of timber w indow set in cavity


brick wall

\-=-

,\

"

..

~~

, I
If '

I. ~

I
\'

--'.

'...

'o',

",

"

\'"

'I,

,\

'I"

"
"

~,

3-D exp loded VIewsof various timber w indow coo strucncn configuratKXIs

- ,,
~~,

MCE

155

CONCRETE WALLS
(I) Cas t in situ I

cast-in-place:
Parapets. drips and aIls
F,"""",
As-cast finish
Washed finish

Polished finish
(2) St o re y height

precast pane ls:


Panel types
Thermal Insulation
Joints
Acid etched finish
(3) Sm all precast/GRe cladding

pane ls'
Individually supported panels
Self supporting stacked panels

Parapets and (ills


Openings
Sand blasted finish and tooled finish

MCE

157

Setting reinforcement

Setti~

up formwork

Setting up plywood formwork

0)

3-D exploded view of window set in


precast concrete wall

CD

\01

r(}tJ'1 (2)

3-D view of precast concrete wall with vertical windows

A n essential difference betw een concrete

under standing of form w ork is important t o

and ot her mater ials used in facade const ruc-

appreciate how t o cont ro l t he appearance of

tion is th at concrete is poured in place into

joints and of bo lt ho les through th e concrete,

mould s, o r into form work rather th an being

since th e form work is th e negative impres-

manufactured as a standard size compo nent

sion, or mirror image, of th e final concrete .

in a factory.W hereas metal, glass, masonry,

0)

changed in recent years t o include th erm al

dimension s in th e form of sheets or sect ions,

insulation, eit her set w it hin th e concrete dur-

concrete is cast,eit her o n site o r in a factory

ing pouring, o r fixed o n th e int ernal face o r

as precast panels.A lt hough th ere are few

exte rnal face after th e wa ll has been cast.T he

constraints on th e size of a single cast ele-

position of th e insulati on w it hin th e const r uc-

ment in concrete, in pr actice an essent ial

t ion affects th e use of th e th erm al mass of

determin ant of concrete panel size is th e

concrete and its ability t o cont ribute t o night-

amo unt of concrete th at can be poured at

t ime coo ling as part of an overall reinforced

o ne tim e.W it h precast concrete th e essent ial

concrete st r ucture. Co nt inuity of th erm al

constraint o n panel size is th e we ight th at can

insulati on is increasingly impo rtant in th e

be lift ed by a crane o n site .


3-D view of window set in precast
concrete wall

MC E 15 8
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Th e design of in-situ concrete walls has

plastics and t imber are made t o standard

In-sit u concrete is dependent o n th e


form work in w hich th e concrete is cast.A n

interface w it h glazed openings and doors t o


avoid th erm al bri dging. Continuity of doub le
glazing and th erm al insulati o n in th e concrete

Setting up plywood formwork

Setting up formwork

Securing formwork

Concrete pouring

CD
j

3-D view of window set in precastconcrete wall

Vertical section I: IO. Connection between insitu wall and window

w all is pro bably th e biggest recent change in

accumulate s on flat surfaces. Parapets have

th is form of const r uction in recent years. In-

metal copings th at prevent staining o n th e

situ concrete walls are formed as eit her a

w all beneath by directing rainw ater to w ards

structural concrete w all w it h th ermal insula-

a gutter immediately behind th e parapet.

ti on on th e inside face w it h an int ernal dry

W it h th e second meth od, in-sit u con-

lining, or as a diaphragm/doub le wall of con-

crete walls are form ed as 'sandwi ch' walls

crete w it h th erma l insulati on set between th e

w it h int ernal insulati on.Th ese have eit her

two skins of concrete .

insulation brok en by st rips of concrete th at

The first method has th e benefit of econ-

link across th e two skins (forming limit ed

omy,parti cularly w here th e th erm al mass of

th erm al brid ges) o r are formed as two sepa-

th e concrete wa ll is not required for use in

rate concrete skins linked o nly by stainless

night-t ime coo ling.Th e wall zone for th e insu-

stee l brackets and t ies.The second ty pe is

lation can also be used t o fit w indow s,so th at

increasingly popul ar as it avoids th erm al

th e o pening light s and doors do not have t o

br idging w it h it s associate d risk of co ndensa-

be set into specially cast recesses in th e con-

ti on forming o n th e inside of th e w all, in t em-

crete , w hich makes it more expensive. Drips

perate climates.

D etails
I.
2.

Concrete external wall


Concrete internal wall
3. Thermal insulation
4. W indow frame
5. W aterproof membrane
6.
Metal parapet flashing
7.
Internal finish
8.
Metal cill
9.
Drip
10. Metal lined gutter

are cast into th e t op s of w indow reveals t o


reduce st aining t o th e adjacent wall beneath
caused by rainw ater run off from dust th at

MC E

159

Concrete curing
o

Setting up formwork

Concrete poured

@-

0 '

CD

CD
~

..

Elevation I :50. In-situ cast concrete wall


cast in two skins with rigid closed cell
insulation between skins

3-D view of In-situ cast concrete wall cast


in two skinswith rigid closed cell insulation
between skins

MC E

160

..l0

<1

oj

CD
..l

<1
d

Ll

lQ)~

CD

r.
o

Ll

Vertical section I :50. In-situ concrete


wall cast in two skins with rigid closed
cell insulation between skins

<J

Ll

<1

<J

<1<.!l

Vert ical section I : IO. In-situ concrete wall constructi on,


junction at ground level. In-situ cast concrete wall cast in
two skins with rigid closed cell insulation between skins

Parapets, drips and cil ls

dust in adjacent areas of wa ll. If overhangs are

Th e detailing of openings, parapets and cills

not a part of th e design, th en w at er from

fo llow s th e same pr inciples for a single wall

hori zont al o r slight ly sloping surfaces is

of struct ural co ncrete w it h intern al th erm al

th rown clear of th e wa ll by proj ecting cills

insulation. W hen co ncrete is used as an

and flashings.In highly pol luted enviro nme nt s,

exposed exte rnal finish, cills, parapets and

dust -catching wa ll t extures are usually avoid-

drips are detailed t o ensure th at rainw ater is

ed. and smoot h finishes are ofte n preferred.

thrown as clear as possible from th e exte rnal

However, w here pr otect ive treatment s are

wall surface.W hen an addit ional o ute r mate-

applied t o th e concrete t o reduce po ro sity,

rial is used, typically a rainscreen in a w ide

thi s can lead t o greate r run -off acro ss th e

range of mater ials, th e concrete wa ll can be

facade w hich can increase staining, and must

fo rmed eco nomically w it h no regard fo r visu-

be t aken into account in th e design of th e

al appearance, since th e mater ial is not visible.

exte rnal wa ll.

Since hori zont al o r slight ly sloping surfaces catc h dust, roo f overhangs and deep eaves

Finishes

are ofte n inco rporat ed int o th e design t o

Th e main influence in th e base co lour of

avoid wash-o ff from rain. Du st washed away

co ncrete used for wa ll co nst ruct ion is in th e

by rainw ater causes th e deposit of dirt and

cho ice of ceme nt, w it h fair-faced visible co n-

D eta ils
I.
2.

Concrete external wall


Concrete internal wall
3. Thermal insulation
4.
Window frame
5.
Waterproof membrane
6.
Metal parapet flashing
7.
Internal finish
8.
Metal cill
9.
Drip
10. Metal lined gutter
+

Moving formwork up to higher fioors

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Vertical section I :IO. In-situ concrete wall window/door


condition . In-situ cast concrete wall cast in two skinswith
rigid closed cell insulation between skins

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t o th e st ro ng covering capacity of th e pig-

or a w hit e ceme nt base.Th e physical prop-

ments.W hit e cement is much more expen-

ert ies of th ese t w o cement types are very

sive th an grey cement but it is not subject t o

sim ilar.

th e colour variat io ns of grey cement. nor is it

grey cement base is also grey, as expected,

subject t o rain darkening.


Th e most commo n finishes used for in-

but thi s can vary w it h th e w ate r/cement

sit u cast concret es are an as-cast finish, a

ratio, th e porosity of th e shuttering,vibrat ion

w ashed finish and a po lished finish.The less

condit ions,formw ork stripping t ime and

commo n t ypes are descr ibed in th e fo llow ing

we at her condit ions.Th e grey type can also

sect ions o n precast panels, but can also be

blacken w it h rain due t o th e presence of iro n

used for in-sit u cast concrete wa lls, depend-

oxide. How ever.grey cement based archit ec-

ing o n th e ability t o w o rk o n large areas of

tural quality co ncret e can achieve an even

complete d wall surface.

colour w hen pourin g method s and conditi on s are kept consistent. W hen grey cement

Ll

Vertical section I :IO. Junction at parapet level for typical wall


condition . In-situ cast concrete wall cast in two skinswith
rigid closed cell insulation between skins

cret e wa lls using eit her a grey cement base

The colour of finished concret e from a

3-D view of metal flashingon in-situ cast


concrete wall cast in two skinswith rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

As-cast fi nish

is used w it h a mod erate t o high level of pig-

Smooth co ncrete finishes can have th eir sur-

ment conte nt. as-cast o r treated co ncret es

faces broken by small air bubbles of

are much less prone t o co lo ur variat ions due

ent rained air, but th ese hardly affect th e sur-

MC E

161

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Horiz ontal section I: I0, In-situ concrete wall condition at window jamb, In-situ cast concrete wall cast in two
skins with rigid closed cell insulation between skin

CD

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to.

4
4
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3-D view of window in an in-situ cast concrete wall cast in two skinswith r igid closed cell insulation between skin

to.

t:

Vert ical section I: I0, In-situ concrete wall


junction at window, In-situ cast concrete
wall cast as a monolithic construction with
internal thermal insulation

D etails
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,

Concrete external wall


Concrete internal wall
Thermal insulation
W indow frame
W aterproof membrane
Metal parapet flashing
Internal finish
Met al cill
Drip
Met al lined gutter

Ax onomet ric view of window jamb in an


in-situ concrete wall

MC E

162

face any more th an w ould be foun d in natu -

mix, including wate r, and th e care in pr eparing

ral sandstones and limest o nes, Co lour varia-

and setting t he formwork,

ti ons from th e use of grey ceme nt result not

Textured surfaces w it h eit her a shallow

from its natur al co lour, but its co lour afte r

o r deeper conto ured profi le can be form ed

pouring, and from fine part icles of sand

eit her w it h specially fabricated shuttering

becomin g segregat ed in certa in areas as a

boards o r w it h an addit ional lining th at is set

result of vibrat ion, If th ese fine particles

o n th e inside face of th e shuttering boards,

appear in th e face of t he w all. a marbling

against w hich th e concrete is poured.A n

effect similar t o th at of natur al sto ne w ill

addit ional lining is usually flexible and is made

occur. If th e parti cles are different from th e

of eit her polystyrene board, w hich can be

shade of th e facing, staining w ill occur.As a

used only o nce, o r po lyureth ane sheet o r sili-

result, th e t inting of clear mixtures w it h fine

co ne rubb er sheet w hich can be used several

particl es of dark sand is avoided. Smoot h

t imes, Silicone ru bber mou lds are made by

co ncrete is usually self-co loured, at least in

pouring th e mater ial int o a positive-shaped

large areas,t o avoid co lour variat ions associ-

mould made from a non-coh esive material

ate d w it h using pigment addit ives, Smooth

such as sand, making it s use expensive, but

and visually co nsistent natural finishes are

capable of forming comp lex forms in th e sur-

achieved largely by both t he accuracy of t he

face of as-cast co ncrete ,Joint s between th ese

prop ortion s of th e mater ials in th e co ncrete

specially-made shuttering boards are usually

3-D view of window and external cill

3-D view of window junction in an in-situ concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with internal thermal insulation

forrned as grooves to avo id uneven and

3-D view of window junction in an in-situ concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with internal thermal insulation

The faces not shutte red method is don e

blurred lines resulting from attempt ing to

eit he r by spraying deactivator o n t he gree n

bo nd th eir edges.

(fresh) co ncrete and washing it as just


described. or by direct washing before th e

W ashed fini sh

ceme nt has fully set. Usually t he meth od is

The washing-o ut or deactivation of fresh

co mplete d wit h a last was h using an aqueo us

co ncrete is carried o ut in two ways, eit he r

acid so lut ion in o rde r to re move traces of

wit h 'faces shuttered' o r wit h 'face s not shut-

hydrated ceme nt so iling th e ex pose d aggre-

te red' .The faces shuttered meth od involves

gate, leaving sta ins o n t he o utside face .W he n

t he app lication of a product on th e shutt e r

this is co mpleted, th e mineralogical nature of

pane ls t hat deactivates, retards o r eliminate s

t he coarse aggregate is exposed, w hich gives

hydration of t he ce me nt.The prod uct is

a textured appea rance . Som e aggregates,

applied wit h e it he r a bru sh or by spraying.

such as limesto ne , can becom e du lled or

After stripping t he shuttering, t he exte rnal

change co lour o n co ntact wit h t he acid. In

faces are was hed w it h a wate r jet w hich

deep washing, this meth od is parti cular ly suit-

re moves t he hyd rat ed skin and, dep e nding o n

able for bringing o ut t he visual characte ristics

how deep th e effect of t he deactivator is,

of coa rse aggregate . It leads to a very differ-

revea ls eit he r th e grains of sand o r, more

e nt fini sh dep ending o n the shape , eit he r

co mmo nly, t he coarse aggregate .

crushed o r rolled , t he mineralogical type (sili-

3-D view of window junction in an in-situ concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with
internal thermal insulation

MC E

16 3

Concrete VIa Is 0 I
Cast in-situ / cast-in-place

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Vertical section I: I 0. Junction at parapet level for typical wall condition .


In-situ cast concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with internal
thermal insulation

3-D view of parapet junction of an in-situ cast concrete wall cast as a


monolithic construction with internal thermal insulation

..,

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Horizontal section I: I0, Junction at window jamb, In-situ cast concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with internal thermal
insulation

3-D view of parapet junction of an in-situ cast concrete wall cast as a


monolithic construction with internal thermal insulation

ca o r limestone), particle size, but also th e

honeycombing.A fte r th is filler has hardened,

mix composit ion in t erm s of th e density of

th e surface is again po lished w it h successively

stones revealed on th e surface.

finer grains.As th e scrat ches are removed,


th e colo urs of aggregate reveal th emselves,

Polished fin ish

but th e surface does not shine naturally.The

Concrete wa lls can be po lished t o vary ing

co ncrete wa ll surface can, however, be made

amo unts of smoot hness by abrasive grinding,

shiny by th e applicat ion of a varnish. Co n-

using a grinding w heel w hich is lubricat ed by

crete walls can be polished further t o create

wate r.The oute r skin of th e co ncrete is

a sat in finish and even further t o pro vide a

removed by abrasion t o a depth of between

gloss finish.A protective clear coat ing can

I mm and 2mm, w it h o ne pass of a grinding

also be applied at th is po int

w heel w hich ex poses some of th e fine and


3-D detail view of window jamb in an in-situ cast
concrete wall cast as a monolithic construction with
internal thermal insulation

MC E

164

coarse aggregate behind th e surface.A sec-

Po lishing is easier t o apply o n flat surfaces


th an o n ro ughened o r curve d areas of co n-

o nd pass w it h a finer abrasion disc removes

crete . Polishing exposes th e colo ur of th e

th e big scratc hes left by th e fir st pass, w hich

minerals w it hin t he co ncrete , giving rich co l-

are parti cularly visible o n darker surfaces.

o ur effects from th e ceme nt, th e sand, and

W it h polishing by disc, a filler is applied t o th e

th e coarse aggregate materi als in th e mix.

surface t o fill th e air bubb le pockets and small

Th is method pr ovides a self-coloured finish

3-D detail view of concrete wall construction and junction with window fiush to exterior face

Vertical section I:IO. In-situ loadbearing concrete


wall with window flush to external face

D etails
I.
Concrete external wall
2.
Concrete internal wall
3.
Thermal insulation
4.
W indow frame
5.
W at erproof membrane
6.
Metal parapet flashing
7.
Internal finish
8.
Metal cill
9.
Drip
10. Metal lined gutter

Hori zontal section I:IO. In-situ loadbearing concrete wall with window flush to external face

w it h a surface t hat is less prone t o ret ain


dust. w hich w ashes off, causing staining, and is
easy to rnaintain by sirnple wa shing, und ert aken using th e sarne rnethods o f rnaintenance access used for glazed w alls.

3-D view of in-situ loadbearing concrete wall junction with window flush to exterior face

3-D section view of in-situ loadbearing concrete wall junction with window flush to internal face

MC E

165

- - Concrete Walls Or--

- - - -,

Cast in-situ Icast-in-Rlace

)-0 exploded view of concrete wall in-situ cast concrete wall

)-0 view of in-situ cast concrete w,J.11 cast in


two skOris with rigid closed cell insulation
between skins

GIst in

two sons with ngJd closed cell insulation between skim

)-0 view of in-situcastconcrete wa ll cast in two


skins with ngid closed cell insulation between skins

)-0 exploded \/lew 0 precast concretewall in-situcastconcrete wall


cast in two skins with r igid closed cell insulation betweenskins

)-0 view of concrete wall frame detail

Me E

166

3-D lirtedrawingof concretewall frame detail

3-D exploded view of concrete wall frame detail

3-D view of loadbearing concrete wall gutter detail

3-D exploded loadbearing concrete wall gutter detail

Exploded axonometric view of loadbearing concrete wall gutter detail

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Concrete external wall


Concrete internal wall
Thermal insulation
Window frame
Waterproof membrane
Metal parapet flashing
Int ernal finish
Metal cill
Drip
Metal lined gutter

3-D view of loadbearing concrete wall cill detail

3-D exploded view of loadbearing concrete wall cill detail

Exploded axonometric view of loadbearing concrete wall cill detail

MC E

167

Concrete ails 02
Storey height precast pane ls

D etails
I.
2.

'.

3-D view of precast concrete cladding panels

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12,
I 3.
14.
15.

Concrete floor deck


Precast concrete panel
Thermal insulation
Vertical bafflejoint between
panels
Vertical butt joint between panels
Horizontal lap joint
Horizontal butt joint
Window opening
Stainless steel dowel or angle
Rubber-based baffle
EPDM or silicone-based seal
Concrete column
Concrete corner panel
Concrete coping
Roof assembly

W hile in-situ concrete is a loadbearing form

joint, is usually pro vided by serv ice co res

vent cracking durin g lifting and t o allow a reg-

of construction, precast concrete can be

elsewhere in a building. In addition t o floor-

ular site crane t o be used.

formed as eit her loadbearing wa lls o r as non -

height loadbearing panels,loadbearing pre-

loadbearing cladding panels. Loadbearing

cast spandrel panels are used.Th ese are in

Pane l t ypes

panels are increasingly popu lar, since th ey

effect st r uct ural beams spanning betw een

Precast concrete panels are formed mainly

provide a weat hert ight st r uctural wall w it h

columns. Principles of connect io ns t o floor

by eit her forming th e finish in th e bottom of

high fire resistance combined w it h high

slabs are th e same as for full-height panels,

th e mould,th e t op of th e mou ld w it h anot h-

acoustic insulation and th erm al mass. In load-

but loads from th e panels and flo ors are

er material t o th e face of th e panel, o r as an

bearing const r uction, panels are stitc hed

t aken back t o st r uct ural columns rather th an

insulat ed sandw ich panel.

to gether to form a monolithic st ructural w all.

down through th e wa ll panels.

N on -Ioadbearing cladding panels have main-

N on-loadbearing cladding panels are

Bottom form ed panels,w here th e finish is


set o n th e bottom of th e mould, are used

t ained th eir popul arity by providing greate r

fixed back t o th e prim ary struct ure eit her by

w here addit ional linings,ty pically polystyrene

freedom in design, from th e visual point of

concrete brackets forming an integral part of

board, po lyurethane sheet o r silicone rubb er

view, th an th e struct ural constraints imposed

th e panel, by stainless stee l br ackets, o r by a

sheet, as descr ibed in th e t ext on in-sit u cast

on loadbearing panels.

combinat ion of both .Typically panels are sup-

concrete , are used t o create a t extured sur-

ported o n an edge beam at th e base of each

face in th e face of th e panel. Som etimes,

stacked t ogether t o suppo rt floors by trans-

panel and are restrained at th e t op w it h

ceramic t iles o r sto nes are laid in th e bottom

ferring th eir own we ight and a floor loading

stainless steel brackets. Some cladding panels

of th e panel in ord er t o bond to th e con-

t o a found ation.Th e unit/fl oor connect ion is

are t op hung in order t o benefit from th e

crete poured o n t op.Th e small size of t erra-

usually made w it h a pin joint rather th an a

t ensile qualities of th e stee l reinforcement o r

cotta o r ceramic til es allows th em t o be laid

mom ent (rigid) jo int since th ese are difficult

fram ing. Cladding panels are usually made t o

at th e bottom of th e mould and be individu-

t o create in precast concrete , as th e amo unt

span o ne storey high, w it h a w idt h or height

ally bond ed t o th e concrete .

and length of built-in reinforcement is high,

of panel up t o a maximum of 3600mm in

Loadbearing types consist of units

In t op form ed panels,an additi onal deco-

as we ll as th e fact th at th e t ensile forces

o rder th at th e panel can be transported o n a

rative layer is applied t o th e t op of th e

w it hin th e unit can be high.Th e hori zontal

standard fiat trailer. In addit ion, we ight usually

poured concrete. Th e thi ckness of th e deco-

stability, w hich is not provided by th e pin

has a maximum of aro und 10 tonn es t o pre-

rative layer is usually 25mm - 30mm .The

MC E 16 8
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

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Cutaway 3-D view of wall clad in precast concrete cladding panelsshowing wall construction

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Horizontal section I: I0, W all with precast concrete cladding panels. showing
junction with window

Vertical section I: I0, W all clad with precast concrete panels

MC E

169

Concrete a s 02
Storey height precast panels

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3-D detail view of concrete wall with precast concrete cladding panels

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Horizontal section I :10. Concrete
wall with precast concrete cladding
panels

D etails
I.
2.
3.
4.

Concrete floor deck


Precast concrete panel
Thermal insulation
Vertical baffle joint between
panels
5.
Vertical butt joint between panels
6.
Horizontal lap joint
7.
Horizontal butt joint
8.
W indow opening
9.
Stainless steel dowel or angle
10. Rubber-based baffle
I I. EPDM or silicone-based seal
12. Concrete column
13. Concrete corner panel
14. Concrete coping
15. Roof assembly

Horizontal section I: IO. Concrete wall with precast concrete cladding panels.showing
junction with window

concrete in th e decorative layer is minimised

insulati on is set between th e decorative and

since it is usually much more expensive t han

structural layers of concrete .This removes

grey st r uctural concrete .A lte rnat ively, larger

t he th erm al bri dge across th e panel and, if

scale facing pieces t han t hose w hich can be

t he int erio r concrete face is exposed, pro-

bond ed directly to th e concrete in t he bot -

vides a t hermal mass for night -tim e coo ling in

t om of t he panel, such as t erracotta, ceram ic

th e building.Th e t emperatur e of th e o ute r

til es or natural st o ne, are mechanically fixed

lining can reach abo ut 70 0

t o th e top of th e concrete in th e mou ld as a

depending o n geographical locati o n.The

deco rative finish. D ue t o its larger size and

sandw ich panel ensures t hat th e o ute r facing

we ight, sto ne is usually fixed w it h pins o r

o nly is suscept ible t o th erm al movement, th e

stainless steel brackets back t o th e precast

cont inuous insulati o n is kept dr y and th e

panel.Th e greate r size of st o ne panels over

inner massive loadbearing st ruct ure is pro-

t iles makes th em suscept ible t o relatively sig-

t ected from exte rnal t emperatur e variat ions,

nificant th erm al movement for w hich t he pins

reducing its ow n th erm al movement. In addi-

o r brackets allow.

t ion th e th erm al capacity of th e inner struc-

A not her meth od of construction is t o

MC E

17 0

e in summer t ime,

ture provides a regulation of t emp erature

form an insulat ed sandw ich panel w here th e

variat ions w it hin th e building from int ernal

inner part of th e wall is loadbearing.T hermal

heat ing and heat sources by absorbing sur-

3-D detail cutaway view of concrete wall with precast concrete cladding panels

3-D view of fixing elements

CD

Horizontal section I : IO. Concrete wall with precast concrete panel, junction with shadow gap

pluses and suppleme nt ing deficiencies. Exte r-

inside face of precast panels, w indows can be

nal t emp erature changes in th e daily cycle

set directly above th e insulation, avoiding th e

can be absorbed by th e o ute r layer,w it h th e

need t o fit th e w indow direct ly into th e

th erm al insulati on keeping th e int ernal heat

o pening in th e concrete .Th e w indow, ty pical-

in and exte rnal solar radiation out.

ly aluminium or t imber, has metal pro files th at


form a cill th at is cont inuous w it h t he w in-

T hermal Insulat io n

dow, avoiding any source of leaks across th e

Both loadbearing and non-Ioadbearing ty pes

gap between w indow and precast panel.

w it hout integral insulation have th erm al insu-

W here w indows are set directly into o pen-

lati o n fixed t o th e int ernal face of th e con-

ings in precast panels, th e o pening often has a

crete wa ll. How ever,th e t herm al mass of th e

rebate (ste p) cast int o th e edge t o provide

const r uction is lost.W here an addit ional

more protection against rainw ater penetrat-

exte rnal finish is used, ty pically a rainscreen

ing th e joint.

3-D view of fixing element s

panel in anot her material,th e th erm al insulati on can be set o n th e o utside of th e precast

Joint s

panels, w hich maintains th e ability t o use th e

Jo int s betw een panels are of o pen or closed

th erm al mass of t he int erio r face of t he wa ll.

t ype.The o pen type has an inner membrane

W hen th erm al insulati o n is set on t he

seal and an o ute r flexible mastic seal o n th e

MC E

171

Concrete a s 02
Storey height precast panels

_______

Horizontal section I: IO. Panel junction at corners.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

..-------0
....r~~

0- - - -

Horizontal section I: I O. Panel junction at corners.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

Horizontal section I : IO. Panel-to-pan el junctions.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

__- - -}0 ---;


LI

e,

L
l-

Ho ri zontal section I : IO. Panel-to-pa nel junctions.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

f;.

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f:.,.

-----;0 --....,

Ho ri zontal section I : IO. Panel junction at corners.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

Vert ical section I: IO. Panel-to-panel junctions. Insitu cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

Horizontal section I : I O. Panel junction at corners.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

Horizontal section I : IO. Panel-to-panel junctions.


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in 2 skins with r igid
closed cell insulation between skins

inner face.Th e closed ty pe has a single o ute r

allowed t o pass th rou gh an o ute r gap

seal of flexi ble mastic.T hese principles apply

between two panels t hat form a vert ical joint.

t o both vertical and hori zo nt al joi nt s. In t he

A n EPD M baffle str ip is set int o a cont inuo us

hori zont al joint s,a st ep in th e panel may be

slot formed in th e edges of two adjacent

provided t o assist in weat her t ightn ess of

panels and 3wate r ente r ing t his joi nt, w hich

panels, w hich are upw ards o f I SOmm t hick.

form s an inner cham ber. is drained away from

Minimum join t w idt hs are typically I O-1 2m m

t he slot and o ut t hro ugh th e ho rizont al joi nt

thi ck for panels ranging from 1800m m w ide

below.The int eri o rface of th e joint is eit her

to 2400m m w ide, increasing t o a joint w idt h

closed w ith an air seal formed using wet o r

of 16-1 8mm for panels 600 0mm w ide.T hese

extr uded silico ne, in th e case of a non -load-

w idt hs help reduce visually any var iat ions in

bear ing cladding panel, o r is mechanically

th e w idt h o f t he joint as a result of joinin g

fixed t o t he panel below and gro ute d w it h a

panels.Visually, joint s are recessed as shadow

ceme nt-based mat er ial in t he case of load-

gaps in o rder t o co nceal small differences of

bear ing panels.

alignme nt between panels.


Open joint s are int ernally drained and

MC E

172

H ori zontal o pen joints bet w een panels


are m ade by fo rm ing a ste p in t he pro files o f

vent ilate d in th e manner of uniti sed cur tain

th e t op and bottom edges o f adjacent panels

wa lling. In an o pen joint, w indblown rain is

in o rder to drain water out o f bot h vertical

."

D etails
I,
2,
v,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
I I,
I 2,
I 3.
14,
15,

Concrete fioor deck


Precast concrete panel
Thermal insulation
Vert ical baffle joint between
panels
Vert ical butt joint between panels
Horizontal lap joint
Horizontal butt joint
W indow opening
Stainless steel dowel or angle
Rubber-based baffle
EPDM or silicone-based seal
Concrete column
Concrete corner panel
Concrete coping
Roof assembly

Horizontal section I: I0, Joint between precast panels

- - - - - - -0 - - - Hori zontal section I: I0, Conn ection between


precast concrete panel and window
<,

.
,

3-D views of corner junction


between precast panels

'<

~ 02

.
,

. ..

.. . .
,
.
.
~ . @,
. : ."
c,

02

c,

Horizontal section I:25, Connection between precast concrete panel and building structure

Horizontal section I:25, Joint between precast concrete panels

and hori zont al joints as we ll as t o prevent

t o th e interior face of th e panel is eit her

rainw ater from fiow ing directly through th e

closed w it h an air seal as for vert ical jo ints, o r

jo int.Th e horizontal st epped jo int is used for

is mechanically fixed t o th e panel below and

both loadbearing and non -loadbearing ty pe

gro uted in th e same w ay as th e vertical joints,

panels,but th e detail varies w it h th e way th e

Closed jo ints are sealed o n th e o utside

upper panel is eit her suppo rte d on th e lower

face w it h a wet applied silicone o r polysul-

panel in a loadbearing panel o r is separate d

phide sealant. A ny wate r th at penetrates th is

from th e low er panel in a non -Ioadbearing

o ute r seal is drained away in th e void behind.

panel. How ever.th e general pr inciple for all

Wate r is released th rough wee p holes (small

panel ty pes remains th e same.T his ensures

holes) in th e hori zontal joints, Closed joints

th at wate r runn ing down th e EPDM baffles in

are more commo nly used w it h loadbearing

th e vert ical joints is drained o ut w here it

panel const ruct ion w here panels are bond ed

meets th e horizontal jo ints,A cont inuous

t ogether at jo ints and w here most of th e

horizontally-set EPD M strip is set on th e

jo int is required t o be filled t o provide struc-

inner face of th e joint. in th e to p of th e lower

tural continuity from panel t o panel.

3-D view of junction between precast panels

panel.The EPD M st rip in th e ver t ical joint is


lapped over th e face of th e EPD M o n th e
horizontal jo int. The rear of th e joint. adjacent

MC E

173

Concrete a Is 02
Storey height precast panels

---""I'

-,

CD

c,

CD

3-D view of precast concrete wall

Vertical section I :25. W all to floor connection with


sandwich insulation

Vertical section I:25. W all to floor connect ion with insulation on inner face

Acid etched finish


In addition t o the finishes described in t he

effect is prod uced by submerg ing a precast

previous sectio n o n in-situ cast finishes,

conc rete panel in an acid bath.This pro cess is

w hich can also be used in pr ecast panels,

most commo nly used w hen all faces of t he

acid et ching is possible. Ac id et ching is parti c-

unit need t o be treated.W it h acid washed

ularly we ll adapte d t o precast panels since

co ncretes. a gel co ntaining acid is applied t o

t hey are cast flat. w here acid treatments can

the surface to be t reat ed.T his meth od is we ll

be carefully co nt ro lled.

adapted to treatment o n specific areas of

In cured panels,the surface of t he precast


co ncrete is treated wit h hydroch loric acid,
wh ich is t hen rinsed off.T his met hod fir st
removes th e ceme nt skin, th en strips away

3-D view of precast concrete wall

MC E

174

an acid w ashed finish.A w eat hered co ncret e

co ncret e. to form a surface texture or pattem o n th e con crete w all.


Aci d etc hing is we ll suited to exposing
small aggregate in th e panel surface by

th e grains of sand w it hin t he co ncrete

ex posing o nly a small amo unt of th e con-

beneat h. depending o n t he co ncent ration of

crete t exture beneath its skin after casting

t he acid solut ion and length of t ime fo r w hich

has t aken place.T he precipitation of salts

it is applied.T he acid etch ing method can be

fro m the acid-cement and aggregates quickly

used to create either a weat hered finish or

neutral ises thi s,w hich can only be co nti nued

1--

---- ------ -------@

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~~

L.

CD

II

p
t,

Vertical section I: 10. Junction between


panels.Panels insulat ion on inside face

3-D view of junct ion at window jamb, In-situ


cast concrete wall cast in two skinswith rigid
closed cell insulation between skins

t>

ID
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'>1
"~

4.

(3)

:'~-<

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-C1

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c.

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t;:

t:
Verti cal section I: 10. Junction between
panels. Panels insulat ion on inside face

Vert ical section I : IO. Junction between


panels. Panels insulation on inside face

Vert ical section I : IU, Junction at parapet level for t ypical wall
condition and for window jamb, In-situ cast concrete wall cast
in two skins with rigid closed cell insulation between skins

by rin sing and applying more acid. Ac id etc hing always requires rin sing t o rem ove th e
precipitated salts and neutralise th e surface.
Ac id etc hing attacks limest o ne aggregate s,
and somet imes more quickly th an th e
ceme nt, w hile th e silica-based aggregate
rem ains.Th e surface t exture can be quite different, dependin g on th e fine aggregate material, being more granulate d in th e case of silica and less co loured in th e case of limeston e.

D etails
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.

Concrete floor deck


Precast concrete panel
Thermal insulation
Vert ical baffle joint between
panels
Vert ical butt joint between panels
Horizontal lap joint
Horizontal butt joint
W indow opening
Stainless steel dowel or angle
Rubber-based baffle
EPDM or silicone-based seal
Concrete column
Concrete corner panel
Concrete coping
Roof assembly

Vertical section I: I0, Junction at window jamb,


In-situ cast concrete wall cast in two skins with
rigid closed cell insulation between skins

MC E

175

Concrete ails 01
Storey height precast panels

3D view of precast concrete wall


Exploded axonometric of wall assembly

3D detail view of precast concrete wall

3-D exploded view of wall assembly

MC E

17 6

3D detail view of precast concrete wall

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.

Concrete floor deck


Precast concrete panel
Thermal insulation
Vertical baffle joint between
panels
Vertical butt joint between panels
Horizonta l lap joint
Horizontal butt joint
W indow opening
Stainless steel dowel or angle
Rubber-based baffle
EPDM or silicone-based seal
Concrete column
Concrete comer panel
Concrete coping
Roof assembly

3-D exploded view of concrete wall with


precast concrete cladding panels

Seriesof compo nents of wall assembly

Internal concrete wall

Hanger

Bolts

Window

Precast concrete panels

MCE

177

Concrete ails 03
Small precast / GRC cladding panels
t:>

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L:.

b.

t>

t:>

CD

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t:>to.

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to.

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.
of'

[;

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to.

3-D view of wall with small precast cladding panels

t:>

<\

1.

'"

<\

t:>

<\

e,

~ '"
Y

<\

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"-,--J

...,/

3-D view of wall with small precast cladding panels

Horizontal section I : IO. Wall construction with small precast cladding panels

Smaller precast panels than those used in

exte rnal and intern al faces th at require no

and eco nomically th an in stone, th ough th e

sto rey height sizes have been undergoing

further t reatment.

number of panel typ es is restricted for any

considerable developm ent over th e past 20

proj ect in o rder to keep th e syste m eco-

years.T hey are made as eit her individually

Individually support ed panels

nomi c. Small precast co ncrete rainscreen

suppo rte d panels o r as self-suppo rt ing

T his system allows narrower joi nt s t o be

panels are used increasingly in apart me nt

stacked panels.

form ed between panels th an t hose possible

buildings w here large areas of o paque wall

in full-height panels, and allow a varied, non -

can be given a high degree of finish in t he

Individually suppo r te d panels are fixed


direct ly to a background suppo rt ing wa ll. usu-

rectangular layo ut t o be used w it h a joint

material w hile benefiting from th e cast ing

ally fo rmed eit her in reinforced concrete o r

pattern independent of t he backing w all. Indi-

ability of t he mat erial.

in co ncrete block. Panels are usually o pen

vidually suppo rted panels use a fixing met hod

Panels are most commo nly fixed w it h

joint ed t o allow t hem t o dry easily afte r wet-

w hich is similar t o stone cladding panels, but

stainless steel angles w hich are eit her cast-in

tin g in rain and t o allow rainw ater to dr ain

w it h th e po ssibility of much bigger panel sizes.

o r are bo lted to th e co ncrete .Th e angles are

easily down t he backs of t he panels or dow n

N at ural stone cladding is limit ed to sizes t hat

secured t o br ackets fixed t o a backing w all.

t he face of t he backing wall. Spandrel panels

can be cut from a stone block, w hich is usual-

Slotted holes provide adjust ment vert ically,

are usually part of a propri etar y precast co n-

ly aro und 2000mm x 2000mm x 2000mm,

hori zontally and lat erally These panels have

crete system of frame, floo r slab and spandrel

depending o n stone ty pe.T his yields stones

t he advantage of being able t o have a rich

panel, w it h ribbo n w indows added as sepa-

w hich are a maximum of aro und 1500m m x

surface t exture as a result of t he casting

rate elements, or full-height glazing in areas

750mm, o r 1500mm x 1000mm depending

pro cess in an individual mou ld. Slots,gro oves

w here sprinklers are not required. Self sup-

o n t he strength of t he stone. Precast co n-

and complex profi ling can be inco rpo rat ed in

porting panels are a more recent develop -

crete panels can be much larger,t ypically

th e manner of profi led metal cladding. Back-

ment and com prise precast panels w hich are

1500m m x 3000m m w hich can be suppo rt-

ing walls are usually wate rproofed in t he

stacked togeth er in t he manner of metal

ed on stainless steel fixings back t o floor slabs

o ute r face. Closed cell th erm al insulation is

com posite panels,w it h a t ongue-and-groove

and th e prim ary st r ucture.A n advantage of

set o n th e outside of thi s t o insulate th e

co nnect io n between panels in t he hori zo nt al

precast co ncrete over natural stone in small-

building struct ure.A n alte rnat ive meth od is

joints.Th ese panels have th e advantage of

er panels is th at corne r units and non -rectan-

t o use metal foi l faced insulation w hich is

having int ern al insulati on t oget her w it h

gular shaped units can be form ed mo re easily

semi-rigid.T he insulati o n is fixed direct ly t o

MCE

17 8

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.

Backing wall
Precast concrete panel
Closed cell thermal insula
tion
Vertical joint open or
closed type
Horizontal joint (typically a
lap) open or closed type
Internal finish
Window frame
Reinforced concrete
column
Metal corner trim
Metal parapet coping
Concrete floor deck
Adjacent panel in
different material
Waterproof membrane
Precast concrete coping

'" l
t>

t?"'

'>-

/'

/'
-~

-<,

/'

-s,

.-<
)-<"

Vertical section I: IO. Wall construction with small precast cladding panels

r.iii

@.
Horizontal section I :IO. Wall construction with small
precast cladding panels and shadow gap

.\

(iJY ~

..

..

0)

Horizontal section I: IO. Wall construction with small


precast cladding panels, window junction

ill

@
3-D cutaway view of small precast panel construction

Ver t ical section 1:25.Typical precast concrete wall construction.


Large scale panels

bF11:=
! ==
@

Ver tical section I:25.Typlcal precast


concrete wall construction. Smallscale panels with drained joint

@
Vertical section I :25.Typical precast
concrete wall construction. Smallscale panels with sealed joint

MC E

179

Concrete a s 03
Small precast / GRC cladding panels

]U

I~~"~
CD

,------

CD

,------

CD

]D
]D
1I

,------

,------

CD

~~

1I

3-D view of blockwork wall clad in small precast panels

l!

Horizontal, vertical sections & elevation I:SO. Glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels with
open joints

D et ails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.

Backing wall
Precast concrete panel
Closed cell thermal insula
tion
Vertical joint open or
closed type
Horizontal joint (typically a
lap) open or closed type
Internal finish
W indow frame
Reinforced concrete
column
Metal corner t rim
Metal parapet coping
Concrete fioor deck
A djacent panel in
different material
W at erproof membrane
Precast concrete coping

th e blockwork backing wall, w it h an oute r

Self supporting stacked panels

metal foil face th at provides th e full weat her

Stacked panels have th e advantage of being

protection.Joint s between st rips of insulati o n

suppo rted at th e base of th e wall in single

are sealed w it h adhesive fo il t ape.

floor buildings up t o around 10 metres, and

Like stone cladding, panels are usually

at every floor level in buildings of more th an

suppo rte d o n sho rt lengths of stainless steel

o ne st orey. W hen suppo rted at th eir base,

angle at each floor level, back t o th e floor

stacked panels are set on a concrete beam

slab.Thi s overco mes t he risk of pro gressive

o r st rip found ation forming part of t he pri-

collapse of a cladding panel, w here a failure

mary structure. Panels are stacked w it h con-

in o ne panel wo uld cause it t o drop o nto

t inuous vert ical jo ints w here th ey are

th e panel below, causing furth er collapse

restrained by columns,in eit her reinforced

down th e facade. Panels at floor level are

concrete o r stee l, but concrete is more com-

fixed directly t o th e slab, w it h fixings

mon due t o th e greate r ease of connecting

designed so th at th ey can t ake th e full load

th e panels t o th e pr imary st r ucture.Th e need

of th e panels imm ediately above , in th e

t o suppo rt panels at jo ints results in th eir

event of fixings t o panels above failing eit her

being w ide in o rde r t o maximise th e distance

partially o r complete ly.

between columns, o r suppo rt posts.As a


result t hey are not very t all in o rder to

MC E

18 0

\LJ

0)

Inl

Horizontal, vertical sections & elevation I :25. Glass reinfo rced concrete (G RC) panels with open joints

,)

~F->vTli

II

"
ct.

0)

l:

t"

\ \\-: ,, (0

(\

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=@=~=====

<\
>

Ho rizontal sections I : IO. W indow junctions and corne rs. Glass reinfo rced concrete (G RC) panels with o pen joint

reduce th eir w eight t o th at w hich can be lift-

ings needed. However.th e th erm al brid ge

ed by a mod est sized crane, typ ically w it h a

across th e vert ical and horizontal joints in th e

lifting capacity of 4 t o 6 t onn es.


The th erm al insulati o n in panels does not

panel can result in pattern staining as th e


result of heat transmission acrossth e panel.

create a complete th erm al break from o ut -

This is parti cularly noti ceable o n th e intern al

side t o inside, since th e concrete block has

face of th e panel.

concrete faces o n it s t op and bottom edges

Stacked panels fabricated in th icknesses

in o rder t o ser ve as a method of creat ing a

of 75mm t o IOOmm can form part of a com-

t ongue and groove jo int in th e horizontal

plete cavity wall const ruction of 200mm -

jo ints. If th e concrete panel we re formed as a

300mm th ickness w hen used as a self-sup-

sandw ich panel th en mechanical fixings,such

porting oute r skin.The inner wa ll can vary

as stainless st eel cramps, wo uld be needed

w idely in it s construction from concrete

both t o hold th e two sides of th e concrete

block t o light gauge metal st ud w all w it h a

panel t ogether and t o connect th em t ogeth-

w at erproofed o ute r facing.Th e cavity

er as th ey are stacked vert ically.T his wo uld

between th e oute r concrete panel w all and

create a diaphragm wall rather th an a mon o-

th e inner backing wa ll has a vent ilate d cavity

lit hic loadbearing wa ll, making it much more

of 50mm - 75mm w idt h.Th e cavity is vent i-

expensive as a result of all th e mechanical fix-

lated at th e t op and bottom of th e wall.

Vertical section I : IO. Parapet and panel-to-panel


joint. Glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels with
open joints

MC E

181

Concrete a s 3
Small precast/GRC cladding panels
~)l

.i:;::l

<\.

t>

<\.

L.

to.
<\.

L'>

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t>

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<\.
<\.

'"'

-<:)

L-

t>

c.

<\.

t>

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Verticalsection I: IO. Panel soffit. Glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panelswith open joints

0 " '0>-1

I
@ - ~)

~
-

Vertical section I :IO. W indow junctions. Glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panelswith open joints

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.

MC E

Backing wall
Precast concrete panel
Closed cell thermal insula
tion
Vert ical joint open or
closed type
Horizontal joint (typically a
lap) open or closed type
Internal finish
W indow frame
Reinforced concrete
column
Metal corner trim
Metal parapet coping
Concrete fioor deck
Adjacent panel in
different material
W at erpro of membrane
Precast concrete coping

182

Parapets and ci lls

t o fold over th e inside face of t he parapet

Th e detailing of parapets and cills for both

wall,w hich protects th e roof membrane

individually suppo rte d panels and for st acked

from th e effect s of sunlight. It also provides

panels fo llow s th e same prin ciples.At parapet

an overcloak t o th e roo fing membrane w hich

level, self-suppo rt ing concrete panels have

w raps up th e inside face of t he parapet w all

th e advantage of not needing an addit ional

and across t he t op of th e precast panel,

inner parapet wall but require a pressed alu-

w here it forms a complete weat hertight seal

minium coping over th e t op of th e wa ll t o

t o th e t op of th e wall.A coping made from

both keep rain from penetrating th e t op

precast concrete is less easy t o handle, but

panel. w here it is most vulnerable, as w ell as

provides effective protection t o th e w at er-

t o throw rainw ater off th e coping inw ards t o

proof membrane beneath.

an inner gutter at th e edge of th e roof Th e


visible vert ical face of th e coping is usually

Th e base of walls in precast panels are


detailed in a similar way t o ot her forms of

kept t o a minimum in order t o reduce it s vis-

loadbearing masonry.A continuous damp

ual impact o n th e facade. A precast coping is

pro of membrane (D PM) exte nds up from

also used inst ead of aluminium, but th is is

th e o ut side of th e struct ure beneath and

essent ially for visual reasons.The advantage of

form s a damp pro of course (D PC) w hich is

an aluminium coping is th at it can be pressed

positioned so t hat it exte nds at least I SOmm

1
4

3-D view of wall clad in small GRC panels

3-D detail view of wall clad in GRC precast panels

Horizontal section I: I0, W all construction with small GRC cladding


panels

above external gro und level.Th e DPe is

Open ings

positioned so t hat t he low est row of panels

Th e characte ristic to ngue-and-groove pro file

at gro und level appears t o sit o n t he gro und

of hori zont al joint s makes it necessary t o

w it h its bottom course level w it h t he adja-

provide a complete edging to th e op enings

cent gro und or pavement.T his avoids t he

fo rmed in precast panels, Special precast pan-

need fo r a I SOmm - 200mm plinth aro und

els for o penings are not usually made since

t he base of t he w all t hat is popu lar in load-

t his adds considerable cost t o t he syste m,

bearing brick construct ion in ord er to avoid

Th e mo st commo n method of forming an

rainw ater t hat is splashed off t he gro und

edge t o a w indow o r door opening is t o use

soaking into th e base of th e w all and causing

metal sheet on all sides of th e reveal to th e

damp penetratio n o n t he inside of t he wa ll at

o pening,This provides usually a thin edge as

fioor level.

we ll as being able t o be cont inuo us w it h a


w indow or do or frame and providing an int egral cill t o t he o pening,

Horizontal section I: I0, W all construction


with small GRC cladding panels

MC E

18 3

Concrete a s 03
Small precast/GRC cladding panels

Horizontal section I: I0, W all construction with small GRC cladding panels

3-D exploded view of wall construction

<J

<l

<l

.J

"

<l

<J

<1

<J

<1<l

I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
I I,
12,
I 3.
14,

Backing wall
Precast concrete panel
Closed cell thermal insula
tion
Vertical joint open or
closed type
Horizontal joint (typically a
lap) open or closed type
Internal finish
W indow frame
Reinforced concrete
column
Metal corner trim
Metal parapet coping
Concrete fioor deck
Adjacent panel in
different material
W at erproof membrane
Precast concrete coping

Sand blasted fin ish and t ooled


finish

aggregates and du lls th em as a result, produc-

In addit ion t o th e finishes descr ibed in t he

abrades both in prop ortion t o th e hardness

t exts o n both in-situ co ncrete and precast

of th e co ncrete surface and t o th e prop or-

co ncrete panels, th e t echniques of sand blast-

t ion of coarse aggregate in th e cement mix,

ing and t ooling are commo nly used o n small

Th is leads t o different surface t extures,

cladding panels,

depend ing o n t he ty pe of small aggregate ,

Th e sand blasting of co ncrete panels is


usually done w it h iron filings rather th an sand

184

ing a characte rist ic matt surface, Sand blasting

and th e quality and degree of hydr ation of


th e cement mix, Sand blasting allows th e fin-

particl es, Con crete is blaste d w it h differing

ish t o be obta ined gradually and controlled

amo unts of abrasive iron filings at high pres-

visually as wo rk progresses, w it ho ut th e need

sure, depend ing o n th e hardness of th e con-

for rinsing w hich slows down th e pro cess,

crete wall panel.This slight ly ero des th e face

Ac id etc hing also allows very localised wo rk-

of th e co ncrete , eit her back t o th e surface

ing w it h th e use of stencils,

sand grains or more deeply t o t he coarse

MC E

Horizontal section I: I 0, GRC cladding panels construction with window connection

3-D detail view of junction between wall and window

D etails

Too led co ncrete is a meth od of texturing

aggregate beneath,Th e essent ial visual char-

co ncrete by eit her striking t he mater ial w it h

acterist ic of thi s meth od is th at it abrades all

chisel o r pick, o r by rotat ion, using diamon d

'<0

Vertical section I: I0, W all construction with small GRC


cladding panels

3-D detail view of wall construction

tipped burring too ls to make grooves for any


shape, depth and distance apart. A claw chisel has a tooth ed fi at head th at breaks th e
surface, while a pick is a chisel w it h a sharp
point th at can be used to create a roughened surface ,A boasting chisel is a groov ing
chisel used to make a set of parallel grooves
in th e face of th e co ncrete .These textures
usually sto p sho rt of co rne rs of wa llsto give
a crisp edge ,

3-D view of wall clad with small GRC panels

MC E

185

CC5'n t'rete'

Is

03- - - - - -

Smal l recast/GRC cladd ing anels

3-D exploded View of component build-up

3-D view of wall with small precast cladding panels

CD

Details
I.

Backing wall

2,
3

Precast concrete panel


Closed cell thermal insula
,"0

5,

3-D view of frame detail

Vertical joint open or


closed type
Honzontal jom (typically a
lap) open or closed type

6
7
8

lntem al fin,sh
W indow frame
Reinforred concrete
cohjmn

9,
10.
I I.
12.

Metal come r tr im
Metal parapet coping
Concrete floor deck
Adjacent panel in
mat erial

13. Waterproof membrane


14. Precast concrete coping

Exploded axonometric drawingof frame detail

Exploded axOilO metre- drawing of wall detail

MC E_ 186

3-D view of wall with precast cladding panels

3-D exploded view of component build-up

3-D view of fixing element

3-D view of wall with precast cladding panels

3-D exploded view of component build-up

3-D view of fixing element

MC E

187

MASONRY WALLS
(I) Masonry loadbearing walls:

Brick, stone and concrete block


Mortar>

Parapets
Cills and openings

(2) Masonry cavity walls:

Brick
Ground level
Window and door openings

Eaves and parapets


(3) Masonry cavity walls:
Stone and concrete block

Wall structures
Ground level
Openings in walls

Eaves and parapets


(4) Stone cladding:

Fixings
Cladding to precast concrete

panels
Closed Joints
Movement joints

Stone finishes

(5) Terracotta rainscreens:


Manufacture of panels
Comer pieces

Fixing systems
Panel sizes

Openings

MC E

189

L..JL__ ~

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Ho rizontal section I :I O. W indow opening

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Vertical sections I: I O. W indow openings and restraint/support at floor level

Details for hollow


brick
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Loadbearing
hollow brick wall
Timber framed
window
Internal finish
Thermal
insulation
Hollow brick cill

In maso nr y loadbearing const ruct ion, a com-

joint s t hat wo uld weaken it struct urally Eng-

plete wall is bo nded t oget her t o form a sin-

lish bond has alte rnate courses of all header s

gle struct ure. Loadbearing brick wa lls formed

set o n courses of all st ret cher s.

w it h traditional sized bri cks follow tradition al

In th e hori zont al joints,bond s in all load-

bond ing patt ern s w hich set th e br icks t ogeth -

bearing materi als have a cont inuo us path

er in a way t hat avoids cont inuity in ver t ical

from o ut side t o inside, w hich reduces it s

joints.In ot her wo rds, each course is laid in a

resistance t o w at er penetratio n.Traditionally,

way t hat is different from t he co urse below,

t his is overcome by making t he wall suffi-

in order t o ensure t hat joint s between br icks

cient ly deep t o avoid t he passage of wate r

are st aggered vert ically This ensures th at th e

through th e thi ckness of th e wall. In conte m-

wall behaves st ructurally as a hom ogenous

po rar y construction, a vapo ur barrier is usu-

construct ion w it h discontinuou s joints.Tradi-

ally added to th e inside face if th e wall is dr y

t io nal brick bonds have a recognisable

lined, o r t he w all is faced int ernally w it h a

appearance in elevat ion. For example, Flem-

wate rproo f render t o ensure moisture do es

ish bond has courses of alte rnate header s

not penetrate th e joint.

(sho rt edge) and st retc her s (long edge) set

MC E 190
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vertical sections I: IO. Window opening and


restraint/suppor t at floor level

In br ick const ructio n it is usually

side by side. Each course is offset from th e

assumed th at a wa ll aro und 3 1Smm ( 12in),

o ne below t o avoid a cont inuity of ver t ical

w hich correspo nds t o o ne br ick length plus

oo ,.

Horizontal section I: I O. W indow opening

0
0

4B
B"m
o CD

ODD~DO

ss

Vertical section I:10. W indow opening andrestraint at roof level

lllili .

DDDD
DDDD ,
DDDD '
CD DDDD
D [ 0JD
DDDD :
DDDD '
nnnn

Vertical sections I:IO. W indow openings andrestraint/support at floor androof levels

3-D view of window detail

o ne br ick w idt h in a bond , is sufficient t o

be compat ible w it h th ose physical prop erties

resist rainw ater penetration in t emp er ate c1i -

of t he backing wa ll.

mates.Th is is dependent upon br ick density

W it h th e increased use of th erm al insu-

and manufacturin g dim ension s, but walls of a

lat io n to reduce energy consum pt ion w it hin

thi ckness correspo nding t o o ne bri ck length

buildings,th erm al insulation is set o n th e

o nly are usually not deemed t o be th ick

inside face t o allow th e mater ial t o be visible

eno ugh, and ofte n suffer from dampness o n

o n th e o ut side face. How ever. thi s results in

th eir int ernal faces if th ere is no damp proof

th e th erm al mass of th e wa ll not being used

membrane and/o r wate rproo fed render o n

for night t ime coo ling.W here th e int ernal

th e inside face.

face of th e wa ll is required for night tim e

W hile loadbearing concrete block is

coo ling, th e th erm al insulati o n can be set in

commo n in hou sing, st o ne is used mainly as

th e middl e of th e w all co nstr uct io n, w it h th e

part of a loadbearing stone wall w here block

leaves of br ick, sto ne o r block o n eit her side

or brick is th e prim ary material. It is ofte n th e

linked by st ainless steel ti es t o form a dia-

case th at stone is used as a facing materi al t o

phragm wa ll. H ow ever.thi s is an unusual

a more economic mater ial behind. If st o ne is

solut io n as st ruct ural discontinuity in th e

used as a loadbearing material rather th an as

wa ll const ruct ion is less efficient from th e

addit ional cladding th en it s properties must

st ruct ural po int of view.As th e height of th e

D etails
6. U-shaped brick, filled with reinforced concrete
7. Waterproof membrane
8. Damp proof course (DPC)
9. Weather bar
10. Hollow brickcoping
I I. Roof construction
12. Rendered finish
I 3. Floorslab

MC E

191

IVlasonry Walls I
Masonry loadbearing wal ls: Brick, stone and concrete block

1r /

~~
~'(0

0y
CD ><

Jv

. ~0

. ~.l

~ ~

C~
~C~

x""'

Vertical section I: IO.W indow opening

>@
lCr
)

(0

["

'~

"

LJLJ[j;

r/'/,2IV

<l
Ll

<J

LJLJ~

<1

Ll

"'"'

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Ll

[L: f',7/1~
T

/ .: 11/

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or

<r

L\

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LI

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LI

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Horizontal section I: IO. W indow jamb

<J

U
LI

<J

iJ .3

Ll

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Vertical sections I : IO.W indow opening and ground level junction

So lid bri ck detai ls


I.

Loadbearing brick
wall
2.
Timb er framed
window
3. Internal plaster finish or dr y
lining/drywall
4.
Thermal insulation
5.
Stone lintel
6.
Stone cill
7.
W aterproof
membrane
8.
Damp proof
course (DPC)
9.
Reinforced
concrete lintel
10. Stone facing
blocks

MCE

192

w all increases between floor slabs o r

Int ernally,th e insulati o n is finished w it h plaster

betw een points of restr aint, th e thi ckness of

and a proj ecting cill t hat gives a traditional

th e wa ll also increases t o provide st ability. A n

visual appearance aro und a w indow.

alte rnat ive to th e traditi on al method of sim-

Th e colour range of cut st one is very

ply making th e wa ll thi cker is to form a dia-

important in loadbearing st o new o rk in order

phragm wa ll.Two skins of br ick, typically

t o ensure th at a wa ll has a 'massive' appear-

2 15mm t o 3 15mm thi ck (9in- 12in), are set

ance, as if almo st cut from a single block of

apart w it h fin wa lls set perp end icular t o th e

stone.T his is quite different from masonry

direction of th ese br ick wa lls. Con crete

cladding, w here th e stone can be much more

block wa lls w ill be t ypically 200mm or

varied acro ss th e facade if preferred, since

300mm th ick (Sin o r 12in) .

cladding rarely tries t o achieve a truly mono-

W hen used internally,th erm al insulation

lit hic appearance.

provides a full cont inuity between t he insulat ed wall and insulated glazed units set into

Mortars

o penings.Th e th erm al insulation passes under

A n essent ial benefit of using loadbearing

th e int ernal cill and is set in a w ay th at avoids

masonry walls is th eir ability t o avo id move-

visual clumsiness that can spo il th e appear-

ment joints w it h th e use of lime mortar. This

ance of loadbearing br ick, stone and block.

binding mater ial is a traditional mortar m ix

3-D view of window detail


3-D view of window detail

W indow details
I.
2.

Ground fioor or fioor slab


External ground level
Screed
W at erproofing layerto roof
Brick parapet

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

A ngle fillet
External wall

8.
9.
10,

Roof substrate
Damp proof course (DPC)
Damp proof membrane (DPM)

CD
CD

7"=0=

CD

-" -"

:><

7)~j.
4

L--CD_

..

.. .
.
. ..

[0 J~l
/

-"

Vertical section I: I0, Floor junction

w it h low er strength th an mortars used in

varied by vary ing th e prop ortion of cement

cavity wall const ruction but has great er flexi-

and lime w hich are used t o bind th e mortar

bility as a mater ial, allow ing it t o move more

t ogether.A higher prop ortion of cement

freely w it hout cracking.T his reduces,o r can

increases strength, w hile a higher proportion

avoid th e need for. movement joints w hich

of lime increases flexibility Mixing th e correct

are int roduced t o avoid cracking in masonry

mortar for a particular wall const ruct ion is

walls. Movement joints are t ypically set at 6.5

achieved through a balance of st rength and

metres t o 8.0 metres (21ft-26ft), depending

flexibility.In addit ion, th e comparat ively low

on t he st rength and size of th e wa ll.

wate r perm eability of lime gives it greate r

The same prin ciples are used for mortar


mixes in loadbearing wa lls as for cavity wa lls

_1t

><
><.

J[ <D.

Hori zontal section I:I0.W indow jamb

.:.:

4,~Xll!;;:;:

(2)

lr
~ ~

-"

Vertical sections I: I0,W indow openings

resistance t o rain penetration th an more


cement -based mortars. Lime makes a mortar

and masonry cladding, and follow th e same

light er in colour th an cement -based ty pes.

pr inciples in br ick. st o ne and co ncret e block.

Co lour can be mod ified by pigment addit ives.

It is commo n t o use th e mortar of minimum

In st one w alls, crushed sto ne is added t o th e

strength required. since an increase in

mix instead of sand in o rder t o give mortar

strength results in a correspo nding increase

th e t exture and some of th e appearance of

in rigidity w hich increases th e risk of cracking

th e st o ne itself.

j-U

view ot clll detail

occurring at joint s.Th e st rength of mortars is


MC E

19 3

" (j)
<i

Ho rizontal sections I : IO.W indow jambs

[]
[:0~]

0)

0)

(0

CD
Vertical sections I: I O. Window open ings

v' y yAy yAy Y

I~
I
Ho rizonta l section 1: IO.W indow jamb
Vert ical sections I 10. W indow openings

C on cret e blo ck det ails


I.

Loadbearing block wall


2. Tim ber framed wi ndow
3. External render finish
4. Internal finish
5. Thermal insulation
6. Precast concrete cill
7. Precast concrete lintel
8. Damp proof cour se
(DPC)
9.
W eat her bar
10. Seal

MC E

194

Parapets

usually much t hicker t han t hat used in clad-

Unlike parapets in masonry cavity walls or

ding t o ensure t hat it w ill not easily crack due

cladding, t here is littl e oppo rt unity t o incor-

t o freeze / t haw act ion and is stro ng enough

por ate th erm al insulation w it hout concealing

t o absorb norm al impact loads, ty pically from

t he int ernal face of t he parapet. In pr actice,

maintenance equipment.A damp proof

t he parapet is ofte n insulat ed o nly up t o t he

course (DPC) is set underneath t he coping

height of t he wate rproo fing layer in order t o

stone t o avoid wate r being absorbed too far

reduce th e t hermal br idge betw een th e insu-

dow n int o t he const r uction from it s top sur-

lat ed roof and t he t op of t he t hermal insula-

face, and t his DPe may be cont inuous w it h a

ti on in th e exte rnal wall. Loadbearing stone

wate rproofing layer exte nding up from th e

allows for considerable modelling of t he par-

int ernal face of t he parapet. In commo n w it h

apet w all w it hout th e need for complex piec-

ot her copings, th e t op is sloped inw ards t o

es of st one t hat wo uld be needed in cavity

drain wate r t ow ards t he roo f rath er t han

w alls or cladding.The t hickness of t he stone

down th e front of t he facade w here it wo uld

can be expressed t o its full exte nt in a para-

cause staining.The coping usually projects

pet and t his is a commo n feature of t heir

beyond t he face of t he wall on t he roof side

design, parti cularly w here th e parapet also

in order t o th row t he wate r clear of th e w all

serves as a balustrade.The coping sto ne is

and avoid staining.A cont inuous groove , or

3-D view of cill detail on concrete block wall.

' V

Isometric view of concrete block wall assembly

3-D view of window detail on concrete block wall.

throating, is int ro duced t o avo id rainw ater

Ci lls and o penings

being drawn back along th e underside of t he

Openings in loadbearing stone, br ick and

proj ecting coping, Cop ings are somet imes set

block have th e advantage of revealing th e

forward on th e exte rnal face of th e st o ne

thi ckness of th e materi al,giving a massive

but thi s is primari ly don e for visual reasons,

appearance t o th e wa ll. Openings in cavity

since rainwat er th at falls o nto th e t op of th e

w alls and cladding require corne r pieces that

coping is directed away to ward s th e inside

have a jo int adjacent t o th e corne r,giving th e

face w it h little risk of staining occurring o n

appearance of a w all covered in a different

th e exte rnal face of th e w all.

mater ial rather th an being a surface appear-

Where bri ck is used, th e coping is ty pically in stone o r precast concrete, In o rder t o

ing t o have been carve d out of so lid materi al.


H owever, repetition in th e size and shape of

secure th e coping to th e wa ll beneath, w hich

corne r pieces is needed in ord er to keep th e

is weakened by th e need for a damp pro of

construct ion as econo mic as possible,

course, dowels are ofte n set into th e top of

Cills are form ed from eit her th e same

th e wa ll.T he coping is th en set onto th e

materi al if sto ne is used for th e wa ll, or pre-

dow els by means of holes dr illed int o th e

cast concrete if th e w all is made from br ick

underside of th e coping.

o r block, In commo n w it h co pings, cills are


sloped w it h a projecting edge th at throw s

MCE

195

JV1asonry a s
Masonry loadbearing walls: Brick, stone and concrete block

D iaphragm brick wall details


I,
2,

Loadbearing diaphragm brick wall


Air void or thermal insulation

Horizontal & vertical sections I 10, Bedding reinforcement between courses, diaphragm wall

,-------'------------~

>?,,,

"" , >-

(0

J.l.

i'-

CD
[)

CD
(0

Isometric views of wall assembly,


I , parapet level, 2, ground level

th e rainw ater clear of th e w all beneat h,A

wo rk above, In concrete block const ruction, a

t hroating is also used t o avoid wate r running

reinforced concrete lint el is used, w hich spans

back t o t he facade from th e under side of t he

t he complete w idt h of t he wa ll, w hile in

proj ecting cill.W here st one is used, th e ty pe

sto ne a thin arch is used on th e o ute r face of

of sto ne must be suitable for use as a cill.

t he wa ll, ofte n w it h a more rudimentary brick

W here softer sto nes such as limest o nes and

arch behind it, concealed by th e w indow

sandsto nes are used for t he wall, sto ne for

frame, Since t he t her mal insulati on is set usu-

th e coping must be sufficient ly dense and

ally o n th e inside face, th e th erm al bridge is

durable t o avoid rainw ater being absorbed

avoided.Throatings are incorp orated into

into th e cill itself. causing staining o n th e t op

concrete and stone faced lint els in o rder t o

of t he cill. More dense st ones w ill absorb lit -

avoid staining, but t his is not usually do ne in

tl e wate r.w hich w ill instead be throw n clear

br ick, w hich is more absorbent and in w hich

of th e cill durin g rain, Som e harder lime-

it is difficult to form a groove,

stones and sandstones may still be suitable


for use as cill pieces, Cills are usually made in
single pieces, but w here op enings are w ide,
sect ions are set side by side w it h mortar
joints between th em,Th e DPe, incorporated
beneath cills in all mat erials, drains away any
wate r t hat soaks t hrou gh th e cill, parti cularly
at t he joint s,
The heads of op enings in loadbearing
masonry walls are support ed by lint els o r
arches, In traditio nal br ick const r uct ion, a flat
or curved arch is used t o support th e bri ck-

MC E

196

3-D view of loadbearing brick wall

Types of brick bonds

Flemish bond

Old English bond

3-D view of loadbearing masonry wall with stone cladding

Stretcher bond

3-D view of loadbearing masonry wall with stone cladding

Solid brickdetails
I.

Loadbearing brick
wall
2.
Timber framed
window
3.
Internal plaster finish or dry
lining/drywall
4.
Thermal insulation
5.
Stone lintel
6.
Stone cill
7.
Waterproof
membrane
8.
Damp proof
course (DPC)
9.
Reinforced
concrete lintel
10. Stone facing
blocks

3-D exploded view of loadbearing masonry wall with stone cladding

Exploded axonometric view of loadbearing


masonry wall with stone cladding

MC E

197

Solid brick details


I.

2.
3.

Loadbearing brick
wall
Timber framed
window
Internal plaster finish or dry

lining/drywall
8.
Thermal insulation
Stone lintel
9.
Stone cill
Waterproof
10.
membrane

4.
5.
6.
7.

Damp proof
course (DPC)
Reinforced
concrete lintel
Stone facing
blocks

3-D view of loadbearing brick wall cill detail

3-D view of loadbearing brick wall

3-D view of loadbearing brick wall parapet detail

..,--'-

tHrJ
~I

CD

CD - ----

---

II

Exploded axonomet ric view of loadbearing masonry construction

MC E

19 8

3-D view of loadbearing block wall


3-D exploded view of loadbearing block wall construction

3-D view of window detail

3-D exploded view of loadbearing block wall with window

Co ncrete block details


I.

Loadbearing block wall


Timbe r framed w indow
3. Extemal render finish
4. Intem al finish
5. Thenmal insulation
6. Precast concrete cill
7. Precast concrete lintel
8. Damp proof course
(DPC)
9.
Weathe r bar
10. Seal

2.

I
I
r
I
MC E

199

A;
y

.<
y

CD

A;

r;

-c

>
A;

:/

A;

-<

-y-<

Vertical section I : I O.Typical connection or restraint to primary structure

Vertical section I : I O.Typical conn ection or restraint to primary structure

1 [ J[
[ [ J[
l

Horizontal & vertical section I IOTypical window at cill and head

Brick cavity wa lls have th e advantage of pro-

buildings up t o two storeys, th e o ute r skin is

viding a cavity w it hin th e depth of a wa ll for

built up from th e found ation and is restrained

drainage of rainw ater before it is allowe d t o

back t o th e floor slab at first floor level and

be absorbed t oo far into th e wa ll constr uc-

at roof level.The inner skin is built off each

ti on.W hereas loadbearing bri ck wa lls use th e

floor slab and is restrained at th e head by th e

overall wa ll th ickness t o stop th e passage of

floor slab or roof structure above.Taller

rainw ater from out side t o inside, cavity w alls

buildings also have th e inner skin built off

use two skins of br ickw ork separate d by a

floor slabs in th e same way, but th e o ute r skin

vent ilate d air gap.Th e inner skin is increasing-

is suppo r te d at each floor level o n a cont inu-

ly form ed in concrete block. ho llow t erracot-

o us stainless st eel angle, bo lted back t o th e

t a block or t imber studwork.T hermal insula-

floor slab.A damp proof course (D PC) is set

ti on is usually set o n th e exte rnal face of th e

o n t op of th e steel angle t o drain th e cavity

inner skin in o rder t o keep th e building

Slots called wee p ho les are form ed in th e

st r uct ure insulated.

vert ical joints immediately above th e steel

Th e o ute r brick skin is usually o nly

3-D view of typical win dow assembly

MC E 200
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Isometric view of wall assembly

angle in o rder t o allow wate r in th e cavity t o

I OOmm/4in th ick (o ne br ick w idt h) w it h both

dr ain o ut. In addit ion t o being restrained at

skins being suppor t ed either at gro und level

floor slabs, th e o ute r skin is also ti ed at inter-

o r at int ermediar y floor levels. In th e case of

mediary po ints back t o th e inner skin w it h

-~

.' 0
Vertical and hori zontal sections I:I QO.
Typical connection or restraint to
primary structure , window jamb

"

.. @-; ..,

F~~:~I
D

3-D top view of typical window opening in cavity brick wall


Vertical sections I: I O. Junction at parapet. support
of outer leaf at fioor slab, window opening

Vert ical section I :25.W all


assembly

stainless stee l t ies.T hese are set t ypically at

dry as we ll as dr ying o ut t he o ute r skin of

450mm/ I Sin ho rizont al cent res and

brick, w hich can become fully sat urate d in a

900m m/3ft vert ical cent res.

rainsto rm.T he cavity is bridged o nly by o pen-

Histori cally, inner and outer skins we re


ti ed t ogether w it h floor slabs t o form dia-

ings for w indows and doors.


W hen an o pening is form ed. t he cavity is

phragm walls, but t heir use is reduced w it h

closed by a lint el (beam) t o suppo rt t he

t he concern over th e th erm al bri dge create d

inner and o ute r skins at t he top of th e o pen-

by linking th e two skins of brick. Current

ing, and a cill piece at t he bottom of t he

practice uses t he o ute r skin as cladding t o a

o pening.T he sides are closed by eit her

dr ained and vent ilate d void behind, w it h an

returning o ne of th e two skins to meet th e

inner skin t hat is wate rproo fed w it h a high

o ute r skin, o r by setting an insulat ed cavity

level of th erm al insulation. Brick types used in

closer. usually made as an aluminium ext ru-

cavity const ruct ion vary w idely, fro m trad i-

sion filled w it h t herma l insulati on. Because

ti on al clay bricks w hich are eit her hand

th e down w ard passage of wate r inside th e

formed o r w ire cut t o extruded hollow t er-

cavity is blocked by th e lint el at th e head of

racotta bricks.T he cavity is vente d t op and

t he o pening, a 'cavity tray' is set above t he

bottom t o ensure th e free passage of air

lint el t o drain w at er o ut of t he cavity A cavity

through t he cavity T his allows t he cavity t o

tray is fo rm ed from a bitumino us felt st rip

D etails
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
13.
I 4.
15.
I 6.
17.
18.
19.

Outer brick skin


Inner blockwork or brick skin
Tim ber framed window
Timber cill
Cavity closer
Internal plaster finish or dr y
lining/drywall
Thermal insulation in cavity
Air cavity (sometimes
omitted where insulation
fills cavity)
Inner concrete lintel or beam
Pressed steel lintel
Steel angle
Met al coping
Precast concrete cill
Damp proof course (DPC)
Brick cill
Movement joint
Ground fioor slab
Steel cavity wall tie
Foundation

MC E

20 I

Vertical section I : IO. Junction at gro und floor level

3-D view of brick cavity w all junct ion at ground floor level

W indow and door openings

w hich is set int o a ho rizo nt al joint in th e

height between gro und floor level in t he

inner skin and set sloping downwards across

building and t he adjacent ext ernal level.The

Since a w indow o r door frame has a profile

th e face of th e cavity.Th e bottom of t he tray

OPC in th e o ut er skin is set at around

w hich is t he same on all four sides,w it h an

is set o n a hori zonta l co urse o n th e o ute r

I SOmm above exte rnal gro und level.The

exte rnal modification for t he cill,t he profile

skin.W eep holes are left in t he vert ical joints

OPC for th e int ern al skin is set at t he same

of t he o pening int o w hich it fits must be

immediat ely above th e OPC t o allow wate r

level if th e step up fro m o ut side t o inside is

consiste nt on all sides.Visual consideratio ns

t o dr ain o ut.T he ends of th e OPC are tu cked

aro und I SOmm. If th e difference betwee n

are equally impo rt ant in th e detailing of cavi-

down into a vert ical OPC set int o th e jambs

o utside and inside levels is around

ty w all o penings.The dept hs of th e reveal

(sides) of the opening.The ver t ical OPC is in

300mm/ 12in t hen th e OPC is st epped up

can make the o ut er skin appear mo re 'mas-

tu rn linked to a OPC set under the cill t o

from outer skin t o inner skin in t he same

sive' if t he reveal is made at least one brick

fonrn a com plete w at erti ght seal t o th e

place but a separate OPC is added t o th e

deep or more like a th in skin if th e window

opening w hich is drained and vent ilat ed t o

inner skin at t he same level as t he bottom of

is set forward of th e reveal.Where a load-

th e o utside wa ll.A similar prin ciple of cavity

th e cavity tray.Th e aim of th e damp pro ofing

bearing wall can incorporate a structural

tray is used t o drain w at er at roo f level and

is t o provide a conti nuity of prote ction from

brick arch, th is is much mo re difficult in a

at ground level. In addit ion, a OPC is used at

underneath th e ground floor o r low est base-

cavity wa ll.This is because the o ute r and

gro und level t o avoid w at er being drawn up

ment slab up into t he wall const ruction.

inner skins of a cavity w all are kept separate ,

int o th e wall construction t o th e inside face

T he cavity is filled below gro und floor

except w here t hey are bridged by lint els.

of th e w all wit hin the building. OPCs are also

level t o avoid it filling with w at er wh ich

Because th ey are linked o nly at th ese points,

used beneath parapet s and copings as we ll as

wo uld eventually damage th e construction,

th e lintel needs t o be a separate structural

at th e junction of wa ll and pitched roof.The

particularly from freezing in w int er in t em-

eleme nt w hich suppo r t s both skins w it hout

use of th e cavity tray tog ether w it h a damp

perate climates. Until recent ly, th erm al insula-

exert ing lat eral forces in th e adjacent brick-

pro of course are t he two most impo rt ant

t io n was usually t erm inated at gro und floor

wo rk, w here cracking could occur in bot h

level. More recent ly,t he t hermal insulati o n

skins.Fo r t his reason, simply suppo rted lin-

cont inues down below gro und w here it is

t els are used, w hich exert balanced loads o n

Ground level

cont inuo us w it h t herm al insulation set on t op

bot h skins. Bot h reinforced concret e and

Th e detailing of t he OPC at gro und floo r

of or beneat h t he floo r slab to pro vide a

steel ty pes are used,w hich have the advan-

level is dependent upon the difference in

complet ely insulat ed building enclosure.

t age of supporting a course of bricks t o give

pr inciples of cavity w all detailing.

MCE

202

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Horizontal section I :I O. W all detail

. .
4

'

Vertical section I :25.Wall assembly

<1

<1

Vertical section I : IO. Junctions at ground fioor level

Vertical section I: IO. Support of outer leaf at


fioor slab and at ground level

3-D cut-aways showing relationship between inner and outer cavity leaf

MCE

203

CD

3-D view of cavity br ick wall assembly

Vertical section I:2S.W all assembly

D et ails
I.
2.

3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
IS.
16.
17.
18.
19.

MC E

Outer brick skin


Inner blockwork or brick skin
Timber framed window
Timber cill
Cavity closer
Internal plaster finish or dry
lining/drywall
Thermal insulation in cavity
Air cavity (sometimes
omitted where insulation
fills cavity)
Inner concrete lintel or beam
Pressed steel lintel
Steel angle
Metal coping
Precast concrete cill
Damp proof course (DPC)
Brick cill
Movement joint
Ground floor slab
Steel cavity wall tie
Foundation

20 4

th e appearance of a flat arch. Reinforced

Lintels are suppo rte d on both skins at

concrete lint els appear as beams visible in

th eir bearing points.A reinforced concrete

both elevat ion and on th e soffit (underside) ,

lint el spans across both skins eit her in a pro-

w hile stee l lint els are visible only on th e sof-

file th at also forms a cavity tray for w ide

fit of th e opening, making it clearly visible

spans or as a flat lintel for shor t spans.In

th at th e br icks across th e t op of th e open-

some examples, th e lint el has a beam sect ion

ing on th e oute r face are not self suppo rt ing

support ing th e inner skin w hich provides th e

unlike loadbearing wall const r uct ion. For th is

spanning element and a t oe suppo rt ing th e

reason br ickw ork suppo r te d by a stee l lint el

oute r skin.A DPC is set onto th e lint el t o

is ofte n not set on edge t o form an arch,

drain w at er. In ot her cases, th e DPC can be

but is co ursed th e same as th e br ickw ork

set above th e lint el depending on th e config-

above, since any arch suppo rt ed by a st eel

uration of th e wall construct ion. In both cases

lint el is decorative. How ever, an advantage

th erm al insulati on is set on th e inside face of

of th e stee l lintel is th at it can incorporate a

th e w all t o avoid a th erm al bridge. Stee l lin-

cavity tray,w it h rainw ater being drained

t els can be used eit her as a pressed mild

through wee p holes in ver t ical joints in th e

steel lint el w hich has a profile for support ing

bottom co urse.

both skins, or as reinforced concrete lint el

TYPE B

TYPE A

TYPEC

f--'

Verti cal sections showing window junction variations

[r
Vertical sections I : IO.Junction at
ground floor level and at window

>

[ [
[

3-D views of window and floor junctions

w it h a st ainless steel shelf angle bolted t o it.

t he t op w it h a br ick or block t hat allow s t he

In ot her examples, t he lint el has a OPC set

load from t he roof st ructure t o be suppo rt -

on t op of t he profile formed by t he lint el

ed on t he inner skin.A lte rnat ively, t he roof

w here t he inner block has no st r uctural func-

st ructure may be supported on a column set

tion but is instead used t o infill t he gap and

into t he inner skin of th e wall or on block-

provide a background for plaster. Optionally,

w ork pier s, also forming part of t he inner

t he OPC can be set onto a stainless steel

skin.The closing of th e cavity w all at th e t op

angle.The angle supports t he oute r skin,

allows for cont inuity of t herm al insulation

w hile t he reinforced concrete inner beam

fro m cavity wall t o roof structure w hile

support s bot h inner and oute r skins.

allow ing the ro of const r uction t o be vent ilat ed w here required, and t he t op of t he cavity

Eaves and parapets

in t he wall t o be vent ilated.The t op of t he

At t he eaves, t he bottom of a pitched roof

wall usually has plastic spacers set int o t he

t ermin ates against th e t op of a brick cavity

hori zontal or vert ical joint s t o ensure th at air

w all.W hile t here are many variat ions for t he

movement can occur w it hin t he cavity,A

roof it self, t he t op of t he wall maint ains a

OPC is set on t he underside of t he br ick or

consiste nt prin ciple of closing th e cavity at

block th at closes the cavity t o ensure cont i-

l
r

Isometric view of wall assembly; one with steel


support (top) and one with concrete support
(bottom)

MC E

205

3-D view showing opening in brick cavity facade

Vertical section I 10.Junction at ground floor level

3-D view of double brick skinned cavity wall system

nuity between th e damp pro of membrane


on th e exte rnal face of th e inner skin and th e
wate rproofing layer of th e roof
Parapets are closed at th e t op by a coping, usually in reinforced concrete o r stone,A
D Pe is set beneat h th e cop ing t o sto p th e
passage of wate r down w ards, Below th is,
rainw ater can ente r t he cavity from both
inner and oute r skins and th is is prevented by
exte nding th e w at erproof layer from th e roo f
up th e side of th e inner skin up t o coping
level.T hermal insulati o n is usually cont inued
up th e inside of th e cavity wall as well as up
th e exte rnal face of th e inner skin t o avoid a
th erm al bridge th rough th e inner skin,

3-D oblique view of cavity brick wall assembly facade

MC E

20 6

CLL",+jCLLLJJLLl\ '/ ili='J}tr'.L/lLL-i'+--"

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Horizontal sectors 1:1 0, Comer conditions

-- ~
Details
I.
2.
4.

Outer brick skjn


Inner blockworl<. or brick skin
Timber framed window
Timber eill

S.
6.

Cavity closer
Internal plaster f.nish O!" dry

7.

Iiningldryw-all
Thermal irlsulation in cavity

3.

3-D

View

of t ypical win dow o pening In brick

cavitywall assembly

r-"---Ylj
J

8.

Air cavity (somet imes


omitted where insulation

9.

r.ns cavity)
Irmer concret e lint el or beam

10.
I I.

Pressed steel lintel


Steel ar'lgle

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Metal coping
Precastconcrete cill
Damp proof course (DPC)
Brick (ill
Movement joint
Ground floor slab
Steel cavity wall t ie
Foundation

MC E_ 207

Masonr cavit

0)

Details
I , Outer brick skin
2.Inner blockwork or brick skin

3.Timber framed window


4.Timberc ill

5. Cavitycloser
3-D exp loded \!lew of
open ing in cavity brick wall facade

6. Intern al plaster finish or dry lining!

drywall
]. Thermal iosulatron in cavity
B.A ir cavity (sometimesomitted
where iosulatron fills cavrty)
9. Inner corxrete lintel or beam

10. Pressed steellintel


I I , Steel angle
12. Metal coping
13. Precast concrete (ill
14. Damp proof course (OPC)
IS. Brick cill

16. Movement jo int

17. Ground floor slab


18. Stee l cavrtywalltie
19. gooroaton

] 0 exploded view of cavitybrick wall assembly

Me E 208

] -0 exploded vieW'> at upper floor junction

@
3-D exploded views of brick cavity wall junction at ground fioor

3-D view at top of window opening in brick cavity


wall

3-D view at ground floor junction

3-D view at bottom of window opening in brick


cavity wall

3-D exploded view at bottom


of w indow fitting in brick cavity wall
3-D explode d view at top of wi ndow
fitting in brick cavity wall

MC E

20 9

\---

Vertical section I Ia.Junction at ground fioor level

Vertical section I: Ia.Typical window at cill and head

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Stone or concrete coping


Outer stone skin with brick
backing shown to create deep window
reveals or where required structurally
Inner block skin
Timber framed window / door
Stone or precast concrete cill
Timber inner cill
Cavity closer
Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation in cavity

Th e prin ciples of cavity w all design are


set o ut in t he previou s t ext on br ick cavity

MC E 2 10
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

dry o ut easily, avoiding a sit uat io n w here

w alls.T he same principles can be applied for

sto ne wo uld dr y from o nly t he o ute r face,

use w hen sto ne and co ncrete blockw ork are

w hich wo uld draw dirt and dust out int o th e

used to form an outer skin.

outside face.

W hen sto ne is used, it can be used eit her

3-D view of cill detail on a blockwork cavity wall

al is vent ilate d o n both sides, allowin g it to

T he biggest difference in detailing

as an outer skin appro xim ately IOOmm/4in

between bri ck cavity walls and st o ne / block

t hick, o r w it h t hinner stone t hat is bo nded t o

cavity wa lls is t hat t here are few er joint s in

br ickwo rk t hat t ogether fo rms a 'composit e'

stone / block due t o t heir large size.T his

o ute r skin.W hen used as a IOOmm/4in thi ck

means th at th ere are fewer opportunities to

skin in o rder t o be self-suppo rt ing,t he sto ne

design a damp proof course (D PC) w it h

becom es expensive, so sandst o nes and lime-

fioor slabs, for example, parti cularly w here

sto nes are most commo nly used. Comp osite-

shelf angles are used.T he smaller unit size of

t ype o ute r skins suit sto ne that is 40mm to

brick makes it a very fiexib le material w hen

50mm thi ck ( l.s in-2.0in), bond ed to a

detailing; stone / block requires careful co-

IOOmm/4 in w ide br ick skin.This method suits

o rdinat ion of stone / block size and fioo r t o

granites and denser limest o nes.

fioor heights to allow for w indows to be suit-

In single o ute r skins of stone, t he materi-

ably placed. For t his reaso n, alternat ing bands

Horizontal section I: IO,Typical win dow jamb


10,
I I,
12,
I 3.
14,
15,
16,
17,
I 8,
19,
20,

A ir cavity (sometimes omitted where insulation fills cavity)


Inner precast concrete lintel
Outer precast concrete lintel or stone fiat arch
Damp proof course (DPC)
Movement joint
Timber framed inner skin with quilt insulation
Cement fill
Foundation
Vertical DPC
Structural column
Floor construction

Vertical sections I : IO,Typical W indow at cill and head, parapet and eavesto pitched rOOT

of t hick and t hin sto ne are used in coursing,

w it h large scale building frames in eit her stee l

T his allow s ho rizont al jo int lines to be pro -

o r concrete , t he inner leaf is no longer load-

vided at shelf angles, cavity tra ys and DPes at

bearing and inst ead t he complete w all con-

gro und level w it hout disturbing th e stone

st ruction form s a cladding to t he fr ame.

patt ern w it h addition al horizont al jo ints.

W hen reinforced concrete frames are used,

Unlike open joint ed stone cladding, w here

t he junction between inner skin, typ ically con-

t he mortar is om itted, th e mortar and jo int

crete block or t erra cotta block, is st raightfo r-

pro file have a big visual impact.

ward w it h a gap between t he tw o t o allow


for st ructural movement in t he fram e. Stain-

W all structures

less st eel sliding anchors are used eit her in

Loadbearing cavity walls used t o suppo rt two

t he sides of t he inner skin panel w here it

storey st r uct ures on th eir inner skins are very

meets th e column, o r at th e head w here it

commo n in hou sing co nstructio n in Europ e

meet s t he floor slab.T he oute r skin runs con-

and N or t h A merica.Vert ical mo vement joints

tinu ously in front of it.Th e sit uat io n is more

are provided at aro und 7500mm/25ft cen-

complicate d w it h a st eel fr ame, w here th e

t res, o r else are avo ided altoget her in t he

column needs t o be protected fro m corro -

const r uction by keeping lengths of w all w it hin

sion from wate r vapo ur in th e cavity Typically

t hese dimensio ns.W hen cavity wa lls are used

t he column is painted t o fo rm a protective

Vertical section 1:25.W all


assembly

MC E

2 11

CD
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Vertical section I :IO.Typical parapet

D et ails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Stone or concrete coping


Outer stone skin with brick backing shown to
create deep window reveals or where
required structurally
Inner block skin
Timber framed window / door
Stone or precast concrete cill
Timber inner cill
Cavity closer
Internal plaster finish or dr y lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation in cavity
Air cavity (sometimes omitted where insula
tion fills cavity)
Inner precast concrete lintel
Outer precast concrete lintel or stone fiat arch
Damp proof course (DPC)
Movement joint
Timber framed inner skin with quilt insulation
Cement fill
Foundation
Vertical DPC
Structural column
Flo or construction

--

J..

--

AJ..J..J..J..J.. i9'i'"X
) \' J (

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",I

Vertical section I 10.Typical


threshold

Vertical section I :10.Typical parapet

coat ing and th erm al insulation is set across

ISOmm/6in above gro und fioor level w it h a

th e face of th e stee lwo rk t o provide a cont i-

hor izontal joint th at can be accommo date d

nuit y of t hermal insulation. Sometimes t he

w it hin th e design. Granite is often used

oute r skin is restrained w it h cavity ties fixed

below DPC level t o avoid staining from rain

t o th e face of th e reinforced concrete or

splashing from th e adjacent gro und and from

stee l column.T his is particularly useful w hen

dust and damage in urban locations.The

forming a movement joint in lengths of

granite, usually 30mm t o 40mm thi ck ( 1.2in

brickw ork, or movement joints th at form

t o I.Sin), is bonded t o brickwork or concrete

part of th e building str uct ure w hich typically

blockw ork t o make up th e difference in

occur at columns in th e building fr ame.The

th ickness of th e oute r skin t o a minimum of

ver t ical movement joint is filled w it h tw o

IOOmm (4in).

part polysulphide sealant th at also matches

C0

lX::0:

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~/

'J

ED

-o

In order t o avoid dampness reaching th e

th e colour of th e mortar as clo sely as possi-

inside of th e building, a mixture of DPCs is

ble and provides a seal th at can accommo -

used th at provides a cont inuity between

date th e str uct ural movement w it hin th e

D PC and th e damp pro of membrane for th e

cavity wall.

fioor slab. D ifferent combinat ions of DPCs


are used for ent ry int o th e building at th e

Vertical & horizontal sections I: IO.Typical window


at cill

MC E

2 12

Ground level

same level as outside w hen th e fioor level is

A n essent ial design considerat ion at gro und

a minimum of ISOmm (6in) above exte rnal

level is to provide a DPC at a minimum

level.W hen internal and exte rnal levels are

"

"==
~"-

""

Horizonta l sectio n I: I O. Blockwo rk cavity w all con st ructi on

II

p
(

?
y

>r

~~I
..,~
"r

,\I
;

3-D view of blockw ork cavity wall const r uct ion

Isom etri c views of wall assembly.

almost th e same, th e OPC is set at gro und

build th e masonry skins direct ly off th e foun-

level and is co nt inuo us w it h t he OPM rising

dation.The t herm al insulat io n in th e cavity is

fro m below.A n additional stepped OPC is

taken dow n as far as possible t o overlap wit h

set I SOmm (6in) above exte rnal level t o

t he insulat ion under th e floo r slab to reduce

drain th e cavity above.W hen internal and

t he th erm al br idge t o a minimum.

ext ernal levels are very different, a first OPC


steps down from internal floor level t o a hor-

Openings in walls

izontal joint in the outer skin, ISOmm (6in)

This sectio n discusses variat ions and details

above ext ernal level, w here a second OPC

additional t o th ose set out in the previo us

o n th e inner skin exten ds down t he internal

section o n brick cavity w alls and focuses on

face of the w all down t o join the OPM.

different mat erials fo r t he inner skin.

T he cavit y below gro und level is filled t o

W hen a t imber framed inner skin is used.

avoid water building up in any voids. parti cu-

th e w indow is usually an int egral part of that

larly w here found atio ns for pads for stee l o r

inner skin so t hat a complete enclosure is

reinforced concrete co lumns are cont inuo us

fo rmed in timb er w it h masonry used as an

w it h t he cavity wall. Found at ions need t o be

o ute r skin providing some lat er al stability.The

filled t o gro und level.

o ute r mason ry skin can be return ed t o form

There is always a difficulty in prov iding a

a reveal up t o around 12Smm (Sin) depend-

cont inuity of th er mal insulat ion down the

ing o n th e th ickness of insulat ion in t he cavity.

cavity and under t he slab due t o th e need t o

A lternatively t he t imber wi ndow can be set

Vertical sectio n I : IO.Typical wi ndow at cill


and head

MC E

213

~~

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c

CD

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r
><
><

Y:

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TxT"IxTXl..

CD

Y:

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Hori zontal section I: I O. Blockwork cavity wall construction

Horizontal section I 10. Blockwork cavity wall


construction

f 111
l; J.

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,,",

"

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0)

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Isometric view of wall assembly.

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
I 3.
14.
15.
I 6.
17.
I 8.
19.
20.

MC E

Stone or concrete coping


Outer stone skin with brick
backing shown to create deep
window reveals or where
required st ruct urally
Inner block skin
Timber framed window / door
Sto ne or precast concrete cill
Timber inner cill
Cavity closer
Internal plaster finish
or dry lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation in cavity
A ir cavity (sometimes omitted
where insulation fills cavity)
Inner precast concrete lintel
Outer precast concrete Iintel or
stone fiat arch
Damp proof course (DPC)
Movement joint
Timber framed inner skin with
quilt insulation
Cement fill
Foundation
Vertical DPC
Structural column
Floor construction

2 14

fo rw ard close t o th e line of th e oute r face

cotta o r even br ick are bond ed t ogether

w it h a t imber cill projecting fo rw ard of th e

w it h mortar and th en held in a st eel edge

wall.Th is gives th e o ute r wa ll an appearance

fr ame, w hich is fixed t o th e inner skin.Th e

of a brick t exture, giving a planar look to th e

concrete inner skin is wate rproo fed w it h

materi al.

bitumin ou s paint and th erm al insulation set

W it h reinforced concrete inner skins, it is

o n th e o utside face of th e inner skin.Th e

difficult t o set wall ti es int o th e materi al t o

steel angle o n th e bottom edge form s a clos-

restrain th e o ute r mater ial. Since it is not

er t o th e w indow below, w hile th e stee l o n

practical t o cast in wa ll t ies in th e precise

th e t op edge form s a cill t o th e w indow

location w here th ey are needed, w hich does

above .T he vert ical steel angles are usually

not allow for lat er adjust ment, a set of nar-

concealed w it hin th e cavity t o give a cont inu-

row stainless steel channels are post fixed t o

o us masonry appearance.Th e masonry is

th e co ncret e.Wall t ies are th en fixed t o

somet imes restrained w it hin th e panel by

th ese channels, w hich provide th e adjust ment

vert ical stainless steel ro ds w hich are t en-

required. In recent years, o ute r masonry skins

sioned against th e fr ame t o form lightly pre-

have been made as prefabricated panels o n

stressed panels.Vert ical jo int s between panels

some proj ects w hen fixed back t o a rein-

are sealed,ty pically w it h a polysulphide sealant.

forced concrete wa ll. Panels of sto ne, t erra-

3-D view of blockwork cavity wall constru ction

Vertic al section I: IO. Typical window at cill

c---------:-1

'I

3-D exploded view of blockwork cavity wall constru ction

Eaves and parapets

ing behind the soffit. The o uter skin cont inues

Eaves t o cavity w alls in stone and block are

wit h anot her course to close against the slab

generally t o either a reinfo rced concrete slab

soffit. W here a dow nstand beam is used t o

or t o a timber pitched roof. When a rein-

support th e concrete roof slab above, the

forced concrete slab is used and is visible

beam is usually aligned w it h the inner skin of

from the o utside, both inner and o uter skins

the cavity w all.A stepped

need a joint fo r expansion at the head.A

other w ay rou nd fro m it s usual position,

compressible durable seal is used, recessed

draining fro m the o uter leaf to th e inner leaf,

ope is set the

fro m the face of t he outer skin t o avoid a

but w at er run ning down t he underside of the

colour clash w it h t he mor tar below. St ainless

ope is dr ained harmlessly dow n t he o uter

stee l angles w it h slotted connections are also

face of t he inner skin. If t imber is used in a

ope is set o n t op of

used t o restrain masonry at t he head, o r

projecting flat ro of th e

even a stainless ste el channel if t he underside

t he wa ll, on w hich ro of tim ber s are suppor t-

of t he concrete is revealed.W hen th e con-

ed. A cont inuity of th ermal insulat io n is pro -

crete slab soffit is concealed w it h addit ional

vided.Th e t imber roo f struct ure can also be

cladding, a hori zontal joint in t he o uter skin is

vent ilate d t o allow it t o be kept dry w hile

usually placed t o align w ith t he cladding to

maintaining t herm al insulation.

avoid t he appearance of th e stone disappear-

Horizonta l sect ion I: IO.


Typical connectio n or restraint to prim ary structure

3-D view of blockwork cavity wall constructio n

For parapets the inner skin is th ickened

MCE

215

D etails
I. Stone or concrete coping
2.
Outer stone skin with brick
backing shownto create deep
window reveals or where
required structurally
3. Inner block skin
4. Timber framed window / door
5.
Stone or precast concrete cill
6. Timber inner cill
7.
Cavity closer
8.
Internal plasterfinish
or dry lining/drywall
9. Thermal insulation in cavity
10. Air cavity (sometimes omitted
where insulation fills cavity)
II . Inner precast concrete lintel
12. Outer precast concrete Iintel or
stone fiat arch
13. Damp proof course (DPC)
14. Movement joint
15. Timber framed inner skin with
quilt insulation
16. Cement fill
17. Foundation
18. Vertical DPC
19. Structural column
20. Floor construction

it

0
,.-

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..-/.
,.,.-

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Isometricview of wall assembly.

up w hen used as a balustr ade. A hand rail o n

parapet wa lls, a st epped DPC is used to drain

t op of t he co ping is fixed by drilling t hro ugh

w ate r back t o t he inner skin t o ensure t hat

t he t op and bo ltin g it to t he inner skin

w at er inside thi s part of th e cavity w all is

beneath.T he co ping is cut t o receive t he bal-

drained imm ediat ely, especially in very

ustrade o r handrail. unless t he uprights sup-

ex posed co nd it io ns. A st epped DPC is used

porting t he handrail pass bet w een t he joints.

instead o f a regular fiat DPC und er th e co ping.

T he adjacent area of fiat ro of o r gutter usually has a w at er pro ofing layer retu rn ing up t he
wa ll, regard less o f th e ro of finish.Th e waterproofing layer is set int o hori zon t al join t s in
o ute r m ason ry skin. A m et al flashing is set
int o t he sam e hori zon t al join t and is set ove r
t he t op of th e wate r pro ofing t o protect it
fr o m dam age. Met al co pings are used increasingly o n parap et s in o rde r t o match t he
appearance of w indows and doo rs, particularly w here m et al cills are used .T he same
prin cip les app ly as for co ncrete co pings, w it h
a DPC set o n t op of t he m asonry wa ll. D r ips

are form ed o n eit her side of t he vert ical face


t o ensure t hat water is t hrow n clear o f t he
wa ll. For all parapet s, th e w at erpro o fing layer
is co nt inued up t he w all t o beco m e co nt inuo us w it h t he DPC in low parapet s. For high

MC E

2 16

3-D view of sectionthrough blockwork cavity wall and window

3-D view of window cill detail


3-D view of window head detail

1 - - - - - L--

-r--

Vertical sections I : IO. Typical window at cill and head

Horizontal sections I : IO.Window jambs

t>

l>-

v"V

'.,~

'~/
''.,

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3-D view of junction at ground fioor level

"

..

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l>i;

Vertical section I : IO. Junction at ground fioor level

MC E

2 17

onry a s
Masonr cavit walls: Stone and concrete block
Details
I.

Stone or cooc-ete copong


Outer stone sb'I WIth bOck
00d<ng ~ to create deep

3.
-4

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

reveals

or ~

""""'" """"""

Imer block sb'1


Tmbet" h'amed ~ I dooI"
Stone or precast co-crete dl
Tm ber irvler dl
CavIty closer
Intemal plaster 'irush
or dry lining/dry wall

Thermal insulation lI"l Cavrty

3-D VIeW of tllocIr<worio: c.wrty w all construetoon

10. Ar UVIty (sometmes OII"Ittect


~ nsuIatoon fillseavrty)
I I. Inner precast eeoc-ere Irltel

II Outer precast eeoc-ere lImel or


stone IIat arch
13. DIll proof course (DPC)
1-4

MoYeITleflt pill:

15. Timber framed inner skI'l WIth


qu,t! ,nsulatlon
16. Cement f,1l
17. Fcuodation

18. Vertical DPe


19. Structural column
20.

3-D exp loded view of blockwo rk cavrty wal l ccostructoo

Floor con structio n

] -0 exploded

MC E_ 218

VIeW

of bIockworl< cavity wall conwuet:oon

3-D VIeW

of blockworl< UVIty w all wrth WI1dow

3-D view of stone cavity wall construction

3-D exploded view of stone cavity wall construct ion

3-D exploded view of stone cavity


wall window detail

3-D view of stone cavity wall


construct ion with window

MC E

2 19

CD

Isometric view of sto ne cladding on individual fixings

Isomet r ic view of stone cladding on ext ru ded aluminium carr ier system

st rength due to var iat ion in th e bed of t he

is taken t o avoid defects such as cracks and

eit her sealed w it h mortar o r sealant o r, alt er-

stone. Som e quarries have co nsistent st o ne,

holes in t he material th at w ill affect it s dura-

nat ively, be o pen jo inted fo llow ing rainscreen

w hile in ot her s it s prop erties may vary con-

bility as a cladding material. For slates, nat ural

principles. In both cases th e sto nes are fixed

siderably.Test dat a o n t he physical properties

markings are a part of t he natu re of th e

t o an insulat ed backing w all.T he stone types

of t he stone in each quarry are obt ained,

sto ne and th e mater ial is judged fo r it s par-

used in cladding are granit es,sandstones,

parti cularly its strength, in o rder t o establish

t icular applicat ion.

limest o nes and slates. Marbles are somet imes

t he panel size and t hickness t hat w ill be used.

used, but are not generally considered to be

T he th ickness of stone fo r a facade applica-

Fixings

as durable as t he oth er sto ne types .Their

t ion is usually established by structural calcu-

Stainless steel is most commonly used fo r fix-

Cut sto ne used for w all cladding can be

we ights vary from 2500kg/m2 for limestone

lat io n. Flexural strengt h, also called t he modu-

ings rather than other mat erials because of

t o 2750 kg/m2 for granite .

lus of rupture. is usually t he most important

it s resistance t o corrosion comb ined w it h

structural co nsiderat ion . Code s of practice

high strength and rigidity. Stone fixings allow

and ot her cladding mate rials is that t he mate-

often set out minimum t hicknesses fo r differ-

for a three-way adjustment t o ensure a prop-

rial may still not be cut from the quarry at

ent panel sizes in different stones, but t his is

er fit vertically. ho rizontally and laterally (in o r

the t ime th e material is chosen fo r a building

o nly a general guide and calculation is usually

o ut fro m the facade).W here ancho r slots o r

project. particularly fo r larger pro jects.The

under t aken fo r facade applicatio ns.

inser ts are cast int o the floor slab o r rein-

An essential differe nce between stone

use of sto ne for cladd ing requires considera-

Samples are usually chosen t o set t he

fo rced con crete wa ll,t hese are needed t o be

ble planning, fro m setting t he range of co l-

r ange of co lour and t extu re th at are t o be

accurately position ed even t hough t hey pro-

ours, t o ne and surface marks t hat w ill be

used in a facade. Because t he sto ne required

vide adjustment for th e final posit ion of th e

used fo r th e cladding, t o establishing t he

for a particular pr oject is not always cut

sto ne.T he ty pe of fixing used is dependent


mainly o n t he st o ne t hickness.

physical pr op erties for t he stone from t he

before co nstruct ion st arts, t he quarr y co n-

act ual quarry chosen, t o using thi s data t o

firm s t he amo unt of tim e needed t o cut and

complete a str uctural design t o establish

finish t he stone panels. w hich can t ake co n-

sto nes,are usually set o n t he bottom edge of

siderably lo nger t han cladd ing panels in ot her

t he sto ne panel,t hough side fixings are some-

mat erials. Because the mat er ial is nat ural, care

times used, depen ding on the weight and

stone panel sizes and th icknesses.


Stone is varied in its durability and

MCE 220
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Loadbearing fixings,suppo rting th e

'J

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o/ ~
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Ll

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~

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~,.,.

(2)

o
D etails for stone o n
individual fixings
I.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.

.....,.
""'"
y ,

"

8.

Stone panel
Backing wall.typically
concrete block
Stainless steel fixings (a
wide range is available)
Timber framed window
Stone cill
Timber inner cill
Internal plaster finishor
dry lining/drywall
Thermal insulation in

cavity
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.

Stainless steel restraint


at each floor level
Air cavity
Precast concrete lintel
W aterpro of membrane
Floor slab
Stone coping

(2)

' (l2W1F/N/
(3

~~

f'----'--(0

~~

-~{)

<;\P.

Horizontal & vertical sections I:I O. Typical stone


carrier system made from individual stone fixings

3-D view of typical stone carrier system made from individual stone fixings

MC E

22 1

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I

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I

I
I

--

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--

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(0

I
I

CD

I
I

I
I

3-D view of stone carrier system made from


individual fixings

Horizontal, vertical sections and


elevation 1:25,
Typical stone carrier system
made fro m individual stone
fixings

!:I

:11
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ii
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il
!il

>-:1

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Horizontal & vertical sections I : I0, Typical stone


carrier system made from individual stone fixings

MC E

222

0)

r.

,@~

st rength of th e panels,Two br ackets at th e

o r dowel, set into a st ainless st eel fiat sect io n

bottom of th e stone are used, w it h not more

in an 'L' shape,Th e pins are typically 3mm

th an four brackets in total.Triangular panels

(0, I I Sin) diameter for st o ne up to 30mm

usually have o ne fixing in each corner.At ver-

( I ,2in) thi ck and 5mm (0,2in) for sto ne of

t ical movement jo ints, adjacent sto nes are

greate r th icknesses,
Face fixings are norm ally used w it h mar-

th e movement joint. The end of th e fixing

ble and granite ,Th e bo lts function as both

suppo r t ing t he st o ne is around 50mm w ide,

loadbearing and restraint fixings and are set

Restraint fixings are used t o resist posi-

tq

r:

J1
(D-----r'

carried on separate supports, each side of

'fL

r~]

o....

away from th e corne rs in th e manner of bo lt

ti ve and negative w ind loads as we ll as

fixed glazing,A bolt is fixed in each corne r.

imposed loads from maintenance equipme nt.

usually at a distance equal t o three t imes t he

Th e slot in th e stone is eit her a ho le, slot o r

stone th ickness but t o a maximum distance

rebate th at is not visible from th e st o ne face,

of around 75mm (3in) from th e corne r.

Th ese are usually locat ed at 1/5 po int s for

Smaller stones are fixed w it h fewer fixings,

stack bo nded st o nes and Y. points for %

and tri angular panels usually have a fixing in

bond ed stones, and at least 75mm (3in)

each corne r o nly.

from th e corne r.A maximum of four

Fixings used to suppo rt st o nes th at clad

restr aint fixings per stone is used, Restraint

soffits, such as t he under side of a concrete

fix ings t ypically co nsist of a stainless stee l pin,

slab, are suspended from bolts o r hangers

3-D view of extruded aluminium carrier system

Horizontal & vertical sections I:I O.


Typical stone carrier system made from extru ded aluminium

,
,I

f-

..
..

.,CD .

'

"

Details for sto ne supporte d on carrier


syste m

"
'-'

Q:

ro-

-".f -,':

i~

:>

t.f

,,~Q)-..

..

w hich slide int o anchorages cast int o th e sup-

ber-based w asher around 3mm (0. 1IBin)

port ing structure.

t hick t o allow for th e moveme nt between

Cladding to precast concrete


pane ls

dowel penet rates 2/3 th e th ickness of the

Any of the stones listed at the beginning of

concrete (2.3in-3in) .

I~ .J...,

stone and th e concrete backgro und.The

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sto ne panel
Extruded aluminium carrier system
Stainless steel fixing pins
Stackjoint
Backingwall. Concrete shown.
Thermal insulation
Adjacent wall. Rainscreen panels
shown.
8.
O pen joint configuration as shown
9.
Support brackets
10. Restraint brackets
I I . Joint betwe en sto ne panels
12. Flo or slab

stone and around 60mm - 75mm int o th e

this section can be used as a facing to precast


concrete panels,but granite is most com-

Joints

mo nly used due t o its higher st rength, allow -

Joints are eit her of closed or ope n type.

ing it t o be used relat ively thinl y.T hicker sand-

Closed jo ints use either mortar o r proprie-

sto nes and limesto nes are also used, however.

tary sealant. Closed joints are used where

Sto ne is fixed t o concrete panels w it h dowel

th e cladding is suppo rted at each floo r level

pin fixings w hich are inclined at 45 t o 60 t o

o n st ainless stee l angles w it h joint ed sto nes.

suit th e size of stone and ho lding it in place.

W it h open jointed sto nes,each panel is indi-

Pins are usually set at around 200mm (Bin)

vidually suppo rt ed in a rainscreen const ruc-

cent res both vert ically and hori zontally w it h a

t io n, w here rainw at er passing through th e

pin t hickness of aro und 5mm . 50% of dowels

joints is drained away down eit her th e back

are set in each direction t o provide a bal-

of th e sto nes o r down t he face of th e back-

anced suppo rt Each dow el has a flexible rub-

ing w all.

3-D view of extr uded aluminium carrier system

M CE

223

Verti cal & horizontal sections I : IO. Typical stone carrier system made from extruded aluminium

3-D view of extruded aluminium carri er system

3-D expl oded views of individually fixed carri er syst em

Clo sed jo ints

o ur of t he mort ar is blended w it h t he

Movement jo int s

Closed joints need t o be loadbearing and

cr ushed sto ne.

Hori zont al movement joints are used t o deal

wat ert ight and must also accommod ate rela-

For narrow joints used w it h granite o r

mainly w it h fioo r slab deflect ions, and t o a

tive movements of cladding and suppor t ing

slate , a high ceme nt -to-sand ratio is used.

lesser exte nt vert ical shortening, in t he st ructural frame.This horizontal joint is usually

building struct ure.T he typ es of jo inting o r

joint s w ider t han around 4mm are filled w it h

point ing (t he o ute r finish of mo rtar o r seal-

a w eaker mix t o reduce shrinkage cracks.Th e

pro vided at slab level. w here th e sto ne clad-

ant) w ill depend on t he ty pe, size, th ickness

maximum w idt hs of mortar filled joints are

ding is suppo rted fro m either short lengths

and surface finish of cladding unit s. Stones are

aro und 12mm (O.5in) but sealant filled joi nts

of stainless steel angle, or a contin uous shelf

not usually butted up against o ne anot her,

can be up t o aroun d 30mm ( 1.2in), depend-

angle.The joint occurs immediately below

since any movement of t he unit o r of t he

ing o n th e prop riet ar y prod uct used. jo int

t he stainless steel angle,w here vertical

structure cannot be accommo dated , causing

w idt hs are usually a functio n of th e cutting

defiection w ill occur. Hori zo ntal movement

damage t o th e stones.

t ol erance of th e stone, around 2mm differ-

joi nts can be set at inte rvals of two sto reys if

ence in the cut line of t he stone, depending

th e stone and support brackets or frame can

joints in sandsto ne and limest o ne are


usually filled w it h ceme nt/sand mort ar or

o n stone ty pe and th e cutting machine used.

be designed to span t he height.The joint

cement/ sand/ lime mortar. Granite and slate

Mo dern machines can cut stones to w it hin

w idth is usually a minimum of 15mm, but

ty pically use prop rietar y sealant. such as two-

I mm accuracy.jo int widths of 4mm are com-

20mm to 25mm (O.8in- 1in) are common

part polysulphide. Mort ar used for point ing

mon, but thi s can rise to a maximum of

w it h reinforced concrete st ruct ures.T he jo int

is made fro st resistant w hen used in t emper-

I 2mm w hen required for visual reasons,par-

is fo rm ed eit her as a sealant o r as a step in

at e climates,and of sim ilar st rength t o th e

t icularly w hen t he joint is recessed. Granite,

th e st o ne, w here th e upper ston e proj ects

jointi ng mortar,w hich is t he st ruct ural mor-

slat es and hard limest on es and sandstones

forward of t he sto ne below to conceal t he

t ar behind. N eith er mortar sho uld be st ro ng-

can have a jo int w idt h at a minimum of 3mm,

w ider joint. In both joint types t he joint is

er th an th e sto ne. For limest o ne and sand-

w hile soft sandst ones and limesto nes can be

made w ate rt ight. for closed joint s and for

sto ne a mort ar of 1/1/5 for cement/ lime/

laid w it h a minimum 5mm joint. W hen a pro -

o pen joint s, w here rainscreen cladding pr inci-

sand is ty pically used, o r 1/ 2/8 for cement/

priet ar y sealant is used, th e minimum jo int

ples are used.

lime/cr ushed stone particles, w here t he col-

w idth for all stone types is usually around 5mm .

MCE

22 4

'-

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rr~

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rl r-t;;~

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II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II

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Vertical section and elevation 1:25.


Typical stone carrier system made from
extruded aluminium. Stone joints with both
straight and staggered joints to show flexibility
of carrier systems

Details for sto ne suppo rte d on


carrier syste m
I.
2.

Stone panel
Extruded aluminium carrier system
3. Stainless steel fixing pins
4.
Stackjoint
5.
Backingwall. Concrete shown.
6.
Thermal insulation
7.
Adjacent wall. Rainscreen panels
shown.
8.
Open joint configuration as shown
9.
Support brackets
10. Restraint brackets
I I. Joint between stone panels
12. Floor slab
3-D view of stainless fixing method for extruded aluminium carrier system

MC E

225


I. .

I---

I!!

~
~

I---

3)'

I--I--I---

I---

I--I---

r--

3-D view of stone cladding on


individual fixings

r-r--

I---

ff

Isometric view of wall assembly


Vertical section 1:25.
Typical stone carrier system

D etails for sto ne o n indi vidu al


fixings
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
I 2.
13.
14.

MC E

Stone panel
Backing wall,typically concrete
block
Stainless steel fixings (a wide
range is available)
Timber framed window
Stone cill
Thermal insulation in cavity
Internal plaster finish or dry
lining/dry wall
Timber inner cill
Stainless steel restraint at each
floor level
Air cavity
Precastconcrete lintel
W at erproof membrane
Floor slab
Stone coping

22 6

Vert ical movement joints are pro vided t o


deal w it h racking in th e st r uct ure as we ll as

are aro und IOmm (O.5 in).Yert ical movement


joints are ext ended int o parapets and copings.

movements in th e cladding itself W here


movement joints occur in th e building st r uc-

Stone finishes

ture, usually fo llow ing a co nt inuo us vert ical

Granites, limesto nes, sandst o nes and slate s

line w here it intersects w it h th e facade, a

are using an increasingly w ide range of finish-

ver t ical movement jo int is pro vided in th e

es,w it h finishes associate d w ith o ne st o ne

facade in th e same locati o n.Th e distance

ty pe being used for anot her.T he main finishes

between joints is ty pically at aro und 6 metres

are as foll ow s:A ru bbed finish is a smoot h

in a co nt inuous run of st one cladding w it h

finish made by rubbing stone w it h an abrasive

closed joints.The joint w idt h co rrespo nds t o

materi al (ty pically used for limeston e and

th e expecte d movement in th e cladding, but

sandstone); a hon ed finish has a du ll po lish

w here sealed joints are used, th e joint w idt h

(used for all t ypes); a polished surface has a

is dependent o n th e amo unt of movement

high gloss (ty pically used for granite and hard

th at th e sealant is required t o accommo date .

limest o ne); a flamed finish is o bta ined by

Minimum w idt hs of vert ical movement joints

passing a hot flame over th e st o ne surface

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Vertical sections I : I 0,Typical stone carrier system made
from individual stone fixings, Parapet detail (top left) , and
floor junctions (bottom left and above)

(ty pically used for granite and slat e), a riven


finish, w here th e stone is cut on it s cleavage

plane (ty pically used for slate , sandsto ne o r


limeston e) and t ool ed. w here th e materi al is
wo rked, leaving t oo l marks and is used mainly
on sandstone o r limestone, In addit ion,
sto nes can be filled w it h cements o r pr opriet ary fillers t o conceal natur al vo ids in th e
sto ne,Th e surface is th en coate d o r polished

3-D view of bottom of window opening in stone


cladding system made from individual stone fixings

3-D view of top of window opening in stone


cladding system made from individual stone fixings

MC E

227

Stone c1addin
3-D exploded view of extruded aluminium carrier system

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Details for stone on individual

fixings

I.Stone panel
2. Badc ng wall,typically concrete
block

3.Stainless steel fixings (a wide range


is available)
4,Timber framed window
5. Stonecill
6.Timber inner cill
7. Internal plaster ~n ish or dry lining!
dry wall
8.Thermal iosclanon in cavity

9,Stainless stee l rest raint at each


f loor level

IO.Air cavity
II . Precast concrete lint el

12.Wate rproof memb rane


13.Floor slab
14. Stone coping

3-D exploded detail view of parapet for stone cladding system fixed
3-D exploded overview of extruded aluminium carrier system

Me E 22 8

with individual ~xings

3-D exploded overv iew of extruded aluminium carrier system

3-D exploded detail view of extruded aluminium carrier system

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3-D explo ded overvie w
of stone cladding
system with individual
fixings

3-D view of bottom of w indow open ing in


individually fixed stone cladding system

3-D exp loded view of top of wi ndow opening in individually fixed stone
cladding syste m

3-D view oftop of window open ing in


individually fixed stone cladding system

3-D exploded view of top o f w indow open ing in individually fixed stone
cladding system

MC E

229

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Isometri c view of vertically set wall assembly

Examples of terracotta rainscreen fixing methods

The essent ial prin ciples of rainscreen cladding

op ed syste ms have inter locking panels,t o

ext ruding pro cess gives fiexibi lity to th e

are discussed in t he sect ion on met al rain-

provide crisp joint s, and double wall sections

mat erial t hat is sim ilar t o t he creat ion of alu-

screens.Terracotta rainscreens have devel-

to pro vide long spanning ti les w it h high fiexu-

minium sections for glazed wa lls and w in-

oped int o patented pr oprietar y systems from

ral strength, o r modulus of rupture, com-

dow s.W hen t he material is ext ruded and cut

prototyp es w it hin t he last t en years. O ver

bined w it h lightn ess in we ight.T he range of

it is dried and fired in kilns of different types

t hat t ime th e sizes of t erra cotta panels have

glazed finishes has develop ed co nsiderably in

dependi ng o n th e ti le size and shape. Som e

increased and fixing syste ms have develop ed

t he past few years t o give a very w ide range

t erracotta panels are machined fo r firing in

for use as solar shading screens t o glazed

of t extures and co lour mixes derived from

o rder t o pro vide th e precise profi le needed

w alls as part of an overall rainscreen syste m

co nte mpo rary potter y.

for t he fixing system as we ll as t o provide

for a building facade. H ollow t erracotta sec-

precise smaller jo int w idt hs between panels.

t io ns are reinforced w it h alum inium sect ions

Manufacture of panels

set into th em to form lo uvred screens th at

Terracotta is made from natur al clay th at is

ext ruded edges and two cut edges, it is

can match w it h adjacent areas of cladding.

ext r uded and fired in a kiln. Powd ered clay is

im po rt ant in arranging panels t o avoid a cut

Terracotta is fixed eit her on rails, int o alumin-

mixed w it h wate r in t he facto r y t o achieve a

edge being revealed at a co rne r.T his is

ium o r sta inless steel panels,o r o n individual

co nt ro lled level of wate r conte nt. It is th en

because t he surface finish and colour of th e

Because t erracotta panels have two

brackets like mason ry cladding w it h co n-

ext r uded t hrough dies t hat draw t he mat erial

end face w ill not mat ch t hat of t he fro nt face.

cealed fixings.Vert ically-set o r hori zont ally-

along a co nveyor belt w here it is w ire cut t o

T he ends of ext r uded t erracotta differ from

set rails are used to suit a range of joint

th e required length.Th e use of dies makes

t erracotta and fired clay bri cks in thi s respect.

arr angement s t hat imit at e trad itional maso n-

t he manufacture of t erracotta panels very

T he ends of panels are usually co ncealed

ry bond s,or can be stack bond ed in th e

fiexib le, giving it th e ability t o make new

w it h aluminium trims,somet imes at th e co r-

manner of w all t iling o r glass blocks.Terracot-

shapes and sections fo r each new pr oject

ners but typ ically aro und w indow o penings.

t a has been develop ed for use in rainscreens

w it h relative ease.Th e die creates different

both from building blocks and br icks,as used

heights and depth s of block, w it h hollow ing

Corner pieces

in loadbearing masonry co nstruct ion, and

o ut of t he int eri or t o keep t he mat erial rela-

Special shapes can be fo rmed by hand t o

from decorative ti les,w here many of t he

ti vely light and easy to handle, allowing it t o

match w it h th e sta ndard ext ruded ti les,such

glazed finishes are derived. Recently devel-

be made in long pieces if required.Th e

as co rne r pieces and deco rative eleme nts.

M C E 230
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vertical sections I: IO.Windows at


head and cill

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Vertical section I: IO. Junction with ground

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Terracotta rainscreen
Extruded aluminium carrier frame
Support brackets,typically aluminium
Thermal insulation
Backing wall
Floor slab
Metal framed window
Waterproof membrane
Structural column
Internal finish

3-D view ofterracotta rainscreen assembly, hung from individual aluminium clips
and horizontally-set support rails

MC E

23 1

Horiz ontal section I: I0, Corner condition s

I-----@----------,

Vertical sect ion I 10, Panel-to-panel

~~~~~~~~0

junctions

D etai ls
I,
},
3,

Hori zontal section I :I0,W indow jamb

4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,

Terracotta rainscreen
Extruded aluminium carrier frame
Support brackets, typically
aluminium
Thermal insulation
Backing wall
Floor slab
Metal framed window
W at erpro of membrane
Structural column
Internal finish

3-D view of terracotta rainscreen fixed with


individual clips to vertically-set support rails

Corn er pieces are made by pressing, usually

absorpt ion of regular t erracotta panels is

w it h a maximum length of I SOmm (6in) on

between 3% and 6%, w it h a density of

o ne leg and 300mm ( Il in) o n th e ot her leg,

aro und l OOOkg/m 3, making th e use of glazes

Large corne r pieces are made by hand by

not very important in excluding rainw ater

joining t wo sections t ogether. but th ese cur-

but important more for visual reason s.

rently produ ce less reliable results th at can

Vertical section I :I0,


W indow at head and cill,junction with ground

MC E

232

lack a straight and crisp edge. Manufacturer s

Fix ing syst ems

ofte n provide ext ruded cill sections for para-

Terracotta t iles have been used in tradition al

pets and w indow sect ions t o suit wall con-

const r uct ion for a lo ng t ime, but th eir use as

st ructions of 300mm t o SOOmm ( I l in-lOin)

ext ruded panels in o pen jointed rainscreen

w ide.Th ese have slo pes t o eit her o ne side o r

const r uct ion is relatively new and has been

t o both sides from th e middl e of th e ext ru-

undergoing considerable developm ent over

sion.T he fired t erracotta is eit her left in it s

th e past 10 years.The extruded nature of th e

natural colour o r is glazed w it h a w ide range

materi al used for cladding allows it t o be sup-

of glazes. A glazed finish can give th e material

ported o n clips from both behind and inside

more visual sparkle by making th e mater ial

th e mater ial. D epending o n panel size and

more reflective, w hich also provides better

thi ckness,th e materi al can be made solid or

durability from staining. H owever. wate r

hollow t o suit a range of fixing syste ms.

:r

Isometric view of horizonta lly-set wall assembly

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3- D view of parapet det ail on terracotta rainscreen facade

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Ver t ical & horizontal sections I 10,


Panel-to-panel junctions

Smaller, solid panels have cont inuo us suppo rt

cont inuous, at least twice as many ver t ical

clip profi les o n th e t op and bottom at th e

rails wo uld be needed as th ose needed for a

back of th e panel w hich form s part of th e

stack bond arrangement. Since horizontal

material w hen extruded. Some manufactur-

joints are cont inuous,hori zont al rails are used

ers use th e hollow s of th e ext rusion t o hold

t o fix courses of t erracotta.

fixing pegs at th eir ends t o provide a fully


concealed fixing syste m.
The panel is th en fixed back t o suppo rt

Vert ical rails are cont inuous, and form a


setting-o ut grid for stack bond ed tiles,w hich
are fixed back t o rails w it h ext r uded alumini-

rails w hich are set eit her vertically o r hori-

um clips. Each manufacturer has a proprietary

zontally, made from aluminium for th eir abilit y

fixing system w hich makes easier th e pro cess

t o be formed precisely as extrusions for ease

of fixing panels t o form even jo ints aro und

of fixing.Vert ical rails are we ll suite d t o 'stack

th e t erracotta panel edges.

bond ed' t erracotta,w here jo ints form a recti-

Vertical section I : I 0. Panel-topanel junctions

Horizontal rails are not cont inuo us in

linear grid of cont inuous vertical and hori -

o rder t o allow wate r t o run down th e back-

zontal joints. Hori zont al rails are w ell suit ed

ing wall w it ho ut being impeded by th e br ack-

t o staggered bond s of panels th at imit at e th e

ets.A n alte rnat ive meth od of fixing horizontal

stretc her bond used in masonry cavity w all

rails is t o set th em fo rw ard of th e backing

const r uction. Because vert ical jo ints are not

wall on brackets t o allow wate r t o pass

3-D view of terracotta rainscreen facade with


hori zontally-set support rails

MC E 233

3-D view of terracotta rainscreen wall assembly fixed


with individual clipsto vertically-set support rails

between th e rails and th e backing wall. Some

3-D view of terracotta rainscreen


wall assembly fixed onto verticallyset support rails

th e t erracotta extr uding process,w hich

t he panels.The ext rusions, set at th e ends of

manufacturers use stainless steel compo-

serves as a suppor t bracket to take th e load

each panel, somet imes project forw ard of th e

nents mixed w it h aluminium component s

of th e panel onto th e support ing rail.Ver t ical

t erracotta in order t o provide enough stabili-

since th e form er material is considered t o be

joints are eit her left open or have a plasti c or

ty in th e sect ion.This gives th e facade a char-

more durable.

black coated aluminium st rip as a baffle t o

acterist ic appearance of vert ical bays of pan-

prevent most of th e rainw ater from ente ring

els,w here only vertical backing support s are

have extr uded aluminium sections w hich, like

th e joint.Th e baffle also serves as a visual

used, divided by th e visible edge of th e alu-

vert ically suppor t ed systems, are fixed back

screen to t he cavity behind w here t here is a

minium suppo rt. Co rner pieces can be made

t o a cont inuous backing wall such as con-

risk of daylight refiecting back out of th e cav-

in sizes of 2S0mm x 300mm ( l Oin x 12in)


high,w hich ofte n do not match w it h th e

Hori zontally suppo rted syst ems usually

crete blockw ork.A luminium br ackets are

ity t o reveal th e backing wall behind. A n

fixed to th e backing wall from aro und

advantage of keeping ver t ical joints open is

maximum size th at can be manufactur ed for

IOOOmm t o 2000mm (3ft 3in t o 6ft 6in)

th at th e gaps allow th e void behind t o be

th e planks, but thi s const raint w ill no doubt

hori zontal cent res, depending on rail size.

bett er vent ilate d, instead of relying only on

be overcome in th e next few years.Thinner

The use of a horizontal clip ensures th at

vent ilat ion points at th e t op and bottom of

t erracotta panels of 30mm ( 1.2in) th ickness

most of th e rainw ater is excluded at hori -

th e wall as is th e case in masonry cavity

are used, in sizes w it h a maximum length of

zontal joints by clipping t he panels t ogether

walls.Joint w idt hs of t erracotta panel rain-

around SOOmm (2ft Sin) and corresponding

in a way t hat ensures most of t he wate r runs

screens vary from 2mm t o aro und IOmm

maximum height of 300mm ( I 2in).These

back out of th e joint.Terracotta til es used in

(up t o O.5in), depending on th e size of panel

t hinner panels have maximum corner panels

hor izontally suppo rte d systems have a

and t ype of fixing syste m chosen.

of I SOmm (6in) on one leg and 300mm

stepped edge th at projects into th e cavity

( 12in) on th e ot her leg.The minimum sizes

th at clips int o th e aluminium profile.The bot -

Panel sizes

th at can be accommo dated w it h th e vert ical

t om edge of th e t erracotta panel above laps

For th e largest t iles, formed as 'planks' up t o

rail system are t erracotta panels aro und

over th e front of th e hori zont al suppo rt pro -

around I SOOmm long x 600mm w ide x

200mm long x 200mm high (Sin x Sin), w it h

file in order t o conceal it. A cont inuous lip is

40mm th ick (Sft x 2ft x I.Sin), a substant ial

a th ickness of 30mm t o 40mm ( 1.2in- I .6in).

form ed in th e back of th e panel. as part of

aluminium suppor t section is needed behind

A ll panel dimensions vary w it h a tol erance of

MC E

2 34

Vertical section I :25.


W indow s at head and cill

CD

Ho rizonta l section I: IO.


Corner condition

Details

~ i

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cd

I.

Tenracotta rainscreen
2.
Extruded aluminium carrier frame
3. Support brackets. typi cally aluminium
4.
Thermal insulation
5.
Backing wall
6. Floor slab
7.
Metal framed w indow
8. W aterpro of membrane
9.
Structural column
10. Internal finish

Q)

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Horizontal section I:25. Corner conditio n. window jamb

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3-D view of bottom of window opening in terracotta rainscreen facade

3-D view of corner condition

MCE

235

Horizontal section I: I0, W indow jamb

_____---JIC0

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Ho rizontal section I :25,W indow jamb


10

10
u

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around I .Ornrn in th eir length, since t erra-

are made from eit her fo lded aluminium o r

cotta is w ire-cut as it comes o ut of th e

rolled stee l channels,Trims are not cont inu-

ext r usio n machine, and is subject to a toler-

ous w it h th e st r uct ure behind in ord er to

ance of aro und l .Srnrn in its w idt h due t o

avoid th erm al brid ging,Th e flat, planar nature

shrinkage during firing,

of t erracotta has led t o th e increased o mission of reveals aro und w indow o penings by

Vertical section I :25,W indow at head


and cill

MC E

236

Openings

pushing t he w indow frame forward t o align

W indow s and doors can be set very easily

w it h th e face of th e t erracotta panels, Bays of

int o t erracotta rainscreen cladding, Extruded

t erracotta are also increasingly mixed w it h

aluminium trims w hich proj ect from w indow

ot her materi als such as metal rainscreen pan-

o penings can be used t o form a crisp edge t o

els and metal lo uvre panels w here mater ials

a w indow w hen it is set back behind th e face

change w it ho ut t he need for any special

of th e t erracotta,as is typically th e case,since

detailing at th e junction, since all panels are in

th e w indow is usually fixed int o th e backing

a cont inuous rainscreen arrangement. W here

wall,t o w hich th e rainscreen cladding is fixed.

t erracotta reveals are introduced into w in-

A lte rnat ively, th e w indow frame can form

dow o penings, corne rs are mitred w it h open

part of a cont inuo us hori zont al o r ver t ical

joints if special corne r panels are not used.

metal trim th at visually divides t he t erracotta

This prin ciple is also used at intern al and

int o panels, typically storey height.Th e trims

exte rnal corne rs in th e facade,

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Co me r condition,window jamb

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Ho rizontal section I :25,W indow jamb

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3-D view of top of window opening in terracotta rainscreen facade

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Vertical section I : IO.


Windows at head and cill

MCE

237

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3-D exp lode d view of terracotta rain screen


facade held in place w ith individual support clips

(3)

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3-D exploded view of wall assembly of terracotta rainscreen supported on vertical and horizontal
aluminium rails

MC E

238

I .Terracotta rainscreen
2. Extruded aluminium carrier frame
3. Support brackets, typically aluminium
4.Thermal insulation
5. Backing wall
6. Floor slab
7. Metal framed window
8.Waterproof membrane
9. Structural column
I a.lnternal finish

3-D exploded view of parapet assembly on terracotta


rainscreen facade

3-D exploded view of ground fioor junction

3-D exploded view of top of window opening in


terracotta rainscreen wall assembly

3-D exploded view of top of corner condition in


vertically-hung terracotta rainscreen cladding

3-D view of top of w indow opening

3-D view of bottom of win dow op ening

~
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II

3-D view of parapet

3-D exploded view of terracotta rainscreen


mounted on individual aluminium clips on
vertica lly-set aluminium support rails

MCE

239

_________
M...;.;CE- 241

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CDElevation I :25. Typical arrangement of panels with opening lights

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Vertical section I : I O.Junctions at panel-to-panel, window and junction with


other wall types at top and
bottom

Horizontal sections I : IO.Junctions at panel-to-panel , window and junction with other wall types at top and
bottom, corner

3-D detailed view of window and panel junction

M C E 242
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D detailed view of wall and panel junction

Details
I.
2.

Translucent GRP claddingpanel. insulat ed


Thenmally broken extruded aluminium framing
3. Opaque GRP claddingpanel. insulated
4. Insid e
5.
Outside
6.
Recessed cover cap
7. W indow inser ted into framing
8. Adjacent wall.Metal rainscneen shown
9.
Insulated comer panel
10. Metal cover str ip
II. Supporting structure

Plastics are resinou s. po lym er-based mater i-

resin. w it h w hich th e fibre is com bined. forms

ding for its translucency and transparency,

als. and th ey are used for both sealed clad-

a solid materi al w hen a chemical cata lyst is

especially w here its high th erm al insulation

ding and rainscreens. w hich are discussed in

added. GRP panels are form ed in a mou ld

values are needed. Po lycarbonate is made by

th e foll owin g t w o sections.Th e materi als

w here glass fibr e cloth is laid into a mould

melting a polymer and extruding it into

used are pr incipally glass reinforced polyester

and coate d w it h resin and catalyst. A n alte rna-

strands w hich are cho pped t o produce poly-

(G RP). polycarbon ate and UPVC. Since th e

ti ve method is t o spray a mixture of glass

carbo nate granules.Th e granules are th en

properties of th ese materi als are generally

fibr e and resin into a mould. The face of th e

ext ruded or mould ed t o form sheet materi -

not as familiar t o reader s as ot her mater ials.

m ou ld is coate d w it h a releasing agent t o

als. Po lycarbon ate is ext r uded in single wall.

a bri ef descripti on of each of th ese materi als

allow th e GRP t o be removed w hen it has set

doub le wa ll or trip le wa ll materi als.Twin wall

is given here.
GRP is a composite mater ial made from
th erm osettin g po lyester resins (t hat set hard

hard. GRP sections are made by pultrusion.

sheet is an extrusion of t w o layer s separate d

w here fibres are pulled through a die dr aw ing

by fins. giving th e mater ial greate r rigidity,

st rands of th e materi al t o form co nt inuous

combined w it h an air gap th at pr ovides addi-

and do not melt w hen re-heated) w hich are

sect ions in th e manner of aluminium ext r u-

t ional th erm al insulati o n.Th e maximum sheet

mixed w it h glass fibr e mat.Thi s co mposite

sions. Pultru sion s are beginning to be used as

size is approximate ly 2000mm x 6000mm .

mater ial has high t ensile. shear and co mpres-

st ruct ural co mpo nents in footbridges.w here

Th e mater ial has a t endency t o yellow w it h

sive st rength combined w it h lightness and

th eir durability is considered t o be better

age. w hich can be ove rco me w it h an acry lic

resistance t o co rrosion. How ever, like alumin-

th an painted aluminium o r steel struct ures.

coat ing.Th e mater ial can also be mou lded

ium it deflects co nsiderably under high loads

W hereas sections are made by an expensive

into complex shapes. It is also used for its

and requires st iffening. but th e material is

pultrusion method. panels are made by hand

high strength. ductility and lightn ess in we ight.

stiffer than ot her plastics. GRP is not combus-

as a craft-based act ivity in a wo rksho p.The

Because th e mater ial is combust ible. it s use in

tibl e and can reach one hour fire resistance in

production of GRP panels is eco nomic.

facades is limited. A n advantage of th e mate-

some cladding applicat ions.Glass fibr e mat is

requiring neither high t emp er atures for manu-

rial over glass is it s im pact resistance. w hich is

a flexible sheet material made from fibr es

facture. nor expensive equipme nt.

higher th an th at of tou ghened glass o r lami-

drawn from mo lten glass. It s t ensile st rength


is much greate r th an th at of stee l. Polyester

Polycarbonate is a th erm op lastic. th at is. it


melts at high t emp eratures. It is used in c1 ad-

nated glass.Th e main disadvantages of po lycarbo nate over glass are th at it is less durable

MC E

243

0~

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Details
I,

Translucent GRP cladding


pane l, insulat ed

2.

Therm ap y broken extruded


aluminium framing

3.

Opaque

o
3-D view of junct ion at gutter

GRP cladding
panel,insulated

4.

Im ide

5.

Outside

6.
7.

Recessed cover cap


W ,ndO'N inserted into
framing

S.

Acjacent wall. Met.ll ram

9.

screen shown
Insulated come r panel

10. Meta l cover strip


I I. Supporting structure

Vert ical section 1:10, lorctons at parapet and cill

MC E

244

3-D view of junction at ground

Isometri c view of wall assembly.

3-D cutaway view of wall assembly.

3-D section of window and sealed panel junction

and scratc hes easily, w hich makes th e surface

pressure plate system w it h a secondary sup-

held between EPDM gaskets by an ext ruded

dull w it h tim e, and its high th ermal ex pansio n.

porting stru cture behind, or by forming alu-

aluminium plate. Panels are made from two

It expands up t o 20% more than glass.

m inium ext rusions w it hin th e panels.A n

mou lded GRP skins w hich are bond ed eit her

advantage of GRP panels is th eir lightn ess in

side of th e rigid insulation . In commo n w it h

UPVc. or PVC-u is an unplasticised, o r


rigid PVc. used in plastic-based cladding

we ight, com bined w it h being mou lded, allow-

metal composite panels, GRP panels have

mainly for w indow fram es and weat her-

ing th em to be made in large panel sizes, up

undergone much development in th e use of

boardin g.Th e materi al can be easily ext r uded

to 6000mm x 1500mm (20ftx5 ft) .T hey are

glues to avoid delamination betw een th e

as com plex sect ions t o pr ovide an eco nomic

more eco nomic th an an equivalent insulat ed

o ute r skins and th e insulati o n core. Edges of

material w it h low th erm al co nductivity, mak-

glazed wa ll. Panel thi cknesses are usually

th e GRP panels are bond ed together t o form

ing it ideal for w indow frames w here a plastic

70-75mm t o pro vide struct ural stability and

a sealed panel.W indows are glazed in to th e

th erm al break would be provided in an

th erm al insulati o n.

pressure plates as separate panels.W indows

equivalent aluminium w indow. Like po lycar-

W here panels are fixed into aluminium

are rarely glazed directly into GRP panels

bon ate it is combustible but is not easily ignit -

pressure plates, th e cover capping over th e

since it is difficult t o pro vide a drained and

ed, burnin g slowly if ex posed t o a flame

face of th e plate is also aluminium.T his can

vent ilate d vo id w it hin a GRP panel. Earlier

source. If th e flame is removed, th en th e

present a difficulty in co lour matching

versions of GRP panels, used in th e 1960s

flame w ill self-ext inguish.Th e material w ill sof-

between th e capping and th e adjacent panel.

and I 970s, used a rubb er gasket t o seal th e

t en if exposed t o a direct heat source. UPVC

W here th e alum inium is powd er coate d o r

jo int between w indow and panel, as w as

is available in a range of co lours, weat hering

PVDF coate d, th e GRP is coloured w it h a

used in car w indscreens at that tim e. But th e

we ll, but is suscept ible t o fading, particularly

resin applied t o th e face of th e mou ld during

lack of a second line of defence behind th is

w it h br ighter co lours. It is a t ough mater ial,

manufacture.Th is can lead t o co lour variat ion

seal led t o th e leaks.T he same pr ob lem was

but also flexible.

GRP panels

between th e cappings and th e panels,w hich

enco unte red in car w indows, w hich mo ved

can eit her form part of th e design, o r else

o n t o using silicone bond s. C ills and parapets

different colo urs are used for each. GRP pan-

are form ed w it h GRP or pressed aluminium

GRP cladding panels can be made eit her as

els are glazed in a similar way t o glass, w it h a

co pings in th e same way as st ick glazing sys-

separate panels glazed into an alum inium

thin panel edge, w hich can be co mpressed,

t ems,discussed in th e Glass chapte r. Copin gs


MCE

245

D etails
I. GRP or UPVC rainscreen panels
2. Twinwall polycarbonate sheet
3. Support rail
4. Thermal insulation
5. Supporting structure
6. Metal drip
7.
Floor slab
8. Metal parapet coping
9. Backing wall
Vertical sections I: IO.
Panel-to-panel junctionand
head and cill condition
Horizontal section I:IO. Corner condition

3-D view of panel to panel junction

3-D view of panel to panel junction

3-D view of panel to panel junction

are glazed in to t he pressure plate fram ing in

light to pass t hrou gh t he panel. Mineral w ool

wa ll, restrain ed by a secondar y steel fr ame.

t he same w ay as a panel.

quilt is t ypically used, but fixing t he insulation

W hen glazed into an op ening, t he edge

requires care t o avoid t he mat eri al fro m lat er

T-sect io n alum inium profiles are sealed

w it h extr uded aluminium sect io ns set w it hin

sagging, w hich is clear ly visible t hro ugh t he

against t he adjacent concrete floo r slab w it h

t he depth o f t he panel.T his is a more eco -

GRP panel. Light t ransm issio n w it ho ut addi-

silicone, at both t op and bottom .W hen fixed

nomi c sol ut ion w hich is closer to metal com-

ti on al t herm al insulation is t ypically around

to a seco ndar y suppo rt fram e, panels are

GRP panels can also be fixed t oget her

"C, w hich is

po site panels in its approach t han t he alumin -

15%, w it h a U -value o f I .5W /m 2

ium pressure plate system, w hich is based o n

sim ilar t o an argo n filled do uble glazed unit,

stick-built glazed wa lls. GRP panels are

and a shading factor of 20%, w hich pro vid es a

int ern al) or st ainless st eel (if ex posed t o t he

clipped into aluminium extr usions w hich have

high level of shading for a 'glazed' wa ll. Un like

weat her) . Ci lls and co pings are form ed w it h

a t her mal break set int o t he section. Panels

t he pressure plate syste m, w indows can be

t he meth ods descr ibed in t he sect ion o n

are also st iffened int ern ally w it h alum inium

glazed int o th e panels, giving th e possibilit y of

met al com posite panels.

I-secti on s o r T-sect io ns w here large scale

a rich mix of w indows , doors and translucent

panels are used. Panels can be opaqu e or

panels w it ho ut t he need fo r co m plex framing.

suppo rte d at each floor level o n met al


bracket s in eit her alum inium, mild steel (if

Polycarbonate cladding

t ranslucent, like t he previo us pressure plate-

W indow frames can fo rm part o f t he T sec-

Po lycarb onate is used fo r wa ll cladding as


eit her profi led sheet or as twin wa ll / trip le

based syste ms describ ed. W here panels are

ti on extr usio n aro und a w indow. Int egrat ing

t ransparent, t he int ern al alum inium fr aming

t he w indow frame int o t he extr usion sup-

wa ll sheet. W here pro filed sheet is used, it is

w it hin t he panel forms a visible gr id, resem -

porting t he GRP panels avoids potential leaks

ty pically used in lo ng length s to avo id ho r i-

bling t raditio nal Japanese Shoji scree ns.T hese

associate d w it h silicone-sealed butt joint s

zont al joint s fo rmed by lapping sheets over

int ern al rib s are typically set from 300 mm x

w hen a separate w indow frame and panel

on e anot her.T he sheet is orientated ty pically

300mm cent res to 300m m x 600mm cen-

fram e are fixed together.T he int egrat ed w in-

w it h t he profi le lines r unning vert ically to

t res. In t hese t ranslucent panels t he vo id

dow frame allow s w ate r t o be drained fro m

allow rainwater t o run off w it h a minimum of

between t he two skins can be filled w it h

t he frame. GRP panels can be glazed into

visible st aining to t his translucent materi al, but

t ranslucent insulati on quilt t o increase t her-

large str uct ural o penings, fro m floor t o ceiling

hori zont ally o r ientate d sheet is increasingly

mal insulation, w hile st ill allowing a diffu sed

for exam ple, or can form a com plete glazed

being used. W hen set vert ically, sheets are

MCE

246

(8)

'R,I

'fl~

.- (i)

-':0

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'---

I~
~

Sections I: IO.Junctions at parapet and cill

,b

r--

- .- 0

U~
,

Vertical section I :25.Tw o skins of


polycarbonate fixed to aluminium support frame

3-D view of parapet detail

Horizontal section I : IO. Corner condition

Isometric views of wall assembly:


I Vertically set, 2. Horizontally set

3-D view of ground junction

MCE

247

Details

o
CD

I,

Twin wall po lycarbomte sheet

2.
I
4.
5.

Thermal break
Supporting structure
GRP dadding panel.insulated
Stickcurtain wall-type support system

6.

Extruded aluminium edge framing

7.
8.
9.

Rubber-based or silicone-based seal


Adjacent wall
MetJ.1cover strip

(0

Isometric views of wall assembly


t .Vertlcallyset
2. Ho rizontally set w ith interlocking jo ints.
3. Ho rizontally set w ith stepped joints

3-Ddetail of comer junction

CD

JL

joined by either a straightforward lap of th e

ed l-sections. similar to those used in GRP

material,which results in visible staining

cladding. to clip t he twin wall sheets to pro-

through the t ranslucent material,unless an

vide a completely lightweight system.This is a

opaque sealant is used Alternat ively. an alu-

very economic form of cladding which can

minium to p hat section is used. set between

be screen printed to create visually dramatic

two adjacent sheets usedas described in the

translucent facades. Its lack of fire resistance

section on profiled metal sbeet.Tbe manufac -

makes it a less attractive material for ware-

t ure of polycarbo nate cladding is restricted

houses and factory buildings. where it s trans-

only t o t he she et material. and accessories

lucencyand t hermal insulation. combined

such as (ill profiles. coping profilesand win-

with economy. would make it a much more

dow trims are not usually available.Alumini-

popular material. As with profiled polycar-

um trims are used instead. and are fixed so as

bonate sheet. other standard components

to reduce their visibility to a minimum.Trims

are not usually manufactured.and folded alu-

are fixed in the sameway as for profiled wall

minium sections are used for drips and para-

cladding described earlier.

pet copings instead of polycarbonatesec-

Twin wall polycarbonate is fixed with


either convent ional aluminium framing for
w indows.or framing for stick glazing curtain
walling. Some manufacturers provide extrud-

Me E 24 8

tions.which are expensive to produce as


new profiles.

(1)

(1)

o f .....all
icVIE'.....
ISOmetr

3-D view of twin wall polycarbonate sheet wall

3-D exploded view of tw in wall polycarbonate sheet wall

3-D detailed view of twin wall polycarbonate sheet wall

MC E

25 0

3-D view of twin wall polycarbonate sheet wall

3-D view of plastic-based seated panel system

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Twin wall polycarbonate sheet


Thermal break
Suoportmg structure
GRPcladding panet insulat ed
Stroccurta in wall-type support system
Extruded aluminium edge framing
Rubber-based or silicone-based seal
Adjacent wall
Metal cover strip

CD
CD
CD

(')
3-D exploded view of ptasnc-based sealed panel system

3-D exploded view of plastic-based sealed panel system with window

3-D explode d view of plastic-based sealed panel system w indow detail

MC E

25 1

3-D view of typical polycarbonate rainscreen cladding assembly

3-D view of typi cal wind ow o pening in polycarbonate rainscreen

The tw o main ty pes of plastic-based rain-

fixed glazing and clamped glazing, w it h o pen

cones.Th e panel can th en be attac hed t o

screen are flat panels, cassette panels, profiled

joi nt s betw een panels. Flat sheet is made in a

ver t ically- o r ho rizo nt ally-set rails w it ho ut

sheet and over lapping ti les.Th ey are used as

w ide range of co lours. Sheets are held cap-

th e fixings being visible. A n alte rnat ive fixing

eit her o ute r screens t o glazed wa lls, typically

ti ve at th eir corne rs w it h an aluminium

meth od is t o fix th e panels through th e front

as solar shading, or as rainscreen panels t o an

clamp o n both sides, w it h a set of bo lts

face as visible fixings. Panels are set o nto

opaque wall,t ypically in-situ concrete o r con-

squeezing th e clamps t ogeth er w it ho ut th e

cont inuo us rails, runnin g vert ically or hori -

crete blockwork. T he mater ials used are

need t o drill t hrough th e po lycarbon ate.

zontally, w hich are positio ned behind t he

eit her po lycarbon ate or glass reinforced poly-

Since th e cost of dri lling po lycarbon ate sheet

panels.A layer of EPD M o r silicone is set

este r (GRP).Ac ry lic and UPVC, w hile softe r

is much low er th an glass (glass has t o be

between t he panels and fr aming t o provide a

th an both th ese materials,are used for w in-

heat strengthened afte r dri lling), point fixings

smoot h consiste nt surface for th e panels.Th e

dow frames and special mou lded elements. In

are more commo n w hen thi s t echnique is

panels are fixed w it h screws from th e front

addit ion, composites ot her th an GRP

used. Bolts are much simpler th an th ose

through ho les pre-dri lled in th e panel.Th ese

(described in t he previou s sect ion o n plastic-

used for glass, since t he mater ial is much

screws t hen have a deco rative capping

based cladding) are used for rainscreens.

light er.t hough po lycarbo nate has higher

applied, such as a dom e head screw th at is

Thermosettin g po lymer resins can be mixed

th erm al expansion th an glass. Polycarbon ate

secured int o th e head of th e fixing screw

w it h cellulose fibres t o provide sheet materi-

sheets usually have UV protectio n o n both

t hat is already in place.

als w it h high durability w hich fade littl e in

sides t o avoid yellow ing w it h age.T he prob -

sunlight. In commo n w it h rainscreens in ot her

lem of yellow ing has now been largely over-

Multi-wall polycarbonate sheet

mater ials, panels o r sheets are fixed w it h

come w it h t he higher quality sheet mater ials.

Like flat sheet, multi-w all sheet can be used

eit her visible point fixings,vert ical/horizontal

Sheet sizes are aro und 2000mm x 3000mm

for rainscreens,w here its main advantage is

rails w it h partially concealed framing mem-

(6ft 6in x l Oft) and 2000mm x 6000mm

t he ability t o provide large, flat panels rather

ber s, o r parti ally inter locking panels w here

(6ft 6in x 20ft), vary ing betw een manufactur-

th an its high level of th erm al insulation.Thick-

th ere is no view through th e joints.

ers, in thi cknesses from 3mm to 8mm

nesses are from 4mm to 32mm (0. IS- I .2in)

(0. 118-0.3mm).W hen o paque colours are

in sheet sizes from 1000mm x 6000mm

Flat po lycarbon ate sheet

used, rather th an th e translucent o r clear

(3ft3 in x 20ft) t o 2000mm x 7000mm (6ft 6in

Opaque flat sheet is fixed as rainscreen clad-

t ypes, hook-on fixings can be bond ed t o t he

x 23ft) .T he material can be screen pr inted o r

ding panels using similar t echniques t o bo lt

rear face of th e panel w it h st ruct ural sili-

coate d t o provide a w ide variety of colours

MC E

252

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

JR" L@

.
0 :

>>-

;0-/

~0

:
~

<:

Det ails
I,

2.

IOmm plywood sheathing

Breather roen o -aoce

3.

Ver t ical t imber battens

4.

Reflective foil breather


membrane
Profiled pofycarbcnate
cladding (orientated vertically)
Composite timber joist
Thermal insuaH:ion

5.

6.
7.
B.
9,

Internal dry lining


Timber framed window

10. Horizontal timber battens


II . Screw fixing witl1 plastic

spacer

12.
13.
14.

A luminium w indow surround


Roo f construction
Metal coping

o
II
@

3-0 section detail of pofycarbonate rainscreen


Vertical secnoo I: I0 , Deta il of pobcarbonate ramsoeen

3-D section detail of poiycarbo nate ra inscreen

MC E

253

~ ~:
""'.

--------

0 0

(')

10

~'

@
jJ
'. A

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.

s.

.(!)

X
X

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

UFVC sect ion

Plastic-compos.te fiat
parers
UPVC board cladding
GRPcladding parer
Glazed unit

Thermal insulation
Backing wall
Support rails
UPVCwindow

Plastic-coroposae
coping

3-D view of parapet detail

Section I: 10. Parapet detail,wall


assembly and ground junction

.' 0
~(y\r

~'JJ..

0-----4

J
Horizontalsections I:IO.lntemal comer and external comer

on a large format sheet-Aswith flat sheet

t ransparent panels with around 90% light

the material can be coated to give UV pro -

t ransmission. made to match steel and alu-

tection on one side or both sides to avoid

minium sheetingfrom other companies.They

yellowing.The sheetmaterial is used in

are used mainly to provide daylight in roofs

increasing numbers of walls, from twin wall

and in wall cladding in industrial buildings

to five or six walls thick.Panels are fixed using

without the need for special rooflight panels.

t he same methods as flat sheet with thicker

Sheets are made in profiles to suit sheets by

sheets being supported up to around

a particular manufacturer with whom they

1800mm centres (6ft). Panels can be curved

have an agreement They are prod uced in

by setting t hem into a pre-formed aluminium

both sinusoidal (curved) profiles and trape-

edge frame,when the material can be curved

zoidal (zigzag) profiles in lengthsup to

to a minimum radius of ISOOmm (Sft) for

around 10metres (32ft)with thicknesses

twin wall sheets and around 4000mm (13ft)

around Imm.The width of most sheets is

for the thickest sheets.

around 1200mm (4ft).They can also be used


for rainscreen wall cladding, as a material in

Isom etri c views of wall asse mb ly.


I. Horizonta lly set supports, 2.Verticallyset supports

Me E 254

Profiled polycarb onate sheet

its own right vertically set sheeting is being

Profiled sheets are made from extruded

used in city centre buildings, far from its use

polycarbonate resin. manufactured to provide

as an economic roofing material. Its high

1]

Ho rizontal sections I: I0, Internal corner (top).


exte rnal corner (mi ddle). panel to panel junction
(bottom)

Isom etri c views of wall assembly:


I.Vertically set supports.
2. Horizontally set supports

0)

-"z-,

~m

r
1

ill

<l

(~~
I

\)

CD

CD
'"

~~

l r

xX

Cy

Vertical section I: I0,Window opening, ground


level

impact resistance, light ness in we ight and lo ng

and coping profi les are made from eit her

t erm high weat her resistance make po lycar-

ext r uded UPVC, GRP o r extruded alumini-

bon ate very suitable for dr amatic cladding

urn.The material can be curve d t o a mini-

struct ures w here we ight is a crit ical issue,

mum radius of aro und 4000mm ( 13ft) for a

Profiled sheets are fixed w it h self-tapping

sheet of 50mm (2in) thi ckness, Profi led poly-

sealed screws, w it h a wate r t ight washer o n

carbo nate sheet is also made in a translucent

th e o utside, More elabo rate point fixings are

w hite colour t o provide a light transmission

difficult t o use due t o th e profi led nature of

of aro und 45% and in grey colours w it h light

th e sheet w here a screw or bolt is attac hed

transmission of aro und 35%,

through th e peak o r trough of th e profile,


Sheets are lapped o n all sides, creat ing a

Plastic-com po sit e fiat pane ls

shadow w here th ey lap, w hich can be con-

Flat panels can also be made from th erm o-

cealed by th e suppo r t st ruct ure behind,

setting resins m ixed w it h cellulose fibres.This

A lte rnat ively, sheets can be lapped in th e

is usually a mixture of 70% softwood fibre

horizontal direction, regardless of th e sheet

and 30% resin, manufactured at high t emper-

orientat ion, and can be jo ined by aluminium

at ure and pressure, Panels can be coloured

t op hat profi les in th e ver t ical direction in th e

o n o ne side, both sides o r have different col-

manner of profi led metal sheet ing, Cill, drip

o urs o n each side, Panels are smoot h w it h an

3-D view. External corner detail

MC E

255

ril

["

([)

CD

CD

I'

CD

I
I

[HI

/'

I
CD

1UI

In
Isometric views of wall assembly:2 different UPVC board-type profiles

([)

r1

t-

In

ill

Isomet ric view of w all assembly: head and


cill of w indow opening

almost impervio us sealed surface.A lt hough

factured in t he same mater ial. Plastic-com -

also be glued w it h solvent adhesives o r

th e finish colour is form ed by using pigment-

posite fiat panels can be fixed w it h visible fix-

sealed w it h silicone sealants. Other compo-

ed resins as a t op coat in th e mou ld, sawn

ings or concealed fixings used for fiat sheet

nent s specially made for UPVC cladding

edges do not require repainting or protective

and multi -w all polycarbon ate sheet.

include end covers for th e exposed ends of


ext rusions, flashings for cills, copings and w in-

cover since th e colour exte nds all th e way


through th e material. Rainscreen panels

UPVC Board cladding

dow surro unds. Boards are fixed back t o

formed in thi s material are very resistant to

Extrud ed UPVC board s are used as a subst i-

batt ens th at pro vide a vent ilate d vo id behind

th e lo ng t erm effects of we at her.w it h high

tute for t imber cladding, and are ofte n fixed

t o allow th e boards t o function as a rain-

UV resistance and colo ur stability and high

back to a timber fr ame in th e same way as

screen.W here th e suppo rt ing wa ll is timber

fire resistance. Plastic-comp osite fiat panels

t imber board ing.A lt ho ugh th e main advan-

fr amed, as is ty pically th e case,th is w all is

can be cut drilled and routed o n site , making

t age of th is mater ial is it s low maintenance

faced in a wate rproo f membrane w it h ply-

it more like timber in t erm s of its flexibi lity

w hen compared t o painted timber boards,

wood sheat hing behind th at forms part of a

durin g const r uction. Comp on ents do not all

th e material is beginning t o be used in its

timber st ud wa ll. UPVC board cladding pro-

have to be cut off-site in a wo rksho p.

own right. w it hout th e imitation of th e lan-

vides a high level of th erm al insulation, w it h

Because th e sawn edges are smoot h, t hey

guage of t imber wa ll cladding. Boards are

U-values at aro und 0. 15W/m2 " C . UPVC

can be laid as over lapping ti les in th e manner

made as ext r usions in lengths up t o aro und

boards are subject t o relatively high levels of

of t imber shingles, a t echnique used in sheet

5000mm ( 16ft) , in w idt hs from 250mm t o

th erm al expansion w hen com pared t o GRP,

metal cladding.Th eir high impact resistance

300mm ( I 0-12in).Thicknesses match th ose

at 7x I 0-5 per C for UPVC (like polycar-

and imper viou s surface make th em we ll suit -

of timber bo arding at 18-20mm (aro und

bonate) and 2.5x I0-5p er C for GRPA

ed t o demanding condit ions w here damage

0.7in). Boards are nailed back t o t imber

length of UPVC at 3000mm ( lOft) lo ng w ill

can occur easily.T he material is made in sheet

fr ames o r screwe d back t o alum inium fr ames

expand abo ut 6mm (0.25in) w it h a 25C

sizes from 3600mm x 1800mm ( 12ft x 6ft),

and are fixed at aro und 600mm (2ft) along

increase in it s t emp er atur e.

3000mm x 1500mm ( l Oft x 5ft) and

th e length of th e panels. Manufacturer s have

2500mm x 1800mm (8ft x 6ft) in th icknesses

specially form ed co rne r pieces in a range of

UPVC w indows

from around 5mm t o 12mm (0.25-0.5in).

angles t o suit t ypical sit uat io ns of 45 angles

Extrud ed UPVC w indows are used for w in-

Corner panels and parapets are also manu-

both intern ally and exte rnally. Corn er s can

dow s, ty pically in rainscreen panels in plastic-

MCE

256

Vertical sections I: I0,Window at head and cill, louvre


Vertical section I : I0,Junction with ground

Horizontal section

1:10,
Window, louvre

/ 1--

~,'.

---1

Horizontal section

1:10,
Window jamb,
internal corner

Details
I,
},

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
I0,

UPVC section
Plastic-composite fiat panels
UPVC board cladding
GRP cladding panel
Glazed unit
Thermal insulation
Backing wall
Support rails
UPVC window
Plastic-composite coping

0 ----'

' - - - - - - - - - - - ------"

Horizontal sections I: I0, Internal corner,


external corner

3-D view of UPVC window

MCE

25 7

'====0
Horizontal section I 10, W indow opening

3-D views of ground junction detail

D etails
I,
2,

UPVC section
Plastic-composite fiat panels
3. UPVC board cladding
4,
GRP cladding panel
5,
Glazed unit
6, Thermal insulation
7,
Backing wall
8,
Support rails
9,
UPVC window
10, Plastic-composite coping

Vertical section I: I0,

CD

--. ......
~

3-D views of window opening in plastic rainscreen

MC E

25 8

avoid co rro sion of th e st eel sections, UPVC

provide com plex and accurate sections th at

w indows have develop ed co nsiderably in

can be appreciably more eco no mic th an

recent years w it h higher impact resistance

th ose in aluminium,The material has a much

and higher crack resistance, parti cularly in th e

low er th erm al conduct ivity th an aluminium,

low w inte r t emp eratures w here th e mater ial

and so requires no addit ional th erm al br eak,

is more vulnerable,

W indows have an inner chamber w hich is

.._------

--......

based mater ials, UPVC can be ext ruded t o

drained and vent ilated in th e manner of alu-

GRP panels

minium w indows , w it h rubb er-b ased seals

Po lycarbonate is generally a more expensive

pro viding th e necessary air seals,W indow s

materi al th an GRP. making GRP more suitable

are ty pically sealed w it h silicone aro und th eir

for low er cost applicat ions, How ever, GRP

edges, U-values for w indow frames can reach

has o ne advantage over all th e ot her plastic-

as low as 1.4 W /m2 " C, w hich is comparable

based materi als,w hich is its ability t o be

w it h highly insulat ed doub le glazed units,

mou lded easily and eco nomically. W hen used

Some UPVC w indow sect io ns have a galva-

as rainscreen panels th e materi al needs a t op

nised steel int ernal co re reinforcement t o

gel coat t o avoid it s fibres being seen.T he

stiffen th e frames, usually as folded sect io ns

ability t o see th e fibr es th rou gh th e material

th at are held by th e wa lls of th e ext r usion,

make it very unsuitable for transparent o r

Corn er s of frames are bond ed t ogether t o

translucent panels, but for mou lded rain-

Isometric view of wall assembly

- - - -- - -@- - - - - -

CD

L,

Vertical section I:I O. Parapet condition

CD

Hori zontal sections I : IO.


External corner,
panel-to-p anel junction

screen panels it is possible t o int ro duce some


3D modelling int o t he facade panels. GRP

CD

can be bonded t o hon eycomb panels fo rm ed


in th e same material t o produ ce large panels
w it h high fire resist ance.T he face of t he panel
can be screen print ed to any design, w ith t he
use of photographic images being increasingly
popu lar,

D etails
I.
2.

UPVC section
Plastic-composite fiat panels
3. UPVC board cladding
4.
GRP cladding panel
5.
Glazed unit
6.
Thermal insulation
7.
Backingwall
8.
Support rails
9.
UPVC window
10. Plastic-composite coping

3-D view of possible fixing method detail

3-D cut-away view of parapet condition and possible panel


fixing method

MCE

25 9

)0 expk:xled Viewof plastic rainscreen wal assembly

)0

eeeeee _

MCE

260

of top of wndow opet'Wlg

wallassembly

in plastic

of bottom of wndow openng in plastic


wal assembly

]0 exploded _
~

t:

3-D exploded view of ground junction in plastic rainscreen assembly

3-D exploded view of parapet condition in plastic rainscreen assembly

/1
I

3-D view of ground junction in plastic


rainscreen assembly

3-D exploded view of profiled GRP rainscreen assembly

3-D view of parapet condition in plastic


rainscreen assembly

3-D view of corner detail in plastic


rainscreen assembly

3-D exploded view of plastic rainscreen corner condition

MC E

26 1

MCE

263

lr~\~(Q;'11

~ {:h'@'~~-F\~ [(r~

Horizontal section I :25, W indow openings

Horizontal section I: I0, W indow jambs

3-D view of window jamb

Timber cladding has tradition ally been used

eac h sto rey height set of timb er frames.The

e it he r o n-site o r in a wo rksho p.vo ids

o n load bearing t imb e r frame d wa lls, as d is-

ballo o n frame , w hich is now used less, is

betw ee n t he framing mem be rs are fille d w it h

cussed in this section, Its more recent appli-

e njoying a revival in light gauge steel sect io ns,

th ermal insulation ,A breath er membrane is

cat ion as cladding pane ls and as rainscreen s is

This meth od has vert ical framing members

th en fixed to th e face of th e sheat hing laye r.

discussed in t he seco nd sect io n of t his chap-

w hich are co nt inuo us, wit h t he int e rmediary

This provides a wate rproo f barrier w hich

te r. There are two tradition al gene ric forms of

floors being suppo rt ed by th e wa ll running

also allows th e vapo ur t o esca pe t o allow th e

t imber frame t hat use small section t imb e rs

co nt inuo usly past it.

t imbe r wa ll to release and abso rb moistu re

to form framed loadbearing wa lls:th e plat-

wit h changes in t he weat he r. Outer t imber

fo rm frame and t he ballo o n frame , More his-

Timber frames

cladd ing boards are t he n fixed o n t he o utside

torical types th at use large t imber sections

Timber frames co mprise vert ical sect io ns

of t he breath er membrane ,

w it h an infill in t imb er o r anot he r mate rial are

called 'studs' fixed to horizontal mem bers

not discussed here , as th eir applicat ion is cur-

called 'rai lsThe st uds run ve rt ically co nt inu-

frames, th e softwood stud wa llsth at form th e

rently very li mit ed. Both t he platform frame

o usly, w it h d iscontinuou s ho rizo ntal members

wa ll st ruct ure can use t he t imber cladd ing to

W he n t imb e r cladd ing is used o n t imb e r

and t he balloo n frame are based o n soft-

w hich are called 'noggins'The o ute r face of

stiffen t he wa ll.Trad it ionally, t his has bee n

wood saw n timb er sections aro und

th e timb er frame is clad wit h plywood

do ne by fi xing t he boarding d irect ly to t he

IOOmmx50mm (4inx2 in),These are eco no m-

sheat hing t o prov ide late ral bracing, typically

t imbe r frame, wit h a breath er membrane set

ic, and set at close ce nt res of aro und 400mm

12mm -18mm t hick (0.5in-O,75in), dep e nding

betw ee n t he frame and t he t imb e r boards t o

( 16in) in o rde r to be a multiple dime nsion of

o n th e struct ural requirem ent of st iffening

allow th e o ute r cladding to 'breat he', o r d ry

plywood shee ts and related board mate rials

t he frame ,Timb e r boards can also be used as

o ut and abso rb moisture , in respon se to t he

used to form th e sheat hing for th e walls and

sheat hing, this is an expe nsive so lut io n, Fram-

changes in weat he r co nd it ions,Alte rnat ive ly,

floor decking, Since t he floor joists are set at

ing mem bers are typically formed from

t he t imb e r board s are fixed to batt e ns w hich

t he same ce nt res as t he vert ical studs, board

IOOx50mm (4inx2in) softwoo d sect ions at

are set fo rward of t he breat her mem brane ,

materials are used for th e floor decking in

40 0mm ( 16in) vert ical ce nt res w hich are

o r wate rproofi ng laye r. to e nsure th at th e

t he same size,The platfo rm frame co mprises

nailed t ogether. Mild ste e l co rne r brackets

t imbe r is vent ilate d o n all sides ,W he n bat-

studs spanning from floor to floor: w it h t he

and cleats are co mmo nly used to make t he

te ns are used, t he timb er boa rds are less ab le

t imber floor struct ure be ing suppo rte d at

co nnect ions more reliable and ea sy to fo rm,

to stiffen t he frame if t he batte ns are not set

MC E 2 6 4
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

AI~

~~ CD
@

CD

Q: :-""'
~.:;,..

-'

,..-'-

7::

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eI

/'

Vertical section I: IO.


Floor junction, window opening

'1

CD
'"

Vertical section I:25.W lndow opening

Details
I.
2.

Metal parapet flashing


Timber boards
3. Plywood sheathing
4.
Timber studs
5.
Timber rail
6.
Breather membrane
7.
Window flashing
8.
Damp proof course
9.
Vapour barrier
10. Timber fioor
I I. Concrete ground slab
12. Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall
I 3. Thermal insulation quilt set within timber
frame
14. Timber framed window/door
15. Timber cill
16. Air gap

e
@

Horizontal section I :IO. Window jamb

.-I

""

"

Isometric view of wall assembly

MCE

265

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CD

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e
Vertical section I:IO.
Parapet

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.

/ -'f .

I~I~

LX
""'

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CD I~

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Vert ical section 1:25
W all assembly

Vert ical section 1:25


Door opening

Vertical section I: I O.
Door opening

Metal parapet fiashing


Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
Window fiashing
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber floor
Concrete ground slab
Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation quilt set within timber
frame
14. Timber framed window/door
15. Timber cill
16. Air gap

3-D view of parapet detail

MC E

266

3-D exploded view of parapet detail

3-D view of window opening at corner

@- -

-- -- -- - - ---~

~~~;;;;;;;;;
CD
Isometric view of wall assembly

Horizontal section I :25.Window opening at corner

in alignment w it h every st ud forming th e

th e t imber,w hich wo uld cause staining and

frame of th e w all behind.

deteri orati on of th e material. Cladding is usu-

th e cont inuous timber base plate t o protect

ally suppo rte d at gro und level o n a concrete

th e t imber,th e DPC usually exte nding down

has a cont inuous vapour barri er,t ypically

slab o r edge beam th at forms part of th e

th e vert ical face of th e concrete slab w here it

th ick po lyth ene sheet, set o nto it, in t emp er-

concrete wa ll.A lte rnat ively, th e wa ll can span

connects w it h th e damp proof membrane

ate climates, o n th e 'w arm in w inte r' side of

between concrete pads at 3000mm -

(D PM) beneath th e concrete slab o r th e ver-

th e wa ll.Th e inner face of th e wall is th en fin-

SOOOmm cent res ( l Oft- 16ft) , w it h timber

ti cal face of th e basement wa ll.T he DPC w ill

ished w it h plasterb oard (drywa ll) t o provide

beams at th e base of th e wall to provide sup-

also be cont inuous w it h a DPM set o n t op of

an internal finish.

port between pads.W here a concrete slab is

th e concrete slab. Floor finishes are th en

used. th e edge of th e slab has traditi onally

applied in th e same depth as th e cont inuo us

Ground level

been exposed as a base t o th e wall.W it h

baseplate, allow ing int ernal skir t ing boards t o

This t ext focuses o n different condit io ns at

increasing concerns of increased th erma l

be fixed t o th e bottom rail of th e timber

The inside face of th e t imber framed w all

A damp proof course (D PC) is set beneath

gro und level, upper floor levels and at roof

insulati on at th e gro und level of a building,

fr ame, w hich sits at th e finished floor level.

level.The lightweight nature of timber clad-

th erm al insulation has been introduced on

W here concrete pads are used, th e timber

ding has led t o it s use w it h a raised t imber

th e visible edge of th e slab betw een gro und

beam is set int o stainless steel shoes w hich

gro und floor, ofte n w it h no co ncrete gro und

level and th e base of timber cladding.The

are fixed t o th e concrete pads.Th e pads may

slab.This makes th e junction w it h th e gro und

insulati on requires an o ute r protection t o th e

exte nd below gro und level t o form found a-

quite different from th ose of th e ot her mate-

insulati on, typ ically th in concrete slab o r

t ions w here th e gro und is allow ed t o cont in-

rials described in thi s book. D etails aro und

brickwork.

ue undern eath th e building.A lte rnat ively, th e

w indows and doors are as th ose described in

Th e t imber w all frame is not fixed direct-

panels may sit o n a concrete floor slab set

th e sect ion o n timber w indow walls in th e

ly t o th e floor slab but instead is usually set

below th e timber gro und floor t o prevent

Glass chapte r.

o n a cont inuo us t imber section, w hich is first

th e growth of any vegetat ion beneath th e

fixed to th e concrete slab to pro vide both a

raised gro und floor. Gravel is oft en set at

minimum of ISOmm (6in) above exte rnal

level surface t o set th e timber in place and t o

gro und level in th e vo id below a raised tim -

gro und level t o avo id rainw ater splashing up

be an easier fixing t o use th an simply nailing.

ber floor. D oor thresho lds at gro und level

Timb er cladding at gro und level st o ps a

MC E

26 7

lf~?~~ lQ)JI

~~~{ijI~r(ifID1l1j@

D etails
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Metal parapet flashing


Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
Window flashing
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber fioor
Concrete ground slab
Internal plaster finish or dr y lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame
Timber framed window/d oor
Timber cill
Air gap

Vertical sections I:IO. Floor junction, eaves to pitched roof, two ground conditions

usually have a raised profi le t o prevent wate r

wall, fioors can be suppo r ted separat ely as

from penetrating through th e o pening, and

pads, typically in mild galvanised o r stainless

th ese are also fixed directly o nt o th e cont inu-

steel posts.This allows th e ground fioor slabs

o us baseplate.A n addit ional DPC is set o n

t o be built before th e timber w all is st art ed,

t op of th e baseplate t o avoid moisture pene-

and avoids any risk of lo ng t erm damage t o

tration th rough th e door thresho ld.

th e fioor joists from contact w it h a damp

T imber can also be suppo rte d o n br ick


walls set at a minimum of I SOmm (6in)

wall below DPC level.A n alt ernat ive method


of suppo rting th e low level bri ckw ork is o n

above exte rnal gro und level and be suppo rt -

stainless steel lint els spanning between th e

ed on a concrete st rip found ation o r gro und

concret e pads th at suppo rt th e timber fioor.

beam.As br icks go below gro und th ey usually

Th e br ick base can be avoided complete ly by

change t o eit her a dense concrete block o r a

th e use of beams spanning between concrete

dense engineering quality brick.A raised fioor

panels as describ ed previously.

is th en set int o th is br ick wa ll.T he vo id

3-D view of ground condition

MC E

268

beneath th e timber fioor is vent ilate d w it h air

Upper floors

br icks th at encourage cross vent ilat ion.This

T imber fr amed wa ll panels are used t o sup-

avoids stagnant air in t he vo id from damaging

port upper fioors also in t imber. Floor joists

and eventually rotting t he timb er fioor.

are set directly into th e timber frame, w here

Instead of suppo rt ing th e fioor o n th e br ick

th ey are suppo rted, eit her o n th e t op of th e

"

",

rr
It

.,

~
~

:::
~,

~
~:

3:

<>~

s:
~
~:

3-D view of floor to wall junction

CD

~~
II
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Vertical section I :IO. Floor junction


3-D view of floor to wall junction

~
S:

">-

fi oor-height panel below, o r to th e sides of

Corners

th e t imber studs if th e fioor exte nds ove r

The most co mmo n co rne r formed in timb er

-;

tw o or more fioors in th e balloon frame .

cladding is a single timb er bead set so that

W he re timb er wa ll frames span only from

th e timb er board s on both side s butt into

fi oor to floor; as is more co mmo nly th e case ,

th e co rne r bead. If a breath er membrane is

fi oor joists are fixed to th e face of timb er

used behind th e cladding, th en an addit ional

beam s th at form part of th e wa ll frame

wate rproo f fiashing is adde d t o th e co rne r.

instead of penetrating th e frame itse lfThis

This is formed in a dur able po lymer-based

allows th e gap between wa ll and fi oor to be

shee t o r metal sheet. Alte rnat ively, th e board s

fi lled wit h timb er. which drastically redu ces

can be allowe d to make a co rne r wit h a butt

so und transmission between fi oors. Because

joint, and an addition al L-shaped timb er trim,

th e t imber fi oor and wa ll form a co nt inuo us

form ed from two se parate t imber sect ions, is

struct ure , th ere is no need to form a hori-

added o n th e face of th e co rne r to protect

zo nta l movem ent in th e t imber cladd ing o ut-

th e exposed e nd grain of o ne of th e sides

side .This gives th e co nt inuo us surface of tim-

formin g th e co rne r. These trim s also pro vide

ber cladd ing across two o r three fi oors that

a visual t idiness to th e co rne rs. Boards can be

is characte ristic of platform frame co nstruction.

jo ined wit h a mitred jo int (45) w it ho ut any

>-

~
~

~
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L:Y
Vertical section I :25. W all assembly

cove r strip but th e timb er used must be of


th e highest qua lity t o avoid th e joint o pe ning

MC E

269

lr~~~(Q)11

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l
1

Isometric view of wall assembly

Detai ls
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
IS.
16.

Metal parapet fiashing


Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
W indow flashing
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber floor
Concrete ground slab
Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame
Timber framed window/door
Timber cill
A ir gap

Vertical sections I:I0. Two eaves conditions to pitched roofs

up wit h rnoisture rnovernent, and very high

o r for flat joists. For large scale roo f st ruc-

levels of wo rkma nship are required. A water-

tures' deep er timb er sect ions are used, set o n

proof layer o r flashing behind t he rnitred joint

e nd, as used for co nnections to upper fl oor

is esse nt ial to th e waterproofi ng perform ance

struct ures.The wate rproo f laye r o n th e o ut-

of this detail. Inte rnal co rne rs are formed

side of th e timb er framing, o r breath er mem -

using th e same sets of tim ber beads o r

brane, is made co nt inuo us w it h th at of th e

mitred jo ints.

roof st ruct ure. In th e case of ove rhanging

Roof eaves and parapets

sea led, but in both cases th e membranes

O verh anging eaves from pitched roo fs o r flat

must be co nt inuo us to avoid wate r pen etrat-

eaves, th e roo f may be vent ilated o r be

roofs are very co mmo n wit h timb er cladding

ing th e joint. O n th e inside face of the wall,

as th ey provide protection to th e wa ll

th e vapo ur barr ier must be co nt inuo us from

ben eath from th e wo rst effects of weat he ring

wall to roof, o r wall to ce iling level, ben eath

from water runn ing directly down th e facade .

th e roo f

A co nt inuo us timb er section, o r wa ll plate , is


set o n top of th e timb er frame. creat ing a
doub le t hickness of timb er at th e t op of th e
wall. This se rves as a base for slo ping rafters

MC E

27 0

3-D view of eavescondition

3-D exploded view of eavescondition

3-D view of eavescondition

3-D exploded view of eavescondition

MC E

27 1

lrl1i\1liQ:@r'>:0~

(Q)JI

tt~ 11\i'@ -WWi$.@> ~iffM~

3-D view of timber framed wall with two openings

3-D view of timber wall construction

Details

3-D exploded view of timber framed wall with two openings

MC E

272

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Metal parapet flashing


Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
W indow flashing
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber floor
Concrete ground slab
Internal plaster finish or dry lining/dry wall
Thermal insulation quilt set within timber frame
Timber framed window/door
Timber cill
Air gap

Exploded axonometric drawing of timber wall construction

3-D view of timber wall construction

3-D exploded view of timber wall construction


3-D exploded view of floor to wall junction

MC E

273

lrlIMiQ:@r'>:0~

it~ _~

(Witg'J 1i'1ID11W1~:

10. Concrete floor


I I. Internal finish
12.Thermal insulation quilt set
w ithin timber frame
13.Timber framed w indow/door
14.Timber cill
Is .Air gap
16. Sliding timber louvre panel
17. Metal facing
18.Ext ernal plywood facing
19. Cover strip
20. External floor deck
21. External glass wall in twi n wall
22. Structural t imber frame

Details
I,
2,

3.
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,

Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breath er membrane
Foundation
Damp proo f course
Vapour barri er
Timber floor

Exploded diagram show ing assemblyof timber cladding


panels

Timber boards

preser vative treatment is used, but w it h an

aro und 5% t o 20% w hen in use. Similar levels

T imber boards for cladding panels and rain-

increasing scrut iny of th e meth od s, since

are found in t imber s from t imber suppliers,

screens are sawn and are available in many

some preser vatives can damage gro und

and are classified as 'dry', 'kiln dri ed' o r 'sea-

t imber species, th ough enviro nmental con-

aro und th e site as a result of wate r run -off

soned'. How ever, some softwoods are sup-

cerns have led t o an increasing preference

from th e t imber int o th e gro und aro und th e

plied unseasoned, depending o n th e supplier,

for locally-grown t imber for large-scale appli-

timber wall. Softwood boards are made usu-

so th e amo unt of timber drying and season-

cat ions.T his is because t imber has a negative

ally in 250mm ( l Oin) w idt hs, w it h trimmed

ing is crit ical t o th e way th at t imber is cut o n

effect o n C02 levels,reducing th e levels in

boards w it h profiles ro ute d into th em usually

site t o fit a junction. Unseason ed timb er w ill

th e at mosphere,Th e C02 emissions create d

trimm ed down t o 150mm - 200mm w idt hs

shrink as it dr ies, and consequent ly an allow-

as a result of cutting and wo rking timb er

(ein-Bin), W ider boards cannot generally be

ance is made for lat er shrinkage by increasing

before it reaches a local building site are still

used due t o th e risk of th e mater ial curv ing

th e over lap between t imbers w here applica-

less th an th e amo unt of C02 consumed by

in sect ion,

ble, o r making tighter butt joints w here th ese

th e timber during its growth,The highest tim -

Th e increased use of hardw ood s in rain-

are used Unseason ed timb er s are fixed in

ber grades are used for wall cladding boards,

screens, for th eir durability, has led t o differ-

place soon afte r delivery t o site t o avoid any

since exposure t o th e weat her w ill involve

ent thi cknesses and sections of timber being

twisting o r wa rp ing of th e timber.As a result,

considerable t emperatur e and humidity vari-

used Th is has led t o th e increased use of lo u-

lapped boards are not nailed t ogether w here

at ions, as we ll as fading in sunlight. Softwood s

vred t imber screens and panels in front of

th ey over lap, and nails and screws are

are generally used for th e cladding of tim ber

glazed w indows and doo rs t o pro vide solar

secured so t hat th e timber can move w it ho ut

fr ames, w it h hardwood s being more com-

protection w hile cont ribut ing t o th e t exture

th e t imber splitting or being damaged

monly used for cladding panel and rainscreen

of th e timber facade,

applicat ions,W here hardw ood s are used,

A ll t imbers vary in mo isture conte nt w it h

Finishes

th ose species th at are naturally durable are

changes in t emp erature and air humidity, thi s

Timber cladding is finished w it h th e tim ber

used W here less expensive, less durable tim -

being o ne of th e essent ial aspects t o be con-

being left eit her as supplied, w it h preser vative

ber s are used, th ese require higher levels of

sidered in t imber detailing, Most t imber s used

applied o r injected by th e supplier,o r alte rna-

finishing and maintenance, For softwoods,

in cladding w ill have a moisture conte nt from

ti vely is given coats of preservative in clear,

MC E 27 4
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D Elevation.Timber cladding panels and relationship with structural frame

1= =

'111'=

=1

--------------------------------------

Horizontal sections I :25. Cladding panel in twin wall configuration for taller buildings

3-D sectional view of timber louvre cladding panel and


junction with upper floors

MC E

275

lr~_~m

~~ r~(;I[it)') ~~tri@:Ji~"J'J

.@

Vertical section I : IO. Junction with fioo r


slabs
Right: - Vertical section I : I O.Tim ber louvre
cladding panels and typical assembly
3- D views showing connection between timber
cladding panel and supporting frame

sta ined. o r o paque fini sh o n site wit h pre-

types of jointing of boards is 'shiplapping'

se rvat ives th at rep el rainwater, o r wood

whe re t imber board s are set horizontally and

sta ins and paint. Paints can be oil-based or

lapped ove r on e anot he r wit h th e upper

acrylic,w hile preservatives are clear and can

board lapp ed ove r th e top of th e board

be used as a fin ish th at penetrates th e depth

be low to protect it from rainwater ingress.

of th e wood wit ho ut ap preciably changing its

Shiplapping can be assisted by th e use of

appea rance . It can also be used before stain-

'feath ered' o r we dge -shaped board s to give

ing o r painting th e timb er. Preservatives help

t he lapping a more elegant ap pea rance .

t o prevent mo isture abso rpt ion as we ll as

Ton gue-and -groove board s are used to give a

redu ce fungal growth.This is because th ey

co nt inuo us fl at appea rance, while having th e

e nhance the life of the timb er but do not

advantage of locki ng board s togeth er int o a

prevent th e material changing co lo ur and fad-

co ntinuo us plate-like struct ure . Board s are

ing t o a silve r grey appea rance . Site-applied

typically aro und 20 mm (O.75in) thick, made

finishes and regular mainten ance he lp ove r-

as lo ng as possible at aro und 3000 mm -

co me th e effects of th e weat he ring of timb e r.

3500 mm ( lOft- I Ift6in), to avoid vert ical

In addit ion to the use of preservatives

MC E

27 6

jo ints which are a pote nt ial so urce of rainwa-

and coat ings, th e o rientat ion of t imbe r

te r pe net ration except in rainscreen co nfig u-

boa rds is critical to t he lon g term perform -

ration. W he re to ngue-and-groove boards are

ance of t imber cladd ing.The most co mmo n

used , t he groove is set o n th e underside to

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
Foundation
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber floor
Concrete floor
Intemal finish
Thermal insulation quilt set
within t imber frame
Timber framed window/door
Timber cill
Air gap
Sliding timber louvre panel
Metal facing
Extemal plywood facing
Cover strip
Extemal floor deck
Extemal glass wall in twin wall
Structural timber frame

3-D view showing ground floor junction

1 ,

Left:-Vertical section I :IO.Timber board


cladding panels and typical assembly

3-D view of cladding panel assembly with built-in opening window

avo id wate r accumulating w hen t he board s

fr ames in reinforced co ncrete , stee l and ti m-

are set horizont ally o r diagonally.W here

ber. In t his applicat ion, cladding panels fo llow

t ongue-and-groove boards are set vert ically,

th e prin ciple of ot her form s of cladding,

th e gro ove is set away fro m th e prevailing

requiring pre-fabricatio n of panels and allow -

w ind direction t o avo id w indblown rain being

ance for st ruct ural movement in t he sup-

blown int o t he joint. Jo int s betw een boards

porting frame associated w it h larger-scale

are never sealed alo ng t heir lo ng edges w it h

st r uctures. Cladding panels can also be faced

silicone o r mastic sealants as t his prevents

w it h plywood rather t han ti mber boards,in

th e t imber from dr ying properly, w hich

rainscreen app licatio ns. Because of t he higher

wo uld cause t he mat erial to deter iorate and

moisture movement associate d w it h t imb er

event ually rot. However,sealants are used o n

t han w it h ot her mat er ials, junction s bet ween

th e ends of t imber boards w hen t he com-

cladding panels require allow ance for move-

plete exte rnal surface is sealed w it h paint.

ment as a result of changing moistu re levels

in t he mat er ial.

Cladding panels and rainscreens

W hen reinfo rced concrete or stee l

T imber cladding t o a platfo rm fr ame o r a

fr ames are used, t he t imber cladding panels

balloo n frame is cont inuo us, fo rming an int e-

are set fo rw ard of t he floor slabs in t he man-

gral part of t he w all st ruct ure. In cont rast ,

ner of glazed curta in w alling. Panels exte nd

timber cladding panels are fixed t o building

from floor t o floor, being eit her hung from a

Isometric views of wall


assemblyat ground level

MC E

277

lfJlniitp~~ (Ojzl

~f?h-~OO~

Vertical section I :5.Timber board cladding panel


wall assembly and junction with upper floor

Vert ical section I :5. Connection between timbe r


cladding panel and supporting frame

fioor slab o r else sitting on a bracket o n th e

panels follow s th e same prin ciple of timber

op enings in th e laminated timber frame, w it h

fioor below. In t aller buildings, t imber cladding

cladding descr ibed in th e previou s sect ion.

panels suppo rte d at th eir base o n th e t op s

is used in conjunct ion w it h a twin wall con-

H ori zont al joints have an inner chamber

of beams. Floor decks in timber are th en

struct ion w it h an inner t imber wa ll and an

form ed between two adjacent panels.A ny

fixed t o th e side of th e laminat ed t imber

oute r open jo inted glazed wall.Th e oute r

rainw ater th at penetrates th e o ute r seal,

beams.T imber panels are fixed at th eir base

glazed wall pro vides protection against w ind,

w hich is also kept open in some designs,is

t o th e beam beneath, but have a sliding

dust and no ise, allow ing th e w indows t o be

drained down an inner chamber w here th e

restraint at th e t op t o allow th e slab and

opened for natur al vent ilat ion.Th e oute r wall

wate r is discharged through th e hori zontal

panel above t o defiect w it ho ut damaging th e

provides a 'th erm al buffer' t o reduce th e

jo int at fioor level.T he o ute r t imber cladding

panel below.A metal fiashing at th e base of

effects of heat and cold at different tim es of

has cont inuo us vert ical joints to allow panels

th e panel drains wate r at its base and throw s

th e year.Th e two walls are set 700mm -

t o be fixed sequent ially, unless th e oute r t im-

it clear of th e beam beneath in o rder t o

IOOOmm (2ft3 in-3ft3 in) apart t o allow access

ber bo ards are applied afte r th e panels have

avoid staining of th e timber beam.The oute r

from th e inner t imber wa ll t o th e zone

been installed, but th is is cont rary t o th e pan-

t imber rainscreen cladding is set flush w it h

between th e two walls for maintenance and

el-based form of const r uct ion.

th e o ute r face of th e laminat ed t imber fr ame

cleaning access. Th e o ute r glass screen also

W here timber frames are used t o sup-

provides protection t o th e t imber cladding

port t imber cladding panels, cladding is set

from th e effects of rain and w ind, allow ing

between fioor struct ures rather th an forward

th e material t o maintain its appearance w it h-

of th em, since th ere is no significant th erm al

t o avoid any views into th e wate rproo fing


layer behind.
Th e use of compute r numer ically controlled (CNC) machines ensures th e accu-

out full exposure t o outside condit ions.Vert i-

br idge from o utside t o inside, allow ing th e

rate cutting of compo nents t o make t imber

cal joints between panels have a ste pped

st ructural frame t o be exposed on th e o ut -

wall panels w it h th e close t olerances of high

jo int t o allow for defiection s in fioor slabs

side.W here t imber frames are exposed, lami-

quality, large scale construction, parti cularly

between panels, followin g prin ciples of glazed

nated timber is often used, since it can be

housing,w here timber has undergon e a huge

curtain walling.T his ste pped joint is covered

form ed in beams of significant loadbearing

revival, partl y due t o its low er levels of

on th e o utside w it h t imber boards, set for-

capacity, and is able t o form a fr ame rather

embodied energy in it s construction.Th e use

ward of th e face of panels o n battens in rain-

th an th e cont inuo us loadbearing wa ll of th e

of composite aluminium I timb er w indows ,

screen configurat ion.Th e const r uction of

platform frame. Cladding panels are set int o

w it h th eir high perform ance, low U-values

MC E

27 8

J
J
)

~
,
---::

Details
I.

TIIT'ber bods

2. Plywood sheathng
3. TIlT'lber studs
4. T,mber rail
~_
Breather merrbr~
6. Foundatton
7. Darro prcot coo-se
8. vecoo- ba-rer
9. Timber floor
I 0 Concrete ncoI I , Internal f,nlsh
12. Therma l insulation quilt set

wltt"n t imber frame


11 Timber framed WI'ldow'ldoor
14. Timber (ill
15. AIr gap
16. Sliding twTtler k::luvre panel
17. Metal facl1&

18. External ~ fao'lg

19. eo.er strip


20. External ftoor deck
21. Extemal glass wal 11 twlI'I wal
21 Struetl.nl tn'ber frame

Q)

Q)
Q) <i

"

Honzont31 sectce I : IO.WrndoN pmb

Horizontal sectJOfl I:I WrndoN ~

MCE_ 279

00
~~[_I;ii3fi@l~~
lni!ih~~~tJ>;

3-D view of basictimber cladding


wall assembly

@
<

sometric views ot wall assembly

Vertical section I :IO.


Timber cladding wall
assembly

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
IO.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

MC E

Timber boards
Plywood sheathing
Timber studs
Timber rail
Breather membrane
Foundation
Damp proof course
Vapour barrier
Timber fioor
Concrete fioor
Internal finish
Thermal insulation quilt set
within timber frame
Timber framed window/door
Timber cill
A ir gap
Slidingtimber louvre panel
Metal facing
External plywood facing
Cover strip
External fioor deck
External glass wall in twin wall
Structural timber frame

280

and acoust ic attenuat ion, has given timber

set over t he face of th e adjacent panel. I Im-

cladding panels great er impetu s fo r large

ber st rips can also be set over joint s t o pro -

scale proj ects w here traditionally t he t herm al

t ect t he o ut side face of th e plywood but also

and weat her resisting perfo rmance of t imb er

allow t he rear face t o be vent ilate d int o a

w indows and fr ames has been much poorer

cavity t o allow t he mater ial t o be kept dr y.

t han t hat of aluminium o r UPVC w indows

Since plyw ood sheets can now be supplied in

and doors.

very large sizes, bays of plyw ood can be


made from a single sheet. reducing t he need

Plywood sheets

for edge protection of t he plywood. Plyw ood

W hen plyw ood sheets are used w it h t imber

sheets are also lapped in t he hori zont al joint s

cladding panels, t he edges of t he sheets are

t o create a visual effect like shiplapped t im-

protected. since th e edges of plyw ood are

ber boards,o r are shingled in t he manner of

suscept ible t o damage and rot if left exposed

sheet met al cladding.T he increased use of

in an exte rnal enviro nment. Edges can be

rainscreen tim ber cladding w it h a w at erproof

protected w it h met al trims and flashings,

backing wa ll has increased t he freedom for

w here an aluminium Z -shaped profi le is set

timber panel design.

o n th e back of o ne sheet. proj ecting o ut


t hro ugh a vertical o r hori zont al joint. and is

Vertical section I :25. Cladding panel in twin wall


configuration for taller buildings.

-.... _-._-.
3-D detail view of fioor junction in twin wall configuration for taller buildings

3-D view of cladding panel in twin wall configuration for taller buildings

MCE

28 1

lr~\~(.Q~

~~~~[~~:l

3-D exp loded view of timber cladding system consisting of


fixed glazingand louvre screens

Details

-z:

.-- - -:.::~-" -.:

- --

I .Timber boards
2. Plywood sheathing
3.Timber studs
4.Timber rail
5. Breather membrane
6. Foundation
7. Damp proof course
S'vapour barrier
9.Timber floor
I O. Concrete floor
I I . Internal finish
12.Thermal insulat ion quilt set
within timber frame
I 3.T imber framed window/door
14.Timber cill
IS.Air gap
16. Sliding timber louvre panel
17. Metal facing
18. External plywood facing
19. Cover strip
20. External floo r deck
21. External glasswall in twin wall
22. Structural timber frame

CD

3-D exploded view of window opening and connection between cladding panel,
supporting frame and upper floor in fixed glazing-louvre screen system

MC E

282

3-D view of timber clad facade incorporating both louvred and board panel
types

3-D exploded detail view of ground fioor


junction

3-D exploded detail view of top of window opening in timber cladding 3-D view of ground junction in timber
system
claddingsystem

3-D exploded view of cladding panel in twin wall configuration for taller
buildings

3-D exploded detail view of conncection


between timber cladding panel and upper fioor

3-D view of window opening in timber cladding


system

3-D exploded view of timber cladding panel wall assembly

MCE

283

METAL ROOFS
(I) Me ta l standing seam

Site-based method
Prefabricated methods

Sealed and ventilated roofs

Roof openings
Ridges and valleys
Ea-es and parapets
(2) Profile d metal s heet
Profiled metal decks

as substrates
Profiled metal roof sheeting

Sealed and ventilated methods


Twin skin construction

Ridges
Openings

Eaves and parapets


Ridges and valleys

(3) Compo site panel s

Single wall composite panels


Twin wall panels

Ridges
Verges

Eaves
Parapets and valley gutters
(4) Ra insc ree ns

Panel arrangement
Parapets
Monopitch ridges and verges
Roof geometry

Roof soffits
(5) Me tal canopies

Bolt " ' " " _

Fixed metal louvre canopies

Electrically operated louvres

MCE

285

f1etal Roofs 0 I
Metal standing seam

3-D section through metal profile roof on timber structure

- - -0-----.==-------

,
l

Vertical section I : IO.Typical roof assembly without acoustic layer

Vertical section I : IO. Typical roof assembly without


acoustic layer

Standing seam ro ofs are increasingly being

secured w it h a clip-based fixing system rather

sheet are lapped over th e next t o form a

used for industrial and commercial buildings

th an o nto a cont inuo us subst rat e. Bot h ty pes

cont inuous sealed surface.Th e st anding seam

in preference t o profil ed metal sheet w here

are discussed in thi s sectio n.

concealed fixings and low roof pitches are

joint is formed by foldin g th e metal t ogether


t o form a seal. Because th e roo f is form ed,

required for visual reasons.This is because

Site-based meth od

standing seam ro ofing is both economic and

This method of fixing sheet is we ll suit ed t o

standing seam between each gutter is above

has crisp, uninterrupted jo int lines th at allow

small-scale applicat ions, or w here complex

th e level of th e wate r dr aining down it. Rain-

effectively, as a series of linked 'gutt er s', th e

it t o be made a visible part of th e building

geomet ries are used Th ese applicat ions make

wate r is avoided being drawn th rou gh th e

design, ofte n w it h as much architectural pres-

th e use of prefabrication both unnecessary

jo int by capillary act ion by one of two meth-

ence as th e facade beneath.Th e main advan-

and unecon omi c, due t o th e time needed t o

ods, w here th e joint is eit her sealed o r vent i-

t age of standing seam roofs over profiled

make special junction s and edges o n sit e.Th e

lat ed In a sealed jo int th e seam is pressed

metal ro ofs is th at almo st no fixings pass

use of a single sheet metal profi le and angle

ti ght, as in a tradition al lead o r copper roo f

th rough from o ut side t o inside th e construc-

suppo r t clips used in prefabricate d meth od s

eit her by fo lding th e met al over it self t o form

ti on.Th is gives th e roo f surface a visually crisp

is usually t oo inflexible for such condit ions.

appearance w it h very few visible fixings.The

In thi s tradition al meth od of forming

a th in seam, o r by form ing th e metal over a


timber ro ll o r sectio n. In a vent ilated joint, a

standing seams allow th e t echnique t o be

standing seam roofs, timber boards o r ply-

small gap is left between th e fo lded sheets t o

used on very low pitch roofs.

wood sheet are used t o form a cont inuous

allow air t o pass through but not rainw ater.

The traditional method of forming a

substrate, or suppo rt ing surface. Standing

Sheet metal is fixed t o th e timber

standing seam ro of is t o set th e sheet onto a

seams are formed by t imber st rips of rectilin-

upstand strips eit her by clips,w hich avoid

timber subst rat e, and t o fold th e long edges

ear o r curve d sect ion w hich are set at 450-

penetration of th e sheet metal, o r by a

of th e metal upw ards t o form a standing

600mm cent res down th e slope of th e roo f.

mechanical fixing through one side of th e

seam joint. However.thi s method is increas-

correspo nding to t he w idt h of th e sheet

sheet.T he fixing is applied t o th e side w hich

ingly giving w ay t o prefabricated systems

metal used Sheet met al is laid along t he

has th e adjacent sheet lapped over it, in

w here th e sheet metal is fo lded t o a specific

length of th e roof from t op t o bottom , w it h

o rder t o avoid rainw ater passing through th e

profil e eit her in a factory o r o n sit e w it h a

th e sides of th e sheet fo lded up and over th e

fixing penetration.Timber-based subst rates

ro lling machine.Th e fo lded metal is th en

t imber batt ens. Successive st rips of metal

are increasingly being replaced by profiled

MC E 2 8 6
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D cuta way view showing typ ical roof assembly

Vertical secnon 1:1 0, Ridge with flashing


Details
I.

Metal sheet

Standing seam joint

10.

Clips at centres

~mermemb~e

II .

Folded metal gutter

Thermal insulat ion

12.

Curved eaves sheet

5.

Substrate, typicallytImber/metal

11

External wall
Structural frame

rafters with p!ywood facing

14.

6,

Vapour barrier

I S.

Outer meet

7,

Drywall/dry lining if required

16.

Rooflight

8,

Outer stand,ng seam sheet

17.

Metal flash ing

9,

Inner lining sheet

18.

Ridge piece

,,, ,

, .

'

~xing

bracket

Vertical section I : I

Ridgewith recessed flashing

Vertical section I: 10, Ridge with recessed flash ing

~
,

ve- neer section I: 10, Ridge wrth flam ing

=- -

0-

3-D cutaway view of typ icalroof assembly

MC E

28 7

f1et al Roofs 0 I
Met al standing seam

--

Vert ical section I: I0. Ridge deta il on pitched met al stand ing seam roo f

Vertical sect ion I : I0. Flat met al standing seam roof

3-D view showi ng pitched met al standing seam roof assembly

metal sheet w hich has a much greate r span-

th e liner tray o n th e wa rm (in w inte r) side of

standing seam profi le in place. Met al sheet is

ning capability t han plywood sheet, helping t o

t he t herm al insulati on. In hot, humid coun-

form ed in long lengths of fo lded t rays w hich

reduce th e cost of th e support ing structure.

tri es an addit ional vapo ur barri er is set o n

are th en fixed o nto th e suppo rt brackets.

T imb er-based subst rates, typically plywood o r

t op of t he insulati on w here t he risk of int er-

Finally t he standing seam joint s are crimped

t imber boards, require suppo rt at 400-

st it ial condensat ion is fro m t he outside as

t o form a seal, usually w it h a 'zip up' t oo l t hat

600mm cent res. Profiled metal sheet is

we ll as th e inside.

travels along th e joint and across th e ro of,

increasingly being used as a substrate , as it

For both construction configurat ions t he

sealing t he joint as it moves along.T his fixing

provides a self-finished soffit (underside) t o

roof pitch can go down t o 1, afte r t aking

meth od gives very smoot h and st raight joints,

t he space below t he ro ofThis is particularly

int o account any st r uctural deflections t hat

but t he long lengths of sheet metal fo rm ing

useful w here acoust ic ceilings are used, w it h

wo uld further reduce t his angle. Met al sheets

t he ro of surface can result in 'o il canning',

perforated sheet t hat has a paint coat ing on

can be made up t o 40 metres in length, but

w here part of t he met al surface appears t o

its underside.

road transport is difficult, w it h long sheet s

be crinkled as a result of uneven th erm al

(longer t han a trailer length) requiring special

expansion. Generally,t herm al expansion is

Prefabricated meth od s

arrangements for ro ad transportatio n in

accommo date d by allow ing t he long lengths

Th e most commo n configurat ion of prefabri-

most count ries. For larger proj ects, long

of metal sheet t o slide over t he suppo r t clips,

cate d standing seam roofs is a st ruct ural

sheets are fo rm ed o n site w it h a rolling

w it h t he sheet it self fixed rigidly in only a few

deck, t ypically reinfo rced concrete o r profiled

machine t hat can fo rm t he profile of t he

places along it s length.

metal sheet, w it h insulation set on t op and

standing seam sheet t o any length required.

an o ute r (upper) sheet suppo rte d o n brack-

t he profile being fo rm ed from metal coil.

Standing seam sheet s can form shallow


curves by gent ly bending t he metal o n site , o r

ets set o nto th e st r uct ural deck.A n alte rna-

Suppo rt brackets are usually T-shaped

t ive configurat ion is t o fix t he brackets sup-

and are fixed eit her t o t he st ructural deck o r

porti ng th e o ute r sheet t o a set of metal

t o pur lins w it h self-tapping screws.The br ack-

radius curve s are formed by crimping t he

pur lins.A metal liner sheet is set below th e

ets are usually made from ext r uded alumini-

sheet in t he factory,w here th e materi al is

alte rnat ively by curv ing th e sheet s in th e fact o r y, t o give a smoot h appearance. Small

pur lins t o suppo rt t he t hermal insulati on

um in order t o pro vide a pro file t hat is both

mechanically form ed w it h small local fo lds.

quilt, set between th e pur lins.A vapo ur bar-

thi ck enough t o form a rigid co nnect ion and

Sharp folded corners are made by we lding

rier is set betw een t he insulati on quilt and

sufficient ly precise in sect ion t o ret ain a given

two sheet s t ogether along t he fo ld line.

MC E

288

Details
I.

Metal sheet

2.

Standing seam jo int

3.

Breather memb rane

4. Therm al insulatiOl1
S.

Substrate, typically timber/metal


rafters with plywood facing

<0'- - - -1
@

Vertical section I:10. Eaves w~h curve d gutte r

30 vIews showing eave, condition on pitched


metal standIng seam roof with curved gutter

6. Vapour barrie r
7. Drywall/d ry lining if requ ired
8. Outer standing seam sheet
9. Inner lining sheet
10. Clips at centres
I I. Folded metal gutte r
12. Curved eaves sheet
13. Extern al wall
14. Structural frame
15. Outer sheet fixing bracket
16. Roofiight
17. Metal fiashing
18. Ridge piece

MC E

289

rJetal Roofs 0 I
Metal standing seam

I
@

JL

Ver t ical section I: I O. Pipe op ening in pitc hed metal standing seam roof
assembly

Vertical section I: I O. Eaves condit ion on pitched metal


standing seam roo f assembly

3-D view showing mono-pitch metal standing seam


roof assembly

D etails
I . Met al sheet
2. Standing seam joint
3. Breather membrane
4. Thermal insulation
5. Substrate, typically timber/metal rafters
with plywood facing
6. Vapour barrier
7. Drywall/dry lining if required
8. Outer standing seam sheet
9. Inner lining sheet
I O. CIips at centres
I I . Folded metal gutter
12. Curved eaves sheet
I 3. External wall
14. Structural frame
15. Outer sheet fixing bracket
16.Roofiight
17. Metal fiashing
18.Ridge piece

MC E

290

Sealed and vent ilat ed roofs

joints t o make t hem both airt ight and wate r-

Th e choice of a sealed o r vent ilate d roof

t ight. Moisture vapo ur th at builds up inside

configurat ion depends upon both th e metal

th e construct ion is released by slots for pas-

used and th e natur e of th e const ruction

sive vent ilat ion at th e ridge and eaves.

beneath.Vent ilat ion is essent ial if th e th erm al

Unlike ot her metals, zinc sheet requires

insulation is set some distance below th e

vent ilat ion o n th e underside t o avoid corro-

metal sheet. as in a pitched roof w here th e

sion from wate r vapo ur trapped inside th e

insulati on is set hori zontally,above a closed

constr uct ion.Vent ilation for zinc ro ofs has

ceiling.Vent ilate d roofs are also suitable

tradition ally been provided w it h o pen jo inted

w here th e exte rnal roo f form has a complex

timber boards, but thi s meth od is being

geomet ry,This allow s th e th erm al insulation

replaced on larger applicat ions by a plastic-

t o be set horizontally beneath, w hile th e roof

based wove n mat set o nto a substrate , w hich

form can be free of th e constraint s of making

allows air t o pass across th e inside face of th e

th e ent ire ro of co nstructio n fo llow th e same

zinc w hile using a cont inuo us substrate mate-

geomet ry,Vent ilate d roo fs have slot s at ridg-

rial beneath.

es, valleys and per imeter gutter s t o allow air


t o pass th rough th e const r uction t o ensure

Roof openings

th at t he ro of build-up remains dry,Sealed

Roofiights are set into st anding seam roofs in

roofs use sealing strips in th e standing seam

o ne of t wo ways: eit her by form ing a pressed

Vertical section I: I0, Eaves and gutter on pitched


metal standing seam roof assembly

Vertical section I : I0, Eaves and gutter on pitched


metal standing seam roof assembly

3-D cutaway view showing typical roof assembly

Vert ical section I: I0, Abutment

3-D view showing metal roof at abutment

metal upstand aro und th e o pening so th at

pipe and a flashing usually we lded t o th e

th e roofiight projects up aro und I SOmm

pipe, fo lds over th e t op of th e upstand t o

above the level of th e roof, or by setting it

avo id rainw ater from penetrating th e joint.

level w it h th e roof finish and forming a gutte r

Th e base of th e 'skirt' flashing is bond ed t o

aro und t he edges of th e roofiight.T his sec-

th e metal sheet roof covering and sealed,

ond meth od avo ids th e need for roofiights t o

t ypically w it h a silicone-based bond and seal.

appear as projecting box-like forms in an

Standing seams th at clash w it h th e base of

ot herw ise smoot h, cont inuo us roof plane, If

th e skir t flashing are stopped and closed

th e roofiights are set int o th e opening, t hen a

above and below th e penetration ,

metal fiashing is fixed aro und its edge, being


lapped under t he st anding seam roof o n it s

Ridges and valleys

t op edge,At th e sides th e flashing form s a

Ridges are form ed by a variety of meth od s, In

standing seam w it h th e adjacent joints run -

some cases a fo lded o r curve d metal sheet is

ning down th e ro of, and it s bottom edge

set over th e gap between th e two sides of

lapped over th e t op of th e roof sheet imme-

th e ro of on th e level of th e t op of th e stand-

diately below it. Penetration s for small ducts

ing seam,Th e gap betw een th e t op and bot-

and pipes through th e standing seam ro ofs

t om of th e standing seam is closed w it h a

use simplified flashings,A n upstand is form ed

form ed metal filler piece, o r st r ip, Elsewhere,

as a cont inuo us skirt aro und th e projecting

a sharp ridge line Can be form ed as a stand-

3-D view showing eaves condition on pitched metal


standing seam roof assembly

MC E

29 1

f1etal Roofs 0 I
Meta l standing seam

rJ

r=- I -@

1 \
y
1 r !

r-----

Q)i

I r

I
I

\ fL

f=

-~

I
~

L..-J

Vertical section I : IO. Gutter at abutment

Vertic al section I : IO. Parapet gutter at abutment

Vertical section I : IO. Gutter detail

Vertical section I 10. Parapet

ing seam joint, w it h th e seams meeting th e

depth at gutters, th erm al insulation set below

ridge being t erm inated t o avoid th e need for

it is ofte n th inner th an th e adjacent areas of

visually bulky filler that could be seen from

roof Th e reduced th erm al insulation can be

below.A lte rnat ively, th e ridge can be treated

improved upon by using eit her higher per-

as a soft fo ld, w it ho ut any break in th e mate-

form ance insulati on in th at area, or by deep-

rial.A lt hough thi s may appear to be th e most

ening th e st r uct ure of th e roof beneath

st raightfo rward of th e ridges t o form , th e

w here th is is possible, t o allow th e depth of

alignment of th e ridge piece is as crit ical as in

th erm al insulation t o be increased.

previou sly discussed versions, in order t o cre-

If th e ro of is vent ilate d, th e gap formed

ate a st raight ridge line. Shadow s from th e

between th e t op of th e gutte r upstand and

sun cast across t he ridge w ill reveal any wavi-

th e under side of th e st anding seam roofing

ness in th e line of t he t op of th e roof


Valleys are formed by lapping th e ends of

allows th e passage of air int o th e roof void


w it hout th e need for vent ilat ion slots, visible

th e st anding seam roof int o a fo lded metal

from below, being set int o th e o ute r face of

tray forming a cont inuo us gutter.Th e gutter is

th e ro of

ofte n we lded at th e joint between o ne length

3-D view of gutter det ail

MC E

292

of fo lded sheet and th e adjacent sheet in

Eaves and parapet s

o rder t o avoid th e possibility of a wate r leak

Eaves are formed in a similar w ay t o a valley,

in th e gutte r. Because of t he reduced roof

w it h a gutter set at th e edge of th e roof

Details
I. Meta l sheet

10. Clips at cent res

2. Standing seam joint

I I . Folded met al gutter

3. Breath er mem brane

I 2. Curved eaves sheet

4.Ther mal insulat ion

I 3. Extern al w all

S.Substrat e. t ypically t imber/me tal

14. Structural fram e

raft ers w ith plyw ood facing

I S. O uter sheet fixing bracket

6.Vapour barrier

16. Rooflight

7. D rywall/dry lining if requ ired

17. Metal flashing

8. Outer standing seam sheet

I 8. Ridge piece

9. Inner lining sheet

Vertical section I : I0, Abutment on curve d


metal standing seam roof

~.

~~ @

'11

"J

Vertical section I: I0, Eaves on curved metal standing seam roof assembly

Vertical section I : I0, Abutment on metal standing seam roof

o..-.- ....-...

Increasingly,gutters are being integrated into

-------------_..-

roof form s in order t o avoid a we ak visual


line formed by a gutter w hich is not continu -

ous w it h th e smoot h lines of th e roof W hen


addit io nal closer pieces are used, such as bull
nose profi les,th e metal panels are usually

exte rior.and th e line of wate rpro ofing co ntinu es up th e exte rnal wall t o th e under side

of th e gutter th at is adjacent t o th e exte rnal

./

of th e standing seam roof

wa ll up to th e parapet coping, w here it is

,---

/f

designed t o be drained and vent ilate d t o th e

Parapet s are formed by t aking th e side

",-

/ '.

...... ---

.i

,
;

t erm inated w it h a rubb er-based seal bond ed


to th e t op of th e exte rnal wa ll.A parapet
coping is set int o th is seal as an overcloak
flashing and second line of defence against
rainwater penetration.

3-D roof show ing curved metal standing


seam roof assembly

MCE

293

---

f1eta l Roofs 0 I
Meta l standing seam

Details

3-D exploded view of curved metal standing seam roof assembly

3-D exploded view of metal standing seam roof assembly with timber frame

MC E

294

I. Metal sheet
2. Standing seam joint
3. Breathermembrane
4.Thermal insulation
5. Substrate. typicallytimber/metal
rafters with plywood facing
6.Vapour barrier
7. Drywall/dry lining if required
8. Outer standing seam sheet
9. Inner lining sheet
10. Clips at centres
I I. Folded metal gutter
12. Curved eaves sheet
13. External wall
14. Structural frame
15.Outer sheet fixing bracket
16. Rooflight
17. Metal flashing
18. Ridge piece

3-D view of curved metal standing seam roof assembly

3-D exploded view of metal standing seam roof parapet


and gutte r detail

3-D view of meta l standing seam roof parapet and


gutter detail

3-D view of metal standing seam roof parapet and


gutter detail

3-D view of metal standing seam roof parapet and


gutter detail

3-D exploded view of metal standing seam roof parapet and gutter detail for
curved roof edge

3-D explo ded view of metal standing seam roof assembly

MC E

2 95

rletal Roofs 02
Profiled met al sheet

3-D detail view of flat profiled metal sheet roof

3-D view of flat profi led metal sheet roof

==-== -==- == -

== ==---= =- ::::=: -== -== ==--=== ===- --

Vertical section I : IO. Typical profiled metal sheet roof construction

The main advantage of profi led metal sheet

Vertical section I : IO. Typical profiled


metal sheet roof construction

W hen used as a substrate, profi led metal

closed cell insulation set onto th e profi led

over other met al roof typ es is t he ability of

sheet can be cut t o fo rm com plex

th e material to span economically up to

geomet ries, t ypically suppo rte d by a steel

peaks of th e profi le w it ho ut defiecting signifi-

aro und 3.5 metres between pr imary struc-

frame t o create a t hree dimensio nal fo rm .

cant ly w hen it is w alked upon fo r mainte-

t ural suppo rts.T his self-suppo rt ing ability of

Profiled sheet w it h an overall dept h of SOmm

nance access, w hich wo uld ot herw ise st retc h

t he material, combined w it h its we at her

is used typically,but much deeper sections

t he joints in th e membran e.A single layer

resistant painted coat ing applied during man-

are used for spans above 3.5 metres t o

membrane is t hen set o nto t his insulati on,

met al deck, rigid eno ugh t o span across t he

ufacture, allow s for it to be used as both a

aro und 6.0 metres,w it h a depth up to

usually an elastome ric membrane that can be

substrate material for a finish in a different

aro und 200mm.T he deep sectio ns are also

left exposed t o t he effects of t he sun w it ho ut

material set onto it or as a single layer struc-

used in composite roof decks w hen filled

damage. Sometim es a t hin layer of smoot h

t ural and weat herproo f mat erial.W here

w it h concrete . Fo r a stee l profile, sheets of

pebbles is laid o n t op t o keep t he sun off t he

standing seam roofin g, w it h its high proj ecting

O.7mm thi ck are used for th e outer skin; for

membrane and allow maintenance access

fo lds,is suite d to long, straight o r gent ly curv-

aluminium a 0.9mm th ick sheet is used. Steel

w it hout risk of punctur ing t he membra ne.

ing spans,profiled met al sheet can both span

is galvanised and coate d, w hile aluminium is

T he closed cells of t he mat erial ensure t hat

between suppo rts and form complex

mill finished or coate d.

any wate r vapo ur trapped in th e const r uc-

geomet ries.It is t his flexibility of being both

t ion is not absorbed by t he insulati on w hich

struct ural deck and w ate rproo fing layer t hat

Profiled metal decks as substrat es

has an advantage w here th e interior finish is

W here profi led metal is used as a deck rath -

wo uld ot herw ise cause it s deterioratio n.

designed t o be in a different material, such as

er t han as a roofing mat erial, a lightweight

Profiled metal roof sheet ing

dr y lining o r decor ative boarding. In recent

build-up is usually applied, since th e metal

W hen used as a finish material. called 'roof

years ro of pitches have great ly reduced t o

decking is chosen w here a light w eight roof is

sheet ing', profiled metal sheet provides a

make th e roof as fiat as po ssible, usually for

required.Th e lightweight finishes used are

cont inuous weat herproo f skin w it h t he ability

visual reasons. Most profi led sheet is laid to a

t ypically an addit ional layer of profi led sheet,

to be curve d in one direction. A limit at ion of

minimum pitch of around 4. Standing seam

met al standing seam (discussed in t he previ-

t he material is t hat openings for roofiights,

roofs can go down t o a I pitch, depending

o us sect io n), membranes (mainly elasto mers)

edges, and junction s w it h ot her materials are

on t he geomet ry of t he roof

and light planted ro ofs.A typ ical build-up is of

not easily int egrat ed int o t he pro file of t he

MC E 296
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D view of gutter detail

3-D view of fiat profiled metal sheet roof construction

3-D view of fiat profiled metal sheet roof construction


Vertical section I:I O. Concealed gutter junction

Deta ils
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Outer profiled metal sheet


Inner lining sheet
Fibre quilt thermal insulation
Vapour barrier
Purlin or structural beam
Profiled metal structural deck
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Curved eaves sheet
Structural frame
Ridge piece
Metal flashing
Roofiight
Pipe or duct penetration
Parapet flashing
Vented filler piece

---=---@

Vertical section I:I O. Profiled metal sheet


roof with parapet

Vertical section I :I O. Edge detail

MC E

29 7

rletal Roofs 02
Profiled met al sheet

l
(

I<----J

Vertical section I:I O. Eaves detail with gutter

3-D view of eaves detail with gutter

----. ))

CD

---:;;:::::---

z->

---

--

b--)

~~)

,
~
--:=:)

.---

f.~

Vert ical sect ion I: I O. Eaves detail

l -------===-

sheet. Even simple rectilinear o penings have

ing in eit her sealed o r vent ilated const ruct ion.

few standard profiles t o close off th e gap

Vent ilat ion is used mainly w here a t imber

betw een th e flat flashing and th e gaps

suppo rt ing st ruct ure is used, w it h th e timber

Detai ls

betw een th e peak and trough of th e profi le.

being vent ilated t o avoid rot in th e mater ial

I.
Outer profiled metal sheet
2.
Inner lining sheet
3.
Fibre quilt thermal insulation
4.
Vapour barrier
5.
Purlin or structural beam
6.
Profiled metal structural deck
7.
Folded metal gutter
8.
Folded metal drip
9.
Metal fascia panel
10. External wall
I I. Outer sheet fixing bracket
12. Curved eaves sheet
13. Structural frame
14. Ridge piece
15. Metal flashing
16. Roofiight
17. Pipe or duct penetration
18. Parapetflashing
19. Vented filler piece

How ever, o ne of th e main advantages of pro-

from mo ist air in th e vo id th at wo uld ot her-

filed metal sheet is it s ability t o be curve d

w ise be trapped w it hin th e const ruction.This

easily, w here th e suppo rt ing structure

is discussed further in th e sect ion o n t imber

beneath requires o nly a few structural mem-

pitched roofs .The followin g t opi cs in thi s sec-

ber s t o be curve d, and most framing can be

t ion deal w it h th e use of profiled sheet as a

st raight. Used as roof sheet ing, th e material is

sealed roo f covering.

lapped on all four sides like metal standing

In sealed roofs, th e th erm al insulati o n

seam roofs.The laps are made lo ng eno ugh

usually fills th e voids in between th e inner and

t o avoid capillary action through th e joint.

o ute r skins, but vent ilato rs are ofte n prov ided

Th is simple jo inting system provides large

at th e ridge and eaves t o allow some breath-

areas of reliable, w eat her t ight ro ofing th at can

ing t hro ugh th e ribs of th e pro filed sheet.This

be inst alled quickly.

helps t o keep th e insulati o n complete ly dry.


Because th e inner lining sheet presents a

Sealed and vent ilat ed m eth o ds

MC E

29 8

hard surface under th e roof. perforated

In commo n w it h standing seam roofing, pro-

sheet s are used t o im prove sound absorpt ion.

filed metal roofs can be used as a ro of cover-

Sound is allowed t o be absorbed partl y by

---

@== -~_~0-ryF! ~
~~

r----'

--

@
'-----''---' -

Vertical section I : IO. Eaves with partiall y concealed gutter

Vertical section I : IO. Profiled metal sheet connection with roofiight

---

- - _ - '0

----===-_::=
Vertical section I : IO. Valley gutter

-==----

t he insulation quilt.This helps t o reduce

th e o ute r roo f sheet. In recent years th e

reverberatio n, particular ly in noisy int ern al

Z -shape sect ion has develop ed int o a w ide

Vertical section I : IO.

enviro nment s.A vapo ur barri er is set

range of sect ion ty pes. Sheet s are fixed w it h

between t he t herm al insulati o n and t he t hin

self t apping screws w hich, in addit ion t o fixing

layer of acoust ic insulati on beneath.

t he sheets t o t he suppo rt ing st r ucture, are


also required t o be weat hert ight. A vapo ur

Tw in skin con struction

barrier is provided o n t he wa rm (in w inte r)

Profiled metal sheet roofs have th e ability t o

side of th e insulation, between t he liner tray

conceal t he suppor t ing structure w it hin t he

and t he t herm al insulati on.

dept h of th e roo f construction.T his gives a

T his construction method co nt rast s w it h

smoot h finished appearance t o t he inside

composite panels, w here t he oute r skin, min-

face of t he roo f A n o ute r met al sheet is sup-

erai fibre t hermal insulati on quilt and inner

ported o n metal roo f pur lins, and an inner

lining are combined into a single panel th at is

lining tray, w hich suppo rts t he t hermal insula-

fixed o nto a supporting st ructure w hich

ti o n, is fixed to t heir under side.The purlins

remains visible.T he suppor t ing ro of st ruct ure,

are usually Z -shaped galvanised stee l ty pes,

visible fro m below t he roof, is eit her left

ty pically l .5mm thi ck, w it h nylon w asher s o r

exposed o n its underside or is concealed

sleeves betw een t he pur lins and t he o ute r

w it h a layer of dry lining.

and inner sheet s t o provide a t her mal break


as w ell as a pad t o seal th e screw fixings on

3-D view of monopitch edge detail

Laps between profiled sheets along t heir


t op and bottom edges are sealed w it h butyl

MCE

29 9

f1 etal Roofs 02
Profiled met al sheet

3-D view of profiled metal sheet roof with gutter detail

---~ 0

~---

Exploded axonomet ric view of gutter detail

Vertical section I:I O. Prefabricatedvalley gutter

sealant strip.Two st rips are normally used,

Ridges

one at t he end of t he exte rnal lap and t he

Ridges at t he junction of a double pitched

D etails

other at t he t op end of t he int ernal lap.T he

roof use a folded metal st rip t o form a con-

I.

oute r seal provides protection against capil-

t inuous ridge sheet.These sheets can be fold-

lary act ion of rainw at er being draw n up int o

ed on a straight line or form ed t o a curved

t he lap between sheets, w hile t he ot her

line.The void beneath is filled w it h t hermal

provides a vapo ur barr ier t hat avoids mois-

insulati on in addit ion t o t hat used beneath

ture, generate d inside th e building, from

th e pro filed sheet. Closer st rips are used t o

condensing in t he joint. Self t apping screws

seal th e gaps in th e profiled sheet w here it

th at hold th e sheet s in place clamp th e t wo

meet s t he ridge cover strip set on t op of t he

sealed surfaces t oget her. Sheets are norm al-

profiled sheet.

Outer profiled metal


sheet
2.
Inner lining sheet
3.
Fibre quilt thermal
insulation
4.
Vapour barrier
5.
Purlin or structural beam
6.
Profiled metal structural
deck
7.
Folded metal gutter
8.
Folded metal drip
9.
Metal fascia panel
10. External wall
I I . Outer sheet fixing bracket
12. Curved eaves sheet
13. Structural frame
14. Ridge piece
15. Metal fiashing
16. Roofiight
17. Pipe or duct penetration
18. Parapetfiashing
19. Vent ed filler piece

ly lapped 150mm over one anot her,w hile

ment w it h an adjacent wall,th e cover st rip

made w it h a single lap of profile, w it h a sin-

between wall and roof is folded up t he wall

gle seal of butyl t ape set at th e cent re of th e

and is fixed t o it. A fiashing projecting from

lap. In commo n w it h standing seam roo fs,

th e wall is lapped over th e outside of th e

th e t hermal insulati on quilt is usually 150-

ridge strip in order to direct rainwater over it

200mm t hick in order t o achieve a U-value

and down onto the roof

of 0.25 W /m2 K.

MC E

300

W here a pitched roo f meet s an abut -

laps between sheet s on th eir side edges are

3-D sectionthrough typical valley and ridge construction

Vertical section I: IO. Ridge detail

Vertical section I: IO. Ridge detail

Openings

usually w elded t o form a single upstand collar

In commo n w it h rooflights fixed int o standing

aro und th e pipe and fixed t o th e roof deck

seam roo fing, a gutter is required along th e

A lso in co mmo n w it h standing seam roofs,a

t op edge of roo flights, along w hich wate r

counte r flashing is w elded or bond ed t o th e

running down th e ro of is directe d t o th e

upper part of th e pipe, above th e roof, w hich

sides.T he gutter can be form ed in front of

laps down over th e flashing t o protect it from

th e metal sheet as in a parapet detail, o r be

rainw ater runn ing down th e pipe above th e

concealed by setting th e profiled sheet close

ro of level.

t o th e roo flight and concealing th e gutter,


leaving o nly a SOmm gap between roof sheet

Eaves and parapets

and ro oflight.Th e gutter can be concealed for

Parapets are form ed by creat ing a gutter at

small ro oflights w hich carry o nly littl e rainw a-

th e base of th e profiled sheet, th en cont inu-

t er and so do not need t o be very big.Th e

ing th e line of th e gutter up t o a parapet

sides of roo flights parallel t o th e slo pe, and

coping w it h laps over th e t op.Th e gutter is

along th e bottom edge, have flashings lapped

form ed from a single fold ed sheet t o avoid

down from th e roo flights and onto th e adja-

th e possibility of leaks, and is lapped under

cent roof sheet s.

th e vertical sheet th at form s th e seal

Penetration s for small ducts and pipes


through th e roof are sealed w it h a flashing,

Vertical section I:IO. Roof penetration

between gutter and coping. Parapets in pro filed metal sheet are ofte n used w here th e

MC E

30 I

fletal Roofs 02
Profiled metal sheet

----

Vertical section I: I0. Curved profiled metal sheet roof with concealed gutter

3-D view of curved profile metal sheet roof with gutter

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
I 3.
14.
IS.
16.
17.
18.
19.

MCE

Outer profiled metal


sheet
Inner lining sheet
Fibre quilt thermal
insulation
Vapour barrier
Purlin or structural beam
Profiled metal structural
deck
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Curved eaves sheet
Structural frame
Ridge piece
Metal flashing
Roofiight
Pipe or duct penetration
Parapet fiashing
Vented filler piece

302

3-D detail view of curved profile metal sheet roof with gutter

exte rnal w all is fo rmed in a different mater ial,

pieces are usually made by crimping t he

so t hat t he parapet fo rms a visual break

mat erial along t he vertical edges of t he pro-

between t hem. However, many profi led metal

filed sheet, t o give a characte ristic appear-

roofs are used in conjunct ion w it h walls in

ance, but t hese pieces are increasingly being

t he same mat eri al using a concealed gutter

made w it h a cont inuo us smoot h appearance.

t hat allows wa ll and ro of t o be cont inuo us.


Manufacturers provide standard curve d piec-

Ridges and valleys

es t o different radii in profiled met al sheet

T hese fo lds in met al roofs are fo rmed using

th at allow th e same material t o form a gent ly

th e same methods discussed in th e previous

curved edge o r,alte rnat ively, a sharply curve d

sect ion o n standing seam roofs. However,

t ermin ation t o t he roof w hich can be lapped

w hereas standing seams can be cut down t o

into th e profi led sheet forming th e wall

form a fiat ridge w it ho ut a proj ecting ridge

beneath. Eaves pieces w it h sharp edges are

piece, t his is not possible in profiled sheet ,

also manufactured as part of proprietary sys-

and inst ead a fold ed ridge piece is fixed t o

t ems.These are formed t o different angles by

t he upper surface of t he pro filed sheet.T he

we lding two profi led sheet s t ogether t o form

gaps between t he ridges and t rou ghs of t he

a cont inuous smoot h fo ld in t he roof. Cur ved

profiled sheet are filled w it h a prop rietary

Vertical section I: I0, Connection to masonry wall.

3-D view of iunction between profiled metal roof and wall


3-D view of profiled metal wall and roof with vert ical gutter

metal filler piece, usually forming part of th e


manufacturer' s system.Vent ilate d roofs do
not require thi s filler piece, w it h th e resulting
gap betw een t he fo lded ridge sheet and t he
profi led sheet being usually sufficient to pr ovide ventilat ion int o t he co nst ruct ion.
Valleys are also fo rmed in a similar w ay
t o t hat discussed in st anding seam roofs, w ith
a venti lat ion gap provided in th e gap
between t he gutter and t he under side of t he
roo fing sheet.

3-D cutaway view of profiled metal roof with vertical gutter

MC E

30 3

rletal Roofs 02
Profi led metal sheet

3-D cutaway view of profiled metal sheet roof with gutter

3-D view of profiled metal sheet roof construction

j-U exploded view ot pronleo metal sheet root with gutter

.. "

Exploded axonometric view of profiled metal sheet roof with gutter

3-D view of profiled metal sheet roof with gutter

MC E

304

e
.--~
--=---

30 line drawing of ridge detail

3-D view of profiled metal sheetroof with gutter and r idge

Detail s
I,

Outer proflled metal


sheet

3.

2.

Inner lining sheet


Fibre quit!: thermal

4,

Vapour barrier

5.
6.

9.

Purhn or structural beam


Profiled metal structural
deck
Folded metal glitter
Folded metal drip
Metal tasca panel

10.

Extemal wall

insulat ion

7.

8.

II. Outer sheet fixing bracket


12. Curved eaves sheet
13. Structural frame
14.

Ridge piece

IS. Metal flashing


16. Roofiight
17. Pipe or duet peoetreton
18. Parapet flash ing
19.

3-D exploded view of pro filed metal

sheet roof with gutte r and ridge

Vented filler piece

Exploded axooometnc view- of profiled metal sheetroof with gutter and r idge

3-D cutaway Vlew of profiled metal sheet roof with gutter and ridge

MC E

305

f1etal Roofs 03
Composite panels

-----

----------

3-D view showing parapet edgeand composite panel roof assembly

Vertical section I:25. Composite panel parapet condition

T here are t wo t ypes of composite panel

composite wall panels wo uld be applied t o

special joint s between sheets. Panels are usu-

used for roofs: t win wa ll and single wa ll pan-

roof panels, making for use in (no minally) flat

ally set butted up to on e anot her.w it h th e

els.T he fir st is a developm ent of profiled

roofs.T hese panels wo uld have t he smoot h

gap between panels filled w it h foam-based

met al sheet. w here o ute r sheet. t hermal insu-

face and edges used in wa ll panels t o provide

t herma l insulati on .A separat ing layer is usual-

lat io n and inner sheet are combined into a

a construct ion th at wo uld be both economic

ly set between th e wate rproo f membrane

single panel.These are used in pitched roofs

and very elegant.T he joint s betw een panels

and t he insulat ed panel t o allow movement

and have an appearance very similar to th at

wo uld form gutters th at wo uld create a con-

t o occur freely in both t he membrane and

of profiled metal roofs.T heir main advant age

nected grid of drainage channels t hat could

t he com posite panel substrate .T he sheets of

over pro filed metal roofs is t he speed of

form a crisp jo int line between panels.T his

wate rproof membrane are bo nded or torch

erect ion o n site, but t hey are usually a littl e

develop ment of composite panel design has

we lded t oget her by lapping o ne sheet over

more expensive th an an equivalent profi led

yet to be comme rcially available in a t echni-

th e oth er. o r by using bondin g st rips in th e

metal sheet roof.The seco nd com posite ro of

cally reliable system.

panel ty pe, single wa ll panels, consists of pro-

same mater ial t hat form part of t he propriet ar y syste m.T he membrane is ofte n protect-

filed metal sheet bond ed t o a layer of foam

Single wa ll composite panels

ed w it h a lightw eight covering of smoot h

typ e t herm al insulati on.T he insulati on is laid

T his panel ty pe has a single sheet of profiled

pebbles t hat can be wa lked upon for maint e-

face up t o receive a separate wate rproo fing

met al o n t he low er loadbearing face of t he

nance access w it hout puncturing t he surface.

layer.ty pically a single layer membrane.Th e

panel w hich is bond ed t o a foam-based insu-

Met al rainscreen panels are also used t o

membr ane is t hen t ypically finished in rain-

lati on t hat fills all t he voids in t he profiled

protect t he membrane from t he effects of

screen panels or smoot h pebbles, depending

sheet. pro viding a smo ot h, flat upp er surface.

direct sunlight.

o n t he geomet ry and required appearance

T he dept h of t he t hermal insulati on is deter-

of th e ro of.
A developm ent in composite roof panel

At ridges and fo lds in t he ro of geomet ry,

mined by th e U-value required. and manu-

panels are joined in th e same way, w it h th e

facturer s are often flexible in thi s regard Th e

gaps between panels filled ty pically w it h a

const r uction w hich has been slow t o appear

upper face of t he panel is wate rproo fed w it h

foam insulati on applied by injecti on on site .

comme rcially is th e truly inter locking panel

an independent membran e, t ypically an elas-

Th e membrane sheets are usually joined at

w it h int egral gutter.w here t he pr inciples of

t omer ic type t hat requires no upst ands o r

t he fo ld in t he ro of, and a strip of t he same

M C E 306
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vertical section I :5,Composite panel showing panel to panel junction

30 view of vertical section through parapet edge and folded metal gutter between panels

(i)

vertrcal section 1:25. Folded metal gutter between composite roof panels

(i)

(i)

Vertical sections I :25, Compo site panel confIguration and parapet edge condition

Details
I. Metal ramscreen panel
2. Single layer membrane
3. Composite panel
4. Folded metal coping
5. Purlin or structural beam
6. Secondary purlin
7. Folded metal gutter
8. Folded metal drip
9. Metal fascia panel
10, External wall
II. O uter sheet fixing bracket
12, Panel I

13.Panel 2
30 vIew of panel connectron

MC E 307

f1etal Roofs 03
Composite panels

J,

Isometric view showing composite panel roof system with metal fiashing

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Vert ical section I: I O. Composite panel roof system with metal fiashing

3-D view showing compo site panel roof system beneath metal rainscreen

mater ial is bond ed along th e jo int t o provide


a weat hertight seal.

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer
membrane
Composite panel
Folded metal coping
Purlin or structural
beam
Secondary purlin
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing
bracket
Panel I
Panel 2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duct
penet rat ion

At parapet gutte rs, an upstand is formed


in th e same insulati o n mater ial as th at used in

Th e use of a separate wate rproo f membrane


o n a subst rat e t hat is easy t o form int o a

bond ed t o th e composite panel beneath.Th e

smoot h cont inuo us surface allows junction s

o ute r edge of th e upstand is sealed and st iff-

t o be formed easily, particularly around roof

ened w it h a metal strip fixed t o th e under-

penetration s such as duct o penings and pipe

side of th e composite ro of panel o r th e sup-

penetration s, w here wate rp roo f membranes

porting struct ure beneath.A n addit ional

are we ll suite d due t o th e ease w it h w hich

length of membrane is th en bond ed t o th e

th ey can be cut, formed and sealed o n sit e.

t op of th e upstand and is mechanically fixed

Gutter s can be formed by using th e rapid

o r bond ed t o th e t op of th e adjacent exte r-

site assemb ly meth od of setting lengths of

nal wall,typically formed in com posite w all

composite panel t ogether,w hile a membrane

panels o r glazed curta in walling.T his parapet

bond ed t o th e upper surface gives a wate r-

flashing is th en protected by a fo lded met al

ti ght finish. Co mposite panels forming a valley

coping set o nto it.

gutter o r parapet gutter are fixed rigidly t o

we ll adapted to complex ro of fo rms, w here a

308

ed w it ho ut th e need for complex junction s


th at wo uld be needed w it h twin wa ll panels.

th e composite panels, th e upstand being

Single faced composite roo f panels are

MC E

lightw eight, w ell insulated ro of can be provid-

reduce th e amo unt of structural movement


th at wo uld ot herw ise damage th e mem-

"f

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3-D view showing metal rainscreen roof parapet condition

F:x:

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Vertical section I: I0, Composite panel roof system beneath metal rainscreen

brane, w hich is t ypically bond ed t o th e base

rib of th e o ut er sheet projecting from th e

and edges of th e gutter in order to closely

panel o n o ne long side, w hich laps over t he

fo llow it s shape.

adjacent panel.This gives a cont inuous ribbed

Twin wall panels

ferent o n its o ut side face t o profiled metal

appearance t o th e roof th at is visually no dif-

This panel ty pe, w hich combines th e separat e

roo f cladding. Both meth od s have lapped

compo nents of profiled metal sheet, has two

joints o n th eir shor t edges, w here an uninsu-

jo int ty pes: a doub le seam w it h a cap o n t op

lat ed edge projects down t o form a lap jo int

in th e manner of standing seam roo fing, o r a

ver y sim ilar to th at used in profiled metal

single lap of profile in th e manner of profiled

roofs.Th ese horizontal jo ints are also sealed

metal decking.W it h th e fir st method , panels

w it h butyl t ape t o avoid capillary action from

have raised edges o n th eir lo ng sides runn ing

rainw ater o ut side, and t o prevent th e pas-

down th e slope.Th e raised edges are butted

sage of w at er vapo ur int o th e jo int from

t ogether and sealed w it h butyl t ape.A metal

inside th e building.

capping is fixed over th is jo int t o provide a


weat hertight seal w hich sheds wate r o nto

Ridges

th e panels eit her side of th e jo int.Th is meth-

Ridges for twin w all composite panels are

od gives a dist inct visual appearance of w ider

form ed by fixing a met al flashing over th e

joint s.Th e second meth od has an uninsulated

juncti on between th e panels.T he flashing is

3-D view corner condition of composite panel roof


system beneath metal rainscreen

MC E

309

fletal Roofs 03
Composite panels
3-D view of vergewith parapet upstand

3-D views showingcomposite panel roof assembly and parapetedge condition

profi led t o match t he profi le of t he panels

t o provide a cont inuo us vapo ur barri er.This

lat ed or sealed. If sealed, th en th e overhang-

onto w hich it sits. Manufacturers often make

inner t rim is made eit her fiat o r pro filed t o

ing verge fo llow s t he same detailing princi-

t hese profi les as part of t heir proprietary sys-

suit th e composite panels used.

ples. If th e eaves vo id is vent ilate d, th en th e


edge of th e verge is sealed to th e edge of

t em.A lternatively, a fiat ridge fiashing is used


w hich sits o n t op of t he pro filed upper sheet.

Verges

t he ro of, w hile t he w all beneath is sealed t o

T he gaps are t hen closed w it h a profi led filler

Verges between composite panels and t he

th e under side of t he composite metal roof in

piece as used in profiled met al ro of construe-

adjacent w all const ruction are formed w it h a

o rder t o provide a cont inuous weat her seal

ti o n.The angle betw een t he meeting panels is

fo lded metal c1 oser.Wh ere com posite panels

w it hout any break in th e t herma l insulation.

closed by adjust ing t he angle of t he fo ld of

fo rm t he wall const ruction, a fo lded met al

t he ridge fiashing o n site , o r by fo lding a fiat

st rip is sealed t o t he t op of t he last 'peak' o n

fiashing over t he joint t o give a smoot h curve

t he roof panel and is t hen sealed against t he

o r o nto it t o avoid a t hermal bridge, and is

across t he ridge line.Th e ridge fiashing has

w all panel.A lte rnat ively, a Z-sect io n closer

fo lded to be sealed o nt o t he co mposite roof

visible fixings w hich are difficult t o conceal, so

piece is fixed and sealed to profi led sheet

panel in t he same way as for t he eaves

t hat precise positio ning is essent ial t o t he

and t he fiashing is fixed t o t he hip of t he clos-

detail.T he inner face of t he joint is sealed

overall visual appearance of t he ridge.Th e

er piece.W here glazed curtain wa lling is

w it h a folded metal closer st rip to pro vide a

gap between t he panels is filled w it h th erm al

used, t he metal fiashing is glazed into th e t op

vapo ur barrier.

Verges t hat t erminate in a parapet use a


fiashing t hat is set behind t he vert ical panel.

insulati on o n site , w it h eit her mineral fibre

transom of t he glazed wa ll.As w it h ridges, t he

quilt o r,more frequent ly,w it h th e same

gap between t he roof panel and t he wall

Eaves

foam-based insulati on used t o manufacture

construct ion is filled w it h t hermal insulati on,

T hese are fo rmed in a similar way t o profiled

t he panels. Insulat io n is injected into th e gap

and a fold ed closer strip is applied t o th e

metal panels,by lapping th e edge roof panel

t o provide a U-value t o mat ch t hat of t he

int ernal face of t he joint t o pro vide a vapo ur

over a gutter.T he gutte r is closed against t he

adjacent panels.
The inner face of th e panels forming t he
ridge is sealed w it h a fo lded met al sheet, typi-

barrier between t he insulati on and t he inside

under side of t he composite panel eit her by

of th e building.

folding it o utwa rds and sealing it, or by fo lding

If t he verge overhangs t he exte rnal wa ll

t he t op edge inw ards, up t he under side of

cally fixed to adjacent ro of pur lins and sealed

instead of meeting it directly,th en t he vo id

t he panel.The gutter is suppo rte d by eit her a

against t he inner face of t he composite panel

create d by t he overhang can be eit her vent i-

bracket beneath t he gutter t hat is fixed back

MC E

3 10

[f
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Vert ical section I: I0, Composite panel conf,guratiorl and parapet edge condition

= = -;;,;;;

f<

3-D views showing composite panel roof assem bly and parapet edge ccootco

Det ails
I
2
3
4
5

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer mem brane

Composite panel
Folded metal coping
Purlin or struct ural beam

Secondary purlin

7
8

Folded metal gutter


Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel

9
10. Externa l w all

II. Outer sheet ~x ir;g bracket


12. Panel I

11 Panel 2
14. Ridge piece
IS. Structura l frame
16. Pipe o r duet pe netration

MC E 3 11

rletal Roofs 03
Composite panels

Vertical sections I 10. Various gutter configurations in composite roof panels


3-D views showing various gutter configurations in composite roof panels

t o th e prim ary structure, or by a metal sup-

composite panel syste m. Since an advantage

port arm set onto t he t op of t he composite

of composite panel const ruction is t he

panels 'peaks' and cantilevering out to sup-

increased speed of construction on site over

port th e top of th e gutter. A n essent ial

oth er metal roofin g method s, thi s advantage

advantage of t he metal suppo rt arm on t he

wo uld be lost if t he gutters t ook much longer

roof is th at it does not require any penetra-

to fix t han t he panels t hemselves.The gutter

t ion t hrough t he wall const ruction t o t he

shape, in cross sect ion, is form ed t o pro vide

suppor t ing struct ure, but can be fixed

cont inuity in th e th ermal insulation from roof

t hrough t o th e roof panels w hich do not usu-

panel through t o t he adjacent parapet wall.

ally require a fixing t o pass all th e way

Seals are provided to avoid any w ate r from

t hrough t he wall panel, t hus reducing t he risk

penetrating t he seals and passing int o t he

of any rainw ater penetration t hrough t he

building, w hich might occur in t he event t hat

building envelope.

th e rainwat er outlets become blocked and


t he ent ire gutte r becomes filled w it h wate r

3-D view showing potential gutter configuration in


composite panel roof assembly

MC E

3 12

Parapets and valley gutte rs

up to th e level of th e outer (to p) face of th e

Unlike eaves gutte rs, parapet gutters are

composite roof panels.

th erm ally insulated, since th ey form part of

Valley gutters are form ed in a similar way,

th e exte rnal envelope.The gutter is usually

w it h th e seal between roof panel and prefab-

prefabricated t o form part of t he overall

ricated gutter being crit ical t o avoid wate r

3-D views showing gutter detai l within composite


panel arrangement. hidden by rainscreen above

D etails
I, Met al rainscreen panel
2. Single layer membrane
3. Composite panel
4. Folded metal coping
5, Purlin or structural beam
6. Secondar y purlin
7. Folded metal gutter
8, Folded metal drip
9. Met al fascia panel
10,External wall
I I . Outer sheet fixing bracket
12,Panel I
13.Panel 2
14, Ridge piece
15. Structural frame
16, Pipe or duct penetration

penetrati on in th e event of th e valley gutter


being filled t o capacity in th e event of a
blocked rainw ater o ut let.
Th e t op s of parapets are closed w it h a
pressed metal coping t hat is fo lded down
over th e face of th e exte rnal wall and th e
inside face of th e parapet t o provide a complet e weat hertight seal.T he to p of th e cop ing
is usually inclined t ow ards th e inside face of
th e wa ll (into th e gutte r) t o avoid dust, th at
settles on horizontal surfaces,from being
washed down th e face of th e exte rnal wall
during rain.Th e coping is usually made from a
minimum O.7mm t hick stee l sheet o r 3mm
thi ck aluminium sheet.T he void immediately
beneath th e coping is faced w it h th erm al
insulati on t o avoid a th erm al bri dge occurring
th rough th e cop ing into th e air space behind.
3-D view showing gutter detail in centre of composite panel roof assembly

MC E

3 13

--~etar Roofs
Com osite

03- - - - - - ..,
~ an el s

Details
I. Met31 rainscreen paner
2. Single layer membrane
1 Composite panel
4. Folded metal coping

5. Purlinor structural beam


6. Secondary pur lin

7. Folded meUlI gutter

8. Folded metal drip


9. Metal fascia panel
10. External wall

3-D exploded view shovvingcomposite panel roof assembly beneath metal rainscreen

I I. Outer sheet (,x ing bracket


Il. Panel I
13. Panel 2
14. Ridgepiece
I S. Structural frame
16. Pipe or duct penetration

3-D view showing composite panel roof arrangement hidden by


rainscreen above

3-D view shO'Ninggutter detail within composit e panel arrangement.


hidden by rainscreeo above

Me E

3 14

3-D exploded v'ew showing gutter detail within composite panel arrangement, hidden
by rainscreen above

3-D exploded view showing central gutter detail in composite panel roof
assembly

3-D exploded view showing gutter detail within composite


panel arrangement, hidden by rainscreen above

---

3-D exploded view showing end gutter detail in composite panel roof
assembly

3-D exploded view showing parapet detail in composite panel roof assembly

MC E

3 15

fletal Roofs O:q.


Rainscreens

Vert ical section I: I0 through roof assembly

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof assembly

Vertical section I: IO. Connection between meta l sheets

Vertica l section I: 10. Rainscreen


cladding typical construction

Th e use of metal rainscreen panels is rela-

pit ch o r curved sect ion. Rainw ater is st ill

dented from foot traffic durin g maintenance

ti vely new in roof const r uct ion, and has

expecte d t o dr ain o nto th e wate rproo fing

wo rk, w hich maintains th e flatness associate d

developed from its use in exte rnal wa lls. In

layer beneath as if th e panels we re not in

w it h composite metal materi als.Th e 'o il can-

facades, rainscreen panels are used in a con-

place.T he main function of th e rainscreen

ning' effect of depressed o r dented panels,

figur ation th at allows most of th e w indblow n

panels o n roofs is t o protect th e membrane

resulting from regular maintenance access is

rain th at reaches a met al panel facade t o

from th e effects of th e sun (heat and UV

usually avoided by using th ese com posite

dr ain down its face.Jo ints betw een metal

radiation) as we ll as from th e wo rst effects

sheet mater ials. In such mater ials a th in layer

panels are left open jointed, so t hat o nly a

of w indblow n rain. Rainscreen panels pro vide

of plastic is faced w it h t w o thin sheets of alu-

small amo unt of rainw ater passes through it.

a lightweight covering th at forms part of th e

minium w hich are bond ed t o th e plastic

Rainw ater is drained away in th e cavity

visual language of th e exte rnal wa lls.

sheet core.Th e size of met al rainscreen pan-

behind, th e rear face of th e cavity being

A lt hough smooth pebbles are also used t o

els is restricted more by th e panel w idt h th at

sealed, typically w it h a single layer membrane

protect wate rproo fing membranes o n roofs,

can be walked upon for maintenance access

on an insulated, lightweight, backing wa ll.A

pebbles and gravel are o bviously not suite d

th an by th e sheet size available.Th e maxi-

commo nly used alte rnat ive is of a bitum en-

t o sloping o r curve d roofs.Th e use of metal

mum size of metal sheet is usually in a w idt h

based paint o n a reinforced concrete o r con-

rainscreen panels is we ll suite d t o th ese ro ofs

of 1200mm or I SOOmm metal coil. Co mpos-

crete block backing wa ll. Closed cell th erm al

w hich form a visible part of th e design.T hese

ite sheets are ty pically I OOOmm t o 1200mm

insulati o n is usually set o n th e o utside face of

panels allow t radit ional roof elements, w hich

w ide, in lengths from 2400mm t o 3000 mm,

th e backing wa ll, w it h a cavity between th e

are usually visually do minant, such as gutters,

depending upon th e manufacturer. In prac-

th erm al insulati o n and th e inner face of t he

parapets and ridges, t o be accommo date d

t ice, panels may o nly be aro und 600mm

metal rainscreen panel.

w it hin a smoot h, cont inuo us finish, allowing

w ide if th ey do not have add it ional suppo rt-

roofs t o t ake o n th e visual characte rist ics of

ing framing beneath t o st iffen th em. Framed

In cont rast, met al rainscreens for roofs


vary considerably from th e configurat io n

exte rnal wa lls and becom e a 'facade' in th eir

panels can reach t he maximum sizes already

used in exte rnal wa lls. First ly, most of th e rain

own right.

menti oned, but care must be t aken t o avoid

falling o nto a metal rainscreen roof is not

A lt hough metal sheet is used, metal and

th e patt ern staining o r dent ing th at can

usually drained away o n th e o uter layer of

plasti c composites are becomin g increasingly

reveal t he fr ame behind durin g t he lifecycle

panels, unless th e roof has a relatively stee p

popu lar.as th ey are less likely t o becom e

of th e roof.

MC E 3 16
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Details
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer membrane
Closed cell thermal insulation
Structural deck
Purlin or structural beam
Secondary purlin
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Panel I
Panel2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duct penetration

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof fixing channel

3-D exploded view of metal rainscreen roof assembly

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof support system

MC E

3 17

rvletal Roofs 04
Rainscreens

Vertical section I :I0 Metal panels


fixedto support rail system

Vertical section I :I0 Fixing detail of


metal panels

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof assembly with capping to seam

Panel arrangement

fixings are more difficult t o accommo date,

viewed as a complete set of ro of panels.

Rainscreen roo f panels are ty pically arranged

th ough such syste ms are likely t o appear over

Countersunk screws have th e least visually

eit her as panels laid in a fiat grid, o r as lapped

th e next t en years as demand for thi s roof

obt rusive appearance.

panels, w here t he bottom edge is lapped

system increases.

over th e t op of th e panel beneath. Side jo int s

Panels are made usually by folding th e

Parapets

remain o pen jointed and are set in t he same

edges down t o form a tray,th en o utwa rds to

A n advantage of rainscreen panels for para-

plane in th is configurat ion. Panels in a fiat grid

form a rim around th e panel. Ho les are

pets is th at th e gutter and upstand can be

are set onto metal Z -sections,w hich are

drilled at th e corne rs t o allow access t o

made w it ho ut eit her eleme nt being visible.

eit her bond ed t o th e t op surface of th e

screw fixings beneath. Short lengths of br ack-

Con sequent ly, eaves, mon op itch ridges and

wate rproo f membrane t o avoid any risk of

et are bond ed o r riveted t o th e sides of th e

verges can have a sim ilar o utward appear-

wate r penetration th rou gh mechanical fixings,

tray beneath th e proj ecting panel rim.The

ance of an uninterrupted panel layo ut

o r are set above th e membrane o n suppo r t

panels are th en screw fixed at th e brackets

exte nding from ro of down t o th e exte rnal

pads.Th ese pads are usually covered w it h a

t o th e suppo rting rails o r Z-sections by pass-

wa ll. Parapet s are formed o nly by a gutter

wate rproo fing membrane t o reduce th e

ing th e screw th rou gh th e hole in th e rim.

th at also provides th e necessary upstand

numb er of fixing penetration s th rough thi s

This allows th e screw fixings t o be concealed

height for th e parapet itself A coping is th en

layer.Th e rainscreen panels are th en screw

from view, w hile allow ing each roof panel t o

formed by using th e same rainscreen panels

fixed t o th e Z-sect ion w it h brackets th at

be removed w it ho ut affecting adjacent panels.

as elsewhere o n th e roof in o rder t o pro-

avoid th e screw fixings being seen at a dis-

A n alte rnat ive fixing method for panels is

vide a cont inuity of appearance.Th e wate r-

t ance w here th is is a visual requirement.

t o set screws in each corne r of th e face of

proof membrane beneath is th en sealed

Unlike rainscreen panels for wa lls, roo f panels

th e panel o nto a suppo rt rail syste m. Screw

against th e wa ll const r uct ion o r against th e

cannot be secured easily o n a hook-on ty pe

heads are difficult t o coat in a co lour th at

side of th e sealed roof deck, w hich is closed

suppo rt syste m w hile being set near a hori-

matches th e panel, and even if thi s is

off w it h a fold ed metal st rip, in th e case of

zontal plane. Since panels must have th e abili-

achieved, t hen scratc hing of th e panel is likely

profil ed met al sheet o r composite met al

t y t o be removed easily and regularly for

as a result of removing panels for mainte-

panels being used.

maintenance access, screw fixings in all panel

nance access. Screws are usually left as a self-

corne rs are most commo nly used. Con cealed

finish, and have a particular appearance w hen

MC E

3 18

Th e depth of th e ro of construction is
th en finished w it h anot her rainscreen panel,

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer membrane
Closed cell thermal insulation
Structural deck
Purlin or structural beam
Secondary purlin
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
Extemal wall
O uter sheet fixing bracket
Panel I
Panel 2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duet penetration

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof fixing channel with cappingto seam

3-D exploded view of metal rainscreen roof


fixing channel with capping to seam

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof support system with cappingto seam

MC E

3 19

fletal Roofs 04
Rainscreens

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof with concealed parapet gutter

@) ~~

Vertical section I:I O. Metal rainscreen roof with concealed parapet gutter

D et ails
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

MC E

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer membrane
Closed cell thermal insulation
Structural deck
Purlin or structural beam
Secondary purlin
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Panel I
Panel 2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duct penetration

320

@- - - ---

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof with concealed parapet gutter

set ver t ically, w hich is fixed in front of th e

t ems.Wate r runnin g down th e membrane is

parapet. Unlike parapets in profiled metal o r

dr ained directly int o th e gutter.and wate r

composite panels,the vert ical fascia panel

underneath the gutte r cover dr ains through

can exte nd up t o th e t op of th e wall in o rder

slots or perforation s.

t o conceal th e coping flashing. In ot her ty pes


of metal roofin g,th e coping exte nds over th e

Monopitch ridges and verges

t op of th e wall, resulting in a th in visual edge

Th ese ridge types are form ed by sealing th e

t o th e t op of th e wall.This coping line can be

wate rproo f membrane against th e side of

concealed from view in rainscreen roof panel

th e roof deck t o provide a wate rt ight enclo-

construct ion.Th e exte rnal w all beneath is

sure th at is cont inuous w it h th e exte rnal w all

t ypically sealed up t o th e under side of th e

beneath.The rainscreen panel at th e edge of

roof deck.

th e roof is linked directly t o a fascia panel.

Th e parapet gutter can be covered w it h

W here a curve d panel is st r uct urally inde-

a perforated or slotte d metal cover in th e

pendent of th e exte rnal w all beneath, th e

same material and finish as th e adjacent rain-

roof deck is allowe d t o deflect and move

screen panels. Since rainw ater run s off each

under normal structural loading w it ho ut

panel at its edges o nto th e membrane below,

affect ing th e w all beneath. If w all and ro of

th ere is no need t o leave th e gutter uncov-

we re rigidly fixed t ogether.th e w all w o uld

ered, as is th e case w it h ot her metal roof sys-

deflect w it h th e roof. t o an exte nt th at wo uld

r-----------

''''':i~r.......

::::~=:::Dj~~~~Tnrf7r:X)~!Tii]1l~~

Vertical section I: Ia.Typical


long section through metal
rainscreen roof

-------

,.
Vertical section I: I a. Typical long section through metal rainscreen roof with cur ved panel

be t oo much for curtain wall syst ems, w hose

edge of th e roo f. If large amo unt s of wate r

movements are very restricted.This is a com-

flow are expecte d th en th e ro of can be

mon detail for roofs w here th e expecte d

angled upwards slight ly t o avoid an upstand

structural movements are higher th an th e

th at exte nds above th e line of th e rain-

mod est movements allowed w it h curtain

screen roo f panels. A n alte rnat ive solut ion

wall facades.
A seal between th e exte rnal wall and

(i)

is t o int rodu ce a gutter at th e edge of th e


verge t o give greate r height t o th e verge

th e under side of t he roo f is provided by

upst and w it ho ut it becomin g visible, and

t wo layers of EPDM sheet w ith flex ible

w it hout breaking th e cont inuo us line of

insulation quilt set between th em. Fold ed

rainscreen panels.

metal sheet can also be used, but is less


flexible in th e lo ngit udinal direction (along

Roof geometry

th e length of th e roof) th an EP D M sheet.

A n advantage of rainscreen panels is th eir

Verges are similar t o mon op itch ridges,

ability t o form complex geomet ries from fiat

but differ in th at th ey require an upstand at

panel compo nent s. Since th e panels are not

th e roo f edge t o prevent rainw ater from

required t o be wate rproo fed,th ey do not

spilling off t he roo f.T he upstand can be low

require any joint s between panels t hat wo uld

if th e verge is fiat, and if relatively small

become difficult and expensive for roofs w it h

amo unts of rainw ater are fiow ing along th is

complex geomet ries. Flat panels can be fixed

3-D view of metal rainscreen roof with concealed


parapet gutter

MC E

321

fletal Roofs 04
Rainscreens

Verti cal section I :25 typi cal section with rainscreen panels draining from
panel to panel

3-D detail of meta l rainscreen support system

3-D detail of metal rainscreen support system


3-D view o f metal rainscreen roof draining
from panel to panel

t o create a set of gent ly curve d panels th at

rainscreen panels t o pro vide weat her pro -

are turned in eit her o ne or two direction s.

t ection for equipme nt as we ll as a visual

Panels are increasingly being twiste d in two

screen to th ese items, w hich can have a con-

directions in o rder t o create genuinely

siderable visual impact o n a ro of Rainscreen

curved roof finishes.A lte rnat ively, panels can

panels set I OOOmm above th e roof are fixed

be set fiat but w it h each panel set at different

t o a secondary suppo r t fr amew ork, typically

angles t o create a facetted ro of sect ion.

of cold formed stee l sect io ns o r alum inium

A lt ho ugh th e dr awn examples here show

extr usio ns.Th e fr amew ork is fixed at its

lightweight roof configurat ions t o suit th e

base t o pads o r Z -sect io n profi les in t he

lightweight natur e of th e metal rainscreen

same way as th e rainscreens set clo se t o th e

panels, any compat ible roof subst rate can be

roof membrane.

used, from reinforced concrete slabs t o t imber shell st r uctures.


A lt ho ugh most rainscreens are set at

Detail of metal rainscreen support system

MC E

322

Roof soffits
Met al rainscreen roof panels can also be

aro und IOOmm above th e membrane, some

used as soffit panels t o eit her an overhanging

can be up t o I OOOmm above th e roof deck

eaves o r parapet, o r alte rnat ively t o form a

in order t o accommo date mechanical plant

complete soffit t o th e underside of a ro of

equipment and duct o ut lets for mechanical

W hen mixed w it h perforated o r slotted pan-

vent ilat ion w it hin t he building.Th is allows

els and lo uvres, a ro of can becom e a single

D etails
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10,
I I,
12,
13,
14,
15,
16,

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer membrane
Closed cell thermal insulation
Structural deck
Purlin or structural beam
Secondary purl in
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Metal fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Panel I
Panel 2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duct penetration

3-D view of concealed parapet


gutter with cantilevered edge

Vert ical section I: I0, Concealed parapet gutter with cantilevered edge

visual ent ity,set above its exte rnal walls as a


separate and distinct eleme nt.T his can be
achieved w it ho ut th e need for an expensive
struct ure, o r for an ex pensive wate rproo fing
layer, since th e membrane is co ncealed from
view and is chosen for its perform ance rather

3-D view of gutter detail

th an for it s visual qualities.Th e easy removal


of panels for maintenance access both o n th e
roof, and int o th e ceiling vo id from th e soffit
panels beneath, make it an eco nomic and
easy t o use system for ro ofs of co mplex
geomet ry.Th e range of co lours for com posite sheet and for coat ings to sheet metal
have increased co nsiderably in th e past t en
years, making thi s a ro ofing meth od set for
new developm ent s.

3-D view of cantilever detail

MC E

323

fletal Roofs 04
Rai nscreens
Details

3-D exploded detail of metal rainscreen support system

I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

3-D detail of metal rainscreen support system

Metal rainscreen panel


Single layer membrane
Closed cell thermal insulation
Structural deck
Purlin or structural beam
Secondary purlin
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Met al fascia panel
External wall
Outer sheet fixing bracket
Panel I
Panel 2
Ridge piece
Structural frame
Pipe or duct penetration

3-D exploded view of metal rainscreen roof


draining from panel to panel

@
@

9
~

"'0
1:

til

Exploded axonometric drawing of metal rainscreen roof


draining from panel to panel

MC E

324

G)

Exploded 3-D view of metal rainscreen support system

3-D exploded view of window connection


Exploded axonometric view of concealed
parapet gutter with cantilevered edge

3-D exploded view of concealed parapet gutter with cantilevered edge

3-D exploded view of concealed gutter detail

3-D exploded view of cantilevered edge detail

MCE

325

f1etal Roofs 05
Metal canopies

3-D view of louvred metal canopy and support

3-D section through louvred canopy edge and support

Metal canopies use all th e t echniques available t o metal: standing seam, profi led sheet,

metal cano pies are expecte d t o be fully

composite panel and rainscreen panels w it h

wate rt ight.T he generic example here fo llow s

a membrane beneath. How ever, th e pre-

thi s prin ciple.

ferred t echnique for metal cano pies is usually

3-D top view of louvred canopy

MC E 3 26
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

panels. In commo n w it h ot her cano py t ypes,

In generic exam ples, th e metal cano py

none of th ese, but inst ead a meth od suite d

also serves as a sealed ro of t o part of a

t o small-scale co nstruct ion of comp lex

glazed wa ll.A n inclined glazed wall meets a

geomet ry.T his meth od uses met al panels

met al cano py at mid -height w hich might

w it h fo lded edges,somet imes called cas-

form part of an ent rance, o r may serve as

settes, th e joints between panels being

solar shading t o a facade.The sealed oute r

sealed w it h silicone sealant. Panels can be

layer of th e cano py co mprises metal panels

individually fold ed t o different shapes t o

w hich are fo lded to form an overall curve d

form a cano py of complex geo met ry.There

profi le, each panel being made from metal

has been a gradual move t ow ards larger

sheet w hich is fo lded at it s edges t o form a

metal panel sizes, even a co mplete form

tray.The fold ed edges form th e surface t o

made from metal co il, w hich imit at es th e

w hich th e silicone sealant adheres.A n alte r-

hom ogeneous form s found in GRP mem-

native meth od of joinin g met al panels

br anes and t ent st ruct ures, but w it h th e

t ogether is by rivet ing th em t ogether, leaving

more durable finishes associate d w it h metal

a hairline joint between th e sheets.Thi s is

D etail s
I. Extruded aluminium
louvre blade
2. Mild steel box section
3. Mild steel tube
4. Structural pin connection
5. Mild steel I-section
6. Bolt fixedmetal panel
7. Aluminium sheet
8. Mild steel or
aluminium support frame
9. Thermal insulation
10. Silicone seal
I I. Glazed wall
Ii

Horizontal and vertical sections I:50. Louvre roof


general arrangement

CD

don e eit her by butting fiat sheet t ogeth er

minium sections are usually preferred for

and r ivet ing th e tw o sides t ogeth er, o r by

th eir durability but m ild stee l is ofte n used for

folding th e sheets down and rivetin g th e

its greate r rigidit y Mi ld steel is galvanised,

under side. In some sit uat io ns, th e sheet s are

painted, o r both , w hile alum inium, w it h its

fixed w it h counte rsunk rivet s fix ing th e edges

greate r durability can be natural, anodised o r

of each sheet in place.A co m pressible poly-

cro mate d (sim ilar t o ano dising) dependin g on

mer sheet is set beneath t he sheets to pro -

th e individual applicat ion. Met al panels o f

vide a weat hertight seal.A lte rnat ively, a sim i-

large size, made from 1200mm x 2400 mm

lar sheet mater ial can set between th e rivet -

sheet, can result in a gent le oil-canning effect

ed panels t o provide a seal. In pr actice, both

aro und th eir edges.T his gives panels th eir

seals discussed are difficult t o achieve w here

characte r ist ic soft edge, but th ey look

a high weat hertight performance is required.

smoot h and co nsiste nt , and th is is usually

Instead, a silicone seal aro und I Omm w ide is

accepte d visually as part of th eir appearance.

used between panels w hich are fixed w it h

If mu ch th icker sheet is used, th ere is a disad-

br acket s back t o a suppo rt ing st r uct ure.Thi s

vantage in increased cost as we ll as a greate r

provides a reliable seal th at maint ains it s

difficulty in wo r king th e sheet t o form

weat her tightn ess in th e lon g t erm.

smooth shaped pressed panels.A lum inium

Th e suppo rt ing st r uct ure is made from


eit her mild steel o r alum inium sect ions.A lu-

panels are ty pically eit her PVDF coate d or


polyester powd er coate d, w hile steel sheet is

3-D bottom view of louvred canopy

MC E

327

r1etal Roofs 05
Metal canop ies

Vertical sections I:IO. Louvre mechanism configuration

3-D Elevation. Louvre mechanism configuration

'~~""h''''''''''''~ 1 ,,,,,,~,,,,~,,.,r~""~1.'-(!)-"-

Vertical section I :25. Louvre mechanism configuration

usually polyester pow der coate d only. Th e

t ersunk screws, painted o n site in a colour

sheet o n th e exte rior face of th e wa ll is

use of anodised aluminium as a finish o n

matching t hat of th e panels, enhances th e

glazed int o th e t op transom of th e wall

sheet has increased in recent years as a

overall appearance.

below.A ny excess rainw ater th at is blown

result of greate r reliability of th e finish, w hich

In generic examples, th e glazed wa ll

int o th e jo int drips off th e t op of th e transom

until recently has suffered from uneven col-

above th e cano py is sealed t o it by exte nd-

pressure plate and capping. Small amo unts of

o ur consiste ncy. In many cases, th e silicone

ing t he metal sheet forming t he exte rnal gut-

rainw ater t hat find th eir way into th e t ran-

used t o seal th e jo ints can be applied in a

t er up int o th e bottom transom (ho rizontal

som are t aken away through th e vent ilate d

variety of monotone tints, ranging from

glazing bar) of th e glazing system t o form a

intern al drainage syste m of th e glazed wa ll

w hite, t o greys,t o black. Som e silver-grey col-

cont inuo us seal w it h th e glazed wa ll above.

fr aming.The metal sheet form ing th e under-

o urs match we ll w it h silver coloured panels

Th e th erm al insulation w it hin th e cano py is

side of th e cano py o n its intern al face is t aken

t o give an overall appearance of a single col-

cont inued in o rder t o meet th e th erm ally

as close t o th e glass as possible before being

o ur for th e complete cano py, particularly

brok en transom w here it fo rms a cont inuity

folded back t o align w it h th e transom .

w hen recessed joints are used between pan-

w it h th e doub le glazed units above .Th e

els. Flush joints in silicone t end t o give th e

metal sheet form ing th e t op of th e cano py

single seal between panels t o form a weat h-

canopy surface an hom ogenou s appearance,

o n th e intern al side of th e wa ll is lapped up

ertight joint.This meth od uses th e applicat ion

giving it more th e appearance of concrete

th e int ernal face of th e glazed wa ll fr aming

meth od of bo lt fixed glazing,w here a reliable

th an of metal.This can detract from th e

w here it is fo lded under th e bottom t ran-

silicone seal between doub le glazed units is

crisply fitt ed assembly of panels w hich is

som.Th e met al sheet forming th e t op of th e

th e norm . How ever,w here a foam-based

characteristic of metal and also one of th e

cano py becom es a vapo ur barrier o n th e

backing ro d is used t o suppo rt th e silicone

advantages of th e material.

intern al side of th e wa ll, rather th an th e full

applied from th e outside, wo rkmanship o n

weat her barr ier used o n th e exte rnal face of

site must be of th e highest quality t o ensure

Metal panels can br ing t ogether th e full


set of assembly t echniques available t o th e
mater ial w it hin a single assembly. W it h folded

th e canopy
T he glazed wall o n th e underside of th e

Metal cano pies are increasingly using a

a durable weat hert ight seal. If thi s is difficult


to achieve, as w here t he edge of th e panel

panels, th e edges are we lded and gro und

metal coping is joined in a way th at disturb s

has a small edge return , o r w here panels are

smoot h, and th e complete panel is coate d t o

th e line of th e canopy as little as possible as it

not very rigid due t o th eir geomet ry o r man-

a single consistent colour.Th e use of coun-

passes it from o utside t o inside.Th e metal

ufacturing meth od, a second line of defence

MC E

3 28

= @-A

3-D detail of louvred canopy edgeand support

"

: J i=__________
=
=
=
= = =~fF @ ------.:l

Details
I. Extruded aluminium louvre blade
2. Mild steel box section
3. Mild steeltube
4.Structural pin connection
5. Mild steel l-section
6. Bolt fixed metal panel
7.Aluminium sheet
8.Mild steel or aluminium support frame
9.Thermal insulation
10. Silicone seal
I I. Glazed wall

Vertical sections I: IO. Louvre mechanism


configuration

MC E

329

l'1etal Roofs 05
Metal canopies

-\

'"-

(j)

I!=

\1

~~

rr

",r

f-

II

CD
I

~J
Horizontal section I :20. Genericmetal canopy
serving assealed roof to part of a glazed wall

)-D section view showinggeneric metal canopy serving assealed roof to part of a glazed wall

for weat her t ightness is provided by an elast om eri c o r th erm opl astic wate rproo f mem-

Gutter s and rainw ater out lets can be


form ed in sheet metal.The rainw ater o ut let

brane.The ends of th e wate rproofing sheet

can be finished t o match th e adjacent metal

at th eir t op and bottom ends are fixed into

finishes so as not t o detract from th e overall

th e glazing syste m above and below w here

visual form of th e canopy.

small amo unt s of wate r th at penetrate th e

Th e cano py can form part of a glazed

o ute r silicone seal are allowe d t o drain t o

wall, and is so th erm ally insulat ed.T he insula-

th e out side.

ti on usually follow s th e form of th e outside


of th e cano py t o keep th e vo ids w it hin th e

Bo lt fixed panels

structure at a similar t emperatur e t o th e

Metal panels can be bo lt fixed o nto th e can-

int ernal t emp erature of th e building.A n alte r-

o py edges. Flat panels, such as m inimum 3mm

native is t o form th e insulati on w it h th e

thi ck aluminium sheet and metal ! composite

sho rte st distance betw een th e glazed w alls

sheet, can be bo lt fixed using proprietary sys-

above and below, so th at th e st ructure and

t ems destined for use in point fixed glazing.

void are at th e exte rnal t emperature.Th e

Th e use of oversized ho les or slotted ho les

warm roof solut ion is usually preferred.

in th e metal panel ensures th at th e metal

MC E

330

panels can move w it h th erm al expansion

Fixed metal louvre canopies

w it hout bow ing o r bending.

A rrangeme nts of metal lo uvres are used as

Vertical sections I:20. Generic metal canopy serving assealed roof to part of a glazed wall

,.

..

"

11I/

t-=~~~~
3-D section view showing generic metal canopyserving
assealed roof to par t of a glazed wall

Vertical section I :20. Moveable louvre detail

cano pies to provide so lar shading w hile st ill

below. Extruded alum inium sect io ns require

allow ing daylight t o pass t hro ugh t he canopy.

end caps, usually fo r visual reason s, and

Louvre blades are set typically at 45 0 t o t he

th ese are eit her fixed w it h counte rsunk

vert ical in o rder to block th e passage of

screw s int o th e wa ll of th e sect io n, o r are

direct sunlight but allow t he light to be

we lded and gro und smo ot h.Where end

reflected off it s surfaces down to t he space

caps are screw ed t o th e ends,th e alum inium

beneath t he canopy. Lo uvre sect ions are cre-

profile has screw ports t hat form part of t he

ate d from fo lded st rips of aluminium or mild

extr usion, int o w hich th e screws are fixed.

steel sheet. but t hese have limit ed st iffness

A luminium ext rusio ns can be made in

and stability, requirin g restraint along th eir

lengths up t o around 6000mm, and are sup-

length to hold th eir straightness.Greater st iff-

ported at cent res t o suit th eir st r uct ural

ness is provided by ext ruded aluminium sec-

dept h.A n ellipt ical sect ion w ill span typically

tions,w here th e ellipt ical sect ion is most

1500mm for a 75mm t o I OOmm deep sec-

commo nly used, mainly fo r it s ability t o

t ion w hile a 250mm deep section w ill span

reflect daylight in a way th at reveals its

2500mm, depending upon design w ind

3-dimensional form, enhancing it s appear-

speed and relati ve loads.W hen fixed at th eir

ance. Sections are eit her a half ellipse o r a full

ends, a fixed lo uvre assem bly can be made

ellipse. Flat lo uvre arrangement s pro vide

w it ho ut visible fixings.

D etails
I, Extruded aluminium
louvre blade
2, Mild steel box section
3. Mild steeltube
4. Structural pin connection
5, Mild steel I-section
6, Bolt fixed metal panel
7,Aluminium sheet
8, Mild steel or aluminium
support frame
9.Thermal insulation
10, Silicone seal
I I, Glazed wall

much less visual vibrancy w hen viewed from

MC E

33 1

rletal Roofs 05
Metal canopies

Vertical sections I :20. Louvre mechanism


details

3-D view of electrically operated louvre mechanism details

In some cases, th e suppo rt ing st r uct ure


comprises a mild steel frame fabricated from

panel is fixed to th e cleat bracket w it h a


counte rsunk bo lt.

ing arms move through th e arrangement of


gears.

box sections, suppo rte d by tub e sectio ns th at


spring from po ints below th e ro of The box

by an electric motor, and as it turns,th e slid-

Electr ically operated lo uvres

Louvr es are ty pically a maximum of

sect ions are show n bo lted t ogether t o form

Louvr e cano pies are also used for horizontal

around 6000mm lo ng for th ose 75mm t o

a fiat fram e structure, into w hich are set lou-

and inclined glazed roofs,excluding up to

100mm deep, requirin g suppo rt at 1000mm

vre panels, prefabr icated and finished in a fac-

90% of solar heat gain w hen set at a 45

t o 1500mm. Sliding arms typ ically suppo rt up

tory,th en fixed to th e suppo rt ing mild steel

angle. Louvre blades are 75mm- 1OOmm in

to a 6000mm length of louvr e blades,giving

frame o n site .The stee l tub es are fixed t o th e

t ypical proprietary syste ms but blades up t o

an overall square shape (in plan) t o each set

fiat frame w it h pin connect ions.Two fiat

300mm w ide can be made as a single extru-

of cont ro lled louvres of 6000mm x 6000mm

plates are we lded t o th e ends of th e tub es,

sion. N ylon sleeves and washers are used at

size w hich are fixed int o th e suppo r t ing l-sec-

and a single plate forming a cleat is fixed to

th e connection of moving parts,rather th an

tion fr ame.A 100mm deep I-section w ill span

the underside of th e fiat frame and the base

metal, to avoid th e need for regular lubrica-

typ ically 1000mm - 1500mm between sup-

suppo rt below th e ro ofThe fork ends of th e

t ion. Louvres can be solid o r perforated t o

ports depending o n th e design of th e glazed

tubular suppo r ts and th e suppo rt cleats to

different percentages of solid t o void, from

roof below.The distance between th e move-

w hich it connects are fixed t ogether w it h

aro und 10% vo id t o a maximum of 50%,

able louvre panels and th e glazed roof below

face-mounted or counte rsunk bo lts t o form

th ough th e latter is difficult t o fabricate.

is made sufficient t o allow for access for

a visually crisp connection.Th e tub es have

Louvres are fixed by steel pins into a slid-

tapered ends w hich is typ ical of th is typ e of

ing aluminium section at each end of th e

steel construction.Th e aluminium louvre pan-

profil e.Th e lo uvres are also fixed at th eir cen-

els are fixed t o th e suppo rt ing fiat frame w it h

tre in sect ion.As th e sliding aluminium rod

brackets th at are we lded to th e sides of th e

mo ves,th e aluminium lo uvres move to gether,

bottom fiange of th e stee l I-secti o n.Th e alu-

o pening and closing t ogether.The sliding rod s

minium louvre panel is suppo rte d o n th ese

are connecte d at each end of th e lo uvres

brackets,w it h a nylon spacer between th em

th at are fixed to a suppo rting fram e of alu-

t o allow for th erm al movement.The louvre

m inium I-secti o ns.The single tub e is pow ered

MCE

332

cleaning th e glass below and th e lo uvre


assemb ly it self

3-0 . " "


, of " ,
-'"
\n open
",_d
and clos
loU',e "
ed posit\o
" ,e \
ns

oI et ai\S
.

flrude
d alumin
ium
IOU'lre b
lad
1. M\l
d steel be
O)( secti
] . M\l
on
ds
4 . Str teel tube
uctUral
pin
co
S. MilnnectiOn
6. Bod steel I_sectiOn
lt f()(ed m
etal pan
7 . Nu
el
rO
8 . Mil lolum sheet
d steel o
r alurOln
ium
su
9. \\"pport frame
Iermal in
sulation
10. SiliC
one seal
II. G
lazedwa
ll

....- - Metal Roofs 05-

- ..

Metal cano ies

..........

De tails
I. Extruded all.nmium
2.
1
4.
5.

"""'steer

Mild steer box secnoo


Mild
tube
Structural pin

con nection
Mild steeu-secto-

6.

Bolt fixed metal panel

7.
8.

AlumInium sheet
Mild steel 0<"alumin ium

"""""
Thermal frarre
insulation
I0, Seco-e seal
II. ~wall

4
I

9,

J.D e>q>loded _

MC E_ 114

shoWng Iouvred metal canopf 'odsupport

3-D >new showing ConnectIOn for Iouvred metal CIOp'f and support

Cl

3-D exploded view showing metal louvres in front of glazed wall

3-D exploded view showing electrically operated louvre panel mechanism

3-D exploded view showing metal canopy assembly

3-D exploded view showing generic metal canopy


serving as sealed roof to part of a glazed wall

3-D exploded view showing generic


metal canopy serving as sealed roofto
part of a glazed wall

3-D exploded view showing canopy fixing method

MC E

335

GLASS ROOFS
(I) Greenhouse glazing and capped systems
Greenhouse glazing

Modem roof glazing


Capped systems

(2) Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights


Silicone-sealed systems

Junctions

Use of capped profiles


Roofiights

(3) Bolt fixed glazing: small scale rooflights


Generic structural support met hods

Supporting brackets

Bolt fixings
Arrangeme nt o f bo lt fixings

Glazed units
(4) Bolt fixed glazing: large scale roofJights

Base of glazed roof


External and internal folds

Small glazed roofl ights


Larger rooflights

(5) Bonded glass rooflights


Generic conical roollight
Generic recta ngular rooflight
Generic monopitch rooflight

Glass roof decks

MC E JJ 7

- - -Glass Roofs

01- - - - - - - - - - - - - .....,

Greenhouse glazing and capped systems

Vertical section I :25. Greenhouseglazing.


Typical ridge section.

Vertical section I:25. Typical section through greenhouseglazing

Vertical section I :25. Greenhouseglazing.


Abut ment.

Vertical sections I:25. Greenhouseglazing.


Typical crosssection.

CD

CD

(j)

II

CD
Isometric view of roof assembly

Greenhouse glazing

attract ion, w hich can cause w at er leaks and

C urtain wa lling principles used in exte rnal

staining. However. complete weat her t ight-

walls have been ado pte d, over t he last 20

ness is a seco ndary issue in greenho uses,t his

years, as a reliable meth od of co nstruct ing

design being a very neat and eco nomic so lu-

glazed ro ofs t o replace earlier syst ems devel-

t ion for it s purp ose.

o ped from greenho use glazing.Traditional

3-D view of green house glazing ridge detail

greenhouse glazing used t hin steel o r cast


iron sect io ns t o suppo rt glass sheets o n t heir

t ional greenho use enclosure. For large green-

vert ical edges t o form a pitched roof. Since

houses an addit ional aluminium o r steel

rainw ater needs t o run dow n t he slope w it h-

fr ame is used t o support t he glazing.A ty pical

o ut being impeded by glazing bars,a method

struct ure is of lightweight met al t r usses, used

of lapping glass sheets over one anot her was

t o suppo rt t he glazed ro of, w hich are set o n

used.Traditi on ally,t he glass is lapped w it h no

steel or aluminium box sect io n co lumns th at

seal, w it h glazing bars set at aro und 600 mm

also suppo rt t he glazed wa ll.Tr usses are set

(2ft) cent res in ord er to keep t he glass as

ty pically at 3000mm cent res w it h pur lins run -

t hin as possible, w it h glass t hicknesses from

ning between t hem t o suppo rt t he glazing

4mm t o 6mm t hicknesses being used t ypical-

bars at 600mm cent res.

ly.Th e lapped glass results in w at er being


draw n up between t he sheets by capillary

MC E

338

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

T he glazing can be used in a pitched roof


as we ll as a vert ical wa ll t o fo rm t he t radi-

Thi s glazing system is still used in greenhouses fo r agricult ural act ivit ies, but has poo r

CD
Vertical section I: IO. Ridge detail

Vertical section I:IO. Valley detail

3-D view of greenhouse glazed roof

~,

U
Vertical sections I: IO. Eaves detail

3-D view of greenhouse glazed roof

Greenh ou se d etails
I. Extruded aluminium
glazing bar
2. Extruded aluminium
sections
3. Single glazed sheet
4. Double glazed unit
5. Aluminium clip-on capping
6. Polycarbonate sheet
7. Aluminium gutter
8. Concrete base

th erm al insulation, since its purpose is t o

serve s as a drain fo r m oi sture inside th e

abso rb th e heat from th e sun rath er th an

bu ilding th at has co nde nsed w it hin th e fr am-

exclud ing it.The use of single glazing, w it h no

ing. C ondensation channels are eit her o pen

th erm al breaks and high air infiltration rates

at th e edges, o r are enclo sed. M od ern gree n-

(by curta in wa lling st andards) , m ake it ideal

hou se glazing is m ade from extr ude d alum ini-

for agr icult ural use, but ver y po or for th e use

um sect io ns w it h no th erm al break. since high

in general bu ilding co nstr uct io n. H ow ever, th e

th erm al insulati o n is not requ ired , but

co nce pt o f gree nho use glazing has been

includes th e co nde nsat io n channels t o avoid

develop ed int o th e highly insulat ed, air sealed

wate r from dripp ing below.

and wate rt ight glass roof system s used in


co nte m po rary bu ildings.
A n essent ial co m po nent of gree nho use

glass sheet s is sealed w it h eit her a clear co lo ured seal, ty pically silico ne sealant, o r w it h
co nt inuo us alum inium clip s. Some gree n-

glazed roofs is th e glazing bar,w hich co r re-

hou se syste ms still have lapped glass w it h no

spo nds t o a mulli on in glazed wa lls.Th e

seal bet w een th e glass sheets, m aking it ve ry

gree nho use glazing bar has a co nde nsat io n

eco no m ic, but not very airtight w hich suit s

channel beneath th e glass t o drain away

certa in agr icult ural applicat io ns.

ing rain.Th e co nde nsat io n channel also

Horizontal sect ion 1:5.


Polycarbonate to glass junction

T he hori zontal joint bet w een lapp ed

glazing th at has been ret ained in m od ern

wate r th at passes through th e o ute r seal dur-

Horizontal section 1:5.


Polycarbonate to glass iunction

-lonzontal section I :::>


Glass to glass j~un-"ct
:.:.i:.:.o-"n

---,

Vent ilat io n in gree nho use glazing is provided at t he eaves and at th e r idge, w hile

MC E 339

Glass Roofs a I
Greenhouse glazing and capped systems

-:

~1
3-D view of capped glazingconstruction

Isomet ric view of roof assembly

o
Vert ical sections I :5. Capped glazing.Typical profiles

trol bar,allowing it greate r freedom t o


exte nd both inside and outside t he face of

held in place o n t heir sides by suppo rt ing

t he glass.T he rubber seals are deep eno ugh

Capped glazing details

th em on th e glazing bars and securing th em

and soft eno ugh to allow th e bottom of th e

I.

in place w it h co nt inuous aluminium clips t hat

glass sheet t o lap over t he t op of t he sheet

Extruded aluminium
glazing bar
2.
Transom
3. Single glazed unit
4.
Double glazed unit
5.
Ridge bar
6.
Pressure plate and
capping
7.
Insulated gutte r
8.
Insulated fiashing
9.
Roofiight
10. Therm al insulation
I I. Pressed metal fiashing
12. Concrete base
I 3. Pressed metal t rim

MC E

o pening light s are used for more closely co ntro lled vent ilat ion. Single glazed sheets are

340

snap o nt o th e glazing bar.Th e aluminium sec-

below o n t he ho rizont al joi nt s. Greenhou se

t io ns are separate d from t he glass by ext r ud-

glazing can accommo date do uble glazing

ed rubb er-based seals w hich are held in place

units.The main reason for thi s is usually t o

o n t he aluminium glazing bars and w hich

provide greate r cont ro l of t he int ern al t em-

press against th e glass t o pro vide both a

perature for agricult ural buildings.Th erm al

cushion fo r t he glass as we ll as a wate r and

breaks are still not required, but t here is a

air seal.T he st rength and st iffness of t he glaz-

larger pr ovisio n for slot vent ilat ion at t he

ing bar is pro vided by th e cent ral flat bar th at

ridge and eaves locat io ns t o enco urage natu-

exte nds beyo nd t he glazing line eit her inside

ral cross vent ilat ion.T he increased we ight of

o r o utside th e glazing. Un like curta in walling

doub le glazed unit s over single glazed sheets

based systems, w here t he st ruct ural mullio n

result s in bigger glazing bar s t o suppo rt t hem,

exte nds o n th e inside face of t he glass, w it h a

but th e system remains essent ially th e same .

pressure plate o n th e outside, greenho use

Th e snap-o n glazing clips o r screw -o n ty pes

glazing has o nly clips eit her side of t he co n-

in use usually have a ste pped pr ofile t o

3-D view of capped glazing junction with parapet upstand

3-D view of capped glazing eaves detail

Vertical section I:5. Capped glazing.parapet upstand detail

3-D cutaway view of capped glazing eaves detail

accomm odate th e increased glass depth,

roof pitches,ty pically 22 , 30 and 45. A

w hile short length alum inium clips are used

co ndensat ion channel set int o th e glazing

along th e horizontal joints to ho ld the lapped

section is drained either into th e glazing bars

units in place.Th ese hori zont al joints are usu-

th at inter sect w it h it w hich drains down th e

ally sealed w it h silicone t o provide an air seal.

slope of th e ro of t o th e eaves, o r is dr ained

Greenhou se syste ms can also accommo date

at its gable ends if th e ridge can be set level

both flat polycarbonat e sheet and th e multi-

t o allow th e wate r t o drain freely.

w all type. A twin w all sheet has thi cknesses

Gutters are formed by fixing gutter pro -

w hich are similar t o th ose of doub le glazed

files t o a box sect ion used at jun ctions

units, ranging from aro und 24mm to 32mm,

beneath it.Th e glass simply ove rhangs th e

allowing th e same aluminium profi les t o be

edge of th e roof t o dra in rainw ater int o th e

used for both doub le glazing and po lycar-

gutter.At gro und level, th e glass ofte n over-

bon ate sheets.

laps th e concrete gro und slab, w here a fin-

Ridges are formed by special extruded

ished floor is provided.W here th e green-

alum inium sect io ns th at hold th e glassw it h

house glazing has no flo or, as is th e case in

th e same clips used for th e glazing bar s w hich

many agricultural applications, a br ickw ork o r

meet at th e ridge. Since each ridge ext rusion

co ncrete blockw ork edge is pro vided t o t er-

can suit o nly on e ro of pitch, manufacturer s

min ate th e glass above gro und level, w here it

offer ridge profi les t o suit a limit ed range of

co uld ot herwise be suscept ible t o damage.

@
Fi.

I. .

~I

F-'\
\.Y

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing.


Eaves with glass to glass fold

MCE 341

Glass Roofs 0 I
Greenhouse glazing and capped systems

3-D view of capped glazing junction with valley gutter


3-D view of capped glazing junction with valley gutter

(j)

Vertical section I:5. Capped glazing. Eaves with profiles at fold

Vert ical section 1:5. Capped glazingwith valley gutter

Capped glazing details


I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.
12.
13.

Ext ruded aluminium glazing bar


Transom
Singleglazed unit
Double glazed unit
Ridge bar
Pressure plate and capping
Insulated gutter
Insulated flashing
Roofiight
Thermal insulation
Pressed metal fiashing
Concrete base
Pressed metal trim

Valley gutters, w hich occur ty pically

sons: to under stand how glazed roofs have

w here glassho use roofs are set next t o o ne

evo lved from a simple mass produ ced sys-

anot her,are also form ed from ext r uded alu-

t em , as we ll as for applicat ions w here a glaz-

minium sect ions,w it h th e glass being secured

ing syste m is required t hat is minim al in both

in t he same way as t he glazing bars.A n addi-

it s compo nents and it s overall assembly as

ti onal upstand is ofte n added t o th e alumini-

we ll as w here an uninsulated glass struct ure

um sect ion for increased rigidity. Gutter s in

might be requ ired, w it ho ut th e need to use

other roo f systems are usually insulat ed,

t hermally bro ken glazing systems w hich are

w here t he dept hs of insulati o n, together w it h

designed for much larger glass unit s.

th e inner lining, provide a rigid gutter.Wit h


greenhouse glazing, w it h no th erm al insulat ion prov ided, an upstand o r down stand

Systems for glass roofs use t he pr inciples of

fo rmed w it hin th e gutter extrusion perform s

greenho use glazing, but incorporat e th e prin-

t he same function of pr oviding sufficient st iff-

ciples of glazed curta in wa lling. Drained and

ness t o bear th e we ight of a gutter filled

venti lated systems are used, with t hermal

w it h rainw at er.

breaks and do uble glazed unit s. Pressure

A lt ho ugh not useful fo r mo st applications

MC E

34 2

Mod ern roo f glazing

plates rath er t han clips are used to hold large

in general building co nst ruct ion, greenho use

glass unit s in place in capped systems, and

glazing is useful for t he reader for two rea-

togg le-type plates are used t o prov ide flush

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing. Ridge


3-D view of capped glazing ridge detail

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing.Junctionwith roofiight

3-D cutawayview of capped glazing ridge detail

joints in silico ne based syste ms.Thi s latter

sure plate and th e glass to pro vide a weat h-

typ e is discussed in t he next sect ion of th is

ert ight seal.As w it h glazed curt ain walling,t he

book, w hile t his section focuses on pressure

glazing bars are dr ained and vent ilat ed, or

plate based, or 'capped' syste ms.

pressure equalised, intern ally.Wate r th at is

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing.


Junction with roofiight

able t o find it s way through th e o ute r seal

Capped systems

drip s into an int ernal channel w here it is

The capped syste m comprises glazing bars

drained away safely t o th e bottom of th e

w hich are assembled on site in a grid of

roof. ty pically at th e eaves. In smaller ro ofs

memb ers t hat resemb le th e mullion s and

w it hout eaves, w here th e roof angle changes

tran soms of stick glazed curt ain w alling.Th e

from pitched to vert ical wall, rainw ater is

base of t he curta in wa ll, at th e bottom of t he

allowe d t o run on down th e w all t o t he base

extruded profi le, may have an addit ional co n-

of t he roof At th e 'fo ld' po int of t he roof th e

densation channel.Thi s pro vision can also be

internal drain in th e glazing bar is co nt inuo us

made by setting th e co ndensat ion channels

w it h th e vert ical w all, and th e system is

imm ediately beneath th e glass.Th e glass is set

drained at th e base of th e wall, w hich co uld

onto rubb er-based air seals fixed t o th e glaz-

be a reinforced concrete slab at roof level.

ing bar and is secured w it h a co nt inuo us

Vertical section I:5. Capped glazing.


Eaves gutter

W hile glazing bars runnin g down th e

pressure plate of extruded aluminium. A strip

roof proj ect above th e surface of th e glass,

of ext ruded EPDM is set between t he pr es-

th ose runn ing along th e roof. ho lding in place


MCE

343

Glass Roofs 0 I
Greenhouse glazing and capped systems

Vert ical section I :5. Capped glazing.Typical


profiles

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing. Parapet upstand

Vert ical sect ion 1:5. Capped glazing.Abutment

Vert ical section I :5. Capped glazing. Parapet upstand

Capped glazing deta ils


I.

Extruded aluminium
glazing bar
2.
Transom
3. Single glazed unit
4.
Double glazed unit
5.
Ridge bar
6.
Pressure plate and
capping
7.
Insulated gutter
8.
Insulated flashing
9.
Roofiight
10. Thermal insulation
I I. Pressed metal flashing
I 2. Concrete base
I 3. Pressed metal trim

Vertical section 1:5 . Capped glazing. Ridge

t he top and bottom edges of t he glass,

bar is usually made deep er to take t he highe r

req uire a met hod of allowing t he wate r to

struct ural loads of t he ridge . Glazing bars t hat

run ove r the junction . Some syste ms use a

intersect wit h th e ridge profile are notched

ste p at th is point, wit ho ut a pressure plate o n

at th e top to allow t he drained and vent ilate d

t op t hat wo uld ot herwise impede t he pas-

inne r chambe r to drain wate r intern ally down

sage of wate r down th e roof. O t he r syste ms

th e glazing bars t hat follow th e slo pe down

use a pressure plate and cove r capping w it h

t he roo f.A specially made V-shaped co nt inu-

chamfered edges t hat allow rainwater to pass

o us pressure plate is used to sec ure t he glass

ove r it eas ily A small amo unt of wate r is left

at th e ridge , wit h a similar shaped cove r cap

trapp ed o n t he top edge of t his horizont ally-

set o n top. W hile cove r caps are not an

set glazing bar, but this is soo n blown away by

esse nt ial part of glazed roofs , as is th e case

t he wind o r else evapo rates.Any wate r t hat

wit h curta in wa lling, t he ir functio n is to co n-

pen etrates th e o ute r seal is drained away

cea l th e drainage slots and screw fi xings in

th rough t he intern al drain in t he glazing bar.

o rde r to provide a co nsistent visual fini sh to

Ridges, like glazing bars, fo llow t he main


principles of gree nho use glazing.The box sect io n' o r chose n profi le of t he ty pical glazing

MC E

344

t he glazing bars.
Gutte rs, at both valleys and eaves, are
very diffe re nt to gree nho use glazing. Inst ead

3-D view of capped glazing ridge detail

3-D exploded view of capped glazing ridge detail

Vertical section 1:5. Capped glazing.


Junction with roofiight

Vert ical section 1:5. Capped glazing. Ridge

of lapping th e glass into th e gutter, th e gutter

in o rde r to provide a co nt inuity w it h th e

profile (o r downstand fl ashing) is clamp ed

th erm al insulatio n of t he adjacent co nst ruc-

into o ne side of th e horizontally-set glazing

tion at th e base of th e roof in o rde r to avoid

bar at th e base of the pitched roof An insu-

a th erm al bridge. Glazing bars th at termin ate

lated gutter is used to maintain th e re latively

at fl ashings and gutters allow th e inte rnal

high level of th erm al insulation and to avoid a

drain t o release wate r at th ese points. Drop s

th erm al bridge across th e syste m. If a down-

of wate r th at find the ir way int o th e drainage

stand fl ashing is used to se parate th e roof

chambe r are drained o ut o nto th e o ute r

from th e gutte r, t o make it eas ier to install

(to p) surface of th e downstand flashing,

o
I

th e gutte r, th en two laye rs of flexible mem brane seal are used between th e downstand
insulated fl ashing and th e insulated gutter. This

--J

sea l is required to be fully wat e rt ight if the


gutter becom es blocked and wat e r in th e
gutter fi lls t o the top of th e gutte r dur ing a
sto rm, for example.

Vertical and horizontal sections I 100. Capped glazing.


General principle

Regular downstand fl ashings are insulated

MC E 345

"-

3-0

MC E_

f~_
O
"
"
"
,
-.
346

Capped glazing details


I.

2.
1
4,

S.
6.

.""" ...

Extruded alu:mrnum

Transom

SIngle glazed untT.


Double glazed un"
RIdge bar
Pressc-e plate and

7.
8.
9.

"""'"

Insulated gutter
Insulated flashing

RooIl'l:ht

10, ThermaJ insulabOO


I I . Pressed metal flashing

12

Concrete base

13. Pressed metal trTn

]-0 exploded VteW of capped ~allng conrtruet>on

<D
3-D line <hwIng of upped gI.mI'Ig ridge deta~

<D

MCC347

Glass Roofs 02
Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights

-- --

- - -- ---

-(~:r

CD

o
- 0)

3-D view of connection detail with gutter

Vertical section I :I 0 through rooflight showing typical details

Silicone-sealed systems

th e unit usually used to bond th e unit togeth -

Wh ile capped syst ems, descr ibed in th e previ-

er and t o seal th e edges behind th e spacer.

str uct ural box or fin removed in o rde r t o fix

ou s sect ion, suit pitch ed roofs,they cannot

Th e adjacent spacer in th e double glazed unit

it directly to a steel support fram e. Square

In some cases, th e glazing bar has its

reliably be used on (nom inally) fiat ro ofs,

both keeps th e glass at a fixed distance apart

hollow sections are shown here.A lte rnat ively,

w here th e roof pit ch is usually 3 to 5 .T his is

as we ll as having desiccant w it hin it t o absorb

an all-alum inium glazing bar can be used. As

mainly because th e rainw ater runn ing down

any residual moi sture w it hin th e sealed cavity

w it h capped systems, small amounts of rain-

th e roof cannot pass th e horizontal glazing

betw een th e glasssheets.Th e recessed alu-

w ate r that pass through th e o ute r silicone

bars w hich proj ect above th e surface of th e

minium channel is bonded t o each glass sheet

seal are drained away in th e co nde nsat ion

glass.Th e smoot h, co nt inuous finish required

and also provides th e edge seal t o th e co m-

channels set below th e glass, w it hin th e glaz-

for fiat glazed ro ofs is achieved w it h a silico ne

plet ed unit, as in a regular doub le glazed unit.

ing bar. In practi ce, silico ne seals are very reli-

seal betw een glass panels th at is set flush w it h

Th e sho rt lengths of pressure plate are th en

able but are dependent upon goo d wor k-

th e surface of th e glass.Th e glass is clamp ed in

set int o th e gap formed by th e recessed

manship o n site, so th e co ndensat io n channel

place w it h short lengths of pressure plate th at

channels of abutting glazed units,and are

is ofte n not used in pr actice but serves as a

are recessed below th e oute r seal.Th e

clamp ed t o th e glazing bar w it h self tapp ing

secondary cham ber t o suppo rt th e inner air

recessed plates are secured to an alum inium

screws , t ypically at 300mm cent res.Th e gap

seals. Silico ne-sealed glazing bars can be used

channel w hich forms an int egral part of th e

betw een th e glazed unit is sealed w it h sili-

in all direct ion s across a ro of. unlike capped

doub le glazed unit and w hich is co nt inuo us

co ne, t ypically 15mm t o 20mm w ide, and

systems, since th e glazing bars present no

around its perimet er.Th e extr uded aluminium

w it h a backing st r ip or 'backing rod' behind it

barri er to th e passage of wate r.

channel is recessed int o th e gap at th e edge of

t o form a back edge t o th e silico ne seal.

MC E

348

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vertical section I:25.Typical assembly

i,i1--l--

--'---'--

CD -

--'--'' --

-+-111l

CD

IU
3-D view of silicone sealed glazed
rooflight assembly

Horizontal section I : IO. Panel


to panel corner junction

Details
i.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

B.

9.

3-D view of connection detail with gutter

Extruded aluminium glazing


profile
Pressureplate and capping
Mild steel suppor t frame
Doubl e glazed unit w ith
recessed edge
Thermal insulation
Silicone seal
Concrete base
Gutter
internal finish

CD

U"f'l!FU

0 - - .-.;I1"'1-

IJ'i'iii'U -

t~J

~
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CD

Long section I 10. Horizontal section panel to panel junction


(
(

t
t
t
/
(

/
"

,,

3-D view showing hori zontal panel to panel junction

MC E 349

Glass Roofs 02
Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights

Vertical sections I:5. A lternative panel to


panel junctions

Vertica l section I :5. Panel to panel junct ion


without capping

Details
I. Extruded aluminium glazing profile

2. Pressure plate and capping


3. Mild steel support frame
4. Double glazed unit with recessed edge
5.Thermal insulation
6. Silicone seal
7. Concrete base
8. Gutter
9. Internal finish

Junct ions
Since the advantage of silicone-sealed sys-

cont inuous w it h a glazed w all in the same

tem s is of co nt inuo us glazed surfaces unint er-

system w it h a simple 'fold ', w it hout reducing

rupt ed by visible glazing bars, ridges and val-

it s w eat her t ightn ess.Typically th e w all is not

leys are treated as simple folds in th e surface

ver y high, forming part of a larger glazed roo f

of t he glazing, since rainwater ru ns across t he

D ust t hat is carr ied down off t he ro of dur ing

complete sealed surface of th e glass rather

rain is washed down th e vert ical glazing, rath -

t han being directe d into gutters across its

er than being carried away in a gutter, but in

surface.The sho rt lengths of pressure plate

pract ice glazed ro oflights require regular

can be fo lded in the factory t o the required

cleaning t o maint ain their crisp appearance.

angle. w hile t he glazing bar forming t he ridge

_ ....._ .......~.u;....~;ep-...

3-D exploded view show ing panel to panel junctio n

MCE

350

thi s system is th e ability of th e roof t o be

Th e folded co rne r is formed w it h either

is th e same as th at used elsewhere o n th e

a single specially formed glazing bar,o r w it h

roof. w it h some modifications t o th e angle of

two glazing bar s meet ing. Th e recessed

th e clips t hat ho ld th e inner EPDM seal in

lengths of pressure plate are fo lded t o form

place.T he edges of roofs are also treated as

t he requ ired angle, and t he silicone is cham-

fo lds, wit h rainwater usually allowed to run

fered t o form a flat surface between t he two

off the edge into a gutter, eithe r just below

meet ing glass panels. Silicone is rarely used to

t he roof. or down to the base of the glazed

make a sharp angle between th e two do uble

w all below the glazed roof An advant age of

glazed units as it is very difficult to achieve a

3-D view showing typical corner junction

Vertical section I:5. Corner detail


straight line w it hout th e assista nce of an addi-

result in condensat ion occurring in t emp er-

ti on al metal angle bedd ed int o t he silicone.

ate climates.T he inner face of t he t herm al

T he alte rnat ive method of forming a roof

insulation is lined w it h a vapo ur barrier, ty pi-

edge requires th e edge of th e doub le glazed

cally a 3mm thi ck fo lded aluminium sheet.

unit t o be coate d o r 'op acified' t o avoid t he

Th e o pacifying of t he glass is don e by screen

fr ame behind being visible th rou gh th e glass.

printing o n th e intern al face of th e glass.

T his is ofte n achieved by ste pping t he glazed

W hile black is ofte n t he pr eferred colour, in

unit, w it h th e o ute r glass exte nding t o meet

o rder t o match w it h th e silicone seals, ot her

th e co rne r,w hile th e inner glass stops at th e

co lours and pattern s are increasingly being

glazing bar t o allow th e recessed aluminium

introduced in glass manufacture.

angle t o be bonded in it s usual positio n adja-

W here a gutter is required, an insulat ed

cent t o t he glazing bar. T he glass unit is

gutter is fitted t o t he glazing bar. Prefabricat-

secured in th e same way,w it h a recessed

ed gutters are used w here th ey are seen

length of pressure plate, w hile th e o ute r glass

from t he under side, inside t he building.They

is cant ilevered t o meet th e adjacent glazed

can be glazed into th e syste m fo llowin g th e

unit at t he corne r.T hermal insulati on is bond -

line of t he int ern al face of t he double glazed

ed t o th e oute r glass along th e cant ilevered

units.W here th e gutter is required t o be sep-

edge t o form a co nt inuity of th erm al insula-

arated from th e glazing st r uctures, typically

ti on , and avoiding a t herm al bridge t hat w ill

for st ruct ural reasons, a separate flashing can

3-D view showing window-wall junction

MC E 35 1

Glass Roofs 02
Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights

0,===========~~=

Long section I : I O. Edge of rooflight

. 0 __
---- -----

._---=--=~~
.
- - .',-~
..,-~'
f -

-----

I
=----=========:L--=
b
Cross section I : I O. Edge of rooflight,

Cross section I : I O.Junction of 2 roofiights with opaque roof

be used, fixed t o th e glazing bar but inde-

fixed. A down stand flashing is more easily

pendent of t he gutter.T he gutter is st ill sealed

fixed t o a hori zont al glazing bar t han a glaz-

to th e glazing bar w it h a flexible EPDM gas-

ing channel.The vert ical glazing bars (fo rm-

ket t o pro vide a co nt inuous seal.


T he base of t he glazed roof t hat t ermi-

ing th e mullion s) are fixed to br ackets th at


are secured t o t he upstand.A co ncrete

nates in a glazed wa ll can meet an adjacent

upstand can be used w it h exte rnal insulati o n

co ncrete ro of slab w it h eit her a metal glazing

and a single layer membrane.T he metal

channel, or in an upstand and flashing.W here

flashing exte nds down th e face of th e

a glazing channel is used, t he do uble glazed

upstand t o pr otect t he joint. As w it h gutters,

unit sits in a profi le formed from ext r uded

an EPD M membrane exte nds down from

aluminium, stainless steel o r painted mild

t he hori zont al glazing bar w here it is bo nded

stee l.T he glass is levelled on met al shims

t o t he membrane.Th e roofing membrane

(sho rt lengths of metal strip) th en sealed

and th e EPD M are always checked for co m-

w it h silicone.T he advantage of th e glazing

patibility, but in pract ice t his rarely pr esent s

channel is th at it can be set flush w it h th e fin-

any difficulty

ished int ern al level t o pr ovide a junctio n w it h

MC E

352

no visible hori zontal glazing bar.A lte rnat ively,

Use of capp ed profiles

th e glazing can t ermin ate in a hori zontal glaz-

A n advantage of silicone sealed glazing over

ing bar.t o w hich an aluminium flashing can be

fully bond ed glazing (discussed in t he next

o
-----Vertical section 1:5. Edge of ro ofiight

3-D view showing edge of roofiight

sect io n) is its ability to be mix ed w it h capped

and rid ges,are form ed in t he same w ay,

glazing. Since both syste ms are drained and

w hile t he capped syste m fo llow s t he folds

vent ilate d (pressure equalised) , th e same

w it h co nt inuo us pr essure plates th at are

glazing bar can be used in a mixed ro of sys-

mit red and sealed at t he fo lds. Butyl t ape is

t em of fiush silicone joints and capped pro -

used as an extra seal at fo lds, set betw een

files.A lt hough t his mix is done ofte n fo r visual

t he pressure plate and t he o ute r EPD M gas-

reasons, it does allow for easily formed junc-

kets. Cove r caps are also mitred t o give a

t io ns w it h adjacent areas of ro of in different

crisp appearance.

materials,and for a mix of actual panels and

Th e intern al drainage of t he mixed glaz-

glazed panels in a single ro of using a reliable

ing syste m wo rks in t he same way,w it h any

dr ained and vent ilate d syste m.

wate r t hat penetrates t he silico ne sealed

Th e m ost commo n applicat io n of thi s

glazing being drained along th e intern al co n-

meth od is w here capped pr ofiles are used

densatio n channels befo re draining int o t he

for t he vert ically-set glazing bars runnin g

profi les of th e capped syste m and onwa rds

dow n t he slope of a roof. w hile silico ne-

dow n t o t he base of t he ro of T he co ndensa-

sealed glazing is used o n ho rizont al joints t o

t ion channel and inner air seal can also be

allow rainw ater t o pass down it unimp eded

form ed in a single EPD M extrusion w it ho ut

by any proj ecting glazing bars.Junct io ns in sil-

t he use of any aluminium ext rusion, but w it h

icon e sealed glazing, such as edges of roofs

a suppo rt ing struct ure behind. In t his case,

Vertical sectio n 1:5. Ho rizontal panel to panel junctio n w it h capping

M C E 353

Glass Roofs 02
Silicone-sealed glazing and roofl ights

3-D view of panel to panel junction detail with capping

3-D view of corner detail showing insulated corner


covered by opaque glazing

t he short lengths of pressure plate holdin g

ual roofli ghts th at are visually integrated into

same level to ensure th at any wate r th at

t he glass in place are secured by self t apping

adjacent areas of opaque roof A single layer

passes t hrough t he o ute r seal is drained

screws t hat are secured t o a suppo rt ing

membrane ro of can be sealed into th e edge

t hrou gh a set of linked channels t o th e bot-

struct ure behind.A holl ow box section can

of a capped glazed rooflight by clamp ing t he

t o m edge of t he ro oflight w here it is released

also be used.T he EPD M gasket. combined

membrane int o t he glazing syste m. A met al

above t he roof level of t he adjacent mem-

w it h a stee l suppo rt ing st ruct ure, is used as

rainscreen can also be incorporated. sitting

br ane. Openable roo flights,as shown in th e

an alte rnat ive t o t he ext ruded aluminium

complete ly independent of t he rooflight, but

previo us sect ion o n capped glazing systems,

glazing bar.usually for larger glass panels

set onto th e membrane t o both protect it

can be incorporated easily, w it h th e use of an

w here t he suppo rt ing fin o r box pro file t o

and give a visual co nt inuity t o t he rooflights

additio nal sub frame, int o w hich t he o penable

th e aluminium ext r usion wo uld be visually

across th e ro of

light is set.

t oo deep o r t oo w ide .

T he edge of t he ro oflight is fo rmed w it h


a capped glazing profi le, w hile th e jo ints w it h-

Roofiights

in th e rooflight, running across it (at 90 ), use

A useful applicat ion of co mbining capped and

a silicone-sealed profile t o allow w ate r t o run

silicone sealed glazing is in sealed roofli ghts,

down t o th e bottom edge of th e roofli ght.

w here strips or bands of glazing are com-

T his lowest edge of t he rooflight has a sili-

bined w it h a ro of in a different mat erial.Tra-

co ne sealed edge w it h a drip flashing glazed

diti on ally,individual roo flights are form ed in

into th e edge of th e profi le to drain wate r off

upst ands t hat sit high above t he level of t he

t he edge.T he single layer mem brane is

adjacent ro of Large numb er s of t hese tradi-

tu cked under t his flashing and is clamped

ti onal individual ro oflight s lack t he visual ele-

dow n w it h t he pressure plate t hat exte nds

gance of co nt inuo usly glazed roofs. In recent

th e full w idt h of th e roofli ght.Th e t op edge

years t his has changed w it h t he increased use

of t he rooflight (running parallel w it h t he

of t he combinat ion of single layer mem-

roof slope) has a capped pro file t o allow

br anes and rainscreen panels w it h capped

wate r to dr ain aro und its sides.The co nden-

and silicone sealed glazing t o provide individ-

sat ion channels in all pro files are set at t he

MC E

354

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Extruded aluminium
glazing profile
Pressure plate and
capping
Mild steel support frame
Double glazed unit with
recessed edge
Thermal insulation
Silicone seal
Concrete base
Gutter
Internal finish

--=

li~lIID

--=

-0

~~b=

CD

CD

CD

Vertical section 1:5. Horizontal panel to panel junction with capping

i Il:::;":'r~~

:rt\1

~~
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CD

c:.J

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Vertical section 1:5. Horizontal panel to panel junction without capping

Cross section I :5, Corner

'",
!

Vertical section I :5, Horizontal panel to panel


junction without capping

t
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......

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I-

11

Vertical section I :5.Vertical panel to panel junction with capping

rrr1 ~

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CD

Vertical section 1:5,Junction with adjacent roof


Detail G

Typical cross section I :25, Capped glazingTypical profiles

3-D view showing typical cross section with capped glazing

M C E 355

- - -Glass Roofs

02- - - - - - - - - - .....,

Silicone-sealed glazin and roofl i hts

30 exploded view showingtypical rooAight assembly

3-D view showIng typical roo fiight assembly

3-0 exploded view showing typical silicone


sealed glazed wall and roof comer junction

Deta ils

I. Extrudedaluminium
glazIng profile
2. Pressure plate and

capp,ng
3.Mild steel support frame
4, Double glazed umt with
recessed edge
5.Thermal insuatrcn
6. Silicone seal
7. Concrete base

8. Gutter
9. Internal finish
)- 0 exploded view showing typical rooflight connection to roof construction

Me E

356

, .0

<>'1' ' ' ,<w .


- .'YP

,",,,, M~ OCI"G'" 3roS


I:_ o7<

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,

Glass Roofs 03
Bolt fixed glazing: small scale rooflights

Cross section. I: IO. Horizontal panel to paneljunction

J'

(i)

Vertical section I:IO. Corner

D etails
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I I.

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
Double glazed unit
Silicone seal
Bolt fixing
Support bracket
Concrete base
Stainless steel cable
Mild steel tension rod
Mild steel plate
Adjacent external wall

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed


glazing w ith two point fixing

MC E 358
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

3-D view of bolt fixed glazing with two point fixing

This method of glazing for roo fs has been

pat ch fittin gs at all.This fur th er enhances th e

adapte d from th e tec hnique used for glazed

essent ial concept of fr ameless glazing w hich

walls, w here glass is fixed at points w it h spe-

is t o pro vide greate r visual transparency th an

cially designed bolts rather th an w it h a frame

an equivalent fr amed system.

suppo r t ing th e per imeter of th e glass. Bolt

Th e pat ch plate meth od of fr ameless

fixed glazing for facade const ruct ion devel-

glazing is not used ver y o fte n in roofs,

o ped from patch plate glazing in th e I 960s,

since th e glass fins becom e glass beams in

w here single glazed sheet s of glass are bolt ed

such applicat io ns.W hile glass beams have

t ogether w it h mild steel br acket s. In th e con-

been used in mod est rooflight applicat io ns,

t empoary version, glass fins are used t o st iff-

th er e is uncertaint y surro und ing th e diffi-

en th e glazed wa lls t o replace th e alum inium

culty of rep lacing cracked o r damaged

mullion s.The L-shaped patch fitt ings bo lt th e

beams o nce t he ro of is co m plete d.Th is has

fins and glass t ogether, as we ll as boltin g th e

limited th e use of glass beams t o mo dest

glass t o th e suppor t ing struct ure at th e t op

applicat io ns in glass ro ofs. In co nt rast t o

and bottom of th e wall.W hile thi s glazing

thi s, bolt fixed glazing has becom e incr eas-

method has been develop ed and is still in

ingly popu lar for glazed ro ofs in mainly

use, th e idea of frameless glazing has evolved

co mme rcial and pub lic buildings.

further int o do uble glazed units being bo lted


directly t o a suppo rt ing struct ure w it ho ut

During t he early 1990s do ubts w ere


raised over th e reliability of th e wate rproo f

0
~

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ill

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ll....!J. .R.o

0 1 C,L! g;; ""~

Vertical section I:SOTypical assembly

Horizontal section. I:10.Vertical panel to panel junction

Horizontal section I:sO.Typical assembly

Horizontal section. I 10. Bolt fixing

silicone seals betw een glazed unit s, but t hese

porting beam can be set under each glass

we re soo n overco me w it h a mixture of labo-

joint , so t hat bo lt s are suppo rted o n each

ratory t esting and a better underst anding of

side o f t he beam by a sho rt br acket. A lte rna-

th e w or kmanship required w it h silicone joint-

ti vely, by setting th e beam in th e mi dd le of

ing.W hile manufact ures offer propriet ary sys-

alte rnate glass panels,o nly half t he num ber of

t em s for w alls, w hich can include a support-

beams are requ ired t o suppor t t he same

ing str uct ural system such as cable t r usses,

t hree panels of glass. Brackets are cant ilev-

roof glazing systems are usually designed for

ered from th e beam t o suppo rt th e edge of

individual applicat ions.

t he panel above as we ll as o ne side of t he


panel next t o it.Thi s meth od provides greate r "'~Iiii;;;;;;;;;;;~

Generic str uct ural suppo rt


methods

visual t ransparency t han t he first o pt ion, but

W hereas glazed w alls are usually str uct urally

det ract littl e from th e increased effect of

suppo rte d by eit her t op hung o r bottom

transparency.

suppo rted meth ods,th e sup po rt of glazed

requires larger bracket s, w hich in pract ice

T he single tube sect ion shown in th e dia-

roofs is by t ru sses, steel sections o r pur lins

grams wo uld suit only a sho rt span, as in a

t hat span across th e roo f o pening. For (no m i-

roo flight, but large span roo fs require deeper

nally) flat roofs , th ere are t w o com mo n

beams, usually fo rmed as o pen trusses in

ar rangeme nts of suppo rt ing beams.A sup-

o rder t o maint ain t he sense of t ransparency

3-D view of bolt fixed glazing with two point fixing

M C E 359

Glass Roofs 03
Bolt fixed glazing: small scale rooflights

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Vertical section I: IOVertical panel to panel junction


Vertical section I:Ia, Hori zontal panel to panel junction

1 ~2
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Vertical section I :Ia,Junction with adjacent roof

Details
I,
2,

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
3. Double glazed unit
4,
Silicone seal
5,
Bolt fixing
6,
Support bracket
7,
Concrete base
8,
Stainless steel cable
9,
Mild steel tension rod
Ia, Mild steel plate
I I , A djacent external wall

Elevation I:Iaa,Typical assembly

at ob lique viewing angles,Triangulated trusses

struct ure and t he glass pane ls is ta ke n o ut in

provide both struct ure and suppo rt for t he

th e po sition at th e co nnect ion betw een th e

glass, but tend to be visually heavy, Cab le

bo lt and t he bracket. A slotted o r oversized

tru sses are often preferred, but they require

hole is cut into t he suppo rt ing bracket and

a ring beam aro und t he edge of t he glazed

t he bo lt suppo rt ing th e glass is fixed to it.The

roof to form a tensile suppo rt ing stru cture

bo lt may be off-ce nt re from t he bracket, and

li ke a t e nnis racq uet.T he cable t russes, always

each bo lt may be in a different position in

in tension, require an equivalent surro unding

relation to its neighbo ur. This can prod uce an

st ruct ure in co mpression to transfe r t he

awkward appea rance whe n see n from below

loads to the main building st ruct ure,

t he roof, but t his is ce rtainly o ne of t he most


eco no mic so lut ions,W he re a channel-shaped

Supporting bracket s
All t hese suppo rt ing str uctures req uire
bracket s to which th e bo lt fi xings are

MC E

360

bracket is we lde d to t he top of t he bea m, a


single bracket, typ ically mild st eel plate , is
bo lted to th e channel bracket. An oversize

attac hed, In t he case of a sho rt bracket

hole in t he bracket is used to make t he

atta ched to a beam, a mild stee l bracket can

adjustme nt for to lerance .The bo lts suppo rt-

be we lde d to eac h side of t he t ube , Because

ing t he glass are set at eac h e nd of t he brack-

th e bracket is we lde d, th e adjustm ent for to l-

et.The fi at bracket can be rep laced by a cast-

e rance between fi xing of th e suppo rt ing

ing, usually in e it he r mild steel or aluminium,

3-D view of bolt fixed glazing w ith spider clamp

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed


glazing with spider clamp

3-D view of bolt fixed glazing with spider clamp

The cast ing fo r thi s applicat ion wo uld be

Bolt fixin gs

made fro m a steel mou ld whic h is ex pensive

T he essent ial component in this glazing

to manufacture, so a large quant ity of cast

method, t he bo lt fixing, is made ty pically in

brackets are needed t o make thi s met hod

stainless steel. and consists of several compo-

eco nom ic.A djustment is made in th e same

nents that fo rm th e comp lete assembly.Th e

w ay as the channel bracket example .The

part t hat passes through the glass has eit her

beam can become a cable t russ,w here a

a disc o n each side of th e glass t o clamp th e

suppo rting bracket in eit her mild steel plate

glassor do uble glazed unit together; or alter-

or a casting is clamped t o th e cable. Here t he

natively is angled to fo rm a co untersun k

adjustment for t olerance is made in two

device w ithin the depth of t he do uble glazed

places; at th e junction of th e bracket and t he

unit.The co unters unk fitt ing is set flush wit h

bolt fixing, as w ell as at t he junction of t he

th e o ut er face of the glass, and th e face fixed

bracket and th e cable clamp .There are, of

disc t ype is set forward of the face of t he

co ur se, many variat io ns o n th ese t ypes, but

glass.A po lished st ainless steel finish is mostly

th ese are th e most commo nly used bracket

used o n th e o utside in order to make it easy

suppo rt method s.

t o clean and maint ain. In th e face fixed type,


w hich is current ly t he most co mmo nly used
fixing, th e inner disc screws over th e t hreaded shank t hat fo rms part of the outer disc

3-D view of bo lt fixed glazing wit h spider clamp

MC E 36 1

Glass Roofs 03
Bolt fixed glazing: small scale rooflights
I

I
I

,
I

-'. ".
/
"

'---------.

./.

----

'-...

..'

- ..
.'.

3-D explod ed view of bolt-fi xing on


small glazed roofiight

<,

3-D view of mild steel support frame for bolt


fixed roofiight

until it is tight up to th e inner face of th e

Arrangemen t of bolt fixings

glass.The threaded shank projecting into the

The arrangeme nt of brackets for bolt fi xed

building and is able to rotate abo ut a ball

roofs is dep end ent upon th e position of th e

bearing whe re it meets th e inner face of th e

fixing bo lts. Rectangular shaped double glazed

doub le glazed unit.This allows th e doub le

units can be arranged wit h suppo rt ing beams

glazed unit t o rotate up to aro und 12 under

set in th e direct ion of th e lon g side of t he

wind load and assoc iate d st ruct ural deflec-

panel. Bolts are position ed in a way that

tions.This swivel joint is esse nt ial in avoiding

reduces th e span of th e glass by pushing

th e ove r st ressing of th e glass under full wind

th em away from t he edge .The redu ced glass

load th at wo uld ot herwise result in breakage

span allows t he glass th ickness to be th inner.

of th e glass unit.Th e threaded shank is th en

making it more eco no mic, parti cularly give n

used to clamp th e co mplete bo lt fixing t o a

th at th e material cost of glass increases dra-

suppo rt bracket w it h eit he r t hreaded discs

matically wit h th e increase of thickness (t he

o r nuts.The visible thread in th e shank can be

relation ship betw een glass th ickness and cost

eit he r left ex posed. o r be cove red w it h

is not linear). Flat plates can be used. subject

threaded sleeves and sto p e nds.Th is bo lt

to struct ural requirem ents.

type is used regardless of th e o rientat ion of


th e roof, whet he r fl at o r pitched.

MC E

36 2

W he re t he glass fixing bo lts are eq uidistant from th e edges of th e glass,a cro ss-

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Vertical section I: IO. Hori zontal panel to panel junction

Vertical section I:IO. Corner

Vertical section I: IO.Vertical panel to panel junction

Hor'izonta'l section i :i 6. Horizontai panei to panei junction at edge

shaped br acket allows four glass co nnect ions

doub le glazed unit being brok en, th e inner

t o be made w it h a single bo lt connect ion

laminat ed sheet remains int act, w hile th e br o-

between t his suppo rt br acket and th e beam

ken pieces of th e heat strengthened o r fully

beneat h.The cross-shaped br acket is carrying

t oughened o ute r sheet come t o rest o n t op

a high load of glass to a single point on th e

of th e damaged, but int act, inner sheet.T he

beam. St iffening fins are usually needed o n

doub le glazed units are fir st fixed and adjust -

t he under side of t he cro ss-shaped br acket.

ed t o form even joi nt w idt hs between all t he

These can be individually we lded and gro und,

unit s.Jo int s oflO-28mm are used, th ough

but it is ofte n eco nomic t o make t hem as

aro und 20mm is t he most commo n joi nt

castings, w hich have a more reliably refined

w idt h (in elevat ion) th at allows for bot h

appearance. Mild stee l br ackets requ ire paint -

st ruct ural movement and t he slight variations

ing; st ainless stee l br ackets can be buffed o r

in t he size of t he glass panels. Un like capped

polished t o th e preferred visual finish.

roof glazing systems, th e entire dou ble glazed

Glazed units

th e edges are not set behind pressure plate s

In commo n w it h other glass roo f ty pes, th e

th at co nceal any variat ions in glass panel size.

inner glass of a do uble glazed unit is usually

Joint w idt hs up t o aro und 28mm, w hich is

made from laminat ed glass. In th e event of a

deemed close t o th e maximum pr actical joint

D etails
I.
2.

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
3. Double glazed unit
4.
Silicone seal
5.
Bolt fixing
6.
Support bracket
7.
Concrete base
8.
Stainless steel cable
9.
Mild steel tension rod
10. Mild steel plate
I I. Adjacent external wall

unit is visible from both o utside and inside,

MC E 36 3

Glass Roofs 03
Bolt fixed glazing: small scale rooflights

Vertical section I 50,Typical assembly

3-D view of small roofiight roof assembly

Vertical section I : I0, Vertical panel to panel junction

w idt h for th e adhesion of silicone sealant in a

has proj ecting fiaps o n each side t o form a 'fir

regular doub le glazed unit, are used w here

t ree' sect ion w hich prevents any w ate r th at

br ackets penetrate t he o ute r seal from inside

penetrates th e exte rnal seal from reaching

th e roof to outside, If required. th ese brack-

th e inner face of th e seal.Thi s EPD M gasket

ets are used to suppor t exte rn al sun shading

also serves as an inner air seal, and pro vides a

and maintenance equipme nt.T hese br ackets

crisp appearance of sharp lines in t he int erior

are usually in th e form of fiat plates th at are

face of th e glazed roof.

we lded to th e internal suppo rting st ruct ure,

3-D detail view of typical roof assembly

MCE

364

In th e manufacturin g of double glazed

and pr oject t hrou gh t he joint. A lt hough an

unit s, t he but yl seal between t he spacer and

additional lip around th e proj ectin g plate may

t he glass creates a slight ly wavy line, visible to

provide addit ional protection t o wate r pene-

t he eye w hen it spreads beyo nd t he face of

tration between th e silicone and th e br acket,

th e spacer.Thi s slight ly uneven appearance of

in pract ice it has been fo und t hat t his detail

t he edge of t he glazed unit can be co ncealed

perfo rm s we ll if t he seal is applied t o a goo d

by t he use of edge 'fr itt ing', o r a baked-o n

level of wo rkmanship,

screen printed edge in black, w hich ensures

Seals between do uble glazed unit s are

t hat t he edge of t he unit has a crisp black

made as an outer silico ne seal w it h an inner

edge,Thi s is mainly w here th e roofii ght glass

backing rod of ext ruded EPDM,The gasket

can be seen at close prox im ity.

Vertical sectionsVarying glass fixings

IJ

Ho rizontal sections. Bolt fixed arrangements

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5, 5

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6-

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;i.e

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Vertical sections. Bolt fixed arrangements

Isometric view of roof assembly

T he holes in dou ble glazed units,t o


w hich t he bo lt fixings are attac hed, are made
by cutting holes in t he glass aro und I Omm
larger t han t he metal circular sleeve t hat fits
between it. The circular sleeve bond ed to t he
glass is sealed aro und it t o maint ain t he
sealed cavity of th e doub le glazed unit.T his is
parti cularly imp ortant in th e case of argo n

D et ails

filled cavit ies, w here t he gas improves t hermal

I.
2.

insulatio n.
T he drilling of t he glass it self is now we ll
established in glass manufacturin g, w it h both
float glass and laminat ed glass being drilled
befo re any heat t reatment t o make t hem
eit her heat st rengthened or fully t oughened.
W here coat ed glasses are used, such as solar
control coat ings o r low emissivity (lowe)

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
3. Double glazed unit
4.
Silicone seal
5.
Bolt fixing
6.
Support bracket
7.
Concrete base
8.
Stainless steel cable
9.
Mild steel tension rod
10. Mild steel plate
I I. Adjacent external wall
3-D detail view of typical roof assembly

coat ings, t his is do ne after heat t reatment.

M C E 365

Glass Roofs 03
Bolt fixed glazing: small scale roofi ights

3-D exploded detail view of bolt fixed


glazingjunction

3-D view of small roofiight roof assembly

3-D line drawing of bolt fixing

3-D exploded view of small


roofiight roo f assembly

----3-D exploded detail view of bolt fixed


glazingjunction

MC E

366

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed


glazing roofiight wall assembly

CD ..
......

(0

...

......

Details
I.
2.

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
3. Double glazed unit
4.
Silicone seal
5.
Bolt fixing
6.
Support bracket
7.
Concrete base
8.
Stainless steel cable
9.
Mild steel tension rod
10. Mild steel plate
I I. Adjacent external wall

3-D exploded view of small roofiight roof assembly

~
CD

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed glazing roofiight wall assembly

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed glazing roofiight wall assembly

M C E 36 7

Glass Roofs O~
Bolt fixed glazing: large scale rooflights

*'

;5
--"<

-------

~ )

---

_J
0)

Vertical section I :25. Panel to


panel junction

~\

Vertical section I :25.Typical assembly

Horizontal section I : I a. Panel to


panel junction

Vertical section I : Ia.Typical assembly

3-D view showing internal fold of glazed pitched


roof assembly

MC E 368
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

The ge ne ric suppo rt struct ures described in

is act uallytwo viere ndee l trusses linke d

th e previou s section suit a range of roofs in a

togeth er, wit h th e sho rt cross members

single plane, w het he r pitched or (no minally)

we lde d to the lo ng members. If addit ional

flat. Suppo rt ing struct ures w hich are facetted

stiffness is required in part o r all of th e st ruc-

o r curve d to form co mplex geo met ries

ture' t hen cross bracing is typically adde d.

require a slight ly different ap proac h.These

Addit ional st ruct ural sta bility is provided by

suppo rt ing struct ures are dictated more by

fo lding, curving o r ribbing th e surface of t he

th e dem and s of th e form th at is being creat-

struct ure .This avoids th e need t o deep en th e

ed rath er th an by o pt imising the position of

struct ure wit h trusses th at significant ly redu ce

suppo rt ing members to maximise visual

th e visual transparen cy offe red by bo lt fi xed

transparen cy t hrough th e st ruct ure. Stru c-

roof glazing.

tures for arches o r curve d surfaces are usual-

The 'ladd ers' are bo lted o r we lde d

ly made w it h as little struct ural depth as pos-

togeth er to form th e co mplete st ruct ure . If

sible, w it h th e visually successful types using a

we lde d, th en an inne r sleeve is inse rte d

single 'plane' of struct ure formed in 'ladde r'

betw een the sect io ns being jointed and th e

forms. C ircular ho llow sections and box sec-

edges of joints are we lde d together and

tion s are preferred for th eir visual co nsisten-

painted. An alte rnat ive fixing meth od is to

cy regard less of w he re th e glazed roof is

bo lt th e sect ions togeth er.This meth od

viewe d be low th e roof. The ladde r pr inciple

avoids th e bo lts be ing visible, leaving o nly a

Details
I.Mild steel connector
2.Mild steel support frame
3. Double glazed unit
4. Siliconeseal
5. Bolt fixing
6.Support bracket
7.Concrete base
S. Stainless steel cable
9. Mild steel tension rod
10. Mild steel plate
I I.Adjacent external wall
12.Singleglazed solar shading
glass
3-D detail viewshowing

bolt fixed pitched roof comprisingdouble

glazed unitssupported by metal structural frame

3-Dview showingglazed pitch roof general assembly

hairline joint visible at the junction.giving the

The structural form of the 'ladder' usually

joint a minimal appearance and avoiding

corresponds to the layout of the glass panels.

welds which form a visible ring around the

since the comers of panels are fixed back to

joint This joint method also allows a faster

t he supporting structure. which is preferably

installation than if welding were used,w ith

as close to the glassJoints (in elevatio n) as

the additional benefit that steelwork can be

possible. In other examples the structure is

installed with a fully painted finish from the

set in line with the joints in the glass. In some

factory if required.In this method. a mild

cases the bolt fixings for the gass are fixed to

steel plate is welded to eachend of t he tube

a tubular supporting structure with mild steel

being jointed.A rectangular hole is cut into a

brackets fixed to the main tube (asdescribed

wall of one of t he hollow steel sections. big

in the previous section).The positions of the

enough to pass a hand through.Accessing the

bolt fixingsin relation to the edge of the glass

inside of the hollow section from the rectan-

are optimised to reduce the glass to an eco-

gular hole. bolts are fixed through the end

nomic th ickness. Bolt fixings can be set mid

plates to fix the two steel sections together.

distancebetween two horizontal ladders.This

The rectangular hole is then covered w ith a

might correspond to a joint between two

thin metal plate which is either bonded to

double glazed unit s or an additional bolt fix-

the sUlTOunding metal or is screwed into the

ing to secure a large double glazed unit.A

surrounding wall of the hollow section.

v-shaped mild steel bracket is set at 90 0 to

Horizontal section 1:10. Junction witM adjacent wall

Q)

'\
.J

Q)
Vertical section I 10Base upstand

MC E 369

Glass Roofs O~
Bolt fixed glazing: large scale rooflights
Elevation I:IO. Internal fold
D etails
I.
2.

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support
frame
3. Double glazed unit
4. Silicone seal
5. Bolt fixing
6. Support bracket
7. Concrete base
8. Stainless steel cable
9. Mild steel tension
rod
10. Mild steel plate
II . Adjacent external
wall

,...=--.

r~
11

--~---Jj

--

--~= C'rl

~
@

'=-'" (D

-----

---------

II

Horizontal section I:IO. Penetration


of platethrough glass joint

Verticalsection I:Ia. Base upstand

Verticalsections I: Ia. lntemal fold


th e bracket s.T he st ainless st eel bo lt s are

part of a co ncrete roof deck.T he suppo rt ing

aligned in elevat io n w it h adjacent br acket s.

steel str uct ure is fixed t o th e edge of th e


co ncrete slab, w hich t ypically forms a co nt in-

3-D view showing underside of bolt fixed glazed


roof system

MC E

370

Base of glazed roof

uou s ring beam aro und th e opening t o carry

Bo lt fixed glazed ro ofs are o fte n fixed t o a

t he lo ad of th e glazed roofThe base of th e

surro unding reinforced co ncrete slab.A n

glazing has a cant ilevered edge of th e dou ble

essent ial feature of jun ction s in bo lt fixed

glazed unit w hich is sealed t o an alum inium

glazed ro ofs at th eir perimet er is t hat t here is

fiashing.An addit io nal flashing w hich is co n-

no mechanical co nnectio n betw een t he dou -

t inuou s w it h th e wate rproofing membrane, is

ble glazed unit and th e adjacent roof deck, o r

set o n th e inside face o f th e glass.Thi s folded

parapet. since th e glass is bolted some dis-

alum inium str ip is bond ed w it h silico ne t o

t ance away from th e co rne r, and th e edge o f

th e bottom of th e double glazed unit. It can

th e glass is cant ilevered from th e bo lt fixin g.

be eit her co ncealed by th e int eri or finishes o r

Th e adjacent roof o r exte rna l wa ll (in a dif-

be coate d, usually in a PVDF o r po lyester

ferent materi al) meet s it w it h two set s of sili-

pow der coate d finish.Thi s alum inium strip is

co ne seals o nly, or alte rnat ively w it h EPD M

bond ed t o th e edge of th e wate r proofing

seals w hich are bon ded t o th e edge of th e

mem brane th at extends up th e face of t he

glass unit. In some cases, a low pitched ro of

upst and across th e to p.Thi s co m binat io n

m eet s a reinforced co ncrete upstand form ing

provides an inner,second line o f defence t o

3-D view of bolt fixed glazed roof system

3-D view of of externa l fold

3-D view of internal fold

th e flashing above .The o ute r flashing is set

th e jo int is formed in t he same way as ot her

o n t he oute r face of the glass. and has a fold-

jo ints. w ith an o uter silicone seal and an

ed edge in order t o bo nd it wit h a silicone

inner ext rude d EPDM baffle, or air seal.t he

seal. typ ically 20mm w ide t o match visually

double glazed units are stepped o n th eir

with the other seals between the glass units.

edges to ensure t hat the joint is not w ider

An y rainwater wh ich penetrates the outer

than adjacent joints .With an external fold

seal is drained away on the inner metal flash-

t he outer glass is stepped beyond t he edge

ing o nto th e w aterpro of membrane.T he

of the unit t o maintain a constant w idt h

void between t he two flashings is filled w it h

th rough the dept h of t he joi nt. The inte rnal

closed cell t herm al insulat io n, someti mes as

fold. o n th e ot her hand, can have the inner

injected foam to fill th e cavity comp letely. In

laminated glass exten ding beyond the o uter

some instances. an all-metal upst and flashing

glass t o perform t he same function.T he jo int

can be used, w hile in ot her s t he upstand is

w idt h both exte rnally and int ernally is made

concealed by an accessible t imber deck.

to match th e w idt h of adjacent joints in

External and inte rnal fo lds

gasket t o be used as an inner seal.

3-D view of bolt fixed system

o rder t o allow th e same ext ruded EPD M

Changes of direction in bo lt fixed roo fs t hat

Junct io ns of th e edge of the roo f w it h

fo rm ridges and valleys are formed as exte r-

exte rnal w alls in ot her materials are similar

nal fo lds and int ernal folds respectively.W hile

t o flashings at th e base of t he roofs, wit h

Horizontal section I:25.Typical clamp assembly

MC E 371

Glass Roofs 02f


Bolt fixed glazing: large scale rooflights

.'g, -"',
~

I
I

CD
'" =-r
".

11

-3

CD
Details
I.

Mild steel connector


Mild steel support frame
Double glazed unit
4. Silicone seal
5. Bolt fixing
6.
Support bracket
7.
Concrete base
R
Stainless steel cable
9.
Mild st eel tension rod
10. Mild st eel plate
I I . Adjacent external wall
12. Singleglazedsolar shading glass

2.
3.

'- --- - -

Vert ical section I:80.Typicalassemblyof twin wall roof


w ith double glazed units

r-~I;---:r---r___

Ho rizontal section I :80.Typical assembly of tw in wall roo f


with double glazed units

MC E

372

3-D view showing twi n wall roof


with do uble glazed units. steel t russ
support system and glazed solar shading
3-D view showing twin w all roof syst em detail

w hich th ese joints can be cont inuo us as th e

Small glazed roofl ight s

small roofii ght of 3500mm x 3500mm in plan

roof per imeter t urn s from roof t o exte rnal

A n essent ial aspect of small roofiights is t he

is made from a mild steel t ube suppo rt ing

wall. In some cases, an insulated aluminium

greate r number of int erfaces w it h surro und-

stru cture.The t op of th e roofii ght requires

closer is bond ed to th e edge of th e double

ing co nstruct ion and oth er materials th an is

four glass panels in ord er to span from side

glazed unit and is sealed against t he adjacent

usually t he case w it h large glazed ro ofs.

t o side .T he bo lt fixings in t he cent re of t he

wall co nstruct ion.Th e bo lt fixed roof co uld

W here small roofii ghts have a bo lt fixed glaz-

top of th e ro ofiight are suppo rte d by two

meet. for exam ple. a metal rainscreen w all, o r

ing assemb ly mixed w it h gutter eleme nts in a

cable trusses spanning diago nally fro m t he

an exte rnal w all clad in a range of panels.

t ypical single rooflight, t he glazing is sealed

corne rs, inter secting in th e cent re.T he four

Support br ackets for exte rnal shading

against th e adjacent co nstruct io n. In some

bo lt fixings are secured t o a cross-shaped

and for rop e fixing points for abseil-based

inst ances, an o ute r seal is form ed against an

bracket w hich is in turn bolted t o two halves

cleaning are somet imes designed t o pene-

exte rnal roof panel in a different panel.A

of a clamp bo lted t o t he suppo rt ing cables.A

trate through th e joints betw een th e glass

second inner seal is made w it h an inner

vert ical mild steel rod forms th e cent ral vert i-

jo ints.Th is met hod is descr ibed in th e pr evi-

metal panel. Glazing channels can also be

cal eleme nt in th e truss.T he absence of steel

ous section.W here t hese brackets occur at

used (as described in t he previou s section) in

tub es spanning across t he cent re of t he t op

exte rn al and internal fo lds.th e br ackets are

o rder t o seal t he gap but t he glazing channel

of th e roo fiight increases its visual transparen-

usually designed so as to avoid penetrating

must be co nnecte d t o a flexib le seal such as

cy.Junct io ns at th e corne r and at th e base of

t he joint at t he co rne r it selfThis is done t o

an EPDM st rip t o allow t he bo lt fixed glazing

t his typical small roofiight do not rquire bo lt

avoid a complicate d junction of th e bracket

t o m ove independent ly of th e ot her materi-

fixings. increasing th e sense of transparency In

t oget her w it h t he fo ur co rne rs of a joint

als making t he junction . In t his case it is

plan. exte rnal co rne rs can be formed by

meeting at th e same place.Thi s is both diffi-

assumed th at th ese stru ctural mo vement s

stepping th e edges of th e double glazed unit

cult t o seal and difficult t o give a smoot h.

are small.

in o rder t o maint ain a co nsta nt joint w idt h

cont inuo us appearance as seen fro m inside


th e building.

In small ro ofiights t he suppo rt ing st ruc-

for all ro ofiight joint s.T he visible area of sili-

ture is made visually lightweight in o rder to

cone behind th e glass can be concealed w it h

maximise t he effect of t he bolt fixed glazing.

silk screen pr inting, o r 'frittin g', usually in a

Stainless stee l cables are ofte n used to

black co lo ur.A lt ho ugh exte rn al and internal

increase transparency. In generic examples.a

corne rs of meeti ng do uble glazed unit s in


M C E 373

Glass Roofs 04
Bolt fixed glazing: large scale rooflights

3-D view showing fixing method of twin wall roof with double
glazed units, steel truss support system and glazed solar shading

3-D view showing overview of twin wall roof with double glazed
units. steel truss support system and glazed solar shading

bolt fixed ro ofs have a w ide sight line, th e

adjustment for fixing t olerance made at th e

cont inuity of th e glass and it s reflection s

junction of th e bo lt fixing and th e suppo rt

obscure th e effect of th e fritting and silicone

br acket.Th e glass units set hori zontally can

seals behind

be suppo rt ed at th eir corne r fixings by eit her

Larger rooflights

joint, o r w it h a cable tru ss,w hich pro vides

For bigger roofl ights up t o aro und 5.0 metres

greate r visual transparency th an th e all-t ube

high and 8.0 metres w ide, lightweight hollow

solut ion.The main st ainless steel cables of th e

mild steel sect io ns,t ogeth er w it h st ainless

tru ss span across th e diagonal co rne rs, meet-

a grid of st eel tub es immediat ely below th e

steel cables are commo nly used Th is rooflight

ing at a cent ral vert ical tubu lar post, as

size suit s glass sizes w hich are aro und

descr ibed in th e previous paragraph for small

2000 mm x 2000mm for hori zontally-set unit s

rooflights.The increased span is assiste d by a

and aro und 2000 mm x 2500mm high for

set of secondar y ste el cable tru sses set at

vert ically-set units.A mod est rectangular st eel

45 t o th e diagon al geomet ry (o rthogo nal

fr ame forming th e edges of th e generic roof-

w it h th e glass).T he seco ndary trusses bot h

light can support stainless st eel cables span-

st iffen th e main tru sses and pro vide a fixing

ning both vert ically and horizontally t o w hich

point for all bolt fixings.The pr inciple of th is

bolt fixings and cross-shaped brackets can be

medium size generic ro oflight can be adapt ed

fixed Th e cro ss-shaped br acket is fixed t o a

t o suit a range of individual designs of similar

clamp w hich is bolted t o th e cable. For glass

overall dim ensions.

jo ints set direct ly in front of th e tubu lar st eel


struct ure, th e bolt fixings are secured directly
t o a channel-shaped bracket w elded t o th e
main support ing steel tub e. A ll bo lt fixings in
th ese mod est sized roo flights have th eir

MC E

374

3-D detail view showing fixing method of twin wall


roof with double glazed units

-====~===

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Elevatioo 1:25.Typicai assembly of tw in wall roof with doubleglazed uots and

solar shading

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Details

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2.

3.
4

S.

steel connector
stee l support frame

Double glazed Ur'lrt


Silicone seal

6.

Bolt ~x i ng
Support bracket

8.

Stainless steel cable

9.

Mild steel tension rod

7.

Mild
Mild

Co-crete base

10. Mild stee l plate


II.

Adjacentexternal wall

12. Single glazed solar shadingglass

Verticalsection I 25.Typical assembly of tw in wall roof with doubleglazed uruts and solar shading

MC E 375

- - -Glass Roo s OLl


Bolt fixed glazing: large scale roofl ights

/
3-D view of underside of typical glazed pitched roof assembly

3-D exploded detail views of bolt fixed glazing

3-D exploded view of bolt fixed


glazed roof

MC E

376

- -

..

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~.

: 1-

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,~

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Details
\'
2.
).
4.

S.
6.

7_
8

Mild -;teel
c(lfll'..ectl$
M'IId steel
Sl
()oo.ble glaZJPPO'""- frame
ed ur ..t

S olic(lf'e

3-D

~ vews ~
,aze:! vnM.steel tfI)<;~ ~ wall roof w.m
~ <,OsupPOrt system an

doUble

i ~d

lar shaOO

seal

Boltfoon&

~ l)ra
ck.e
Conc.rete ca t
se

S~S\eelc

able

9_ Mild <,
teel t~
rod
10. Mild st
ee l plate
,

, . Mia'eot
e>
L2. S~ gI dtmal wan

a:ed 0;0\31" ~

~-

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, t ( . ~.l' :
'.

Glass Roofs 05
Bonded glass rooflights

I
3-D view of typ ical con ical roofiight assembly

Vertical section I :25. Generic conical rooflight,t ypical assembly

Ver t ical section I :5.Junction with adjacent material

Th e meth od of silicone bondin g glass t o alu-

w hich w o uld have t o be curve d both verti-

m inium fr aming is we ll develop ed for use in

cally and horizontally, and w hich wo uld be

glazed curta in wa lling to pro vide visually

ext remely difficult to fabricate.Th e generic

smoot h glass facades w it h no visible cappings.

rectangular ro oflight can be bond ed t ogeth er

Th e use of silicone sealed roofl ights,dis-

w it hout a suppo rting st ruct ure, w it h t he glass

cussed in an earlier sect io n, can be t aken a

pro viding its ow n support. A flat mono pitch

ste p further t o becom e a full bond w it hout

roofl ight can be bond ed t o a fr ame t o pro -

th e need for th e mechanical restraint of pr es-

vide a small ro oflight from o ne doub le glazed

sure plates. In silicone bond ed rooflights, th e

unit.Th e use of laminat ed glass sheet s can

glass is glued t o a support ing fr ame.The glue

make a glass deck st ro ng eno ugh t o wa lk o n.

is also th e exte rnal seal.T his t echnique is use-

Similar t o a glass floor used inside a building,

ful for small roofl ights, w here cappings wo uld

it must also t ake heavier traffic loadings and

be very difficult t o fabricate, and in ro oflights

be w eat her t ight.

w hich are walked upon , w here th e ro ofl ight


is an exte rnal glass floor.
Four examples are discussed in t his sec-

j
Ver t ical section I :5.Junction with upstand

MC E 378
A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes
Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Generic conical rooflight


In a generic conical roofl ight, a lightweight

ti on. Th e generic co nical ro oflight has curve d

steel fram e is used t o suppo rt doub le glazed

doub le glazed unit s bond ed t o an aluminium

units th at form a ro oflight.Th e st ruct ural

fr ame. Silicon e bond ing avoids cover caps

fr ame comprises box sections set vert ically,

3-D view from below of typical conical roofiight assembly

Vert ical sect ion I 10. Junction with adjacent material

Details
I.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Silicone bond
Mild steel support
frame
Singleglazed
laminated glass panel
Silicone seal
Concrete base
Insulated metal panel
Folded metal fiashing
Reinforced concrete
support frame

3-D detail view of glass to glass junction In conical roofiight

Vertical section I: IO. Base upstand

held in place by thin tub e sectio ns runnin g

and a means of concealing th e closed cell

horizontally t o form a circle.T he glass panels

th erma l insulati o n set o n t op of t he wate r-

are supported on ste el flat sections w hich

proof membrane.

are we lded to th e hori zontally set tub e sec-

At th e top of th e roofli ght, a metal panel

t ion.Th e glass is levelled on blocks set onto

is used t o seal t he po int ed form. Th e glass

th e hori zont al flat sectio n, and th e silicone is

can be co nt inued almo st to th e top, w it h

applied t o th e joint. At th e base, t he ho rizo n-

o nly a small po inted metal cover, but th is

t al metal sectio n proj ects out to form a flash-

example aims t o show how th e glass is

ing over th e upstand in w hich th e ro oflight is

sealed t o anoth er mater ial set above it. Th e

set.An additi onal inner metal upstand can be

metal cover is fo lded inw ards at its junction

provided w it h anot her silicone seal if th ere is

w it h t he doub le glazed unit.Th e fo ld form s

risk of future flood ing from blocked rainw ater

an edge t o make a silicone seal.T he glass is

outlets,for exam ple.Th e wate rpro of mem-

bond ed to anot her stee l flat set below th e

brane for th e roof slab is co nt inued up th e

metal cover.Th is provides lat eral suppo rt t o

upstand and is bond ed to th e base of th e

th e glass unit as w ell as making an addit ional

horizonta l section th at suppo r ts th e glass.

inner seal.T he metal cover is typ ically

This provides a complete seal from th e glass

formed from a single piece of aluminium o r

to th e roof membran e, w it h th e metal flash-

stainless stee l th at is we lded and gro und

ing providing both a protection t o t his seal

smoot h, and is insulat ed w it h inject ed foam

Key plan

MCE 379

Glass Roofs 0
Bonded glass rooflights

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Vertical section I:5.Typical


assembly

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Verti cal section I:5.Typlcal assembly

,+

Plan, section, elevation 1:25. Rooflight with glass supports, typ ical assembly

Horizontal section 1:5.


Typical assembly

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

MC E

Silicone bond
Mild steel support frame
Single glazed laminated
glass panel
Silicone seal
Concrete base
Insulated metal panel
Folded metal flashing
Reinforced concrete
support frame

380

A",,~P!

--

--

---

Ho rizontal section I:5.Typical assembly

o r mineral fibre quilt to provide a cont inuity

sides of th e panel fo rm ing t he corne r in

of t hermal insulati on.

o rder t o receive t he clip.A n alte rnat ive

T he use of silicone bondin g in thi s roof-

D etails

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(j)

I.
2.

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meth od is t o fix th e metal clip to th e o ut side

light avoids th e need t o use visually obtrusive

of th e glass at th e corne r.This avo ids th e

bolt fixings, allow ing t he form of t he rooflight

need fo r specially made corner pieces but it

t o be seen more clearly In some count ries,

does form a visible fixing.T he mod est size of

addit ional restraining clips are required o n

t his rooflight allow s t he horizont ally-set glass

t he o utside of th e glass, at th e co rners, but

to span from side t o side w it h no addit io nal

th is additio nal safety featur e is dependent

suppo rt.T he corne rs of t he rooflight are stiff-

upon th e individual rooflight design and t he

ened by sho rt lengths of pressure plat e

local building codes.

w hich ho ld t he glass in place.Th e glass has a

Generic rectangular roofiight

do uble glazed unit. t o w hich th e pressure

Th e generic rectangular ro oflight can be con-

plat es are fixed. Co rner jo int s have an o ute r

st ructed w it ho ut a suppo rt ing fr ame.

co rner piece of fo lded aluminium w hich is sil-

Mechanical restraint is provided at t he cor-

icone bond ed eit her t o t he face of th e adja-

specially shaped groove in th e depth of t he

ners in th e fo rm of pressure plate clips.Th e

cent glass units, o r is folded at 90 to bo nd it

double glazed units at t he corne rs are fabri-

to th e side of th e unit. Glass-to -glass joint s

cate d w it h a recessed groove o n th e two

between horizontally-set units have a silicone

3-D view of rooflightwith glass supports and central steel supportbeam

3-D viewof junction at edge of glass beam and steel support

3-D detail of connection between glass beam and concrete wall


seal w it h an aluminium angle set on th e

brid ges th at w ould cause conde nsat ion t o

insid e face t o provide a second seal.

form o n th e inside face of th e fram ing in

At the base of the roofii ght the glass

temperate climates. A lt hough th erm al insula- -

unit s are seate d on aluminium or mild stee l

ti on can be difficult t o install in such sit ua-

sect ions w hich are in turn suppo rte d o n

t ions, th e cont inuity of insulati on is essent ial

br ackets to th e required height of th e fiash-

to avoid th e effects of th erm al brid ging.

ing.These metal brackets are fixed t o th e


adjacent roof deck.The wate rproo f mem-

Th e inside face of th e doub le glazed unit t


at its base is bond ed t o an inner metal

brane for th e adjacent roof exte nds up th e

angle.The outside face of th e glass is sealed

concrete upstand and up th e face of a fold -

t o th e metal fiashing below w it h silicone.

ed aluminium sheet th at forms a complete

A ny wate r th at passes through th e oute r

weat her t ight seal. Closed cell th erm al insula-

seal is drained t o th e exte rnal face of th e

tion is applied t o th e outside of thi s mem-

roof membrane beneath.

brane, and an o ute r pressed aluminium

3-D detail of connection between glass beam and concrete wall

Small ro ofi ights can have upstands as

fiashing is fixed to protect both th e mem-

fiashings w hich can appear t o be large in

brane and th e th erm al insulati on.T he insula-

relation t o th e area of glass. In highly visible

ti on forms a cont inuous layer from th e junc-

or accessible ro ofs thi s can be avoided

ti on w it h th e roof insulation up to th e sili-

eit her by setting th e ro ofiight on th e oute r

cone seal in order t o avoid any th erma l

edge of th e upstand t o create a fiat appear

MCE 38 1

Glass Roo s 05
Bonded glass rooflights

3-D view of glass to glass junction


3-D exploded view of glass to glass Junction

3-D view of glass to glass junction


3-D exploded view of glass to glass junction

- 0-_

- 0'

=--

11 ':" , II

~;m

=--~

[~}

-='1

ance t o th e flashing, o r by adding a layer of

polymer backing rod.The surro unding w at er-

decking t o co nceal th e upstand, D ecking is

proof membrane is lapped up th e edge of

usually in th e form of op en jointed co ncrete

th e vert ical ring to pro vide a continuou s seal

slabs o r timber boards,

aro und th e ro oflight. A metal panel forms th e

edge of th e silico ne seal aro und th e glass.T he

-.,
, ---";::::=::::::j

Generic monopitch roofiight

co nt inuity of th erm al insulation is pro vided by

Th e mon op itch roofl ight provides a visually

closed cell insulati o n set o nto th e roof mem-

simple method of closing a ro of o pening

br ane th at exte nds up t o th e silicone seal.

form ed in a different mater ial.The circular

Horizontal section s I :5, Glass to glass junction

MC E

38 2

ro oflight is form ed by a circular ring of alu-

Glass roof decks

m inium fixed on Z -shaped br ackets w hich

Roofl ights form ed as (nominally) flat, accessi-

are fixed t o th e co ncrete upstand beneath,A

ble roof decks have been in use ove r th e past

vert ical metal flat sect ion is screwed t o th e

t en years, Previously used o nly inside build-

Z -sections and th e junct ion w it h th e flat ring

ings for wa lkways and st airs, th ey are now

is sealed w it h silicone,Th e circular doubl e

being used as fully wate rproo fed exte rnal

glazed unit is set int o th is ring fr ame in a bed

decks, manufactured as proprietary systems,

of silicone w it h spacer blocks t o locat e it

Single glazing is used. since doubl e glazed

evenly o n th e ring,Th e joint between glass

units are difficult t o use as a result of solar

and frame is th en sealed w it h silicone using a

gain aro und th e edge of th e unit, w here th e

---~

------------...

,.-

CD

D et ails
I.
2.

~-~

)'

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

\ ~(

CD

-----

Silicone bond
Mild stee l support frame
Single glazed laminated
glass panel
Silicone seal
Concrete base
Insulated metal panel
Folded metal flashing
Reinforced concrete
support frame

--------

Key plan 1:25. Monopitch rooflight,

<J

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"'--'

<J

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Vertical section 1:5. Monopit ch rooflight , typical assembly

Vertical section I:25.Typical assembly

glass is ex posed to th e outside, but is sup-

t o catc h any w at er th at penetrates th e sili-

ported o n it s under side, allowing heat t o

co ne seal, or any wate r t hat passes through a

enter but not to escape.Where black co l-

damaged joint.

oured edge 'fritting' is used, th e sit uat ion is

Th e details here show alte rnat ives for

made difficult. How ever, doub le glazed roof

both st eel beam and glass beam suppo rt s t o

decking is in developm ent and w ill no doubt

th e glass panels.Th e suppo rt ing struct ure has

becom e much more commo n over t he next

a glass beam set in th e cent re, spanning th e

t en years.

full length of 6000mm. Its depth is approxi-

Th e glass used is lami nat ed, in commo n

mately 600mm, but th e beam depth w ill vary

w it h ot her ro oflights, both t o avo id th e pos-

depending upon th e individual design.Th e

sibility of any falling o bjects from penetrating

glass beams here comprise three layers of

th e glass o n im pact, as we ll as pr event ing

glass, each 19mm t hick, w hich are lami nat ed

damaged glass from falling imm ediately into

t ogether. In th e event of o ne glass being bro -

th e space below.Th e glass is set int o a series

ken, th e remaining two glasses w ill t ake th e

of extruded aluminium angles t o w hich it is

full load, avoiding col lapse of th e beam.The

bond ed o n it s under side.A gap betw een th e

overall th ickness of th e beam, of approxi-

fr ame and th e t op of th e glass is sealed w it h

mately 60mm, also pro vides sufficient bearing

silico ne of a different t ype. A n addit io nal

for th e tw o glass sheets th at meet on t op.

co ndensat ion channel is set below th e glass

Each glass has 20-25 mm bearing, w it h a

3-D detail view of glass to glass junction

3-D detail view of glass to glass junction

MCE 383

Glass Roofs 05
Bonded glass rooflights

, G)

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(2)

Vertical sections I : IO. Typical assembly

Key Plan. Laminated glass roof wh ich can be walked on , typ ical assembly

I S-20mm joint w idt h betwee n th e glass

dete rminants in th e overall rigidity of th e

decking sheet s,t o suit t he individual design.

glass deck and it s associate d vert ical deflec-

W here stee l plate is used to pro vide a beam

t ions.Typical vert ical deflections for th e glass

D etails for glass deck

instead of laminat ed glass, a steel flat is w eld-

build-ups,given below, range from O.2mm t o

I.
2.

ed t o t he t op of t he beam t o fo rm aT-sec-

2.0mm, th ough th e acceptab le amo unt of

t ion th at gives eno ugh bearing for th e glass

vert ical deflection under full design load is

Silicone bond
Structural glass beam
3. Singleglazed laminated
glass panel
4.
Silicone seal
5.
Concrete base
6.
Insulated metal panel
7.
Folded metal flashing
8.
Mild steel plate beam as
alternative support
9.
Folded aluminium
decorative cover
10. Steel aluminium support
'shoe'

deck.T he ends of t he glass beams are sup-

dependent upon t he specific design applica-

ported by a met al shoe suppo rt, made from

t ion.Typical laminated glass build-ups for th e

eit her mild steel or aluminium. St ainless stee l

range of panel sizes just ment ioned are as

is used w here co rrosion is an essent ial co n-

follow s.The t hicknesses of inter layer s have

siderat ion of t he design.T he metal shoe is

been ignored for clarity:

bolted back t o t he suppo rt ing st r ucture or

I Smm + 12mm+ 12mm

reinforced co ncrete floor slab.Th e gap

I Smm+ I Smm+ 12mm

between th e edge of t he glass deck and t he

I Smm + I Smm+ I Smm

= 36mm t hick

= 42mm thi ck
= 4Smm t hick

adjacent roo f finish material is made w it h a


silicone seal.
Typical glass deck panel sizes range from

MC E

384

At t he juncti on of glass beams, t he seco ndary glass beam is fixed t o th e primary

I OOOmm x I OOOmm to I SOOmm x I SOOmm.

beam by eit her a mild steel shoe , in th e man-

Both panel size and overall glass t hickness are

ner of t imb er floo r co nstruct ion, or mild st eel

......

p .. I"

CD

I~

11

Vertical and horizontal sections I:25. Typical assembly

CD

3-D detail of steel support beam

cleats in th e manner of stee l fram ed fioor


const r uct ion. Both meth od s requ ire at least
one of th e glass beams to be dri lled in order
to bolt th e metal compo nent t o th e beam.
W hen bo lting a glass beam t o a stee l beam,
th e same prin ciples apply of using a metal
shoe .Th e drilling of glass is a we ll esta blished
t echniqu e develop ed mainly for bo lt fixed
glazing.
Glass decks usually have an additi onal
layer applied t o th e t op surface of th e glass
t o increase it s fr iction w hich reduces th e possibility of a building user from slipping w hile
walking o n th e glass. Carb orundum is sometim es added to th e t op surface of th e glass
for t his reason .A n alte rnat ive method is t o
'frit' o r screen print th e t op surface of th e
glass, w hich has th e added benefit of reducing

3-D detail of steel support beam

visibility through th e glass from below.

MCE 385

- - -GIa'??'Roofs

05- - - - - - - - - - ......

Bonded glass roofli hts

Details
I . Saccoe bond
2.

3.

Mild stee l support frame


Single glared laminated
glass panel

4.
5.

saccoe seal
Concrete base

6.
7.
8.

Insulated metal panel


Fokled metal flash ing
Renforxed concrete
support frame

3-D detail view of point at top of conical mofiight assembly

3-D exploded view of typical


conical roofiight assembly

CD

Exploded axonometric view of typical conical roofiight assembly

Me E 386

3-D detai l exploded view of glass to glass jorction in a coo ical roofiight

3-D exploded view of glass beam with central steel support beam

3-D view of glass beam wrth central steel support beam

Details for glass deck


I,
2,

Silicone bond
Structural glassbeam
3. Single glazed laminated
glass panel
4,
Silicone seal
5,
Concrete base
6,
Insulated metal panel
7,
Folded metal flashing
8. Mild steel plate beam as
alternat ive support
9,
Folded aluminium
decorative cover
10. Steel aluminium support 'shoe'

3-D exploded view of glass beam w ith central steel support beam

-~

-- --

-- ----- - ---

--

3-D exploded vie;v of connection between concret e wall and glass beam suppo rts

3-D exploded view of junction at edge of glass beam arc


steel support

M C E 38 7

CONCRETE ROOFS
(I) Concealed membrane

Materials
Structural JOints
Parapet upstands

Balustrades and plinths


Rainwater outlets

Penetrationsfor pipes and doers


(2) Expo sed membrane

Polymer-based membranes

PVC membranes
FPO (TPO) membranes
Me<hanically fixed method
Bonded fixing method

Parapets and upstands


Ballusted roofs

(3) Plant ed
System design
Planted roof components

Soil depth

Overflows
Roof junctions
Rainwater outlets

Balcony planters

MCE

369

Concrete Roofs 0
Concealed memb rane
3-D overview of a concrete roof with a concealed membrane

Details
I.W aterproof membrane
2.Thermal insulation

3. Concrete deck
4. Paving slabs
S. Smooth pebbles
6. Parapet coping
7. Rainwater outlet
8.Slot drain
9. Opening for overflow

Materials

dim ension al stability and t ensile strength.

added for vulnerable locations such as at gut-

Bitum en has traditionally been used as a

Th is reinforcement ofte n allows th e mater ial

t er s and at upstands.

wate rproo f layer.applied w hile hot in liquid

t o be fold ed through 90, making its use

form onto a concrete roof slab.As it cool s it

considerably easier.w here angle fillet s are

ingly being laid fiat w it h no fall, unlike

hardens, forming an impervious membrane,

not requ ired.

exposed membranes, w here a slight fall is

but w ill softe n again if heated by th e effects

W it h th e developm ent of much thinn er

Concealed membrane roofs are increas-

always required.This is partl y because bitu-

of solar radiation. For th is reason, in o rder t o

membranes in th erm op lastics and elastom-

men bond s more reliably t o a concrete slab

keep th e materi al coo l, bitum en membranes

ers, t ogether w it h th eir compet it ive costs,

th an t o a thin screed, and partl y because th e

are concealed by smoot h pebbles,paving

th ere have been considerable effor ts made

slopes required t o create falls in large areas

slabs, usually w it h th erm al insulati o n set

by manufacturer s over th e past 20 years t o

of fiat ro ofs create difficulties in level changes

between th e bitum en and th e pebbles/paving.

make th e bitum en layer s th inner.t o reduce

across th e roof w hich can be difficult t o dr ain.

Tradition al bitum en roofs are usually laid in

th e material required w hile enhancing its

Th e more traditional meth od s of screeds laid

two layers, w it h an overall thi ckness of

properti es of strength and fiexibi lity This has

t o falls and thi ck layers of bitum en is used

aro und 25mm . On e of th e limiti ng factors

been achieved by replacing th e th ick two -lay-

w here th e roof finish is sealed, such as paving

w it h bitum en is fo lding th e mater ial through

er method w it h a mixture of thin layer s,still

w it h sealed joints.

an angle.W hen th e materi al turn s through a

applied in hot liquid form on site , but rein-

Typically upst ands are formed before th e

right angle from th e horizontal roof t o a ver-

forced w it h an elasto me ric sheet, usually bed-

main areas of ro of are wate rproo fed in o rder

ti cal parapet wall, it can pass th rou gh a maxi-

ded between th e layer s.This is t ypically two

t o allow exte rnal wa lls t o be complete d.

mum of 45 in a single fo ld. For th is reason

layers, each 3mm th ick w it h reinforcing layer s

W hen an area is complete d, th e roof deck is

45angle fillets are used t o make a 90 turn

bedded into th e materi al.This allows th e

wate rproo fed and finished, w it h areas of fiat

from roof to wall.

bitum en t o accommo date both small

roof being bond ed cont inuously t o th e

amo unts of movement at th ese junction s,as

already complete d upstands.This avoids th e

are co ncealed beneath ro of finishes are typi-

Mod ern bitum en-based membranes th at

we ll as th e sharp fold in th e material,w hich

need t o protect th e membrane, w hich has

cally a combinat ion of bitumen-based sheet

creates a weakness in th e membrane w hich

atte ndant risks of being damaged before th e

mixed w it h synt het ic rubber t o give fiexibili -

might ot herwise be damaged durin g th e life

building is finished.

t y combined w it h a reinforcement t o give

of th e building.A n o ute r protective layer is

MC E

390

A. Watts, Modern Construction Envelopes


Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Vertical section I 10,Rainwater outl et

CD

3-D view of rainwater out let

3-D view of parapet and rainwater out let

Vertica l section I :I0, Parapet and rainwater outl et

MC E

39\

I.W aterp ro of membrane


2.Thermal insulatio n
3-D view showing expansion joint in conc rete slab

3. Concret e deck
4. Paving slabs
5. Smooth pebbles
6. Parapet copi ng
7. Rainwat er out let
8. Slot drain
9. O pening fo r overflow

Vertical section I: I0. Expansion joint in concrete


slab

Co ncealed membrane ro ofs are typically

screed and th e sealed paving above. Paving

in 'inverted' ro of co nfigurat ion w it h eit her

slabs o r blocks are bond ed t o t he screed

o pen joints o r sealed joints in th e t op layer

w it h mortar and gro ut ed.

th at covers th e th erm al insulation, usually

Vertical section I: I0, Base of balustrade

Vertical section I : I0, Parapet detail

MC E

392

paving. In th e o pen joint version, th e mem-

Struct ural joints

brane. bond ed t o th e concrete slab. is cov-

The main advantage of concealed mem-

ered by a protection layer.w it h closed cell,

branes is th eir ability t o span movement

rigid th erm al insulation set o n t op.A po lyes-

joints and expansion joints in reinforced con-

t er filter sheet is set o n t op, w it h paving o r

crete slabs w it h simple, reliable details th at

smo ot h pebble ballast o n t op t o ho ld th e

require no upstands t o form th e junction.

insulation in place as w ell as t o wa lk o n. Peb-

Expansion joints between concrete slabs of

bles are 20mm-40mm diameter. w hile paving

w idt hs between aro und I Omm t o SOmm are

slabs are around 600 x 600mm in size, 30

formed by stopping th e material each side of

mm -40mm deep. In th e sealed jo int configu-

th e joint and setting a rubb er-based st rip t hat

ration, th e bitum en membrane w it h its pro -

dips into th e gap between th e slabs, linking

t ection layer has a drainage layer o n t op,

t he membranes int o a cont inuo us seal.As t he

o nto w hich is laid a minimum 6Smm sandi

gap betw een t he slabs varies w it h struct ural

cement screed. usually reinforced or made

movement s, th e rubb er-based strip is allowe d

sufficient ly t hick t o avoid cracking both in t he

t o move w it hout being st retc hed significant ly.

3-D detail of roof parapet

3-D view of concrete upstand


Ve rt ical section I 10.Concrete upstand

The joint is protected and reinforced w it h an

3-D view of concrete upstand

groove at th e edge of th e slab unless wate r

addit ional layer,eit her flat and bond ed o n

at th is lower level can discharge int o a rain-

one side only, o r form ed as a fo lded,

wate r o ut let.

S-shaped cover th at folds back over itself.

Juncti on s between concrete ro of slabs

held in place by an addit ional protecti on

and w alls are t reated in a similar way, w it h

sheet o n t op. T he gap between th e mem-

th e membrane dipping down int o th e gap

brane, dipped int o th e jo int, and th e rein-

between wa ll and roo f and th e membrane

forcement cover is filled w it h a foam backing

cont inuing up th e wall. Reinforcement is simi-

rod o r tub e, as used in t he glass jo ints of bolt

larly applied, w it h a rubb er-based st rip fo lded

fixed glazing.Th e material used for th e rein-

th rou gh th e 90 corne r rather th an th e maxi-

forcement is eit her th e same bitum en based

mum 45 fold s th at are usually allowed in tra-

mater ial, o r increasingly, a rubb er-based st rip.

dition al bitum en-based membranes.

The t op of th e joint is finished as level as

Pro pri etary met al-based expansion joints

possible w it h th e adjacent areas of roof t o

are used t o form part of th e visible finishes,

allow w at er t o drain freely from th e roo f

t ypically w it h sealed roo f finishes. In thi s case

The reinforcing membrane is somet imes

th e seal is form ed by bond ing a st rip of

fo lded down int o t he gap, separate d from th e

membrane t o t he metal assembly. Th e metal

membrane below w it h a foam backing rod. It

expansion joint assembly is fixed o n t op of

can be difficult t o dr ain wate r from th is

th e membrane, w hich still dips down int o th e

3-D view showing concrete upstand

MC E

393

oncrete Roofs a
Concealed membrane
-c ,

--~

- .......

....- ..
--"-- ..

Vert ical section I 10,Junction of external wall and roof slab

3-D view showing roof and door cill junction

Vert ical section I: I0, Door sill

joint. A foam backing rod is set o n t op of th e

t he building,The membrane is turned through

pet coping t o drain through th e pebbles t o

dipped membrane and is covered w it h a bed

a full 90 as show n in t he draw ings, but an

t he membrane beneath, In ot her inst ances

of compat ible sealant t o ensure t hat any

angle fillet is required by some manufacturers

t he paving is cont inued up th e parapet

wate r t hat penetrates t he movement joint is

t o limit t he angle of any fo ld t o 45,A rein-

upst and, In an example w here t he cill t o t he

drained t o t he sides of t he movement joint.

fo rcing st rip is usually added w here a 90 fo ld

exte rnal doo r covers t he o pening, and is sup-

The wate rproo f membrane is t hen form ed

is made,

ported from th e base of th e o pening, th e

up out t he base of t he movement joint

In generic examples, a low parapet wa ll is

wate rproo fing stops at t he edge of t he

assembly t o provide a complete seal across

t ermin ated by a concrete or stone coping,

op ening.The t ermin ation of th e membrane

t he joint.

T he wate rproo f membr ane exte nds up t he

varies w it h each sit uat io n,

Joint s between concrete panels,such as

height of th e upstand, w hich run s hori zontally

precast concrete slabs, w here o nly negligible

t o fo rm a full damp proof course undern eath

Balustrades and plinths

struct ural movement is expecte d. are also

th e coping,This ensures th at th e membrane

Balustrade posts can be fixed t o a base plate

formed w it h rubb er-based st rips.T he mem-

provides a cont inuous w ate rpro of layer at th e

w hich is set o nto th e finished w ate rpro of

brane fo rms a cont inuous lapped joint across

juncti on w it h t he exte rnal wa ll.A n addit ional

membrane,T he balustrade base plate is bo lt-

t he rubb er-based strip, w it h a foam backing

metal flashing t o cover th e t op of th e metal

ed through th e membrane t o th e concrete

rod being provided w here t here is a risk of

faced insulati on t o protect t he juncti on

slab below, If t he memb rane has an addit ional

damage during const ruct ion,

between t he t op of t he met al facing t o t he

protection layer,t hen t his is usually omitted

insulation, and th e insulation itself. In thi s case,

aro und th e base plate t o give a more reliable

Parapet upstands

an o pen joint ed arrangeme nt of paving slabs

seal.A n addit ional membrane is t hen laid o n

In formi ng parapet upst ands, an essent ial

is ado pte d, w it h rainw ater drain ing at th e

t op of th e base plate w it h th e protection