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INTRODUCTION
Fabric and foil membranes offer architects unique design opportunities.
The history of architecture depicts a clear effort to lessen the weight of
building materials. From the massive pyramids of Egypt to lighter Gothic
vaulting and eventually the modern architecture of the 20th century, we
now have even more materials than before (Goldsmith, np).
Goldsmith, N.,F.A.I.A.L.E.E.D.A.P. (2016). Textile architecture: Light building skins.Textile World, 166(5), 22-25. Retrieved from
http://uml.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.uml.idm.oclc.org/docview/1829784043?accountid=14569

Figure 1.
Unique textile membrane structure by Knippers Helbig in Shanghai.

SUSTAINABILITY
Major components of a textile building envelope
system may be recycled
Separating textile components from coatings
makes it possible to recycle a wide range of
textiles
Re-use of raw materials to make new products
Steel and aluminum frames have a high recycling
index which enables them to be molten and
re-used
Reduced cost and energy consumption in
transporting
Lower cost in heating and cooling
Figure 2.
Life of a textile building including
production and recycling.

TEXTILE APPLICATIONS IN DESIGN


1.

Textile Architecture

2.

Textile Facades

3.

Sun Shading

4.

Interior Applications

Figure 3.
Textile membrane architecture.

Figure 4.
Textile facade.

Figure 5.
Vertical textile sun shading on a
building facade.

Figure 6.
Textile interior ceiling system.

TEXTILE ARCHITECTURE
Textiles and their use in architectural design and engineering

OVERVIEW/PROCESS
1.

Architectural conceptual design

2.

Engineering

3.

Form-finding

4.

Patterning

5.

Load analysis

6.

implementation

Figure 7.

Experience Textile Architecture by K.TA Kiefer Textile Architektur


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOhIJSzpBbk&t=6s

METHODS IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Constant collaboration between architect and engineer

Architect identifies the overall body and shape of the mass through drawings

Figure 8.
Process drawing of form.

METHODS IN ENGINEERING

Equilibrium of cables and membranes under load

Curvature

Pretension

Curvature and pretension

Figure 9.
Forms often resulting from the engineering and form
finding processes.

METHODS IN FORM-FINDING
ANALOGUE

NUMERICAL

Figure 10.
Frei Ottos soap bubble studies.

Figure 11.
Digital form finding using advanced programs to
determine form.

hand/physical modelling and


drawing to determine form
deriving forms from natural
physical occurrences

computer/digital method to
finding the form
use of grid

METHODS IN PATTERNING
-

Seams

Flattening

Compensation

Figure 12.
Seams of the form are determined.

Figure 13.
Flattened form ready to be cut on 2D surface, and assembled
to maintain the properties of the 3D surface.

METHODS IN LOAD ANALYSIS


Conducting analysis for major climatic factors such as:
1. wind
2. snow
Has the ability to realize various symptoms, including:
1. membrane deformation
2. maximum membrane stress
3. direction of membrane stresses
4. maximum internal forces in the edge cables
5. forces exerted on supports

ASSEMBLIES
Textile Architecture

Structures

Connections

Supports

3 BASIC TYPES OF STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES

FRAME SUPPORTED MEMBRANES

Figure 16.

CABLE AND STRUT SUPPORTED


MEMBRANES
Figure 17.

AIR SUPPORTED/INFLATED PNEUMATIC


MEMBRANES

Figure 18.

CONNECTIONS

Lacing cords

Membrane corners
Simple corner
Adjustable corner
Membrane corner mast fixing
Non-adjustable edge cables
Simple mast connection

Figure 19.
Examples of membrane connection
products from Birdair.

CONNECTIONS
Lacing
Cords

Simple
Corner

Adjustable
Corner

Membrane
Mast Fixing

Non-Adjusta
ble Edge
Cables

Simple Mast
Connection

- Membrane
- Cord
- Frame

- 2 end cables
- Anchor pole

- 2 edge
cables with
threaded end
pieces
- Twin tubes
- Metal plate
- Anchor pole

- Fixed length
edge cables
- Suspension
plate fixed to
mast
- Metal straps

- 2
non-adjustabl
e cables
- Traction plate
- Fabric strap

- 2 edge cables
with threaded
end pieces
- Metal plate

Non-adjustable

Adjustable

Non-adjustable

Non-adjustable

Adjustable

Type of
Connection

Cord connects
through holes
in membrane
edge to frame

Directly attach
end cables to
pole

Metal corner
plate bolted to
pole

Counter plate
bolted to
membrane fabric

Cables
connected to
traction plate

Membrane
corner to top of
mast

Textile
Reinforcement

Metal
grommets or
plates

Membrane
fabric is bolted

Membrane fabric
is bolted

Fabric sewn
around ring

Double layer of
fabric at outer
edges

Assembly
Make-Up

Adjustable

Figure 20.
Table of connection types, properties, and assemblies. Table information from Motro, R. (2013).
Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser . 44-48.

SUPPORTS
POLES

CENTRAL SUPPORTING MASTS

Figure 21.
Frei Otto. German Pavilion, Expo 67.
Showing the pole protruding from the
membrane for support.

Figure 22.

TECHNIQUES
Textile Architecture

prestressing
sail techniques

Figure 23a.

Figure 23b.

CENTURY LOTUS STADIUM (2006)


GMP ARCHITECTS
FOSHAN, CHINA

Figure 24.

spoke-wheel roof construction


folded membrane supported by steel supports
tension is held by triangular abutments
stability is maintained by supporting cables

FABRIGAMI (2016)
UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA
WINNIPEG, MB

Figure 25.
Fabrigami, University of Manitoba

parametric design
digital form finding methods
translated into physical form
inspired by ancient origami
techniques
high tensioned cables and
fabric
water sprayed over fabric to
form stiff temporary structure

COCOON (2011)
LANCELOT COAR, UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA
WINNIPEG, MB

Figure 26.
Cocoon, University of Manitoba

digital form finding and


behavioural modelling
pre-assembled frames put
together onsite
fabric shell sprayed with ice to
form fibre-glass like skin

TEXTILE FACADES
Textile facades and its applications

Architectural Considerations of Textile Envelope

Optimal comfort conditions for end users of the indoor living space
The resistance to static loads self weight, snow and dynamic loads
Fire resistance
The permeability under the combined action of rainwater and wind
The required thermal insulation
The required service life
Reduction of the environmental impact (Motro, R. ,2013)

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1. Second Textile Layer


2. Textile Envelope/ Facade

Second Textile Layer

Breathable, waterproof membrane


Textile layer adhesion with outer insulating layer (Fig. 27)
Second textile layer mechanically fixed to inner wall surface (Fig. 28)
Second Textile layer as solar protection (Fig. 29)
Second textile layer coupled with OLED ( Organic Light-emitting Diode) (Motro, R. ,2013)

Figure 27.

Figure 28.

Figure 29.

Textile Envelope

Two coupled textile layers enclosing an air gap or captivity (Fig. 30)
Two coupled textile layers enclosing a cavity. External surface covered with PV
Cells (Fig. 31)
A two layer pneumatic cushion filled with an insulating material
A three layer pneumatic cushion filled with air (Fig.32) (Motro, R. ,2013)

Figure 30.

Figure 31.

Figure 32.

TEXTILE FACADES
1.

ETFE Second Skin Facade System

2.

PVC Membrane System

3.

TEFLON Membrane System

Ethylene TetraFluoroEthylene (ETFE) Facade

Centre for Gerontology, Bad Tolz, Germany


Facade with prestressed single layer ETFE
membrane with fixing system using lightweight
clamping extrusions.
The fouropolymer-plastic ETFE used
ETFE membrane is self-cleaning due to its
chemical composition and will retain its high
translucency throughout the entirety of its life.
Can be 100% recycled. Additionally, its 1/40
lighter than glass. (Klein, T., Knaack, U, 2010)

Figure 33. Walkway of Centre for Gerontology, Germany.

Ethylene TetraFluoroEthylene (ETFE) Facade

Figure 34.Connection detail of ETFE system

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Membrane System

London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues


Pure steel construction. Support loads
transferred to foundation piles in the
ground by cross-shaped steel plates.
Steel pipes were made out of recycled
oil pipes.
Steel rings allow air infiltration and
ventilation.
Translucent membrane allows a
reduction in the amount of artificial
lighting
Materials including membranes, tension
rings and connections were packed and
brought to different venue.
Mobile buildings used in 2014
Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.
Standard trusses returned to
construction company (London 2012 - Olympic

Figure 35.

Shooting Venues. 2012, July 30)

Figure 36.

Section of Finals Range, Diagram

Figure 37.Section Diagram of 2012 London Shooting Venue

Facade Diagram

Figure 38. Metal Ring Detail of 2012 London Shooting Venue Facade

Polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON) Membrane


System

King Fahad National Library / Gerber


Architekten/ Saudi Arabia
Curved,white PTFE/glass fabric facade
wraps around the original building.
Provides visual interest and protection
against the extreme temperature of
Riyadh, while maintaining maximum
light penetration.
Each Teflon-coated fiberglass
membrane cloth is attached to a grid of
pre-stressed stainless steel cables and
arranged in a traditional Arabian
pattern.
At night, the building facade is
illuminated with coloured lighting. (King
Fahd National Library Maffeis.it., n.d.).

Figure 39. King Fahad National Library, Saudi Arabia

Polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON) Membrane System

Inherently hydrophobic
Laminated and unlaminated
Laminated membranes are made of PTFE laminated to a polypropylene
support for improved durability and easy handling. Chemically compatible
with strong acids. Can also be used to filter aqueous solutions when
prewetted with methanol.
Unlaminated membranes are compatible with stronger acids, aggressive
solvents and high temperatures. Ideal for applications that require hot
temperatures (Magna PTFE (Teflon) Membrane Filters - Thomas Scientific.(n.d.).

Polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON) Membrane


System

The design also pays homage


to the regions culture. The
tensile structure references the
local nomadic tradition. The
intricate pattern of the modular
textile units proudly represents
the rich history of geometric
Islamic architectural language.

Figure 40. Building Envelope of King


Fahd Library

Figure 41.Textile Facade Detail Viewed from the Interior

TEXTILE FACADE
Textile Building Envelope Limitations

Textile Building Envelope Limitations

Requires good knowledge of materials science and technology.


Each textile has its own properties, hence it is important to pay attention to
their physical integrity and performance.
Installation must be done by professionals.
Textiles that have low fire resistance must be balanced with high fire resistance
of load-bearing elements.
Textiles may carry additional safety problems when its not reinforced (Motro, R. 2013).

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TEXTILE SUN SHADING


Sun shades are coverings that provide protection
from the sun. Applications include;

Window coverings (interior and exterior)


Exterior solar coverings

Window Covering Applications

Figure 42. Interior light coloured sun


shade

Figure 43. Interior dark coloured sun shade

(Insolroll, n.d.)

Figure 44. Exterior dark coloured sun

Window Covering Applications


Exterior sun shades are the most effective application for protection against solar radiation
because they reflect and absorb most of the heat before it comes in contact with the glazing.

Benefits

Decreases heat gain in the building when closed


Reduces cooling costs
Decreases glare
Blocks most UV rays entering the building
(Insolroll, n.d.)

Figure 45. Exterior sun shade diagram

Exterior Solar Coverings Applications

Canopies

Awnings

Figure 46.

Figure 47.

Exterior Solar Coverings Applications

Shade Sails
Figure 48.

Pergolas with textile coverings


Figure 49.

Exterior Solar Coverings Applications


Advantages

absorb and reflect harmful UV rays


provide ventilation and cooling for a building
provide aesthetic value to a property

Disadvantages

Need to be taken down, retracted, or secured before a storm


Can be a fire hazard if the fabric is not fire retardant
Need adequate support for installation (awnings, canopies, and shade sails)
(Global shade, n.d.)

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Suspended Ceilings
Stretch Ceilings
Acoustic panels

SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS - BENEFITS


Textile Interiors

Available in large, lightweight


panels
Offers excellent acoustic
absorption of low and high
frequencies (Techstyle Suspended Ceiling Systems,
n.d.).

Many sizes, shapes, and colours


available (Techstyle Customizable Ceilings, n.d.).
Long-term durability (Techstyle Suspended
Ceiling Systems, n.d.).

Lighting and diffusers can be


integrated into the system (Techstyle
White, n.d.).

Figure 50. Techstyle ceiling in Kitchener Public Library

SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS - ASSEMBLIES


Textile Interiors

Suspended track system allows for easy installation and maintenance


Various styles of suspension systems accommodate different styles and
shapes of panels (Techstyle White, n.d.).

Figure 51. Swing down Suspension System

Figure 52. Echelon Suspension System

Figure 53. Lay-in Suspension System

SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS - ASSEMBLIES


Textile Interiors

Steps for installation of a square grid system:


1.
2.
3.

ie
bl

Install perimeter grid


m
Install main and cross tees Asse
s - Installation Instructions, n.d.).
Install squaring brackets m(Techstyle
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SUSPENDED CEILING SYSTEMS - SUSTAINABILITY


Textile Interiors

Greenguard gold certified


Recycled content - 10%
Renewable content - 60%
Low VOC (Environmental Characteristics, n.d.).

STRETCH CEILING SYSTEM - BENEFITS


Textile Interiors

Lightweight
Covers large spans from 10-20m
Provides diffused lighting in large areas (Sefar Lightceiling, n.d.).

Figure 54. King Fahad National Library

STRETCH CEILING SYSTEMS - ASSEMBLIES


Textile Interiors

Figure 55.

Fabric sections are prefabricated, set into aluminum frames, and


tensioned
Frame system is low profile allowing for a seamless look (Lightceiling, n.d.).

STRETCH CEILING SYSTEMS - SUSTAINABILITY


Textile Interiors

Durable, and long lasting, eliminating the need for constant


replacement
Chemically inert and odour free
Materials can be recycled (Technical Information, n.d.).

ACOUSTIC WALL PANELS - BENEFITS


Textile Interiors

Ambient noise reduction


Light diffusion
Durable
Cleanable
Aesthetically pleasing
Available in many shapes and sizes
Flame retardant (Ready for Take-off, n.d.)

ACOUSTIC WALL PANELS - ASSEMBLIES


Textile Interiors

Figure 56. Xorel ArtForm Panel Installation

ACOUSTIC WALL PANELS - SUSTAINABILITY


Textile Interiors

Cradle to Cradle certified Gold


PVC free
Low VOC
85% derived from plant based renewable resources (Products, n.d.).
example is Carnegie Xorel Strie

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Analogue Form Finding: A collaboration with the Architecture Academy. (2008). Retrieved November, 2016, from
http://www.matthewlaws.com/index.php?/projects/analogue-form-finding/
Coar, L. (n.d.). Cocoon. Retrieved November, 2016, from http://lancelotcoar.com/cocoon/
COCOON. (2011). Retrieved November, 2016, from http://www.warminghuts.com/gallery
Construction Textiles and Eco Textiles. (n.d.). Retrieved November 07, 2016, from
http://www.bch.in/construction-textiles.html
Environmental Characteristics. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://hunterdouglasarchitectural.ecoscorecard.com/product/TechCan?base_search=product_category_A1235
Exterior Sun Shades. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2016, from http://insolroll.com/exterior-sun-shades/
FABRIGAMI. (2016). Retrieved November, 2016, from http://www.warminghuts.com/gallery
Goellner, R. (2015, October 31). 5 Fact You Didn't Know About Solar Shades. Retrieved November 06, 2016, from
http://www.halcyonshades.com/sun-shades-2/5-facts-solar-shades/#more-1749
How Solar Sun Shades Work. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5,2016, from
http://insolroll.com/how-solar-screen-shades-work/
Goldsmith, N. (2016, September/October). Textile Architecture: Light Building Skins. Textile World, (166.5), 22-25.
Retrieved November, 2016, from
http://search.proquest.com.uml.idm.oclc.org/docview/1829784043?rfr_id=info:xri/sid:primo
King Fahd National Library Maffeis.it. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.maffeis.it/our-projects/container/king-fahd-national-library/
Klein, T., & Knaack, U. (2010). The Future Envelope. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues. (2012, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
http://www.detail-online.com/article/london-2012-olympic-shooting-venues-16398/
Magna PTFE (Teflon) Membrane Filters - Thomas Scientific. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.thomassci.com/Membrane/_/MAGNA-PTFE-TEFLON-MEMBRANE-FILTERS
Onate, E., & Kroplin, B. (2008). Textile composites and inflatable structures II. Dordrecht: Springer.

Products. (n.d.). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from https://carnegiefabrics.com/strie-6423-panels


Ready for Take-off: Xorel Upholstered Walls. (n.d.). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
https://carnegiefabrics.com/learn/Ready-for-Take-off-Xorel-Upholstered-Walls
Sefar Lightceiling. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2016, from http://www.sefar.us/en/609/Lightceiling.htm?Folder=5792386
Technical Information Environmental Impact - TENARA Fabric. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.tenarafabric.com/pdf/Sefar_TENARA_environmental-impact.pdf
Techstyle Installation Instructions. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://assets.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/documents/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/classic/Installation_Instruct_2008.pdf
Techstyle | Suspended Ceiling Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved November 05, 2016, from
http://www2.hunterdouglascontract.com/en-HU/ceilings/techstyle/index.jsp
Techstyle Customizable Ceilings. (n.d.). Retrieved November 05, 2016, from
http://www.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/index.jsp
Techstyle White. (n.d.). Retrieved November 08, 2016, from
http://www.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/techstyleE/index.jsp

List of Image Figures

Figure 1.

http://www.knippershelbig.com/en/projects/megastructure-expo-2010-shanghai

Figure 29.Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59

Figure 2.

Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.

Figure 30.Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59

Figure 3.

http://buyadaptil.co/textile-architecture/textile-architecture-tatralan-halls-architecture-kb/

Figure 31.Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59

Figure 4.

Figure 32.Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59

Figure 5.

http://www.fabricarchitect.com/textile-facades.html

Figure 33.Klein, T., & Knaack, U. (2010). The Future Envelope. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Figure 6.

http://www2.hunterdouglascontract.com/en-HU/projects/project.jsp?pId=8a81c1134f3f00ec015005093cd2170a

Figure 34.Klein, T., & Knaack, U. (2010). The Future Envelope. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Figure 7.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOhIJSzpBbk&t=6s

Figure 35.London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues. (2012, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
http://www.detail-online.com/article/london-2012-olympic-shooting-venues-16398/

Figure 8.

http://acordacasa.com.br/2015/03/13/frei-otto-leveza-e-forca/

Figure 9.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensile_structure ; http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HyperbolicParaboloid.html

Figure 10.

http://www.wingswormsandwonder.com/buildings-and-birdskulls/

Figure 11.

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-bDWAaG-wSLE/TgnjG_-eXCI/AAAAAAAAAK8/yyYg7UCZbFg/s1600/Hybios+3.0_VIEW.jpg

Figure 12.

http://www.str-ucture.com/uploads/tx_nmstructurereference/hegenheim_3_01.jpg

Figure 13.

https://membranasestructurales.wordpress.com/page/2/

Figure 36.London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues. (2012, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
http://www.detail-online.com/article/london-2012-olympic-shooting-venues-16398/
Figure 37.London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues. (2012, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
http://www.detail-online.com/article/london-2012-olympic-shooting-venues-16398/
Figure 38.London 2012 - Olympic Shooting Venues. (2012, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
http://www.detail-online.com/article/london-2012-olympic-shooting-venues-16398/
Figure 39.King Fahd National Library Maffeis.it. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.maffeis.it/our-projects/container/king-fahd-national-library/

Figure 16. http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/artech/product-105009-1018093.html


Figure 17.

http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/eide-industries/product-61161-1644266.html

Figure 18.

http://www.grisdainese.it/progetti/pneumatic-architecture-finmeccanica-2/

Figure 19.

http://www.birdair.com/resources/design-details

Figure 40.King Fahd National Library Maffeis.it. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.maffeis.it/our-projects/container/king-fahd-national-library/
Figure 41.King Fahd National Library Maffeis.it. (n.d.). Retrieved November 9, 2016, from
http://www.maffeis.it/our-projects/container/king-fahd-national-library/
Figure 42.http://www.batifilms.fr/stores

Figure 20.

Table Information: Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser .
44-48.

Figure 43.http://sunshadesamok.blogspot.ca/2015/01/interior-sun-shades.html

Figure 21.

http://www.all-art.org/Architecture/25-23.htm Frei Otto. German Pavillon of Expo 67 in Monreal, 1965-1967

Figure 44.http://www.ersshading.com/

Figure 22.

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/178384835218858907/

Figure 45.http://insolroll.com/exterior-sun-shades/#tab_4

Figure 23a. http://civilengineersforum.com/what-is-prestressed-concrete/

Figure 46.https://palsystems.eu/products/tentes/

Figure 23b. http://www.clcboats.com/forum/clcforum/thread/24140.html

Figure47.http://www.designboom.com/architecture/peoples-architecture-office-pao-tangram-canopy-coart-festival-china01-26-2015/

Figure 24.

http://www.info-stades.fr/stade/621/foshan-century-lotus-stadium

Figure 25.

http://www.warminghuts.com/gallery

Figure 26.

http://lancelotcoar.com/cocoon/

Figure 27

Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59

Figure 48.http://www.technojobs-it.com/category/shopping/
Figure 49.http://www.shadefxcanopies.com/pergola-shade-options/
Figure 50. http://www2.hunterdouglascontract.com/en-HU/projects/project.jsp?pId=8a81c1134f3f00ec015005093cd2170a
Figure 51. http://www.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/techstyleE/index.jsp
Figure 28.Motro, R. (2013). Flexible composite materials : In architecture, construction and interiors. Basel: Birkhauser. p.59
Figure 52, http://www.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/techstyleE/index.jsp
Figure 53. http://www.hunterdouglasarchitectural.com/ceilings/acousticalsolutions/techstyleE/index.jsp
Figure 54. http://www.sefar.us/en/609/Lightceiling.htm?Folder=579238
Figure 55. http://www.sefar.com/en/609/SEFAR-LIGHTCEILING.pdf?Folder=5792386
Figure 56. http://www.xorelartform.com/

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Baseboard
Boards placed against the bottom of walls. Conceals the joint between
walls and floors and gives a finished appearance.

http://vrielingwoodworks.com/baseboard/baseboard-installer-in-temecula/

Batt Insulation
Blanket insulation, usually made from glass fibres, usually pink or yellow in colour
with a fluffy cotton ball appearance.

http://vrielingwoodworks.com/baseboard/baseboard-installer-in-temecula/

Batten
A narrow strip of wood used to cover the joint between two vertical pieces of siding.

http://tinytimbers.com/install_sidingboard.htm

Bay Window
A window projecting outward from the face of a wall.

https://www.quanex.com/products-and-solutions/window-and-door-components/window-components/bay-and-bow-window-components/

Beam
A horizontal steel or wood structural member used to support floor or ceiling joists.

http://wonderfulengineering.com/what-is-a-beam/

Bearing Wall
A wall that supports its own weight plus the vertical loads above it.

Bifold Door
A door, often used for closets, that is hinged in the middle so that it requires less
swing area than a standard door.

https://www.directdoors.com/doors/interior-bifold-door-marston-white-primed-bi-fold-/

Blackwater
Wastewater from toilets, which contains concentrated human waste. Also water that
contains industrial waste.

http://www.dewater.com/water_recycling/blackwater.html

Blocking
Small wood pieces used between framing members for bracing and to provide
support for the attachment of drywall, shelving and cabinets.

http://arboronbullmt.blogspot.ca/2011/04/following-lot-8framing.html

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Forced Air Heating


A central heating system where air is warmed at a furnace then circulated in a
network of ducts throughout the building.

https://plus.google.com/photos/102622968718268183517/albums/5683025537529345617

Foundation
The part of the building usually below ground on which a building rests.

http://www.oas.org/cdmp/document/codedraw/sectionb.htm

https://www.angieslist.com/articles/how-do-contractors-pour-solid-concrete-foundations.htm

Framing
The rough timber work of a house, including the flooring, roofing, exterior walls,
interior partitions, ceiling and beams.

Photo by Deanna

Frost Heaving
The upthrust of ground, pavement or other objects in the ground caused by freezing of
moist soil.

https://www.nachi.org/gallery/images/foundation/settlement_and_cracks/

Frost Line
The depth to which frost penetrates the earth.

http://charlesandhudson.com/check_the_frost_line_before_digging_footings/

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490118371924716261/

Furring Strips (or strapping)


A strip (often wood) applied to a wall, ceiling, floor, or other surface to provide a
means for fastening the finishing materials, or to increase its thickness.

https://habitatgtr.wordpress.com/2012/04/28/furring-strips/

Fuse
Removable devices that melt and break the circuit if an overload or short occurs.
They have been largely replaced with circuit breakers (but are still common in
appliances such as ovens).

http://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/2
5055/slow-blow-vs-fast-acting-fuse

http://www.electrician-wakefield.com/Replacement-Fusebox-W
akefield.htm

Gable
The upper triangular-shaped portion of the end wall of a building. Also, the structural
end wall of a cabinet.

http://rtcinsuranceadvisors.com/blog/2012/06/21/homeowners-insurance-what-is-the-difference
-between-a-hip-vs-a-gable-roof/

http://dswoodscustomcabinets.com/Custom%20Cabinets/Cabinet%20Accessories

Gable Roof
A roof that slopes up from two sides to a peak.

http://www.greenroofs.com/blog/2014/11/26/what-does-your-roof-style-say-about-you-b
y-lisa-preston/

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Rough-In (Plumbing)
The portion of a plumbing installation that includes running the water supply lines
and drain, waste and vent lines to the proposed location of each fixture - before walls
are closed in with drywall or other finishing materials.

http://www.discovercreatelive.com/2013/08/plumbing-rough-in.html/

http://afaeryorchardproject.blogspot.ca/2013/05/toilet-vent-stac
k-diagram.html

Rough Sawn Lumber


Sawn lumber that has not been planed (or dressed). Surfaces are very rough, not
smooth.

https://thekitchenandbathroomblog.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/danzing-withveneer/

http://woodshedlumber.com/products/rough-sawn-lumber

RSI-Value
The metric thermal resistance value of an insulation material to the flow of heat
through that insulating material. RSI 3.5 in walls and RSI 7.0 in roofs, are typical
values.

http://www.tboake.com/heatloss2014.html

R-Value
The imperial thermal resistance value of an insulation material to the flow of heat
through that insulating material. R20 in walls and R50 in roofs are typical values.

https://need-media.smugmug.com/keyword/chemistry;insulation/

Sanitary Pipes
The assorted pipes in a drain, waste and vent system - designed to allow solid waste
material to pass through without clogging.

https://www.olx.ph/services/others/ph-00-manila/#from404

http://www.exportersindia.com/bharatkmar-vanravandas/sanita
ry-pipes-rajkot-india-1285565.htm

Sash
The frame in which the window lights (glass) are set.

http://www.tradeglazeuk.co.uk/windows/

http://www.amalfiwindows.com/reglazing-window-sashes.html

Satin
A soft-sheen finish.

http://www.tedswoodworking.com/new/vsl/

https://laffcopainting.com/services/dining-room-paint/

Scratch Coat
The first coat of plaster or stucco that is rough (or scratched) to form a bond for the
second coat.

http://www.demandproducts.com/EIFs-items/item.php?l2=3,14,2&sku=SR
AKE

https://www.mybuilder.com/profile/view/akm-complete

Service Panel
The main circuit breaker panel (or fuse box) where all the circuits tie into the
incoming electrical supply line from the hydro pole.

http://homerepair.about.com/od/electricalrepair/s
s/anat_elec_pnl.htm

http://www.sterlinghomeinspections.com/sterling
-home-inspection-blog/2013/5/23/whats-so-speci
al-about-my-electrical-panel-

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Moisture Barrier
Any material which is used to
retard the passage of water or
water vapour into walls, floors
and other parts of a building
from the outside in or from the
inside out.

http://imiweb.org/masonry-detailing-series/

Mortar
A structural mixture of cement,
sand and water used in bonding
masonry units such as brick and
concrete block.

http://www.123rf.com/photo_37390342_texture-of-old-brick-wall-masonry-cement-mortar.html

Mullion and Muntin

A vertical or horizontal member that divides adjacent window or door units.

A smaller, secondary member that divides the glass or openings in a sash or door.
The look of a divided light is frequently created with a snap-in muntin grill.

http://www.woodweb.com/knowledge_base/Window_Part_Terminology.html

Net-Zero
The objective of balanced energy use and generation for an individual house or
building. The energy consumed and generated should achieve a net-zero balance on
an annual basis.

https://oregonsustainabilitycenter.wordpress.com/category/design-progress/

Newel Post
A post to which the stair railing or
balustrade is fastened.

http://www.oldhouseweb.com/how-to-advice/flooring-and-stairs/newel-posts.shtml

Nominal Size
The descriptive size of some products, not the actual measured size. A 2x4 is actually
1.5" x 3.5".

http://blog.spib.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Screen-Shot-2015-04-07-at-4.10.18-PM.png

Non Load-Bearing Wall


A wall that supports no load other than its own weight and is used as a divider or
partition only.

https://m.reddit.com/r/HomeImprovement/comments/3tg8en/thin_wall_construction_mods/

Non-combustible Construction
That type of construction in which a degree of fire safety is attained by the use of
non-burnable materials for structural members and other building assemblies.

http://bonestructure.ca/en/technology/