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Introduction to

Microbiology
By Arcibel B. Bautista

Introduction
Microbiology the study of very small living
organisms

Microorganism these are very small living


organism which cannot be seen by naked
eye.
they are ubiquitous
they are also known as microbes or
germs

Kinds of Microbes
Bacteria
Viruses

Microbes

Fungi
Protozoa
Algae

Branches of Microbiology
study of microbiology broadened and became
more specialized
Clavaria: a fungi
bacteriology
study of bacteria

mycology
study of fungi

parasitology
study of protozoa and parasitic worms

immunology
study of immunity

virology
study of viruses

Areas of Microbiology
Bacteriology
Phycology

Virology

Basic
Mycology

Parasitology
Protozoology

Areas of Microbiology
Agricultural
Veterinary

Sanitary

Industrial

Applied

Clinical

Environmental

Medical
Food

Nature of Microorganisms
4.5 billion years ago, Earth was formed.

3.5 billion years ago in Northwestern


Australia found in ancient rock
formation fossils of primitive
microorganism wherein prokaryotes
dominated and considered first life
existed, Archaeans and Cyanobacteria
1.5 billion years ago nucleated cells
arise
0.5 billion years ago multicellular arise

Nature of Microorganisms

900 and 650 million years ago


animal made their first
appearance on earth.
Past 100,000 years ago humans
have existed.

PIONEER IN MICROBIOLOGY

1. Robert Hookestudied the cell

PIONEER IN MICROBIOLOGY
Robert Hooke: 1635 1703
discovered & described aslittle
boxes on a thin slice of cork
came to be known as cells, the
worlds smallest structural unit
beginning of the cell theory:
all living things are
composed of cells

Robert Hooke drawing of fungi

Cell Theory
All living organisms are composed
of cells. (They may be unicellular or
multicellular.)
The cell is the basic unit of life.
Cells arise from pre-existing cells.

PIONEER IN MICROBIOLOGY

2. Anton von LeeuwenhoekFather of Microbiology,


Bacteriology and Protozoology
first man to view live
microorganisms using a single lens
microscope

First microscope

Anton von Leeuwenhoek (16321723)


Father of Microbiology, Father of
Bacteriology, Father of Protozoology
first to observe tiny living creature using
the single lens microscope
speculate the theory of Spontaneous
Generation or Abiogenesis (life can
arise from nonliving material)

PIONEER IN MICROBIOLOGY
3. Louis Pasteur
discovered alcohol
fermentation and
Pasteurization

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)


French chemist, discovered alcohol
fermentation (yeast convert the
glucose in grapes to ethyl alcohol by
fermentation). Acetobacter convert
glucose to acetic acid by
fermentation
introduce the terms aerobes and
anaerobes

developed Pasteurization (can kill


pathogens in many types of liquids)

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)


heating liquids to 63-65C for 30
mins or 73-75C for 15 seconds
discovered the infectious agent
causing silkworm disease
developed vaccine to prevent
chicken pox, cholera, anthrax,
and swine
erysipelas and most especially
Rabies vaccine to treat human
rabies.

Louis Pasteur on Spontaneous


generation
spontaneous generation
ability of microorganisms to arise
spontaneously from non-living matter
belief until 2nd half of 19th century

proven inaccurate in 1861

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur on spontaneous


generation
He demonstrated the presence of
microorganisms in air and their ability to
contaminate sterile solutions

Spontaneous Generation
proved that spontaneous is a result
of the presence of microorganisms in
the air or the fluids themselves

PIONEER IN MICROBIOLOGY

4. Robert Koch
Germ Theory of Disease

Kochs Postulate

Kochs bacilli

Robert Koch (1843-1910)


discovered the Bacillus
anthracis produces spores
developed methods of fixing,
staining, and photographing
bacteria
developed methods of
cultivating bacteria in solid
media

Germ Theory of Disease


developed the germ theory of
disease while studying the cattle
disease anthrax
established that Bacillus anthracis
was the causative agent germ of
anthrax in 1876
proved that bacteria caused
disease

Robert Koch

Kochs Postulate
1. The bacteria must be present in every
case of the disease.
2. The bacteria must be isolated from the
host with the disease and grown in pure
culture.
3. The specific disease must be
reproduced when a pure culture of the
bacteria is inoculated into a healthy
susceptible host.
4. The bacteria must be recoverable from
the experimentally infected host
(http://www.medterms.com/script/mai
n/art.asp?articlekey=7105)

Kochs Postulate

Aseptic Technique
basis of aseptic
technique
techniques used to
prevent
contamination by
unwanted
microorganisms
standard
laboratory practice

Golden Age of Microbiology


1857 - 1914
rapid advances in
the science of
microbiology

fermentation and
pasteurization
germ theory of
disease

Fermentation Process In Lab

Fermentation & Pasteurization


pasteurization
use of heat to kill
bacteria to
diminish spoilage
fermentation and
pasteurization
solidified the
connection
between
microorganisms and
disease

Milk Pasteurization Equipment

Fermentation & Pasteurization


fermentation
discovery that yeast (microorganisms)
ferments sugar to alcohol in the absence
of air
souring and spoiling caused by bacteria in
the presence of air

sugar to beer: good


beer to vinegar: bad

Beer Fermentation Tank

Vaccination
Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine in 1798 for
smallpox
In 1880 Pasteur discovered the use of a virulent
bacteria for a vaccine against fowl cholera and
coined the term vaccine

Edward Jenner

Birth of Modern Chemotherapy


Chemotherapy: chemical treatment of
a disease, including antibiotics and
chemicals used to treat cancer

Chemotherapeutic Agents
synthetic drugs
chemically prepared in the lab
antibiotics
substances produced naturally by
bacteria and fungus
both synthetic drugs and antibiotics
inhibit the growth or kill other
microorganisms

Paul Ehrlich
first use of a
chemotherapeutic
agent in 1910
used an arsenic
containing compound
to treat syphilis
repeated his
experiments with minor
changes 605 times
before he found a
concentration that
worked

Paul Ehrlich

Penicillin
Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered that
mold (Penicillium) inhibited the growth of bacterial
cultures in his lab in 1928
usefulness of penicillin was not apparent until the
1940s
clinically tested and as a result of the test, it was
mass produced
World War II spurred on the production of
penicillin as it was initially used for the war effort

Modern Microbiology
new and different directions that the
study of microbiology is going
towards
drug resistance

new branches of microbiology


develop new vaccines

recombinant DNA technology

Drug Resistance
result of genetic changes
in microbes
production of microbial
enzymes that inactivate
antibiotics
surface changes in
microbes
disallowing antibiotics
from attaching to it
preventing antibiotics
from entering the
microbe

New Vaccines
as new diseases emerge,
microbiologists strive to find cures
new vaccines appear to be the
best hope as microorganisms
continue to develop drug resistance

Recombinant DNA Technology


also referred to as genetic engineering
microorganisms are used for the study of genetic
engineering for several reasons
short life cycle
less complex structure than plant or animal,
but still have DNA

used to manufacture large amounts of


medical substances
enhances agricultural production
potential for medical breakthroughs in
area of genetic diseases

Relevance of
Microbiology
Indigenous microflora
Aid in digestion
Nutrient cycles
Food chain - planktons
Decomposers or Saprophytes
Bioremediation
Antibiotic production
Cell models E. coli O157:H7
Genetic Engineering

Beneficial Uses of
Microorganisms
Environmental
make nutrients from non-living sources
for plants and animals (saprophytes)
provides energy to our ecosystem
helps in nutrient cycle
planktons helps in food chain

Beneficial Uses of Microorganisms


Food Production
Microorganisms used in the
production of food
such as pickle, beer, yogurt, cheese,
wine, bread, etc.

Beneficial Uses of Microorganisms


Economic
ferment useful chemicals, such as
ethanol, acetone, etc.

Beneficial Uses of Microorganisms


Bioremediation
Microorganisms
are used in
bioremediation, a
process that
cleans up toxic
wastes and
pollutants
decompose or
destroy wastes,
such as sewage,
oil spills,
bioremediation,
etc.

Beneficial Uses of Microorganisms


Decomposers
decompose organic matter in sewage,
breaking it down and releasing the
beneficial elements, such as carbon,
nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, back into the
environment

Sewage Treatment Plant

Harmful Effects of Microorganisms


Lead to spoilage of food
and substance
Can cause diseases on
man.

Microorganisms as the Medical


Enemy
the other side of the
picture
1. influenza: 19181919

killed more
people than
WW1, WW2,
Korea, and
Vietnam
combined

Micrograph of Influenza virus

Microorganisms as the Medical


Enemy
2. plaque: 13th century
killed 25% of the population of
Europe

Plague bacteria

Medical Microbiology
resurgence of new diseases is due to any or all of
the following
resistance to antibiotics
increase in foreign travel
increase in foreign visitors
parents becoming lax on childhood vaccinations

increase in the # of elderly in the world


the immune system weakens with age

Medical Microbiology
emerging diseases due to
changing lifestyles

mutation ability of infectious agents

Medical Microbiology Successes


smallpox
last known disease in the world was
documented in 1977

believed at one time prior to eradication,


that 80% of the worlds population would
be affected by smallpox

Smallpox virus

Clinical Manifestation of Smallpox

Microbiology Successes
potato famine in Ireland
1850s
late blight fungus

through the process of genetic


engineering, microbiologists are able to
protect the potato industry from this
plight happening again

Infected potato plant

Blight fungi