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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 5-1

General Lighting Load Density ....................................................................................................................................5-5

Table 5-3

Maximum Values for Lighting Power for Roads and Ground Load Density ............................................5-6

Table 5-2
Table 5-4
Table 5-5
Table 5-6
Table 5-7
Table 5-8
Table 5-9

Table 5-10
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 6-3
Table 6-4
Table 6-5
Table 6-6
Table 6-7
Table 6-8
Table 6-9
Table 8-1
Table 8-2
Table 8-3
Table 8-4
Table 8-5
Table 8-6

Maximum Values for Lighting Power for Building Exterior Load Density ..............................................5-5
Recommended Design Illuminance Levels ............................................................................................................5-6
Illuminance Levels (Average) ......................................................................................................................................5-7

Efficacy Ranges of Various Lamps .......................................................................................................................... 5-10


Recommended Room Surface Reflectance .......................................................................................................... 5-10
Control Types and Equivalent Number of Control Points ............................................................................ 5-11
Minimum Connected Receptacle Load .................................................................................................................. 5-13
Receptacle Rating for Various Size Circuits ........................................................................................................ 5-14

Overall Heat Coefficient ..................................................................................................................................................6-4


Typical Change Values ....................................................................................................................................................6-6
Sprinkler installation guidelines ................................................................................................................................6-7
Hazen Williams C values ................................................................................................................................................6-8
Equivalent Pipe Length Chart ......................................................................................................................................6-8

Recommended Basic Water Requirements for Human Needs. a ............................................................... 6-10


Flow through Schedule 40 B.I. Pipes in Liters per Minute ........................................................................... 6-10
Determination of Number of Cars ........................................................................................................................... 6-12
Average Operation Interval of Cars ........................................................................................................................ 6-12

Waste water contribution per capita / day ...........................................................................................................8-5


Minimum Requirements for Various Occupancies .............................................................................................8-6

Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU) ...................................................................................................................... 8-11


Discharge Capacity in Liters per Second for Intermittent Flow Only ..................................................... 8-12
Maximum Unit Loading and Maximum Length of Drainage and Vent Piping ..................................... 8-14
Cleanouts........................................................................................................................................................................... 8-18

Table 8-7

Minimum Horizontal Distance Required From Building Sewer ................................................................ 8-26

Table 8-9

Pipe Connections in Blow-off Condensers and Sumps .................................................................................. 8-31

Table 8-8

Table 8-10
Table 8-11
Table 8-12
Table 8-13
Table 8-14
Table 8-15

Maximum / Minimum Fixture Unit Loading On Building Sewer Piping ................................................ 8-27
Minimum Size Condensate Drain Pipes ................................................................................................................ 8-33

Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms .......................................................................................................................... 8-35


Grease Traps ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8-39
Caulking Ferrules ........................................................................................................................................................... 8-63
Soldering Bushings ........................................................................................................................................................ 8-63
Hanger Rod Sizes ........................................................................................................................................................... 8-64

Table 8-16

Hangers and Support .................................................................................................................................................... 8-65

Table 8-18

Capacities, Airspace and Fittings for Testing ..................................................................................................... 8-75

Table 8-17
Table 8-19
Table 8-20
Table 8-21

Disposal Fields ................................................................................................................................................................. 8-72


Location of Sewage Disposal System ..................................................................................................................... 8-77
*Capacity of Septic Tanks............................................................................................................................................ 8-78

Estimated Waste / Sewage Flow Rates ............................................................................................................... 8-79


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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-22 Design Criteria of Five Typical Soils ............................................................................................................................... 8-80


Table 8-23 Septic Tank Capacity Limits ............................................................................................................................................... 8-80

Table 8-24 Sizing Roof Drains, Leaders, and Vertical Rainwater Piping (METRIC) ......................................................... 8-86
Table 8-25 Sizing of Horizontal Rainwater Piping .......................................................................................................................... 8-86
Table 8-26

Sizing of Horizontal Rainwater Piping ......................................................................................................................... 8-87

Table 8-27 Sizing Of Horizontal Rainwater Piping .......................................................................................................................... 8-87


Table 8-28 Size of Gutters ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8-88

Table 8-29 Controlled Flow Maximum Roof Water Depth ........................................................................................................... 8-90
Table 8-30 Distance of Scupper Bottoms above Roof .................................................................................................................... 8-90
Table 8-31 Minimum Length of Color Field and Size of Letters ................................................................................................ 8-93
Table 8-32 Minimum Airgaps for Water Distribution 4 ................................................................................................................. 8-96

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Abbreviations
Acronym

Definition

Degrees Centigrade

Ampere

AC

Alternating Current

AFSU

Amenities, Facilities, Services and Utilities

AHJ

Authority Having Jurisdiction

ALBO

Acting Local Building Official

AMBF

Allowable Maximum Building Footprint

AMBV

Allowable Maximum Volume of Building

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

Backflow Prevention Devices, Assemblies and Methods ..................................................................................... 8-97

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATS

Automatic Transfer Switches

Table 8-35 Fixture Unit Table for Determining Water Pipe and Meter Sizes ................................................................... 8-114

B.P.

Batas Pambansa (national law)

BAS

Building Automation System

BHL

Building Height Limit

BoC

Board of Consultants

BoD

Bureau of Design

CAAP

Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines

CDP

Comprehensive Development Plan

Table 8-41 Maximum Allowable Noise Level in General Areas .............................................................................................. 8-119

CFL

Compact Fluorescent Lighting

CHED

Commission on Higher Education

CLUP

Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Figure 3-1

CLWAUP

Comprehensive Land, Water & Air Use Plan

CLWUP

Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plan

CT

Current Transformer

DC

Development Control

DepEd

Department of Education

DG

Design Guidelines

DoH

Department of Health

DoTC

Department of Transportation and Communications

DPWH

Department of Public Works and Highways

DR

Derivative Regulation

DTI

Department of Trade and Industry

EIA

Electronic Industries Alliance

ELCB

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

EMI

Electromagnetic Interference

EMT

Electrical Metallic Tubing

EO

Equipment Outlet

ESE

Early Streamer Emission

EVAC

Emergency Voice Alarm Communications

FACP

Fire Alarm and Control Panel

FAR

Floor Area Ratio (same as FLAR)

Table 8-33

Table 8-34 Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) and Minimum Fixture Branch Pipe Sizes 3 ..................................... 8-112
Table 8-36 Minimum Required Air Chamber Dimensions ........................................................................................................ 8-115

Table 8-37 Flushometer Fixture Units for Wayer Sizing Using .............................................................................................. 8-116
Table 8-38 Equivalent Length of Pipe for Various Fittings1 ..................................................................................................... 8-116

Table 8-39 Allowance in Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in Valves and Thread Fittings ................... 8-117
Table 8-40 Minimum Standards for Illumination ......................................................................................................................... 8-118
Figure 1-1

Overview of Parts of Volume 6 ......................................................................................................................................1-1

Figure 3-2

Philippine Solar and Wind Information for About 7 Months of a Year..................................................... 3-25

Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
Figure 5-1
Figure 6-1

Ideal and Optimum Building Orientations in the Philippines ....................................................................... 3-25


Observations on the behavior of wind inside buildings (DPWH, c:2009, unpublished) .................. 3-27
Stack Effect (DPWH, C:2009, unpublished) ............................................................................................................. 3-28
Venturi Effect (DPWH, c:2009, unpublished)......................................................................................................... 3-29
Diagrams of Lateral Earth Pressures on Retaining Wall ................................................................................. 4-32

Flowchart for Foundation Selection ......................................................................................................................... 4-40


Concentrically Loaded Footing ................................................................................................................................... 4-49

Eccentrically Loaded Footing (e L/6) .................................................................................................................. 4-50


Eccentrically Loaded Footing e > L/ 6 ..................................................................................................................... 4-51
Design Flow ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4-98

Analysis and Design Process for Beams (when analysis and design software is not available) ... 4-99

Design of Compression Member Structural Members Subjected to Compression........................... 4-100


Design of Tension Members Structure Members Subjected to Tension ............................................... 4-101
Typical Power Distribution Scheme ......................................................................................................................... 5-16
Sample Work Sheet for Mechanical Engineer ...................................................................................................... 6-14

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Acronym

Definition

FCC

Federal Communications Commission

NEC

National Electrical Code

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

FLAR

Floor to Lot Area Ratio

NHA

National Housing Authority

G.I.

Galvanized Iron

NMB

Non-mobile Billboard

GFA

Gross Floor Area

OBO

Office of the Building Official

GFCI

Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter

OFB

Outermost Face of Building

GPRA

Government Procurement Reform Act

OLBP

Outermost Limit of Building Projection

HC

Horizontal Cross-Connect

P.D.

Presidential Decree

HID

High Intensity Discharge

PBH

Provisional Building Height

HLURB

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board

PEZA

Philippine Economic Zone Authority

HPS

High-Pressure Sodium

PRI

Primary Rate Interface

HUDCC

Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council

PSC

Philippine Sports Commission

HZ

Hertz

PT

Potential Transformer

IC

Intermediate Cross-Connect

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

PWD

Person with Disability

IEC

International Electro-Technical Commission

R.A.

Republic Act

IED

Intelligent Electronic Device

RC

Referral Code

IEEE

The Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers

RF

Radio Frequency

IMC

Intermediate Metallic Conduit

RLA

Registered and Licensed Architect

IRR

Implementing rules and regulations

RLP

Registered and Licensed Professional

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

ROW

Right-of-Way

kV

KiloVolts

RROW

Road Right-of-Way

LAN

Local Area Network

RSC

Rigid Steel Conduit

LBO

Local Building Official

SARP

Standard and Recommended Practices

LED

Light Emitting Diode

ScTP

Screened Twisted-Pair

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

SDP

Site Development Plan

LGU

Local Government Unit

SF6

Sulfur Hexafluoride

Lm

Linear Meter

SLD

Single Line Diagram

LRFD

Load and Resistance Factor Design

TGB

Telecommunications Grounding Busbar

Meter

TGFA

Total Gross Floor Area

m2

Meter square (Area)

THHN

Thermoplastic High Heat-resistant Nylon

MC

Main Cross-Connect

TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association

MCB

Miniature Circuit Breaker

TIEZA

Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority

MCC

Motor Control Center

TLA

Total Lot Area

MCCB

Molded Case Circuit Breaker

TMGB

Telecommunications Main Grounding Busbar

MH

Metal Halide

TSB

Telecommunications System Bulletin

MLE

Mandated Legal Easement

UNE

Unin Nacional Espaola

Mm

Millimeter

UPS

Uninterruptible Power System

MoS

Manual of Standards

UTP

Unshielded Twisted-Pair

MTS

Manual Transfer Switch

Volts

NBCP

National Building Code of the Philippines

VA

Volt Ampere

NBO

National Building Official

Watt

NBZ

No-build Zone

W/Lm

Watts per Lumens

NCCA

National Commission on Culture and the Arts

W/M2

Watts per Meter square

xii

Acronym

Definition

xiii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Acronym

Definition

XLPE

Cross Linked Polyethelene

ZO

zoning ordinance

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Glossary
Acronym

Definition

Addressable Device

A fire alarm system component can be individually identified of its status or used to individually control
other functions.

Addressable System

A fire alarm system consisting of an addressable fire alarm control panel and addressable devices that
primarily gives the exact location of a fire.

Alarm Indicator

A device which by visual means indicates the zone which an alarm has originated.

Alarm Zone

A part or subdivision of a protected building or premises.

Allowable Maximum
Building Footprint

The resultant area established at grade level upon which the proposed building/structure may be
erected.

Annunciator

A fire alarm system component containing one or more indicator lamps or alphanumeric displays in
which each indication provides status information.

Architectonics

The science part of architecture, unifying the architectural, structural and utility plans/designs of a
building/structure.

Architectural Design

A development or redevelopment concept that focuses on the components or elements of a building,


structure or system and unifies them into a coherent and functional whole, utilizing the principles of
strength, harmony and aesthetics in arriving at a solution to a spatial problem through the deft
application of the arts and sciences, according to a particular approach, to achieve the
development/redevelopment objective/s under the given constraints/limitations.

As-Built Plan

A scaled drawing that shows a project and infrastructure components after completion of construction

Attention Signal (alias


Preliminary Noise or
Instruction Signal)

Tone or ringing-style short signal before an announcement.

Bore Hole

A hole drilled in the ground to obtain samples for subsoil investigation.

Building

A roofed and walled structure built for permanent use.

Closed Circuit
Television(CCTV)

A video system in which signals are not publicly distributed and monitored for surveillance, security and
monitoring purposes.

Compression

When a body is subjected to a force or forces acting towards it causing it to squeeze, shorten or crush.

Concrete

A mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water.

Cross Section
(alias Cross Section Plan)

View generated by slicing an object at an angle perpendicular to its longer axis.

Dead Load

An inert, inactive load such as the weight of the members, the supported structure and permanent
attachment or accessories in bridges.

Design Life

Period assumed in the design for which the infrastructure is required to perform its function without
replacement or major structural repair.

Differential Settlement

The vertical displacement due to settlement of one point in a foundation with respect to another point of
the foundation.

Dispersal Area (Safe)

An area which will accommodate a number of persons equal to the total capacity of the stand and
building/structure it serves, in such a manner that no person within the area need be closer than fifteen
meters (15.0 m) from the stand or building/structure. Dispersal areas shall be based upon the area of
not less than 0.28 m2 per person.

Domestic sewage

Comprise of Industrial wastewater, Recycled water, Reclaimed water and Reuse water.

Ductility

Ability of a component or solid material to deform under tensile stress.

Factor of Safety

The ratio of a limiting value of a quantity or quality to the design value of that quantity or quality.

Acoustic Feedback

Feedback of the output signal of an amplifying system on the input of the system depending on the
difference in the intensity and phasing between the input and output signal.

Flange Angles

Angles used in riveted plate girders to carry tensile or compressive forces induced by bending.

Flexure

A deformation or behavior of an elastic structural element subjected to an external load perpendicular


to the axis of the element.

Footprint

The surface area of a building where it meets the natural ground or the finished grade i.e. the outer
perimeter of a building.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Force

A push or a pull in a given direction on a body that changes or tends to change its state or rest. (or its
state of motion).

Foundation

A component of an engineered structure that transmits the structure's forces into the soil or rock that
supports it

Friction Pile

A pile which derives its supports principally from the surrounding soil through which it is placed by the
development of shearing resistance between the soil and the pile.

Geomembrane

Very low permeability synthetic membrane liner of barrier used with any geotechnical engineering related
material so as to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system.

Green Architecture

Architecture in which the plan/design is focused on making a building energy-efficient, so as to reduce its
energy consumption, water consumption, operating costs and environmental impact

Green Roof (alias Eco


Roof, Living Roof,
Vegetated Roof)

A roof that is either partially or completely covered in vegetation and built on top of a man-made roof,
deck roof, deck or other support structure

Green Wall (alias


Biowalls, Ecowalls,
Vertical Gardens)

A wall or similar vertical support/element that may be either free-standing or attached to an existing wall,
and that may be partially, substantially or fully covered with vegetative cover.

Isolated Footing

A footing designed to support a structural load from a single column. Usually a shallow foundation, and
square or circular in shape

Land-use Map

Maps that reflect the land resources and types of land use in the national economy.

Longitudinal Section

View generated by slicing an object at an angle parallel to its longer axis

Physical Planning

The activities pertaining to the preparation of a physical layout of land or property on which vertical
structures such as buildings and/or structures and horizontal developments are proposed.

Pile

A slender member that is driven (hammered), drilled or jetted into the ground. Piles are usually
constructed of timber, steel or pre-stressed reinforced concrete.

Point Bearing Piles


(alias End Bearing Piles)

A pile placed or driven on or into a material which is capable of developing the pile load by directly
resting on a bearing stratum with a reasonable factor of safety.

Post Tensioning

The system of prestressing whereby tendons are stressed after the concrete has attained the required
strength and the prestressing forces are transmitted to the concrete generally by anchoring the stressed
tendons to the members.

Precast Concrete

A structural member specially of concrete that has been cast into form either in a permanent plant or
somewhere near the site of construction before being transported to the site of installation and finally
erected at its final location.

Prestressed Concrete

Concrete reinforced with strands, pretensioned or post tensioned, wherein the effective internal stresses
are induced deliberately by forces caused by tensioned steel or other means to give an active resistance
to loads.

Pretensioning

The system of prestressing concrete members whereby wires or strands called tendons are stressed to
a predetermined amount by stretching them between anchorages prior to pouring of concrete.

Reinforced Concrete

A composite material which utilizes the concrete in resisting compression forces and some other
materials, usually steel bars or wires, to resist the tension forces.

Retaining Wall

A structure usually made of stone masonry, concrete or reinforced concrete that provides lateral support
for a mass of soil.

Seismic Retrofitting

Modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion or soil
failures due to earthquake.

Settlement

The downward movement of soil, or the downward movement of a foundation.

Shear Connector

A welded stud, spiral bar short length steel element that resists shear between components of a
composite beam.

Sheet Piles

A long vertical earth retention and excavation support, steel, vinyl or reinforced concrete, driven into the
ground with interlocking edges to form a continuous wall to resist water or earth pressure.

Spread Footings

Also, isolated footing. A footing designed to support a structural load from a single column. Usually a
shallow foundation, and square or circular in shape.

Stirrups
(alias Ties)

Lateral reinforcement formed of individual units, open or closed or continuously wound reinforcement.

Structural Foundation

Foundation of a structure which generally serves to transfer the loads from the structure to underlying
materials (such as soil or rock) which are known as the foundation material.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Sustainable Design

The philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to substantially
comply with the principles of economic, social and ecological sustainability, without compromising
natural and other resources that must be bequeathed to future generations

Sway Bracing

Secondary structural members spanning between the trusses at interior panel points and provide lateral
stability and shear transfer between trusses.

Topographic Survey
(alias Ground Survey)

Collection of data to represent horizontal and vertical positions of an area, including features such as
roads, bridges and bodies of water with contours, elevations and coordinates.

xvii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

For clarity, GFAs or TGFAs generated below grade (or sidewalk surface) level i.e.
basement or lower ground levels, are not to be counted as part of either the GFA or
TGFA, which are essentially floor areas generated above grade (or sidewalk
surface) level.

Apply prescribed setbacks and yards/court to determine AMBF.

TGFA/AMBF = provisional building height or PBH (for direct comparison with


the applicable BHL); whichever shall result in the lower number of
floors/levels applies i.e. the most stringent rule always applies.

For clarity, building height classification in relation to the BHL for buildings shall
be as follows:
Table 3-2

Conversion Table of Gross Floor Area (GFA) to Total Gross Floor Area
(TGFA), 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096
Excluded Floor Areas
(non-GFA) as a
Percentage (%) of the
TGFA

Multiplier to
Convert the GFA to
TGFA

Residential 1

33%

1.50

Residential 2 (Basic), Residential 3 (Basic) and


Residential 4

20%

1.25

Residential 2 (Maximum), Residential 3


(Maximum) and Residential 5

16%

1.20

Commercial 1

20%

1.25

Commercial 2

25%

1.33

Commercial 3

33%

1.50

Industrial 1

25%

1.33

Industrial 2 and 3

33%

1.50

Transportation, Utility and Service Areas

33%

1.50

2%-5%

1.03-1.06

Type of Building/Structure based on


Use/Occupancy

Agricultural and Agro-Industrial

A low-rise building/structure shall be from one (1) to five (5) storeys i.e. from 3.0
m (m) to 12.0 m plus 1.0m for a parapet wall (if provided with deck roof),
collectively reckoned from grade (or sidewalk surface) level, including mezzanine
level, in the case of non-residential buildings/structures; and from one (1) to five
(5) storeys i.e. from 3.0 m (m) to 15.0 m plus 1.0m for a parapet wall (if provided
with deck roof), collectively reckoned from grade (or sidewalk surface) level,
including mezzanine level, in the case of residential buildings/structures; low-rise
buildings may or may not be provided with an elevator but must satisfy the basic
accessibility requirements;

A medium-rise building/structure shall be from six (6) to fifteen (15) storeys i.e.
from 15.0 m (m) to 45.0m plus 1.0m for a parapet wall (if provided with deck
roof), collectively reckoned from grade (or sidewalk surface) level, including
mezzanine level, in the case of non-residential buildings/structures; and from six
(6) to fifteen (15) storeys i.e. from 18.0 m (m) to 45.0 m plus 1.0 m for a parapet
wall (if provided with deck roof), collectively reckoned from grade (or sidewalk
surface) level, including mezzanine level, in the case of residential
buildings/structures; medium-rise buildings must be provided with an elevator
and must satisfy the basic accessibility requirements; and
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Is there an alternate disaster plan for the disposal of sewerage?

Communication

Are equipment securely anchored and protected?

Are there alternate means of communication when systems fail?

Are computers latched onto uninterruptible power supply (UPS)?


Is there a facility for obtaining a mobile emergency generator?

Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment Anchorage (especially crucial for hospital designs)

Are the following equipment securely braced?

- Storage equipment: filing cabinets, shelving, etc.


- Table- and floor-mounted equipment

3.5.2

3.5.3

Are there surgical fixtures?

Are there imaging equipment?


Is there a gas system?

What are the other essential equipment?

Are there fire alarm and fire-fighting equipment?


Compliance with R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP) and
its 2009 or latest IRR

Area of Rescue Assistance (ARA): an area, which has direct access to an exit,
where people who are unable to use the stairs or elevators may remain
temporarily in safety, to await further instructions or assistance

Materials Selections: fire-related materials must be given priority; flamespread must be checked at various critical points
Firefighting facilities/preparedness: planning and deducing must consciously
consider the installation of fire-fighting equipment as an integral factor
Provision for gas masks, fire-resistant jackets, boots, helmets, etc.

3.5.4

Emergency water supply

Wind direction and other topographical factors like loose soil, loose rock
anchorage that may be exacerbated by heavy rainfall shall be dealt with
dispatch

Secure installations of electrical and emergency electrical power system


Design and layout of windows, doors and other openings

Location of garage and emergency equipment must allow for quick access and
use
Community facilities must be securely braced and protected
Emergency water supply (for 2-3 days)

Life-saving equipment securely located and anchored

Bracing and trimming of big trees (especially those with shallow root systems
like acacia, mango, etc.) and structures that pose danger to life

Non-mobile billboards shall follow standards set under the 2008 DPWH
Additional Rules and Regulations (ARR) supplementing Rule XX of the NBCP.
LGUs can enact ordinances that are more stringent than the ARR and Rule XX
of the NBCP but cannot relax the same.
LGU shall provide the appropriate equipment like chainsaws and other
earthmoving and transport equipment.

Floods Mitigation Checklist

Availability of recent secondary hydrologic information to ascertain flood


levels for physical planning at a community level
Site analysis and site development must seriously consider the sites history
and experience with floods
Provisions for emergency evacuation

All of the Typhoon Mitigation Checklist

Prepare map for flood-prone areas. (DPWH, c.2009, unpublished); refer also to
DG Volume 3

Floor levels for buildings should be located above the flood level along with a
suitable freeboard, as determined based on Volume 3. The appropriate design
flood to be adopted for different types of buildings is provided in Table 3-3. The
following should also apply:

Provision of life safety harness system

Typhoon Mitigation Checklist

3-8

Are there storage tanks (for liquid oxygen and hot water)?

Fire Mitigation Checklist

- Ceiling-mounted equipment: ceiling fans, lighting fixtures, etc.

Choice of materials like glass and other non-masonry/non-metal exterior


finishing that can withstand high wind pressure must be specified

If basement parking is to be adopted, then all entries and openings to the


basement should be above the design flood level noted in Table 3-3. A
secondary evacuation route, such as a stairwell, should be provided that
provides access to a level above the design flood level.

All electrical and related services should be above the design flood level, or
flood proofed above the flood level.

Where inundation is expected to occur for more than a few hours, then
provisions should be provided for appropriate evacuation.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The hawkers plaza and bagsakan (wholesale) area are places near the semi-wet
and dry sections for the convenience of both vendors and delivery vans, most of
which supply dry goods such as groceries and sari-sari items (different/wide
variety of goods). It is recommended that the hawkers plaza should not exceed
60% of the size of the market core, except for those markets which may have only
one or two market days per week. The bagsakan (wholesale) area is computed at
around 1013% of the total built-up area.
Market Stalls and Aisles

A public market basically consists of stalls and aisles. A stall is the most important
element of the market. In detailed design, great care must be exercised in
analyzing the needs of vendors, particularly in the case of the wet stalls.

The required stall area for a market must be about 60% of the total floor area. The
circulation area, which is the aisle, is 35% and the offices, toilets and utility room
at 5% of the total floor area.

The stalls are designed with high flexibility to make them functional even if the
original intention is changed. For planning purposes, the average sizes of the
different market stalls may be assumed at 24 m2 per stall for vegetable, fruits,
meat and dried fish, 59 m2 per stall for shops and sari-sari (general) store and
1518 m2 for carinderia (eatery) and cereals.

For purposes of preliminary programming, the following illustrate the above


applications:
Wet Market Stalls

1.7 m x 2.25 m or 3.8 m2 for meat/fish and vegetables


1.7 m x 2.25 m or 3.8 m2 for fruits and vegetables

Dry Market Stalls

3.4 m x 4.5 m or 15.30 m2 for cereals and carinderia(eatery)

2.25 m x 3.41 m or 7.67 m2 for shops and sari-sari (General Store)


2.27 m x 4.49 m or 10.19 m2 garments

Recommended stall sizes should be matched with existing stall sizes and should be
related to the market vendor analysis. Any deviations from the recommended stall
sizes should be done in increments/multiples of 1.44m2 (1.2 m x 1.2 m) or even
fractions (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16).

For two storey market buildings, the dry markets stalls shall be situated at the
upper level.

The counter aisle should be at 1.5 2.0 m wide while the primary and secondary
entry aisles may be assumed at 2.0 3.5 m wide.
The proposed dry section market stalls shall have a secure ceiling e.g. wire mesh,
cyclone wire or similar material, to be installed directly above or below the ceiling
material

3-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

3.8.3

3.8.4

3.8.5

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

School Building Design

Particulars

Refer to pertinent DepEd standards/ guidelines or to applicable DPWH standards


(duly approved by the DepEd) and to Annex C.

Maximum Space Requirements


(m2)

Assistant Secretary

56.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

Conference Room

30.00

Such as small airport/port passenger terminal buildings. Refer to pertinent


DoTC standards/guidelines (if available) and to Annex C.

Reception Room

20.00

Toilet/Bathroom

6.00

Pantry

10.00

Storage Area

10.00

Table 3-6 provides the recommended standards for use as a reference in the space
planning of typical high density non-residential buildings such as offices.

Office of the Director

Design of Other Key Structures

Design of Government Offices

Table 3-6

Space Allocation Standards for Typical Office Spaces (GFA)

Particulars

Maximum Space Requirements


(m2)

Main Lobby

0.25/pax; minimum for lobby as waiting/standing


room is 0.28

Conference Room

1.20/pax including aisles and demonstration


space

Training Room

2.40/pax including aisles and services such as


storage, production room and toilet for the staff

Director IV

36.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

Conference Room

25.00

Reception Room

10.00

Toilet/Bathroom

4.00

Pantry

5.00

Storage Area

6.00

Office of the Assistant Director


Director III

24.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

1.50 per one water closet (WC) enclosure

Toilet/Bathroom

4.00

For Agencies providing frontline services


(for Public use)

1 WC/1 100 for female


1 WC/1 200 for male
1 urinal/1 100 for male
1 lavatory/2 WC

For Agencies with no clientele


(for Employee use)

1 WC/1 15 for male and female


2 WC/16 35 for male and female
3 WC/36 55 for male and female
1 lavatory/40 for male and female; or
1 lavatory/2 WC

Toilet Facilities

Based on the Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines (R.A. 1378)
Includes circulatory area

Division-Level Unit
Division Chief

12.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

Includes circulation area

Space Requirement/s of Key Officials


Office of the Secretary
Secretary

72.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

Conference Room

60.00

Reception Room

30.00

Toilet/Bathroom

6.00

Pantry

10.00

Storage Area

10.00

Office of the Undersecretary

The equivalent space allocations for officers at national government


agencies/GOCCs, such as Secretary, Undersecretary and Assistant Secretary shall
apply for all affected public buildings (refer Table 3-6).

Other applicable space planning standards for other Philippine buildings i.e.
standards that are not found in the NBCP, are as follows:

Undersecretary

63.00

Staff

4.00 6.00/pax2

Conference Room

40.00

Reception Room

20.00

Toilet/Bathroom

6.00

Pantry

10.00

Storage Area

10.00

Office of the Assistant Secretary

3-20

The same reference standards places open plan areas at offices at 80%, with
enclosed office areas at 20%.

Hospitals and health care facilities c/o the DoH

Primary and secondary school buildings c/o the DepEd


Tertiary school buildings c/o the CHED

Markets c/o the DTI and/or the HLURB and HUDCC


Industrial buildings c/o the PEZA
Tourism facilities c/o the TIEZA

Recreational facilities c/o the HLURB and HUDCC


3-21

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

3.11.3

3.11.4

pipes/tubings/drains connected to NON-CAPITAL EQUIPMENT and


plumbing/electrical/electronic/ mechanical fixtures and the like; and other
decorative accessories such as curtains, drapes, blinds, shades and carpets/carpet
tiles, paintings, wall hangings, sculpture (large/medium/small), and
decorative/accent lighting devices, with complete fittings and accessories, and the
like.
Fixtures

These are pieces of equipment or furniture that is fixed in position in a building or


vehicle; articles attached to a building or land and considered legally part of it so
that such items normally remain in place even when the building owner moves out;
something securely fixed in place or attached as a permanent appendage,
apparatus, or appliance e.g. plumbing fixtures; the possible examples of fixtures in
a typical Philippine building/grounds include the following: visible, remoteoperated and/or tangible/operational devices or provisions that are fixed in
position in (such as permanently attached to) a building and which partake of
finishing items, such as plumbing fixtures (water closets, urinals, lavatories, water
fountains, etc.), electrical fixtures (general and task lighting, area lighting for
grounds, exterior building lighting including up-lighting or down-lighting, indoor
and outdoor switches/manual controls and convenience outlets, etc.), electronic
fixtures (indoor and outdoor/rooftop cameras, speakers, sensors, monitors, cardaccess or biometric access terminals for secure areas, automated main gates and
doors, etc.), mechanical and related auxiliary fixtures (sprinkler heads, indoor
climate management or control terminals/stations/switches, etc.), and the like; and
architectural fixtures such as large fixed/sectional mirrors, finish hardware items,
wall (or floor) safes and the like.

Equipment

These are the necessary items for a particular purpose or activity; equipment
(solid state), apparatus, gear, material (i.e. the aggregate of
portable/transportable/self-propelled equipment and/or supplies used by a
specific organization, such as the military or para-military or the government),
outfit, paraphernalia and the like; materials needed for a purpose such as
laboratory apparatus; all the fixed assets other than land and buildings of a
business enterprise; tangible property (other than land or buildings) that is used
in the operation of a business; examples of equipment include devices, machines,
tools, and vehicles; the possible examples of equipment in a typical Philippine
building are: visible and tangible/operable apparatus, gear, materiel
(transportable equipment), outfit, paraphernalia, tools relating to architectural,
structural,
electrical,
electronic
and
auxiliary
(telecommunications/audio/video/building
management
system/BMS),
mechanical, sanitary, plumbing, fire-fighting functions/operations of the building
e.g. integrated computer systems including peripherals, ticketing system including
cash registers and official receipt or trip ticket printers, point of sale (POS)
reporting system (as applicable, possibly for both ticketing/parking and
commercial leased spaces), public information/notification/address systems
3-33

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

3.12.1

Sites/Grounds

3.12.2

Land and site sustainability considerations during construction activities such


as plans and documentation needed for site excavation, sedimentation and
erosion control, air pollution control, etc.
Use of organic soil treatment products.

Minimization of over-paving through the requisite compliances with valid and


subsisting laws, rules, regulations, guidelines, standards and procedural
manuals pertaining to physical planning e.g. NBCP, Water Code, Sanitation
Code, etc. (refer also to pertinent portions of Annex E).
Management of shadows cast by the proposed buildings on adjacent lots and
buildings/structures.

Miscellaneous considerations i.e. rainfall information and hydrologic (and


flooding) characteristics of the site including flood risk assessment mitigation
studies (if available); public passage-ways such as secure pathwalks and
bicycle lanes and bicycle parking plan (if provided); community connectivity
(amenities, facilities, services and utilities/AFSU); waiting sheds and other key
street furniture; vehicle use, maneuver and parking plans (open, semi-covered
and covered); landscaping plans (hard and soft scapes); green roofs and heat
insulated areas.

Buildings/Structures

Energy conservation and management i.e. compliances with the latest


Department of Energy (DoE) guidelines on energy conservation and
management i.e. lighting and power design, etc.; use of light-emitting diodes
(LEDs), compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and similar energy-saving
illumination devices (provided the proper disposal methods are also in place),
etc.; extensive use of natural lighting and ventilation matched with the use of
sun-shading devices; use of renewable (non-fossil) energy sources where
applicable i.e. sun, wind, wave, current, hydro, dendro (forest products), hot
springs, animal, biogas/compost, solid waste, etc.

Water conservation and management i.e. reduction or optimization of


domestic water consumption such as use of low-flow plumbing/sanitary
fixtures and equipment, etc., domestic wastewater reuse or recycling; storm
water management and rainwater harvesting such as collection, storage,
treatment, use, reuse, recycling, disposal, etc., wastewater treatment such as
use of compact/ compartmentalized sewage treatment devices or sewage
treatment plants (STPs), etc.
Solid waste management i.e. waste management plan; material recovery/
segregation facility (MRF/MSF); use of non-burn waste to energy (WTE) or
waste to worth (WTW) technologies that utilize local and foreign advanced
technologies compliant with the PH Clean Air Act of 1999.

Indoor environment quality considerations e.g. non-smoking areas;


minimization of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by materials
specified for the building/structure/project; air-conditioning refrigerant
3-35

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

3.13.1

Sites/Grounds

3.13.2

Less paving around the building to help retard surface water flow i.e. through
percolation into the ground, inasmuch as the collected surface water contribute
to flash flooding at lower elevations within a community.

Proper setbacks and compliance with mandated legal easements (MLEs) along
waterways to maintain floodwater at a low level such as narrower waterways
translate into higher flood levels.

Buildings/Structures

Use of concrete deck roofs instead of sloped metal roofs.

If the use of metal roofs cannot be avoided, provide much steeper roof slopes
(because flatter slopes are easily penetrated by strong winds such as wind
drag).
Use of roof that is sloped at all four (4) sides (since typhoon winds come from
all directions).
Use of green roofs (only when technically and financially feasible).

Use of very short eaves i.e. the roof extension outside the exterior wall of the
building or residence, usually provided for shade and aesthetics (inasmuch as
long eaves cause uplift which open up the roof cavity to more/extensive wind
damage); the short eaves could be paired with media agua (shed roofs) over
windows and doors; short eaves are those that are 610 mm or shorter as
measured from the finished building wall while the long eaves are those that
extend as much as 2.44 m or longer from the finished building wall (and which
may already require additional structural support); the minimum eaves shall
be at 300 mm while the maximum eaves can be as much as 3.66 m (with or
without additional structural supports), provided that the appropriate climate
change adaptive and disaster reduction considerations are all factored into the
design.

Use of gutterless roofs in sites where trees shed a large volume of leaves i.e. dry
and decomposed leaves and debris clog up the drains, downspouts and catch
basins and the accumulated water cause the un-drained roof to collapse; a
gutterless roof has to be partnered with a trench drain, sand pit or a sand and
gravel bed at the ground below to absorb the falling water.
Controlled roof cavity and/or ceiling cavity openings to relieve or equalize
pressure inside and outside the building during strong winds i.e. a certain
amount of wind has to be let in the building/structure to relieve and/or
equalize air pressures.

For flood-prone or flood-risk areas, the use of the lower level as a multi-use,
flexible use space (that can be flooded), and which can be connected to the
upper level/s of the building through stairs or ramps (for use by PWDs or large
domesticated/farm animals).
Use of stilted or floating building technologies, if technically and financially
feasible, if safe and if locally available.

3-37

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Tall buildings shall be provided with safe refuge zones or floors for evacuating
building occupants; these areas shall have stronger structural reinforcement
and fire protection features if compared with regular floors.

All emergency, exit and public doors servicing rooms or areas with users
numbering twelve or more occupants must all swing outward and use nondetachable pins for added safety; if 2 exits are located in an enclosed space,
these must be located far apart and at opposite sides of such space.
All fire lanes and emergency/fire exits, passageway and stairs shall be
maintained free of all forms of obstructions and fitted with emergency lighting
devices all the way to the refuge floors and/or the street below.

Location of emergency exits shall be far apart and/or opposite of each other
and in full accordance with prescriptions of the NBCP and the Fire Code.
Avoidance of use of non-fire rated substances and materials for buildings,
particularly those that produce toxic or harmful fumes during fire e.g.
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) doors and jambs, etc.
Use of medium-weight movable materials as furniture pieces i.e. those that can
readily serve as sturdy flotation devices.

Elevated floor finish line (FFL) at say 0.60 m minimum above sidewalk level
for carports and for main entrances for low-rise structures e.g. .residences in
known flood risk areas. Refer to Section 3.5.4 for flood levels for buildings.
Positioning of convenience outlets above table surface height i.e. say about
850 mm above the finished floor line (FFL)

Possible positioning of the main power panel at a reachable height just below
the finished ceiling line (FCL) i.e. at a maximum height of 300 mm below the
finished ceiling line (FCL) and at a minimum eye level (or pix) height of 1400
mm above the finished floor line (FFL).
Use of jalousie windows, which are designed for use in the tropics, and which
could serve as a fast means of escape (but requires security provisions such
grillwork or similar devices).

A fast emergency escape system using maintenance gondolas or possibly even


zip lines mounted on roofs of tall buildings directed at refuge floors/levels of
adjoining tall buildings or open refuge areas may need to be devised.
Design of low-rise buildings for survivability i.e. controlled detachment of a
designated survival room/pod from the main building/structure for purposes
of flotation or similar survival action/procedures.

Use of low-cost to optimum-cost devices or technologies than can readily


convert seawater, brackish water, inland waterway water, wastewater, etc.
into domestic water fit for cooking and drinking (potable water) i.e. solely
with the use of renewable energy i.e. sun or wind to power the conversion
process.
Use of stilted or floating building technologies, if technically and financially
feasible, if safe and if locally available.

3-39

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

valid and subsisting law that is implemented and enforced by DPWH and its
agents. The NBCP has apparently been breached and violated at will over the last
36 years of its existence, resulting in the present pitiful state of the built
environment.
An architectural permit application must be accompanied by the pertinent
architectural documents, together with computations that must be signed and
sealed only by registered and licensed Architects (RLAs), in full compliance with
law (Section 20.5 of RA No. 9266, The Architecture Act of 2004). Such
architectural computations must contain basic spatial and volumetric information
about
the
proposed
new
building/fit-out
or
repair/renovation/rehabilitation/expansion/retrofit project such as those
mandated under Rules VII and VIII (as well as Rule XII) of the 2004 Revised IRR of
the NBCP, to wit:

3-42

Zoning classification with statements of principal, accessory and conditional


uses
Allowed building occupancy and building type
Lot type, configuration and access systems

RROW width (stating arcade width if applicable) and TLA

On-site and off-site analyses, with particular attention to topography, slopes,


hazards, etc.
Building and site/grounds orientations with respect to sun, wind, rain/storm,
noise, pollution sources, odors, view corridors (and privacy satisfaction)
Treatment of the mandated legal easements (MLE)
FLAR (FAR), GFA &TGFA

Applicable setbacks (including incremental setbacks)


Firewall compliances (as needed)

Basement level compliances (as applicable)

Open and covered parking compliances (including public transportation


connectivity)

PSO and AMBF including clear indications of the total open space within lot
(TOSL) and the unpaved surface area (USA) that shall assist in surface water
flow retardation and percolation into the aquifer

Applicable BHL (including CAAP restrictions or other agency restrictions as


applicable)
AMVB

OFB, OLBP and the angle of angular plane with respect to the RROW
The architectural and space programs

Wall/window orientations and wall to window ratio (WWR)


Site development (including urban design) features

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Use of natural light and ventilation, particularly of day-lighting and passive


cooling
Elevator traffic calculations and zoning (as applicable)

Building and site/grounds colors and textures, particularly those that are
absorptive and reflective of light and heat (that should illustrate the RLAs
appreciation of tropical design as the same applies to Philippine buildings)
Graphics, signage and way-finding provisions

Design sensitivities i.e. gender and development (GAD), children and the
elderly, persons with disabilities (PWDs, physical, mental, emotional, etc.),
ethnicity and indigenous peoples, people with differing lifestyles/preferences,
religion, etc.

The foregoing are only basic architectural plan and design features of the building.
Should the DPWH IRR on sustainable building design be promulgated, the RLA
shall also be responsible for a number of sustainable building features, as well as
features that address issues and concerns pertaining to climate change adaptation
and disaster resilience. The RLA's description of the proposed buildings
sustainable design features must necessarily include descriptions of the embodied
energy levels of construction and finishing materials proposed for use in the
building, carbon footprint calculation for the building and its users over a certain
period of time, energy and water conservation features (to include rainwater
harvesting if possible), solid waste management provisions (collection, storage,
recycling, reuse, disposal), etc.

The architectural permit application must clearly show that the building fully
satisfies all the spatial requirements and all the applicable development controls
(DCs). To be sure that only RLAs shall be responsible for architectural permits and
their support documents, the author (signatory) of the architectural permit
application support documents or his/her duly designated representative should
be present (or available through electronic means) to defend the contents of the
documents when the same are reviewed by RLAs who should also be the ones in
charge of the architectural divisions of LGU OBOs i.e. full compliance with Section
35 of R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004).
The architectural permit application must also show the calculations for
architectural life safety code compliances, particularly those mandated under R.A.
No. 9514 (The 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines/FCP and its 2009 IRR). Also for
inclusion is the satisfaction of the mandated compliances with B.P. Blg. 344
(Accessibility Law of 1983) particularly with respect to parking slots, ramps,
elevators and toilets for persons with disabilities (PWDs). Additionally, the
pertinent information on architectural design features that address specific user
needs and sensitivities must be included e.g. gender, age, ethnicity, religion, etc. as
well as urban design features e.g. including lists of street furniture, way-finding
provisions and directional signages as well as statements of the proposed
treatments of transitional spaces between the public domain (e.g. RROW) and the
building grounds and enclosed building spaces.

3-43

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.2.3

Gravity Loads

This section shall apply to designing the gravity loads as specified in NSCP Section
204 Section 205.

4.2.4

4.2.5

Gravity loads are the weights of structural, non-structural elements, and expected
weight of occupants that is applied to structures as downward forces.

Dead Load

Dead loads consist of the permanent weights and include the weight of columns,
beams and girders, floor slab, roofing, walls, windows, plumbing, electrical
fixtures, finishes and fixed equipment. The minimum densities for design loads
from materials are shown in Table 4-1. The minimum values for dead loads in lowrise buildings are shown in Table 4-2.
Live Load

Live load is determined by the function and occupancy of the building. Loads
include the weights of temporarily placed items on the structure such as
furnishings, human occupants and construction and maintenance activities. The
standards in designing the live load of a building are provided in NSCP Section
205.
All loads shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy
and not be less than the loads required by this section. Live loads are provided in
Tables 4-3, 4-4 and 4-5.

4-3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-3

Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads


Use or Occupancy

Use or Occupancy

Uniform Load

Concentrated
Load

Category

Category

Description

kPa

kN

1. Access floor systems

Office use

2.4

9.0

20. Sidewalks and driveways

Computer use

4.8

9.02

21. Storage

--

7.2

Fixed seats

2.9

Movable seats

4.8

Lobbies and platforms

4.8

2. Armories
3. Theaters, assembly areas3 and
auditoriums

22. Stores
23. Pedestrian bridges and walkways

7.2

4. Bowling alleys, poolrooms and


similar recreational areas

--

3.6

5. Catwalk for maintenance access

--

1.9

1.3

6. Cornices and marquees

--

3.6

7. Dining rooms and restaurants

--

4.8

8. Exit facilities5

--

4.8

06

General storage and/or repair

4.8

--

Private or pleasure-type motor


vehicle storage

1.9

--7

Wards and rooms

1.9

4.52

Laboratories & operating


rooms

2.9

4.5

Corridors above ground floor

3.8

4.5

Reading rooms

2.9

4.52

Stack rooms

7.2

4.52

Corridors above ground floor

3.8

4.5

Light

6.0

9.02

Heavy

12.0

13.42

Call Centers & BPO

2.9

9.0

Lobbies & ground floor


corridors

4.8

9.0

Offices

2.4

9.02

Building corridors above


ground floor

3.8

9.0

Press rooms

7.2

11.02

Composing and linotype rooms

4.8

9.02

Basic floor area

1.9

06

Exterior balconies

2.94

Decks

1.9

10. Hospitals

11. Libraries

12. Manufacturing
13. Office

14. Printing plants


15. Residential8

1
3

7
7

Storage

1.9

--

--

--

17. Reviewing stands, grandstands,


Bleachers, and folding and
telescoping seating

--

4.8

Same as area served or


Occupancy

--

--

Classrooms

1.9

4.52

Corridors above ground floor

3.8

4.5

19. Schools

16. Restrooms9

18. Roof decks

Uniform Load1

Concentrated
Load

Description

kPa

kN

Ground floor corridors

4.8

4.5

Public access

12.0

--7

Light

6.0

--

Heavy

12.0

--

Retail

4.8

4.52

Wholesale

6.0

13.42

--

4.8

--

Source: NSCP, 2010.

Stages areas

9. Garages

4-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

8
9

Notes for Table 4-3


See NSCP Section 205.5 for live load reductions
See NSCP Section 205.3.3, first paragraph, for area of load application.
Assembly areas include such occupancies as dance halls, drill rooms, gymnasiums, playgrounds,
plazas, terraces and similar occupancies that are generally accessible to the public.
For special-purpose roofs, see NSCP Section 205.4.4.
Exit facilities shall include such uses as corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more persons,
exterior exit balconies, stairways, fire escapes
Individual stair treads shall be designed to support a 1.3 kN concentrated load placed in a position
that would cause maximum stress. Stair stringers may be designed for the uniform load set forth in
the table
See NSCP Section 205.3.3, second paragraph, for concentrated loads. See Table 4-4 for vehicle
barriers
Residential occupancies include private dwellings, apartments and hotel guest rooms.
Restroom loads shall not be less than the load for the occupancy with which they are associated,
but need not exceed 2.4 kPa.

4-7

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Special Loads1

Use or Occupancy
Category

Description

11

Vertical Load

Lateral Load

kPa

kPa

1. Construction, public access at site


(live load)

Walkway

7.2

Canopy

7.2

2. Grandstands, reviewing, stands


bleachers, and folding and
telescoping seating (live load)

Seats and footboards

1.75

See Note 3

3. Stage accessories (live load)

4. Ceiling framing (live load)

5. Partitions and interior walls

12

Table 4-5

Minimum Roof Live Loads 1


METHOD 2

METHOD 1
Tributary Area (m )
2

Catwalks

1.9

Follow spot, projection and


control rooms

2.4

Over stages

1.0

All uses except over


stages

0.54

6. Elevators and dumbwaiters (dead


and live loads)

ROOF SLOPE

0 to 20

20 to 60

Over 60

Uniform
Load2
(kPa)

Rate of
reduction,
r

Maximum
Reduction R
(percentage)

Uniform Load (kPa)


1. Flat or rise less than 4 units
vertical in 12 units horizontal
(33.3% slope). Arch and dome
with rise less than one-eighth of
span

1.00

0.75

0.60

1.00

0.08

40

2. Rise 4 units vertical to less than


12 units vertical in 12 units
horizontal (33.3% to less than
100% slope). Arch and dome
with rise one-eighths of span

0.75

0.70

0.60

0.75

0.06

25

No reduction permitted

0.25

2 total loads

7. Cranes (dead and live loads)

Total load including impact


increase

1.25 x total load5

0.10 total load6

8. Balcony railings and guardrails

Exit facilities serving an


occupant load greater than
50

0.75 kN/m7

3. Rise 12 units vertical in 12 units


horizontal (100% slope) and
greater. Arch or dome with rise
three-eighth of span or greater

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

Other than exit facilities

0.30 kN/m7

4. Awnings except cloth covered.4

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Components

1.2

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

27 kN

5. Greenhouses, lath houses and


agricultural buildings.5

See Note 10

See Note 10

Total loads11

See NSCP Table


208-12

1.1 kN plus weight of


water-filled pipe12

See NSCP Table


208-12

9. Vehicle barriers
10. Handrails
11. Storage racks

Over 2.4 m high

12. Fire sprinkler structural support

8
9

Source: NSCP, 2010


Notes for Table 4-5
1
For special-purpose roofs, see NSCP Sections 205.4.4.
2
See NSCP Sections 205.5 and 205.6 for live-load reductions. The rate of reduction r in NSCP
Equation 205-1 shall be as indicated in the table. The maximum reduction, R, shall not exceed
the value indicated in the table.
3
A flat roof is any roof with a slope less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2% slope). The
live load for flat roofs is in addition to the ponding load required by NSCP Section 206.7.
4
See definition in NSCP Section 202.
5
See NSCP Section 205.4.4 for concentrated load requirements for greenhouse roof members.

Source: NSCP, 2010


1

2
3
4

7
8

9
10

4-8

Vertical members of storage racks shall be protected from impact forces of operating equipment, or
racks shall be designed so that failure of one vertical member will not cause collapse of more than
the bay or bays supported by that member.
The 1.1 kN load is to be applied to any single fire sprinkler support point but not simultaneously to
all support joints.

Notes for Table 4-4:


The tabulated loads are minimum loads. Where other vertical by this code or required by the design
would cause greater stresses, they shall be used. Loads are in kPa unless otherwise indicated in
the table.
Unit is kN/m.
Lateral sway bracing loads of 350 N/m parallel and 145 N/m perpendiculars to seat and footboards.
Does not apply to ceilings that have sufficient total access from below, such that access is not
required within the space above the ceiling. Does not apply to ceilings if the attic areas above the
ceiling are not provided with access. This live load need not be considered as acting simultaneously
with other live loads imposed upon the ceiling framing or its supporting structure.
The impact factors included are for cranes with steel wheels riding on steel rails. They may be
modified if substantiating technical data acceptable to the building official is submitted. Live loads on
crane support girders and their connections shall be taken as the maximum crane wheel loads. For
pendant-operated traveling crane support girders and their connections, the impact factors shall be
1.10.
This applies in the direction parallel to the runway rails (longitudinal). The factor for forces
perpendicular to the rail is 0.20 x the transverse traveling loads (trolley, cab, hooks and lifted loads).
Forces shall be applied at top of rail and may be disturbed among rails of multiple rail cranes and
shall be distributed with due regard for lateral stiffness of the structures supporting these rails.
A load per lineal meter (kN/m) to be applied horizontally at right angles to the top rail.
Intermediate rails, panel fillers and their connections shall be capable of withstanding a load of 1.2
kPa applied horizontally at right angles over the entire tributary area including openings and spaces
between rails. Reactions due to this loading need not be combined with those of Footnote 7.
A horizontal load in kN applied at right angles to the vehicle barrier at a height of 450 mm above the
parking surface. The force may be distributed over a 300-mm-square area.
The mounting of handrails shall be such that the completed handrail and supporting structure are
capable of withstanding a load of at least 890 N applied in any direction at any point on the rail.
These loads shall not be assumed to act cumulatively with Item 9.

4.2.6

Other Minimum Loads

Other minimum loads to be considered are:

4.2.7

Impact loads (NSCP Section 206.3). This is the dynamic effect on a body as
induced by the contact of moving load or operating equipment. Impact is
expressed as a percentage increase in the load when at rest.
Crane Loads (NSCP Section 206.9).

Heliport and Helistop Landing Areas (NSCP Section 206.10).


Soil load.

Wind Load

The most significant consideration in the computation of wind load is the location
of the structure. Areas facing the Pacific Ocean are analyzed against a maximum
wind design velocity of 250 kph and are designated as Zone 1, consistent with the
strong tropical storms that originate from this area. The wind from Zone 1 wind
weakens to 200 kph in the area designated as Zone 2. This wind exits at the
4-9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Philippine Sea with a velocity of 150 kph in the area designated as Zone 3. Table 47 identifies specific provinces under each zone and a quick reference map is
available on NSCP Figure 207-24.
NSCP also requires the use of the occupancy importance factor, a magnifier that
increases (or reduces) the wind load. A magnifies of 15% is used for many
structures most needed during emergencies, structures that can have many
occupants in one area and facilities that house dangerous materials that may
cause additional harm to the populace if toxins are released due to structural
failure. A low of -15% is used for facilities that are not usually used as human
shelter. Table 4-6 describes occupancy/function of structure, while Table 4-9
factor the numerical value for occupancy importance factor.

Analysis of structures should include a separate consideration for the Main Wind
Force Resisting System (MWFRS) which is the assembly of structural members
that provide the overall reliability against wind forces, and the components and
cladding elements which are individual parts of the structure that cover and
complete the skeletal MWFRS.

The design wind load for buildings, including MWFRS and component and
cladding elements, shall be determined using the following methods.

Method 1: Simplified Procedure

The steps in accordance with are:

1. The basic wind Speed, V, in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.4 shall be
determined assuming the wind can come from any horizontal direction.
2. Determine the importance factor, Iw, in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.5.

3. Determine the exposure category in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.6.

4. Determine the height and exposure adjustment coefficient, , shall be


determined from NSCP Figures 207-2 and 207-3.

5. For the Main Wind-Force Resisting System: Determine Ps for the horizontal
pressures which is the combination of the windward and leeward net
pressures and shall be determined by the following equation:
ps = K zt Iw ps9

The net design wind pressures, pnet, for the components and cladding of buildings
shall be determined by the following equation:
where:
Kzt

Iw

ps9

4-10

Pnet = K zt Iw pnet9

topographic factor as defined in NSCP Section 207.5.7

simplified design wind pressure for Exposure B at h=9 m


1.0 from NSCP Figure 207-3, kPa

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Pnet9

Iw

net design wind pressure for Exposure B at h=9 m


1.0 from NSCP Figure 207-3, kPa

Method 2: Analytical Procedure

Analytical procedure shall be used for buildings or structures that do not satisfy
the conditions for using the simplified procedure provided that the building or
structure is regular-shaped as defined in NSCP Section 207.5 and does not have
response wind loading, vortex, shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter, or
does not have a site location for which channeling effect or buffering in the wake
of upwind obstructions warrant special consideration as stated in NSCP Section
207.5.1.
The steps of analytical procedure in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.3 are:

1. Determine the basic wind speed V and wind directionality factor K d in


accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.4 and NSCP Table 207-2 respectively.
2. Determine the importance factor, Iw, in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.5.

3. Determine the exposure category or exposure coefficient Kz or Kh, as


applicable for each wind direction in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.6.

4. Determine the topographic factor Kzt in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.7.

5. Determine the gust effect Factor G or Gf, as applicable in accordance with NSCP
Section 207.5.8.

6. Determine the enclosure classification in accordance with NSCP Section


207.5.9.
7. Determine the Internal Pressure coefficients, GCpi in accordance with NSCP
Section 207.5.11.1.

8. Determine the External Pressure coefficient Cp or GCpf or force coefficients Cf,


as applicable in accordance with NSCP Section 207.5.11.2 or NSCP Section
207.5.11.3, respectively.

9. Determine the velocity pressure qz or qh, as applicable, in accordance with


NSCP Section 207.5.10. The velocity pressure, qz evaluated at height z shall be
calculated by the following equation:
where:
Kd

Kz

Kzt

qz = 47.3 x 106 K z K zt K d V 2 Iw

wind directionality factor in NSCP Table 207-2

topographic factor as defined in NSCP Section 207.5.7

velocity pressure exposure coefficient evaluated at height z

10. Determine the wind load p or F in accordance with NSCP Sections 207.5.12,
207.5.13, 207.5.14, and 207.5.15 as applicable. The design wind pressure is
given by the following equations:
For rigid buildings of all heights:

4-11

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

For flexible buildings:

where:

qi

qi

Cp

(GCpi)

p = qGCp qi (GCpi )

qz for windward walls evaluated at height z above the ground

4-12

Occupancy Category

I Essential Facilities

qh for windward walls, leeward walls, and roofs of enclosed


buildings and fpr negative internal pressure evaluation in
partially enclosed buildings

qz for positive internal pressure evaluation in partially enclosed


buildings where height is defined as the level at the highest
opening in the building that could affect the positive internal
pressure

gust effect factor from NSCP Section 207.5.8 (See discussion in


NSCP Section 207.5.12.2)
external pressure coefficient from NSCP Figure 207-6 or 207-8

II Hazardous Facilities

III Special Occupancy Structures

internal pressure coefficient from NSCP Figure 207-5; q and qi


shall be evaluated using exposure defined in NSCP Section
207.5.6.3. Pressure shall be applied simultaneously on windward
and leeward walls and on roof surface as defined in NSCP Figures
207-6 and 207-8.
p = qh[(GCpf) (GCpi)]

(GCpi )

= internal pressure coefficient from NSCP Figure 207-5

Occupancy Category

qh for leeward walls, side walls and roofs evaluated at height h

qh

(GCpf )

Table 4-6

p = qGf Cp qi (GCpi )

Alternatively, design wind pressures for the MWFRS of low-rise buildings shall be
determined by the following equation:
where:

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Occupancy or Function of Structure


Occupancy having surgery and emergency treatment
areas
Fire and police stations
Garage and shelters for emergency vehicles and
emergency aircraft
Structures and shelters in emergency preparedness
centers
Aviation control towers
Structures and equipment in communication centers and
other facilities required for emergency response
Facilities for standby power-generating equipment for
Category I structures
Tanks or other structures containing housing or supporting
water or other fire-suppression material or equipment
required for the protection of Category I, II or III structures
Public school buildings
Hospitals
Designated evacuation centers
Occupancies and structures housing or supporting toxic or
explosive chemicals or substances
Non-building structures storing, supporting or containing
quantities of toxic or explosive substances
Single-story school buildings
Buildings with an assembly room with an occupant
capacity of 1,000 or more
Educational buildings such as museums libraries,
auditorium with a capacity of 300 or more students
Buildings used for college or adult education with a
capacity of 500 or more students
Institutional buildings with 50 or more incapacitated
patients, but not included in Category I
Mental hospitals, sanitariums, jails, prison and other
buildings where personal liberties of inmates are similarly
restrained
All structures with an occupancy of 5,000 or more persons
Structures and equipment in power-generating stations,
and other public utility facilities not included in Category I
or Category II, and required for continued operation

IV Standard Occupancy Structures

All structures housing occupancies or having functions not


listed in Category I, II or III and Category V

V Miscellaneous Structures

Private garages, carports, sheds and fences over 1.5 m


high

velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height h using


exposure defined in NSCP Section 207.5.6.3

external pressure coefficient from NSCP Figure 207-10

4-13

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-7

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Wind Zone for the Different Provinces of the Philippines

Zone Classification (Basic


Wind Speed)

Table 4-10

Provinces

Height above Ground


Level, z (m)

Zone 1 (V=250kph)

Albay, Aurora, Batanes, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines


Sur, Catanduanes, Eastern Samar, Isabela, Northern Samar,
Quezon, Quirino, Samar, Sorsogon

Zone 2 (V=200 kph)

Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Antique, Apayao,
Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Biliran, Bohol, Camiguin, Capiz,
Cavite, Cebu, Compostela Valley, Davao Oriental, Guimaras,
Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna,
Leyte, Marinduque, Masbate, Misamis Oriental, Mountain
Province, National Capital Region, Negros Occidental, Negros
Oriental, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental Mindoro,
Oriental Mindoro, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Romblon,
Siquijor, Southern Leyte, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur,
Tarlac, Zambales

Zone 3 (V=150 kph)

Table 4-8

Basilan, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del
Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Misamis Occidental, North
Cotabato, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat,
Sulu, Tawi-tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur,
Zamboanga Sibugay

Wind Directionality Factor, K d


Structural Type

Directionality Factor Kd*

Buildings
Main Wind Force Resisting System
Components and Cladding

0.85
0.85

Arched Roofs

0.85

Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar Structures


Square
Hexagonal
Round

0.90
0.95
0.95

Solid Signs

0.85

Open Signs and Lattice Framework

0.85

Trussed Towers
Triangular, square, rectangular
All other costs sections

0.85
0.95

1.

Case 2

Cases 1 & 2

Cases 1 & 2

0-4.5

0.70

0.57

0.85

1.03

0.70

0.62

0.90

1.08

7.5

0.70

0.66

0.94

1.12

0.70

0.70

0.98

1.16

12

0.76

0.76

1.04

1.22

15

0.81

0.81

1.09

1.27

18

0.85

0.85

1.13

1.31

21

0.89

0.89

1.17

1.34

24

0.93

0.93

1.21

1.38

27

0.96

0.96

1.24

1.40

30

0.99

0.99

1.26

1.43

36

1.04

1.04

1.31

1.48

42

1.09

1.09

1.36

1.52

48

1.13

1.13

1.39

1.55

54

1.17

1.17

1.43

1.58

60

1.20

1.20

1.46

1.61

75

1.28

1.28

1.53

1.68

90

1.35

1.35

1.59

1.73

105

1.41

1.41

1.64

1.78

120

1.47

1.47

1.69

1.82

135

1.52

1.52

1.73

1.86

150

1.56

1.56

1.77

1.89

Case 1: a. All components and cladding.

Case 2: a: All main wind force resisting systems in buildings except those in low-rise buildings
designed using NSCP Figure 207-10.

Occupancy Category

Description

IW

Essential

1.15

II

Hazardous

1.15

III

Special Occupancy

1.15

IV

Standard Occupancy

1.00

Miscellaneous

0.87

b. All main wind force resisting systems in other structures.


2.

The velocity pressure exposure coefficient Kz may be determined from the following formula:
For < 4.5 m

For 4.5 m g
3.
4.
5.

4-14

Case 1

b. Main wind force resisting system in low-rise buildings designed using NSCP Figure
207-10.

Importance Factor, Iw (Wind Loads)

refer Table 4-6 for types of occupancy under each category.

Exposure (Note 1)

Notes for Table 4-10:

* Directionality Factor Kd has been calibrated with combinations of loads specified in NSCP Section
203. This factor shall only be applied when used in conjunction with load combinations specified
in NSCP Section 203.3 and 203.4.
Table 4-9

Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficients1 , Kh and Kz

2/a

4.5

K = 2.01 ( )
g

2/a

K = 2.01 ( )
g

Note: shall not be taken less than 9.0 m for Case 1 in exposure B.
and g are tabulated in NSCP Table 207-5.

Linear interpolation for intermediate values of height is acceptable.


Exposure categories are defined in Section 207.5.6.

4-15

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-11

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Simplified Design Base Shear

Terrain Exposure Constants

Exposure

7.0

9.5

11.5

Zg (m)

365

275

215

1/7

1/9.5

1/11.5

0.84

1.00

1.07

1/4

1/6.5

1/9

0.45

0.65

0.80

0.30

0.20

0.15

D0

0.010

0.005

0.003

(m)

100

150

200

1/3

1/5

1/8

*zmin (m)

4.5

2.10

* zmin = minimum height used to ensure that the equivalent height is or 2/3 h for trussed towers,
the height of the transmission cable above ground, or 0.6h for buildings and other structure.
For zmin shall be taken as zmin.

Method 3 Wind Tunnel Procedure

4.2.8

NSCP Section 207.5.2 of NSCP explains that this method is used when structures
do not meet the provisions of NSCP Section 207.5.1 or have unusual shapes or
response characteristics.
Seismic Load

Other than Mainland Palawan, the Sulu, Tawi-Tawi group of Islands, the
Philippines is situated in a highly seismic zone categorized as Zone 4 similar to
those of California, Japan, China, Mexico etc. Structures and portions thereof shall
be designed and constructed to resist the effects of seismic ground motions as
provided in NSCP Section 208. Two methods of analysis are available, namely:
Static Analysis and Dynamic Analysis. The latter method may be used for any
structure but is a must for structures described in Tables 4-23 and 4-24 and NSCP
Section 208.4.8.3.
Minimum Design Lateral Forces (NSCP Section 208.5)

The section discusses computation of lateral loads and in particular explains the
static lateral load, load distribution as well as the calculation for drift.
NSCP Section 208.5.2 provides us with the static force procedure.

NSCP Section 208.5.2.1 provides calculation of the design base shear by:
=

2.5 I
R

0.8Z I
R

NSCP Section 208.5.2.3.1 describes the Minimum Design Lateral Forces and its
Related Effects.

This approach is applicable to single family dwellings not more than three floors
excluding the basement and also other structures not more than two stories
excluding basement. The approach falls under seismic occupancy importance
factor =1 under standard and miscellaneous occupancies (Refer Table 4-12).
where:
V

3
W
R

base shear

seismic occupancy importance factor in Table 4-12

Ca, Cv

numerical equivalent to account for the inherent


overstrength of the adopted structural system. (Refer Table
4-19 to 4-22)

seismic coefficients (Refer Tables 4-15 and 4-16


respectively)

fundamental period of vibration (Method A)

Na, Nv

=
=

Table 4-12

total dead load including permanent equipment loads and a


portion of the live load if the Structural Engineer finds it
necessary. A minimum of 25% of the floor live load shall also
apply for storage facilities

near source Factors (Refer Tables 4-17 and 4-18


respectively)
= ( )3/4

0.0853 for steel moment-resisting frame

0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames and


eccentrically braced frames.
0.0488 for all other buildings
Seismic Importance Factor

Occupancy Category1

= 0.11

W (for zone 4)
1

4-16

V=

Seismic Importance Factor,


I

Seismic Importance2
Factor, Ip

I.

Essential Facilities3

1.50

1.50

II.

Hazardous Facilities

1.25

1.50

III.

Special Occupancy
Structures4

1.00

1.00

IV.

Standard Occupancy
Structure4

1.00

1.00

V.

Miscellaneous Structures

1.00

1.00

See Table 4-6 for occupancy listing.

4-17

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

2
3
4

The limitation of Ip for panel connections in NSCP Section 208.8.2.3 shall be 1.0 for the entire
connector
Structural observation requirements are given in NSCP Section 107.9.
For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety systems, the value of Ip shall
be taken as 1.5.

Table 4-13

Soil Profile
Name/ Generic
Description

0.32Nv

SB

0.20

0.40Nv

Average Soil Properties for Top 30 m of Soil Profile

SC

0.32

0.56Nv

Shear Wave
Velocity, Vs
(m/s)

SD

0.40

0.64Nv

SE

0.64

0.96Nv

SPT, N
(blows/ 300 mm)

Undrained
Shear
Strength SU
(kPa)

SF
1

Rock

760 to 1500

SC

Very Dense Soil


and Soft Rock

360 to 760

> 50

> 100

SD

Stiff Soil Profile

180 to 360

15 to 50

50 to 100

SE1

Soft Soil Profile

<180

< 15

< 50

> 1500

Table 4-17

Near-Source Factor Na1

Seismic Source Type

Soil Profile Type SE also includes any soil profile with more than 3.0 m of soft clay defined as a
soil with plasticity index, PI> 20, wmc 40 percent and su< 24 kPa. The Plasticity Index, PI, and
the moisture content, wmc, shall be determined in accordance with approved national standards.
Seismic Source Type1

See Footnote 1

Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to
determine seismic coefficient

Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation. See NSCP Section 208.4.3.1

Seismic Source Description

Faults that are capable of producing large


magnitude events and that have a high
rate of seismic activity.

All faults other than Types A and C.

10 km

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Faults that are not capable of producing


large magnitude earthquakes and that
have a relatively low rate of seismic
activity

Near-Source Factor, Nv1

Seismic Source
Definition

Seismic Source Type

Maximum Moment
Magnitude, M
M 7.0

6.5 M < 7.0


M < 6.5

Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis.

Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source2


5 km

Table 4-18

Seismic Source
Type

Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source2


5 km

10 km

15 km

1.6

1.2

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Notes for Tables 4-17 and 4-18


1
The Near-Source Factor may be based on the linear interpolation of values for distances other
than those shown in the table.
2
The closest distance to seismic source shall be taken as the minimum distance between the site
and the area described by the vertical projection of the source on the surface (i.e. surface
projection of fault plane). The source projection need not include portions of the source at deptsh
of 10 km or greater. The largest value of the Near-source Factor considering all sources shall be
used for design.

Seismic Coefficient, Ca

Soil Profile Type

Seismic Zone Z
Z = 0.2

Z=0.4

SA

0.16

0.32Na

SB

0.20

0.40Na

SC

0.24

0.40Na

SD

0.28

0.44Na

SE

0.34

0.44Na

SF

4-18

Z=0.4

0.16

SB

Table 4-15

Seismic Zone Z

Soil Profile Type

Z=0.2

Hard Rock

Table 4-14

Seismic Coefficient, Cv

SA

SA

SF

Table 4-16

Soil Profile Type

Soil Profile
Type

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

See Footnote 1 of Table 4-16

4-19

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-19

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Earthquake Force Resisting Structural Systems of Concrete

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System

Table 4-21

System Limitation and


Building Height Limitation
by Seismic Zone, m
Zone 2

5.5

Heavy timber braced frames where


bracing carries gravity load

2.8

2.2

Light-framed walls with wood shear


panels walls for structures three
stories or less

NA

NA

All other light framed walls

NA

NA

Heavy timber-braced frames where


bracing carries gravity load

2.8

2.2

NL

20

2.8

NL

Light-framed walls with shear panels:


wood structural panel walls for
structures three stories or less

6.5

2.8

NL

20

Ordinary heavy timber-braced frames

5.6

NL

20

20

2.2

NL

20

Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Masonry

System Limitation and


Building Height
Limitation by Seismic
Zone, m
Zone 2

Zone 4

A. Bearing Wall Systems


4.5

2.8

NL

50

5.5

2.8

NL

50

B. Building Frame Systems


Masonry shearwalls
C. Moment-Resisting Frame
Systems
Masonry moment-resisting wall
frames (MMRWF)

6.5

2.8

NL

50

D. Dual Systems

4-20

Zone 2

Zone 4

Light steel-framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing

2.8

2.2

NL

20

Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load

4.4

2.2

NL

50

Light framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels


rated for shear resistance or steel sheets

4.5

2.8

NL

20

Light-framed walls with shear panels of all other light


materials

4.5

2.8

NL

20

Light-framed wall systems using flat strap bracing

2.8

2.2

NL

NP

Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF), moment-resisting


connections at columns away from links

8.5

2.8

NL

30

Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF), non momentresisting connections at columns away from links

6.0

2.2

NL

30

Special concentrically braced frames (SCBF)

6.0

2.2

NL

30

Ordinary concentrically braced frames (OCBF)

3.2

2.2

NL

NP

Light-framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels/


sheet steel panels

6.5

2.8

NL

20

Light frame walls with shear panels of all other materials

2.5

2.8

NL

NP

Buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBF), non


moment-resisting beam-column connection

2.8

NL

30

Buckling-restrained braced frames, moment-resisting


beam-column connections

2.8

NL

30

Special steel plate shear walls (SPSW)

2.8

NL

30

Special moment-resisting frame (SMRF)

8.0

NL

NL

Intermediate steel moment frames (IMF)

4.5

NL

NP

Ordinary moment frames (OMF)

3.5

NL

NP

Special truss moment frames (STMF)

6.5

NL

NP

Special composite steel and concrete moment frames

NL

NL

Intermediate composite moment frames

NL

NP

Composite partially restrained moment frames

48

NP

Ordinary composite moment frames

NP

NP

Steel eccentrically braced frames

2.8

NL

NL

Special steel concentrically braced frames

2.8

NL

NL

Composite steel and concrete eccentrically braced frame

2.8

NL

NL

Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame

2.8

NL

NL

Composite steel plate shear walls

7.5

2.8

NL

NL

Buckling-restrained braced frame

2.8

NL

NL

Special steel plate shear walls

2.8

NL

NL

Masonry shear wall steel OMRF

4.2

2.8

NL

50

Steel EBF with steel SMRF

8.5

2.8

NL

NL

B. Building Frame Systems

B. Building Frame Systems

Masonry shear walls

System Limitation and


Building Height Limitation
by Seismic Zone, m

A. Bearing Wall Systems

Light-framed walls with shear panels:


wood structural panel walls for
structures three stories or less

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting


System

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System

Zone 4

A. Bearing Wall Systems

Table 4-20

Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Steel

Masonry shear walls with SMRF

5.5

2.8

NL

50

Masonry shear walls with steel


OMRF

4.2

2.8

NL

50

Masonry shear walls with


concrete IMRF

4.2

2.8

NL

NP

Masonry shear walls with


masonry MMRWF

6.0

2.8

NL

50

C. Moment-Resisting Frame Systems

D. Dual Systems

4-21

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

System Limitation and


Building Height Limitation
by Seismic Zone, m
Zone 2

Zone 4

Steel EBF with steel OMRF

4.2

2.8

NL

50

Special concentrically braced frames with steel SMRF

7.5

2.8

NL

NL

Special concentrically braced frames with steel OMRF

4.2

2.8

NL

50

2.8

NL

NP

Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame

5.5

2.8

NL

NP

Ordinary composite braced frame

3.5

2.8

NL

NP

2.8

NL

NP

Special steel moment frames

2.2

2.0

10

10

Intermediate steel moment frames

1.2

2.0

10

NP

Ordinary steel moment frames

1.0

2.0

10

NP

Cantilevered column elements

2.2

2.0

NL

10

NL

NP

E. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames


Special steel concentrically braced frame

Ordinary composite reinforced concrete shear walls with


steel elements
F. Cantilevered Column Building Systems

G. Steel Systems not Specifically Detailed for Seismic


Resistance, Excluding Cantilever Systems
Table 4-22

Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Wood

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System

A.

System Limitation and


Building Height
Limitation by Seismic
Zone, m
Zone 2

Zone 4

Bearing Wall Systems


Light-framed walls with shear panels: wood structural
panel walls for structures three stories or less

5.5

2.8

NL

20

Heavy timber braced frames where bracing carries gravity


load

2.8

2.2

NL

20

Light-framed walls with wood shear panels walls for


structures three stories or less

NA

NA

All other light framed walls

NA

NA

Heavy timber-braced frames where bracing carries gravity


load

2.8

2.2

NL

20

Light-framed walls with shear panels: wood structural


panel walls for structures three stories or less

6.5

2.8

NL

20

Ordinary heavy timber-braced frames

5.6

2.2

NL

20

B. Building Frame Systems

Vertical Distribution of Force (NSCP Section 208.5.5)

The Base Shear (V) shall be distributed over the structure height using the formula:
n

V = +
i=1

Where is the whip effect applied at level n in addition to Fn


= 0.07TV

need not exceed 0.25V and is considered nil when the fundamental period T is
0.7 second or less.
The remaining force "V- " shall be distributed over the entire height of the
structure using the formula

where:

Fx,wx,hx

Fi,wi,hi

( )
=1

level 'x' lateral force F, floor weight 'w' and height 'h' from the
base(ground).
force weight and height of level 'i'

Horizontal Distribution of Shear (NSCP Section 208.5.6)

Forces , shall be distributed to the lateral force resisting elements in


proportion to their relative rigidities.

For rigid diaphragms, mass eccentricity is assumed to be 5% of the building


dimension perpendicular to the direction of the force.

Dynamic Analysis Procedure (NSCP Section 208.6)

Pertinent parameters are enumerated as a guidelines in three dimensional


modelling of structures with irregular plan configuration (such as those in Table
4-24).
Lateral Forces on Components of Structure, Non-Structural Components and Equipment
Supported by Structures (NSCP Section 208.7)

The section discusses the structural analysis of structure components such as non
structural walls, parapets etc.
Seismic shall be determined considering the following (NSCP Section 208.4.1):

4-22

Seismic Zone (NSCP Figure 208-4, Section 208.4.4.1) either zone 4 or zone 2.
Regions are categorized as having the highest seismicity (zone 4) to an area of
least or lowest recorded seismic activity (zone 1). Except for Palawan and
some island provinces of Mindanao (zone 2). The Philippines is under zone 4.
Site Characteristics (NSCP Section 208.4.3 Section 208.4.4). This includes,
soil type, proximity to earthquake generators and seismic source type which
essentially predicts the magnitude that the fault can generate.
4-23

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Occupancy (NSCP Section 208.4.2 together with NSCP Table 4-6). The code
also requires the use of occupancy importance factor, a magnifier that
increases (or reduces) the seismic load to a maximum of 50% for structures
most needed during emergencies and those that would have a many occupants
in one area as well as facilities that house dangerous materials that may cause
additional harm to the populace in case toxins are released due to structural
failure.
Building Configuration (NSCP Section 208.4.5) describes regular and
irregular structures which will become part of the basis for the method of
design.

The type of Structural System as discussed in NSCP Section 208.4.6 as well as


the Building Heights (NSCP Section 208.4.7) shall be used in the computation
of the design seismic force.
Table 4-23

4-24

Vertical Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Definition

Reference NSCP Section

1. Stiffness Irregularity Soft Story


A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than
70 percent of that in the story above or less than 80 percent
of the average stiffness of the three stories above.

208.4.8.3
Item 2

2. Weight (Mass) Irregularity


Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the
effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the
effective mass of an adjacent story. A roof that is lighter
than the floor below need not be considered.

208.4.8.3
Item 2

3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity


Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist
where the horizontal dimension of the lateral-force-resisting
system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in an
adjacent story. One-story penthouses need not be
considered.

208.4.8.3
Item 2

4. In-Plane Discontinuity In Vertical Lateral-ForceResisting Element Irregularity


An in-plane offset of the lateral-load-resisting elements
greater than the length of those elements.

208.5.8.1

5. Discontinuity In Capacity Weak Story Irregularity


A weak story is one in which the story strength is less than
80 percent of that in the story above. The story strength is
the total strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing
the story for the direction under consideration.

208.4.9.1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.3.2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Site Investigations

These hazards may be identified through historical records and reports from local
units and previous site investigations. Interviews from the inhabitants of the area
may also be done to cross-reference gathered historical data.

All projects require site investigations to be conducted by the duly authorized


party. Site investigations must provide sufficient information for apt planning of
the sub-surface investigation as determined by the engineer.

Recognition of the site hazards will prompt the engineers of the additional
considerations critical to the investigation, design and analysis of the site.

NSCP Section 303.1 recommends:

A geotechnical study be conducted for foundation design for structures two


stories or higher.

Anthropogenic Features

Man-made structures and other appurtenances for water supply, power


generation, agriculture, aquaculture, pumping wells, flood control, coastal
improvement, land reclamations, sanitary landfills, slope stabilization, mining and
quarrying, telecommunications, transportation, infrastructure and other edifices
near the site constitute additional considerations.

A total of 2 boreholes for structures less than 300 m2 in area and at least 3
boreholes for larger building area.
A maximum of 1 borehole for every 200 m2 of a structure.

Topography and Geologic Features

General features that must be noted are:

Terrain analysis of the project site can be carried out using remotely-sensed
imagery or topographical maps and then confirmed by conducting site
reconnaissance surveys. The project site is located on the map and the general
surface environment and terrain can be interpreted. By identifying the terrain,
specific issues can be taken into account such as sloping ground, soil and rock
(geologic) formation, hydrologic formations, fault systems.

Geologic information can also be gathered from geologic assessments by licensed


and recognized geologists, boring information or geotechnical reports from
previous projects in close proximity to the project site, and data from local
government units and pertinent government offices. The geologic information
must provide insight to the regional geology of the site particularly soil and rock
formation, groundwater table elevation, and other geotechnical characteristics.

4-26

Seismicity/earthquake risks
Flooding

Tidal waves
Landslides

Problematic soils (such as liquefiable soils, expansive soils and collapsible


soils)
Sinkholes

Accessibility (for construction purposes)


Waste disposal facilities
Cuts and fills
Drainage
Land use

Underground conduits that convey water, sewage, electricity, and


telecommunication lines may exist within the project site and must be preserved
from damage during sub-surface exploration and construction.

Similarly, structures adjacent to project site must not experience disturbance,


usually due to excessive vibrations and improperly designed excavations that may
induce instability or aesthetic detriment (such as misalignment of plumbing and
door settling) as determined by the Engineer.

Hazards

Adjacent structures

The aforementioned factors can affect and be affected by any soil investigation or
construction that it is essential to determine the existence and location of such.

An overview of the rainfall patterns and climatic conditions is also ideal for
holistic analysis as this provides an insight on the possible environmental
conditions to be encountered in the construction and engineering process.
Drainage and surface water conditions may also provide useful information.
Exposure to natural hazards must be comprehensively identified for sub-surface
investigation and design references. Hazards cover natural and environmental
factors that highly influence the stability and safety conditions of the project
during and after construction. Common risk factors include, but are not limited to,
the following:

Underground utility lines and other conduits

4.3.3

Accessibility of the site for mobilization and demobilization of equipment to be


used during sub-surface exploration and construction must be outlined so as to
recommend applicable methods to carry out such works.

Sub-surface Investigations

Sub-surface exploration shall observe the implementing rules and guidelines of


governing agencies of national and local government, adapted international
standards without compromising engineering principles and with high priority for
safety the of stakeholders involved.
Existing guidelines observed by local practice pertinent to this section:

4-27

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

DPWH Standard Specifications for Highways, 2012 Edition: Highways, Bridges


and Airports (Volume II)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.3.4

Soil laboratory tests must follow applicable governing standards from references
stated above. Geotechnical laboratories that will conduct tests must be ISOcertified and duly recognized to operate for local business.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines National Structural Code


of the Philippines 2010, Sixth Edition: Buildings, Towers, and Other Vertical
Structures (Volume I)

Some of the geotechnical laboratory tests and corresponding standards are


provided in Table 4-25. The laboratory tests will be conducted to determine the
soil properties according to the rock sample recovered and the discretion of the
geotechnical engineer on the soil parameters required for engineering design.

Relevant DPWH Orders, Memoranda, etc.

In addition to the referenced guidelines, the DGCS shall also adopt additional
guidelines from international standards, professional industry handbooks and
globally used academic literature applicable for the implementation. The
references include:

Table 4-25

International Code Council International Building Code 2009

Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Handbook, Second Edition by Hunt,


R.E.

In this section, detailed discussion and instruction is provided on the (1) purpose
and importance of sub-surface investigations; (2) proper execution of standard
techniques and methodologies of soil explorations; and (3) output data analysis of
field investigations for geotechnical reports.

Execution of soil exploration methods shall integrate internationally-adopted


standards and DPWH-observed guidelines. Various soil exploration methodologies
will be discussed focusing on proper procedures, applicability to different soil and
rock formations, and field considerations.

Analysis of information from field explorations shall include good practices in


preparing boring logs and borehole logs to facilitate efficient geotechnical
analysis.

Parameter Observed

ASTM D2216-05

Moisture content

Specific Gravity

ASTM D854-05

Specific gravity

Grain-size Analysis (Mechanical


Sieve Analysis and Hydrometer
Analysis)

ASTM D422-63

Soil gradation

Atterberg Limits

ASTM D4318-05

Liquid limit
Plastic limit

Classification

ASTM D2487-00

Classification of soil type

Unconfined Compression Test


(for Soils)

ASTM D2166-00

Strength parameters

Unconfined Compression Test


(for Intact Rock)

ASTM D2938-95

Strength parameters

Tri-axial Test
(Unconsolidated-Undrained)

ASTM D2850-03a

Strength parameters

Tri-axial Test
(Consolidated-Undrained)

ASTM D4767-04

Strength parameters

Oedometer Test
(1-D Consolidation)

ASTM D2435-04

Consolidation parameters

Direct Shear Test

ASTM D3080-04

Strength parameters

Soil Sulfate Test

Hach Method 8051

Sulfate content

Constant-Head Test
Falling-Head Test

ASTM D2434

Hydraulic conductivity

Source: NSCP 2010

Groundwater table must be determined after drilling and rechecked 24 hours


after drilling. The Engineer must make sure that the measured groundwater table
is not due to the drilling fluid used during boring.

4-28

Test Standard
Designation

Moisture Content

Unified
Soil
System (USCS)

Significance and importance of adequate soil sub-surface investigations shall be


explained in relation with structure stability, effects on structural design, effects
on project cost, etc.

Provisions for unprecedented irregularities during soil sub-surface explorations


will be tackled in brevity.

Geotechnical Laboratory Tests and Corresponding Standards

Laboratory Test

American Standard for Testing and Materials International Geotechnical


Engineering Standards

Sub-surface investigation must extend reasonably beyond the basement


requirements of the project, if any. When hard strata is encountered (SPT Nvalue>50), coring is executed 35m into the hard stratum to analyze its quality
and verify it is really hard strata (or merely an intercepted boulder or such).

Laboratory Tests

Additional tests may be specified by the engineer as needed by the nature of the
project.

4.3.5

Selection of the laboratory test must reflect the actual site conditions and
consistent with the assumed failure mode of the soil material under
consideration.

Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity

To determine the allowable soil bearing capacity, the Geotechnical Engineer


should use any widely accepted method in the industry to calculate for the
ultimate soil bearing capacity. The safe soil bearing capacity shall be determined by
dividing the ultimate bearing capacity (qult) by a safety factor,, between 2.0 and
3.0. The allowable soil bearing capacity (qallow) shall be a safe bearing capacity that
4-29

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

exhibits settlement within the tolerable limits for the project. Tolerable settlement
varies upon the nature of the project.
=

( )

In estimating the soil bearing capacity, adjacent soil strata with relatively same
properties may be assumed homogenous under the discretion of the assigned
engineer. Any anomalies in the stratification (such as sand lenses and intercepted
boulders) must be noted and properly considered in the calculations and must be
reflected in the report.

Groundwater table effects on the soil bearing capacity must be considered. The
season when the field investigation was carried out must also be a factor; boring
during dry season may decrease the groundwater table significantly while the wet
season may increase it considerably as well. The engineer must calculate the
allowable soil bearing capacity conservatively when insufficient and/or unreliable
or questionable data is derived from the soil investigation program.
The general soil bearing capacity equation for shallow strip footings is:
where:

= + + 0.5

=
=

, , =

ultimate bearing capacity


cohesion of soil

overburden pressure at footing base

soil unit weight beneath footing


footing width

bearing capacity factors; function of soil angle of internal friction,

This equation is modified by different factors provided by various geotechnical


researchers depending on the considerations of the shallow foundation such as:

Footing shape

Depth of embedment
Load inclination
Ground (slope)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-26

Comparison of Soil Bearing Capacity Theories


Author

Terzaghi
Hansen

Comments
Used for estimating for very cohesive soils and footings with
axial loads only
Used for any particular case with applicable correction factors

Meyerhof

Used for any particular case with applicable correction factors

Vesic

Used for any particular case with applicable correction factors


specially footings on slopes

The correction factors given by each author must not be compounded with other
correction factors given by another author or researcher, unless otherwise
specified.

The method selected for the analysis must be compatible with the site soil type. As
recommended, the use of more than one method is advisable to determine a safe
range of the allowable bearing capacity. From the results, a range of the allowable
soil bearing capacity is provided for the structural engineer to adopt in the design
calculations.
Soil shear strength parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) must be
determined in either drained or undrained conditions through laboratory testing
or correlations. Deformation properties of the soil (such as compression index,
recompression index, coefficient of consolidation, elastic modulus) must also be
determined for settlement analysis.
Lateral Earth Pressure

Lateral earth pressures are computed whenever the soil exerts horizontal
pressures on structures particularly retaining walls, sheet piles, and excavation
bracing. Refer Figure 4-1.
In computing for lateral earth pressures, widely-accepted theories and models
may be used so as the applicability of the model is justifiable.

Lateral earth pressures may be active or passive by character. When the


horizontal pressure is less than the vertical pressure, the soil is under active case;
otherwise, it is under passive case. A structure may be subjected to both pressures
at the same time depending on the geometry and other site conditions during
different phases of construction.

Eccentric loading

Some of the authors of widely-used modified bearing capacity equations and


comments regarding the use of their correction factors are provided in Table 4-26.
Further information on soil bearing capacity is provided in DGCS Volume 2C
Geotechnical and Geological Investigation.

4-30

4-31

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Any correlation from these methods to determine soil properties must be applied
with prudence. Deviations from the established procedures must all be noted
during the procedure.
To monitor consolidation settlement, piezometers may be installed to observe
changes in pore water pressure. Inclinometers and other soil movement gauges
may as well be utilized by experienced users of such technology.

GeoHazards

DGCS Volume 2A GeoHazard Assessment describes the nature of geohazards in


the Philippines, the information required to assess their likelihood at a site, and a
procedure for preparing a preliminary.
As determined by the Engineer, special soil investigation must be carried out to
determine the presence of problematic soil (such as expansive soils, liquefiable
soils, fractures and discontinuities in rock material). Any uncommon condition in
the subsurface material that will influence the project must be noted and properly
investigated.
Various signs of GeoHazards and anomalous behavior in the soil include:

Sudden soil collapse or heaving


Steep slopes

Landslide deposits
Sand lenses

Penetration resistance inconsistencies

Abrupt changes in subsurface stratification

Special caution is practiced in investigating such hazards so as not to induce any


unanticipated danger.

Once the hazard is characterized by a Geotechnical Engineer, mitigating or


remediating procedures may be applied. Any widely-accepted soil or rock
improvement method may be conducted as long as it is identified by the Engineer
as appropriate to the site condition.
Ground remediation techniques include:

Grouting

Vertical and/or horizontal drains


Surcharge preloading

Lime/cement stabilization

Geosynthetic reinforcement

The option of removing the soil can be adopted if it is viable and economical.

4-33

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.3.7

Shallow Foundations (Footing Design)

Shallow foundations can be used if the soil support mechanism relies on the
bearing capacity of the soil within a foundations zone of influence and discounts
the effect of skin friction. Shallow foundations are designed accordingly to exert
pressures less than the allowable soil bearing capacity.

In the design of shallow foundations, project requirements for basement levels are
major factors. The basement level will determine the depth of the foundation and
may prompt the engineer to decide between using shallow or deep foundation.

The footing design will observe the provisions of NSCP for structural concrete.

4.3.8

Eccentric loadings must be emphasized in the design of the footing. Effects may be
dealt with using any modification in the footing design that is permissible given
the particular restraints of the project.
Deep Foundations (Pile Design)

Deep foundation is used when the soil support mechanism relies on the skin
friction and end bearing of the foundation against the soil. Deep foundations are
used when soil bearing capacity is not enough to support the weight of the
structure, if the upper soil strata are weak, and if the project is off-shore or
subjected to high groundwater table. Accessibility and adjacent structures are
some other considerations for the use of deep foundations.
Two general schemes of pile installation may be chosen by the engineer: driven
piles and bored piles.

a. Driven piles requires installation of precast piles on-site using a pneumatic or


drop hammer heavy equipment. The installation procedure causes significant
noise and vibration to induce public disturbance and structural damage to
adjacent structures. This method, however, effectively mobilizes the skin
friction resistance of the soil. Driven piles also facilitate construction.

b. Bored piles require on-site assembly of reinforcing bars and preparation of


drilled hole. The rebar skeleton is lowered into the hole and filled with
concrete mix delivered on site. Before the concrete is poured onto the hole,
debris and other dirt must be removed from the bottom of the hole to ensure
the load transfer mechanism of the pile. Significant noise or public disturbance
and structural damage must not be caused within proximal area of the project.
This method effectively mobilizes the end-bearing more than the skin friction
resistance of the soil. Bored piles relatively take a little more time than driven
piles to install.

Any widely-accepted method can be used to estimate pile capacity. Pile capacity
mainly relies on two components which are point- or end-bearing resistance and
skin friction. End-bearing capacity depends on the stratum on which the pile end
rests. Skin friction is the frictional force exerted by the soil surrounding the pile
through its embedment length.

4-34

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

End-bearing capacity of piles is estimated by employing principles of soil bearing


as shown below.
=

= +

where:

pile end-bearing capacity

pile end-bearing pressure

effective overburden pressure

area of pile tip

effective cohesion

pile end-bearing capacity factors

Skin friction resistance of piles is estimated by employing the principles below.


= =

where:

= 0

skin friction capacity

unit friction resistance

perimeter of pile section

effective earth pressure coefficient

incremental pile length over which the frictional resistance is


evaluated
effective vertical stress at incremental depth considered
soil-pile friction angle

When piles are grouped and act as a unit, the pile group capacity must likewise be
determined. Grouped piles must be placed as near each other as required by space
allotment but more importantly, as far from each other for skin friction to develop
and mobilize. The limiting distance between piles must be specified by the
attending engineer.

Micropiles

Micropiles are bored mini piles with diameter not exceeding 300 mm. Because of
the small size of mini piles, only small dimension equipment is needed for
construction and can be used to drill through any type of soils, boulders and hard
materials. They are constructed using high strength small diameter casing or
thread bar. Typically the casing is advanced to the design depth using a drilling
technique. Reinforcing steel in the form of an all-thread bar is typically inserted
4-35

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

into the micropile casing. High strength cement grout is then pumped into the
casing. The casing may extend to the full depth above the bond zone with the
reinforcing bars extending to the full depth. The finished micropile resists
compression, uplift or tension loads and lateral loads.
The design of micropiles for buildings and bridges involves the same approach.
The structural design of micropiles, cased or uncased length, provided below is
based on the Micropile Design and Construction Reference Manual, US
Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Publication No.
FHWA NHI-05-039, December 2005.

The allowable compression load for the cased length of a micropile is:
where:

Pcallowable = [0.4f cgrout x Agrout + 0.47Fysteel (Abar + Acasing )]

Pc-allowable

allowable compression load

fc

unconfined compressive strength of grout


(typically a 28-day strength)

Fy-steel

yield stress of steel

Agrout
Abar

Acasing

area of grout in micropile cross section (inside


casing only, discount grout outside the casing)

cross sectional area of steel reinforcing bar (if


used)
cross sectional area of steel casing.

Strain compatibility under compression load is considered for the steel


components and grout by limiting allowable stresses to the minimum allowable
for any individual component (i.e., steel casing, steel reinforcement, or grout).
Therefore, the maximum yield stress of steel to be used in the above equation is
the minimum of yield stress of casing, yield stress of steel reinforcing rod and
maximum stress based on grout failure.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

For soil which has a high corrosion potential, it may be assumed that the steel
casing is not effective in carrying tensile loads, Acasing = 0. The reinforcing bar
should be designed to carry the entire tension design load.

Since a micropile can be subjected to lateral loads or overturning moments, they


are subject to bending stresses also, thus requiring combined stress evaluation.
The design check for combined stresses (appropriate for micropile) is:
fb
fa
+
1.0
Fa (1 fa ) F
Fe

where:

axial stress = Pc Acasing

fa

Fa

fb

Fb
Fe

bending stress = Mmax S ; S is the elastic section


modulus of the steel casing

allowable axial stress that would be permitted if axial


force alone existed

0.47 Fycasing

0.55 Fycasing

allowable bending stress that would be permitted if


bending moment alone existed

Euler buckling stress

The contribution of a central reinforcing bar to bending strength is small


compared to that of the casing, hence its effects on bending strength are ignored in
the above combined axial and bending equation. In this equation, it is
conservatively assumed that the maximum axial compression load, Pc , is carried
by the steel casing only and the yield stress of the steel casing is used.

The outside diameter of the steel casing is reduced to account for losses due to
corrosion in the computation of the allowable compression capacity of a cased
length. Also, if the micropile is used in very weak ground, the allowable
compression load may be reduced to consider the effect of buckling over the
length of the micropile. Further discussion of losses due to corrosion and buckling
are discussed in the Micropile Design and Construction Reference Manual of the
US Federal Highway Administration.
In cases where the micropiles will be subject to tensile loads, the allowable
tension load tallowable for the cased length of a micropile can be calculated as:
where:

Fysteel =
4-36

Ptallowable = 0.55 Fysteel (Abar + Acasing )


minimum yield stress of the bar and casing

4-37

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Section properties required for the analysis are calculated as:


Acasing =

is provided demonstrating that the confined grout can sustain higher strain levels
without crushing.

(OD2 ID2 )
4

The allowable tension load for the uncased length of a micropile is given as:

Icasing
S=
(OD2)

Icasing =

(OD4 ID4 )
64

4.3.9

For excavation works, all applicable provisions indicated in DPWH Standard


Specifications 2012 Volume II must be observed.

The Euler buckling stress is calculated as:


Fe =

where:
=

FS

2 E
FS(Klr)2

Excavations for any project must be properly designed and monitored on-site.
Depths of unsupported or unbraced excavation must not exceed 3 m unless the
conditions are deemed stable and safe by the Geotechnical Engineer.

elastic modulus of the steel casing (typically assumed to


be 200,000 MPa (29,000ksi)
factor of safety equal to 2.12

effective length factor (assumed equal to 1.0)


unsupported length of micropile

12

radius of gyration of the steel casing = (IcasingAcasing )

The assumption that the entire axial load is carried by the steel casing is
conservative. A combined stress check that can account for the contribution of the
grout inside the casing to compression capacity, assuming that buckling potential
is negligible, is:
where:

Pc

Pcallowable

Mmax

Mallowable

1.0

maximum axial compression load;

Mmax

maximum bending moment in the micropile; and

Pcallowable =

Excavations and Fills

Ptallowable = 0.55Fybar Abar

determined from the above equation for


compression

Various techniques in supporting excavations may be used depending on the


nature of the project. The Geotechnical Engineer must account for several factors
like in-situ soil parameters, access, groundwater table and overall intent in
excavating.

If the groundwater is relatively shallow, dewatering may be employed, however,


caution is advised so as not to cause structural damage or significant settlement to
adjacent structures. Observation wells may also be installed near the excavation
sites to monitor dewatering progress and effects.
To design the support system for excavations, rain conditions must be considered
in the design observing the principles on lateral earth pressure in Section 4.3.5.

Methods such as shotcrete application, soil nailing and other soil reinforcement
methods for excavations can be used as long as it is supervised by experienced
engineers in using the technology.

For engineered fills, compaction degree will be specified to 95% of maximum dry
density, or better. The optimum moisture content will be determined in the
laboratory using applicable standard methods. Every layer in the compacted fill in
the field shall be tested according to the specifications.
In the selection of the fill material, special consideration must be given to the use
of the fill material particularly with the hydraulic properties of the structure.

Fb (= 0.55Fycasing ) S

The allowable compression load for the uncased length of a micropile is given as:
Pcallowable = (0.4fc Agrout + 0.47Fybar Abar )

For the uncased portion of the pile, the reinforcing bar yield stress used in the
calculations in compression is assumed to not exceed 600 MPa (87 ksi). The limit
of 600 MPa is to prevent grout crushing at an assumed strain of 0.003 unless data
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Intermediate Grade ASTM A615 Grade 40 Fy =276 Mpa


High Grade ASTM A615 Grade 60 Fy =414 Mpa

Welded plain wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall conform to


"Specifications for Steel Welded Wire, Fabric, Plain for Concrete Reinforcement"
(ASTM A 185M).
4.4.2

Grade 60 steel is generally used for high-rise buildings.

Structural Detailing (NSCP Section 407)

In general, this section shall be used as reference in detailing requirements for


constructability and ensure that placement of reinforcement is consistent with
the design intent.

NSCP Section 407.7 "Spacing Limits for Reinforcement" shall be used in


determining effective depth used in the generated couple that resist stress as in
Bending. This will also define the number of bars that can be accommodated per
layer of bar in flexural members which in turn shall be used in the computation of
effective depth. The center to center spacing and other details of tendons are also
included in this Section of NSCP.

NSCP Section 407.8 "Concrete Protection for Reinforcement" completes the


information needed as described in the previous paragraph. It specifies the
minimum concrete cover for cast-in-place concrete and precast concrete both for
non prestressed and prestressed members.

NSCP Section 407.13 -"Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement"- defines code


requirements for reinforcement that are required other than those that design
computations yield. These are usually provided in structural slabs where the
flexural reinforcement extend in one direction only.
4.4.3

Further details on structural detailing are provided in ACI Detailing Manual 2004.

Analysis and Design (NSCP Section 408)

NSCP Section 408.2 requires structural concrete members to be proportioned for


adequate strength design using load factors and strength reduction may be used
as specified in NSCP Section 409. Alternative procedure for strength design may
be used as provided in NSCP Section 426.
NSCP Section 424 permits the use of "working stress design (WSD)". This is
applicable for non-prestressed reinforced concrete members which are allowed to
be designed using service loads (without load factors) and permissible load
stresses.

Load Combinations and Load Factors (NSCP Section 409.3)

NSCP Section 409.3.1 provides the recommended load factors and combinations of
loads to be investigated.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Strength (NSCP Section 409.4 and 409.5)

NSCP Section 409.4 provides the recommended strength reduction factor while
NSCP Section 409.5 Design Strength for Reinforcement, states that yield
strength used in calculation shall not exceed 550 MPa, except in prestressing
tendons and for transverse reinforcement in NSCP Sections 410.10.3 and
421.3.5.4.
Deflection Control (NSCP Section 409.6)

NSCP Table 409-1 provides the Minimum Thickness of Non-prestressed Beams or


One-way Slab.

NSCP Section 409.6.2.5 recommends the need to modify immediate deflection to


account for longtime deflection, creep and shrinkage by a factor stated therein
when no comprehensive analysis is prepared.

NSCP Section 409.6.3 governs the minimum thickness of nonprestressed two way
slab. NSCP Section 409.6.3.3 provides computations for thickness.

NSCP Section 409.6.3.2 contain provisions for flat slabs. NSCP Table 409-3
provides minimum thickness of flat slabs

NSCP Table 409-2 shows the Maximum Permissible Computed Deflection.


Flexure and Axial Load (NSCP Section 410)

Flexure and axially loaded members shall be analyzed using accepted classical
methods with due consideration for all possible loads and load combinations.
This section of the code provides basic assumptions and minimum requirements
that needs to be satisfied.
Shear and Torsion (NSCP Section 411)

Simultaneous to other stresses, members subjected to shear and torsion shall


proportioned and reinforced using this section of the code which provides basic
assumptions and minimum requirements.
Development Length and Splice Lengths of Reinforcement (NSCP Section 412)

Consistent with the requirements for reinforced concrete in reinforcement


placement, detailing, and arrangement, equally important are splicing and
development length. Splicing requires the tensile or compressive stress generated
by loads on the reinforcement to prevent slippage of the rebar from its position
which may cause failure when it is not being able to generate the internal stress
resistance between the concrete and rebar.
Two Way Slab (NSCP Section 413)

Basic design procedure for conventional and flat slab system.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Axial Load Strength

where:

Pn = 0.85[.85f'c(Ag-Ast) + Astfy]
=

0.65

Spiral Column

steel ratio = As/Ag

where:
As

area of non prestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement

min

0.01 max=0.06

Ag

gross area of section

Minimum spiral diameter is 10 mm bars and a max of 16 mm.

Volumetric spiral reinforcement ratio s, shall not be less than the value given
by:
Ag

where:
=

s = 0.45(Ag/Ach 1)f'c/fyt

gross area of section

Ach
=
area of section measured from the outer edge of the spiral
reinforcement
fyt shall not exceed 700 Mpa

Design Axial Strength


Pn

where:

0.80[.85f'c(Ag-Ast) + Astfy]
=

0.75

Slenderness effect (NSCP 410.11)

1. For members unbraced against sidesway


klu/r 22

2. Members braced against sidesway


where:

klu/r 34 12(M1/M2) 40

the effective length factor

M1

the smaller absolute value of the two end moments acting on


the column

lu

clear height of the column

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.5.2

4.5.3

General Design Approach

The structural engineer must be able to check the compliance of structural design
drawings and specifications in the code of standard practice.

Material

This section shall apply to material test reports conforming to testing standards
set by the American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
Such standards are specified in the following local and international codes:

National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2010 Sixth Edition:


Buildings, Towers, and Other Vertical Structures (Volume I); Chapter 5, Part 1
Specifications for Steel Members.
International Conference of Building Officials Uniform Building Code 1997
(Volume 2).

American Institute of Steel Construction 2010: Ninth Edition for Allowable


Strength Design (ASD) and Thirteenth Edition for Load Resistance and Factor
Design (LRFD).

Materials included are hot-rolled structural shapes, structural tubing, pipe, plates,
bars, and sheets. Also covered are unidentified steel, rolled heavy shapes, steel
castings and forgings, bolts, washers and nuts, anchor rods and threaded rods,
welding, and headed stud anchors.

4.5.4

Structural Steel Design Requirements, NSCP Chapter 5


NSCP Section 501 General provisions

NSCP Section 502 Design Requirements for ASD and LRFD

Design for Tension Members (NSCP Section 504)

This section shall apply to designing tension members as specified in NSCP 2010,
Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS shall also adopt additional design guidelines
from international standards.

This covers the following topics: Slenderness Limitation (NSCP Section 504.1),
Tensile Strength (NSCP Section 504.2), Effective Net Area (NSCP Section 504.3),
Built-up Members (NSCP Section 504.4), Pin-connected Members (NSCP Section
504.5), and Eyebars (NSCP Section 504.6).
Slenderness Ratio (NSCP Section 504.1)

As specified in the governing code, the slenderness ratio, L/r, preferably should
not exceed 300, but is not applicable to rods or hangers in tension. The
specification shall aid in the design of bracing members, tension chords and
internal ties in trusses and lattice girders.
Tensile Strength (NSCP Section 504.2)

The structural engineer shall consider two limit states for tension member design,
tensile yield strength and tensile rupture strength.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Members fail either by excessive deformation or by fracture. A member fails by


excessive deformation if the stress on the gross section is greater than the yield
stress, Fy. And if the stress on the net section is greater than the tensile strength,
Fu, a member fails by fracture. The design strength and the allowable tensile
strength shall be the lower value determined based on the limit states mentioned
above.
Effective Net Area (Ae) (NSCP Section 504.3)

The effective net area of tension members, as specified in the governing code, is
given by:
where:
Ae

Ae = AnU

effective net area of tension members, mm2

shear lag factor

An
=
effective net area and is the difference between the gross area (Ag)
and the area of bolt holes, mm2
The structural engineer shall take into consideration that different U values apply
for tension members provided in NSCP Table 504.3.1. Shear lag factors for
connections to tension members of different cases are:

1. Tension members where tension load is transmitted directly to each of crosssectional elements by fasteners or welds.
2. Tension members, except plates and HSS, where tension load is transmitted to
some but not all of the cross-sectional elements by fasteners or longitudinal
welds.
3. Tension members where tension load is transmitted by transverse welds to
some but not all of the cross-sectional elements.
4. Plates where the tension load is transmitted by longitudinal welds only.
5. Round HSS with a single concentric gusset plate.
6. Rectangular HSS.

7. W, M, S or HP shapes.
8. Single angles.

Pin-Connected Members (NSCP Section 504.5)

Pin connected members in tension are subjected to several types of failure. The
design strength and allowable tensile strength shall be designed based on the
lower value obtain from the limit states of tensile rupture, shear rupture, bearing
and yielding.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

As specified in NSCP 504.5, the following shall apply:


1. Tension acting on the net effective area
Pn = 2tbeffFu

(NSCP 504.5-1)

Pn = 0.6FuAsf

(NSCP 504.5-2)

2. Shear acting on the effective area


Sf = 0.75 (LRFD)

sf = 2.0 (ASD)

3. Tension acting on the gross section


Pn = FyAg

t = 0.90 (LRFD)

4. Bearing

Pn = 1.8FyApb

= 0.75 (LRFD)

t = 1.67 (ASD)
= 2.0 (ASD)

(NSCP 504.2-1)

(NSCP 510.7-1)

An example is provided for pin-connected tension members.

where:
Pn

force on area

Fy

specified minimum yield stress of steel used MPa

Rn

nominal bearing strength

Apb

projected bearing area

Ag

gross area of member, mm2

Fu

Asf

specified aluminum tensile stress of steel used

2t(a+d/2), mm2

beff

shortest distance from edge of the pin hole to the edge of the
member measured parallel to the applied force

pin diameter, mm

2t + 16, mm but not more than the actual distance from the
pinhole to the edge of the member measured perpendicular to the
force.
thickness of plate, mm

Eyebars (NSCP Section 504.6)

An example is provided for an eyebar connection.

Example: W, Single-angle, WT, Rectangular HSS, Round HSS, Double Angle Tension Members

Designing a member with given loads in tension and member length.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Example: Eyebar Tension Members

= 2.00

Verifying member strength with given loads in tension, pin diameter and eyebar
dimensions.

Pn/ > Pa

5. Calculate the available shear rupture strength.

1. Determine material properties for ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC Table 24); and geometric properties of the member.

Pn = 0.6FuAsf

Asf = 2t(a+d/2)

2. Check dimensional requirements such as t, w, d. dh, R (NSCP Section 504.6.2)

Using LRFD

3. Calculate the required tensile strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). Note that Pu is a


factored load.

= 0.75

4. Calculate the available tensile yielding strength at the eyebar body (at w)

Pn > Pu

Determine An and Pn.

Using ASD
= 2.00

5.

Pn/ > Pa

6. Calculate the available bearing strength.

Determine the tensile yield strength.


Using LRFD
= 0.90

Pn = 1.8FyApb

Pn > Pu

Using LRFD

Using ASD

= 0.75

= 1.67

Pn > Pu

Pn/ > Pa

Using ASD

The structural engineer shall take note that the pin should also be checked for
shear yielding and bearing.

= 2.00

Pn/ > Pa

Example: Find Ae of a Plate with Staggered Bolts

7. Calculate the available tensile yielding strength.

1. Calculate the net hole diameter, dnet.

Pn = FyAg

Using LRFD

2.

= 0.90
Pn > Pu

dnet = dh + 1/16 in.

Compute the net width for all possible paths across the plate, w.
w = 14 dnet + s2/4g

Calculate for An. Note that the nearest path (smallest value) shall govern in the
design.

Using ASD
= 1.67

3.

Pn/ > Pa

8. Determine the governing strength from the lowest calculated values.

Pn = FyAg

4.
4.5.5

Determine U.

Determine Ae.
Ae = AnU

Design for Compression (NSCP Section 505)

This section shall apply to designing compression members as specified in NSCP


2010, Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS shall also adopt additional design
guidelines from international standards.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

This section covers the following topics: general provisions (NSCP Section 505.1),
effective length and slenderness (NSCP Section 505.2), compressive strength for
flexural buckling of members without slender elements (NSCP Section 505.3),
compression and bending (NSCP Section 508.1-508.3), composite compression
members (NSCP Section 509.2), and compressive strength of connecting elements
(NSCP Section 510.4.4).
Effective Length

As specified in the governing code, the slenderness ratio, KL/r, preferably should
not exceed 200.
Flexural Buckling of Members without Slender Elements

As mentioned in the governing standards, this section shall apply to compression


members with non-slender (compact and non-compact sections), for uniformly
compressed elements. This includes non-slender built-up I-shaped columns and
non-slender HSS columns.

The nominal compressive strength, Pn, shall be based on the limit state of flexural
buckling. Flexural buckling is a deflection caused by bending about the axis
corresponding to the largest slenderness ratio.
The equation for determining nominal compressive strength is given by:
Pn = FcrAg

Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Members without Slender Elements

This section is most commonly applicable to double angles and Tee sections which
are singly symmetrical shapes subject to torsional buckling and flexural
torsional buckling.

As specified in the governing code, the nominal compressive strength, Pn, shall be
determined based on the two limit states mentioned above, torsional and flexural
torsional buckling. Available strength of the members is available in AISC
Manual Part 4.
Single Angle Compression Members

This section as stated in the governing code shall apply to single angle
compression members wherein the nominal compressive strength, Pn, shall be
determined for axially loaded members, as well as those subject to the
slenderness modification, provided the members meet the criteria. Available
strength of the members is available in AISC Manual Part 4.
Built-Up Members

The analysis for built up compression member is the same for any other
compression member if the cross-sectional properties are known. However, the
parts of the cross section must be properly connected.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Requirements for members composed of two or more rolled shapes and for
members composed of plates or combination of plates and shapes with related
connections are specified in the governing code.
Member with Slender Elements

This section shall apply to members with slender sections for compressed
members. The design is similar to members without slender elements except that
a reduction factor is introduced to modify the formulas. Appropriate reduction
factors in available strength are incorporated in AISC Manual Part 4.

The nominal compressive strength, Pn, shall be based on the limit states of
torsional, flexural and flexural torsional buckling.
Example: W-Shape Column Design Pinned Ends

Design a W-shape column to carry specific loads in axial compression, given


column length and shape.

1. Calculate the required strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). Note that Pu is a


factored load.

2. Select a section using AISC Manual Table 4-1.

3. Find K. For a pinned-pinned connection, K=1.0.

Y-Y axis will govern for unbraced lengths same in both x-x and y-y
directions.
And for all W-shapes, rx exceeds ry.

4. Enter the table with an effective length, KL and proceed until reaching the
least weight shape with an available strength that equals or exceeds the
required strength.

5. Select column section (for adjustments).

6. Determine available strength in compression, y-y axis effective length using


AISC Manual Table 4-1.
Using LRFD
Pn > Pu

Using ASD
Pn/ > Pa

Example: W-Shape Column Design with Intermediate Bracing

Redesigning Example C1a assuming the column is laterally braced about the y-y
axis and torsionally braced at the midpoint.
1. Calculate the required strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). Note that Pu is a
factored load.

2. Select a column using AISC Manual Table 4-1.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Pn > Pu

Using ASD
Pn/ > Pa

7. Repeat procedures (2) to (6) for all members.

Example: Double Angle Compression Member without Slender Elements

Verifying member strength with given loads in axial compression, column


dimensions and column length which are pinned at both ends.

1. Determine material properties for ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC Table 23); and geometric properties of member (AISC Table 1-15 for Double angles
and AISC Table 1-17 for MC shapes).

2. Calculate the required strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). Note that Pu is a


factored load.

3. Select column (AISC Table 4-9)

4. Find K and compute for KL value for both x and y-axis.

5. Determine the available strength in axial compression for both axes.


(AISC Table 4-9)
Using LRFD
Pn > Pu

Using ASD
Pn/ > Pa

6. Determine the available strength from the lowest value of the two axes
computed.
Example: Design of Rectangular HSS Compression Member with Slender Elements

Selecting a rectangular HSS member with given loads in axial compression,


column dimensions and column length. The base is fixed while the top is pinned.

1. Determine material properties for ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC Table 23).

2. Calculate the required strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). Note that Pu is a


factored load.

3. Find K. Solve for KLx and KLy.

4. Enter AISC Table 4-3 and proceed across the page until the lightest section is
found with an available strength that is equal to or greater than the required
strength.
5. Determine the available strength in axial compression.
Using LRFD

Using ASD
4.5.6

Pn/ > Pa

Flexural Members

This section shall apply to designing flexural members as specified in NSCP 2010,
Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS shall also adopt additional design guidelines
from international standards. The section contains provisions for determining
flexural strength of members subject to simple bending about a principal axis.
Provisions for I shaped members, channels, HSS, tees, double angles, single angles,
rectangular bars, rounds and unsymmetrical shapes.
The selection and evaluation of all members to be used is based on the deflection
requirements and strength. The design strength shall be determined based on
flexural strength, Mn or the allowable flexural strength, Mn/.
Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about their Major Axis

This shall apply to members with compact I shaped beam and channel cross
sections subject to bending about their major axis as specified in the governing
code. The only limit state to consider is lateral torsional buckling. Almost all
rolled wide flange shapes listed identified by the governing code are qualified to
be designed by the provisions of this section.
Doubly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Compact Webs and Non compact or Slender Flanges
Bent about their Major Axis

The strength of shapes designed according to this section is limited by local


buckling of the compression flange. Few rolled wide flange shapes are subject to
this criterion, i.e. having noncompact flanges.
Other I-Shaped Members with Compact or Non compact Webs Bent About Their Major Axis

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to doubly symmetric I
shaped members bent with noncompact webs and singly symmetric I shaped
members (having different flanges) with compact or noncompact webs.
Doubly Symmetric and Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Slender Webs Bent About
Their Major Axis

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to doubly symmetric
I shaped members with slender webs, also known as plate girders.
I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent About Their Minor Axis

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to I shaped members
and channels bent about their minor axis. The majority of W-, M-, C-, and MCshapes have compact flanges which can develop the full plastic Mp about the minor
axis.

Pn > Pu
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Square and Rectangular HSS and Box-Shaped Members

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to square and
rectangular HSS, and doubly symmetric box shaped members bent about either
axis, having compact and noncompact webs and compact and noncompact slender
flanges.
Round HSS and Pipes

This section shall apply to both tubes and pipes. As specified in the governing
code, this section shall apply to round HSS having D/t ratios of less than 0.45E/Fy.
Tees and Double Angles Loaded in the Plane of Symmetry

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to tees and double
angles loaded in the plane of symmetry. The specification provides a check for
flange local buckling which applies only when the flange is in compression due to
flexure.
Single Angles

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to single angles with
and without lateral restraint along their length. The structural engineer shall
consider the geometric axis of bending. Also, when designing single angles without
continuous bracing using the geometric axis design provisions, My should be
multiplied by 0.80.
Rectangular Bars and Rounds

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to rectangular bars bent
about either geometric axis and rounds.

The structural engineer shall consider solid square, rectangular and round bars,
with the exception of rectangular bars bent about the strong axis, are not subject
to lateral-torsional buckling; rectangular bar bent about the strong axis are
subject to lateral torsional buckling; and local buckling does not apply to any bars.
Unsymmetrical Shapes

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to all unsymmetrical
shapes, except single angles. However, the structural engineer is advised to have
an appropriate investigation and good engineering judgment for this section to be
applied.
Proportions for Beams and Girders

According to the governing code, this section states the requirements of members
proportioned on the basis of flexural strength of the section. Specific provisions
apply for particular members such as beams and girders with hole reductions, for
I shaped members, members using cover plates and built up beams.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Example: I-Shaped Flexural Member in Minor-Axis Bending

Selecting a member with given uniform loads, and limit to live load deflection
L/240. The beam is simply supported and is braced at ends only.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC Table


2-3).

2. Calculate the required flexural strength, Mu (LRFD) or Ma (ASD). Note that Mu is


a factored load.
3. Determine the minimum required moment of inertia.
Solve for max and Ireq.

4. Choose the lightest section from AISC Manual Table 3-3.

The structural engineer should consider deflection governing the design for
light sections.

5. Select a trial section and take note of materials geometric properties, i.e. Sy, Zy, Iy.
6. Check flange slenderness, i.e. if compact or noncompact.
7. Calculate the nominal flexural strength, Mn.
8. Determine the available flexural strength.
Using LRFD
= 0.90

Mn > Mu

Using ASD
= 1.67

Mn/ > Ma

Example: HSS-Flexural Member with Noncompact Flanges

Selecting a member with given uniform loads, and limit to live load deflection
L/240. The beam is simply supported and is braced at ends only. Selection of
member using AISC Manual.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3).

2. Determine the required strength, Mu (LRFD) or Ma (ASD). Note that Mu is a


factored load.
3. Compute for the minimum moment of inertia, Imin.
Solve for max

4. Select HSS member with a minimum Ix from (3) using ASIC Table 1-11; and
having adequate available flexural strength using ASIC Table 3-12.

5. Determine required strength using ASIC Table 3-12.

6. Check available flexural strength.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Mn > Mu

Using ASD
= 1.67

Mn/ > Ma

The structural engineer shall take note that for a combination of non-compact
flange and compact web, the specification provides different equation in solving
for the nominal flexural strength.

Example: HSS Flexural Member with Slender Flanges

Verifying a member strength with given nominal uniform loads (dead load and
live load) and limit to live load deflection L/240.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3).

2. Compute for the required flexural strength, Mu (LRFD) or Ma (ASD). Note that
Mu is a factored load.
3. Obtain member flexural strength using AISC Manual Table 3-13.
Using LRFD
Mn > Mu

Using ASD

Mn/ > Ma

4. Check for member deflection. The deflection should be less than the given
limit to live load deflection of L/240.

Example D9. Pipe Flexural Member

Selecting a member with given uniform loads assuming the beam has no limit to
deflection. The beam is simply supported and is braced at ends only.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3).
2. Compute for the required flexural strength, Mu (LRFD) or Ma (ASD). Note that
Mu is a factored load.
3. Select a member from AISC Manual Table 3-15 with the required flexural
strength.
4. The available flexural strength of the member shall then be greater than the
required flexural strength.
Using LRFD
Mn > Mu

Using ASD

Mn/ > Ma
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.5.10

4.5.11

Plate Girders

This topic is included in Section 4.5.11.

Connections

This section shall apply to design of connections subjected and/or not subjected to
cyclic loading as specified in NSCP 2010, Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS
shall also adopt additional design guidelines from international standards.
Bolts and Threaded Parts

The provisions set forth by the governing code shall apply to the use of high
strength bolts. As mentioned, all joint surfaces shall be free of scale, except tight
mill scale. Installation shall be assured by the any of these methods: turn of nut
method, direct tension indicator, calibrated wrench or alternative design bolt.
The structural engineer shall refer to the governing code for the size and use of
holes and the minimum and maximum dimensions for both spacing and edge
distance. Design strengths shall be determined based on the following limit states:
tensile rupture, shear rupture, combined tensile and shear rupture, slip and
tension and shear in slip critical connections.
Welds

The provisions shall apply to groove welds, fillet welds, plug and slot welds and
combination of welds. The governing code specifies the effective area and the
limitations for each kind in terms of the minimum requirements for application.
Affected Elements of Members and Connecting Elements

According to the governing code, this section shall apply to elements of members
at connections and connecting elements such as plates, gussets, angles and
brackets. The design strengths and allowable strengths shall be determined based
on the following limit states: for elements in tension tensile yielding and tensile
rupture; shear shear yielding and shear rupture; block shear block shear
rupture; and in compression yielding and buckling.
Fillers

In choosing electrode for use in completing joint penetration grove welds


subject to tension normal to the effective area, the electrode shall comply with the
requirements for matching filler metals provided by the governing code.
Splices

When tensile forces due to applied tension or flexure are to be transmitted


through splices in heavy sections, by complete penetration groove welds, material
notch toughness requirements, weld access hole details and thermal cut surface
preparation and inspection requirements shall apply. This provision, however, is
not applicable to built up members welded prior to shape assembly. This section
is as stated in the governing code.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Bearing Strength

The provisions for bearing strength specified in the code shall apply to the bearing
strength at bolt holes to be determined based on the limit state of bearing. As
mentioned in the governing code, the sum of the bearing resistances of the
individual bolts shall apply to connections.
The structural engineer is advised to check the bearing strength for bearing type
and slip critical conditions.
Column Bases and Bearing on Concrete

According to governing code the provisions are made for transferring column
loads and moments to the footings and foundations.

The design strength and allowable bearing strength shall be determined based on
the limit state of concrete crushing.
Anchor Rods and Embedments

The anchor rods, as specified in the code, shall be designed to provide the
required resistance to loads on the structure at the base of columns. The design
shall be in accordance with requirements for threaded parts. The designer shall
take into consideration the base plate hole size, anchor rod setting tolerance, and
the horizontal movement of the column when designing anchor rods resisting
horizontal forces on the base plate.
Flanges and Webs with Concentrated Forces

As specified in the governing code, this section shall apply to single and double
concentrated force applied normal to the flange(s) of wide flange sections and
similar built up shapes.
The structural engineer shall take note that provision for the use of stiffeners shall
apply to members with required strength exceeding the available strength. Such
provisions are available in the governing code.
Example: All-Bolted Double Angle Connection

Selecting an all bolted double-angle connection between a given and column


flange supporting a given beam end reactions, dead and live loads. Also given are
bold diameter and hole dimension.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3) and geometric properties (AISC Table 1-1).
2. Determine required bolt strength, Ru (LRFD) or Ra (ASD). Note that Ru is
factored. Check governing specifications for limiting states in bearing, shear
yielding, shear rupture, and block shear rupture on the angles, and shear on
the bolts.
Using LRFD
Rn > Ru
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

3. For uncoped beams, beam web shall be checked for bolt bearing.
Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

4. Supporting member flange shall be checked for bolt bearing.


Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

Example: Bolted/Welded Double Angle Connection

Substituting welds for bolts in the support legs of a double angle connection using
a given weld electrode.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3) and geometric properties (AISC Table 1-1).
2. Determine required weld strength, Ru (LRFD) or Ra (ASD). Note that Ru is
factored. Select weld size and length which shall have a tfmin lesser than bolt tf.
Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

3. Determine minimum angle thickness, tmin. Check if tmin < weld size.

4. Checks shall be done on the following limit states: bolt shear and the angles for
bolt bearing, shear yielding, shear rupture, and block shear rupture.
Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

5. Beam web shall be checked for bolt bearing.


Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Rn/ > Ra

6. Supporting member flange shall be checked for bolt bearing.


Using LRFD
Rn > Ru

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

4.5.14

Factored load Factored Strength

Example: All Welded Double Angle Connection

As mentioned in NSCP 2010, the design shall be in accordance with the following
equation:

Designing an all welded double angle connection between a given beam and
column flange through the aid of AISC Table 10-3. Also given is the weld electrode.

1. Determine material properties such as ASTM Designation, Fy and Fu (AISC


Table 2-3) and geometric properties (AISC Table 1-1).

where:

2. Determine required weld strength, Ru (LRFD) or Ra (ASD). Note that Ru is


factored.

Using ASD
Rn/ > Ra

3. Determine minimum angle thickness, tfmin. Check if tmin < tf.

4.5.12

4.5.13

4. Minimum angle thickness shall be checked, tmin.

Column Base Plate and Beam Bearing Plates

This topic is included in Section 4.5.11.

Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This section shall apply to cold-formed steel structural members design as


specified in NSCP 2010, Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS shall also adopt
additional design guidelines from international standards. Such standards are as
mentioned in Material and other reference codes:

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American Iron and Steel Institute 1969: Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members

4.5.15

4.5.16

Ru = Rn

Ru

required strength

resistance factor

Rn

Design the weld between the angle leg and the beam to weld such that
twmin is lesser than tw.

Rn > Ru

Load and Resistance Factor Design

To satisfy the requirements of the governing code, the design strength of each
structural component shall be equal or shall exceed the required strength
determined on the basis of LRFD load combinations. This can be written as:

Note: The example shown above shall be applicable when the coped section does
not control the design. If the relative size of the cope to the overall size of the
beam cannot be determined, use AISC Manual Part 9.

Using LRFD

This section pertains to the design of structural members cold-formed to shape


from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate, or bar not more than 25 mm in
thickness and used for load-carrying purposes specified in in the governing code.
The structural engineer shall apply specifications such as the use of design
strength method, second-order analysis and additional provisions which he/she
may deem adequate for the purpose.

Rn

=
=

nominal strength
design strength

Cold-Rolled Steel and Built-Up Members

This section shall be in conjunction with 6.11. Cold-Formed Steel Structures as


presented in NSCP 2010, Referral Code of the NBCP.

Plastic Design

The purpose of this Specification is to provide criteria using plastic design as


presented in various sections in NSCP 2010, Referral Code of the NBCP. The DGCS
shall also adopt additional design guidelines from international standards.
Members designed by plastic design would reach the point of failure under the
factored loads but are safe under actual service or working loads.
Design Consideration

Although plastic design is specified in design codes, local and international, the
governing design standard for structural members is the Load and Resistance
Factor Design.

American Iron and Steel Institute 2001: Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design procedure:

1. After determining the design stresses from structural analysis (e.g. shear and
moment diagram). Maximum moments and shears are determined.

2. Use these maximum moment and shear in determining the section required to
satisfy the following:

Allowable stresses based on wood specie to be used and stress grade


of the material

Factoring in the different capacity reduction factors

Case to case detailing issues that may affect design (e.g. notches)

3. Detail as necessary
Flexure

According to NSCP Section 616.2.1, a beam of circular section may be assumed to


have the same strength in flexure as a square beam having the same crosssectional area. If a circular beam is tapered, it shall be considered a beam of
variable cross section. In NSCP Section 616.2.2, it is stated that if possible,
notching of beams should be avoided. Notches in sawn lumber bending members
shall not exceed one-sixth the depth of the member and shall not be located in the
middle third of the span.
As in all flexural members, the standard formula for flexure is:
=

but since we deal mostly with rectangular sections:

Horizontal Shear

6
2

The maximum horizontal shear stress in a solid-sawn wood shall not exceed that
calculated by means of:
=

3
2

The actual shear fv shall not exceed the allowable for the species and the grade as
given in NSCP Table 6.1 adjusted for duration of loading, as provided in NSCP
Section 615.3.4.
Horizontal Shear in Notched Beams

When rectangular-shaped girder, beams or joists are notched at points of support


on the tension side, they shall meet the design requirements of that section in
bending and in shear. Provisions and equations to be used regarding horizontal
shear in notched beams are stated in NSCP Section 616.4.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design of Joints in Shear

Eccentric connector and bolted joints and beams support by connectors or bolt
shall be designed so that fv does not exceed the allowable unit stresses in
horizontal shear:
where:

(with connectors)

(with bolts or lag screws) =

3
2

depth of the member less the distance from the


unloaded edge of the member to the nearest edge
of the nearest connector.
depth of the member less the distance from the
unloaded edge of the member to the center of the
nearest bolt or lag screw.

Allowable unit stresses in shear for joint involving bot or connectors loaded
perpendicular to grain may be 50% greater than the horizontal shear values as set
forth in NSCP Table 6.1 and, provided that the joint occurs at least five times the
depth of the member from its end. When the joint is less than five times the depth
of the member from its end, the included shear stress is calculated by:
=

3
( )
2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

For bearing of less than 150 mm in length and not nearer than 75 mm to the end
of a member, the maximum allowable load per square mm may be obtained by
multiplying the allowable unit stresses in compression perpendicular to grain by
the factor indicated by:
=

+ 0.375

In which is the length of bearing in mm measured along the grain of the wood.

The multiplying factors for indicated length of bearing on such small areas as
plates and washers is provided in Table 4-29.
Table 4-29

Multiplying Factors for Length of Bearing on Small Areas

Length of Bearing (mm)

13

25

38

50

75

100

150 or more

Multiplying Factor

1.75

1.38

1.25

1.19

1.13

1.10

1.00

In using the preceding equation and table for round washers or bearing areas,
use a length equal to the diameter.
In joists supported on a ribbon or ledger board and spiked to the studding, the
allowable stress in compression perpendicular to grain may be increased 50%.

And the 50% increase in design values for shear in joints does not apply.
Compression Perpendicular to Grain

In application where deformation is critical, the following equation shall be used


to calculate the compression-perpendicular-to-grain design values.
where:
=

= 0.73

compression-perpendicular-to-grain values from NSCP Table 6.1

critical compression-perpendicular-to-grain value

The duration of load modification factors given in NSCP Section 615.3.4 shall not
apply to compression-perpendicular-to-grain values for sawn lumber.

The allowable unit stresses for compression perpendicular to grain in NSCP Table
6.1 and 6.17 apply to bearings of any length at the ends of the beam and to all
bearing 150 mm or more in length at any other location.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

4.6.4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Column Design

Flexure and Axial Compression

According to NSCP Section 617, a simple column consists of a single piece or of


pieces properly glued together to form a single members. Spaced columns are
formed of two or more individual members with their longitudinal axes parallel,
separated at the ends and middle points of their length by blocking and joined at
the ends by timber connectors capable of developing the required shear
resistance. Built-up columns, other than connector-joined spaced columns and
glued-laminated columns, shall not be designed as solid columns.

Members subjected to both flexure and axial compression shall be proportioned


that:

The value of J shall be derived as:

For simple solid columns, l/d shall not exceed 50.

4.6.5

The effective column length, le, shall be used in design given in NSCP Section
617.3. Actual column length, l, may be multiplied by the factors given the table in
NSCP Section 617.3.

Fc and K shall be determined in accordance with the provision in NSCP Section


617.3, except (1) when checking the design in the plane of bending the
slenderness ratio, /d, in the plane of bending shall be used to calculate Fc and J
and (2) when checking the design perpendicular to the plane of bending the
slenderness ratio, /d in the plane of bending shall be used to calculate Fc and J
shall be set equal to zero.

Members subjected to both flexure and axial tension shall be so proportioned


that:

+
1

where:

where:

( )( )( )( ) for glulam

( )( )( )( )( )( )( ) for sawn lumber


=

Truss Compression Chords

tabulated bending design value multiplied by all applicable


adjustment factors except volume factor,

4.6.6

In the case of spaced columns, this combined stress formula maybe applied only if
the bending is in a direction parallel to the greater d of the individual member.

( )( )( )( )( )( ) for sawn lumber

tabulated bending design value multiplied by all applicable


adjustment factors except beam stability factor,

Spaced Columns

Effect of buckling of a 50 mm by 200 mm or smaller truss compression chord


having effective buckling lengths of 2.40 m or less with 9 mm or thicker plywood
sheathing nailed to the narrow face of the chord in accordance with appreciate
standards shall be determined from the equation:

11

Except that J shall not be less than zero nor greater than one (0 J 1).

Flexure And Axial Tension

11

= 0.671

Combined Load Design

and

( )( )( )( ) for glulam

allowable tension design value parallel to grain

actual unit stress in tension parallel to grain

actual unit stress for extreme fiber in bending

1 + 0.62
0.05

buckling of the stiffness factor

effective buckling length used in design of chord for


compression loading

Modulus of Elasticity from tables of allowable unit stress,


N/mm2

0.05
E

0.819E for machine-stress-rated lumber


0.589E for visually graded lumber

The value of determined from this equation are for wood seasoned to a
moisture content of 19% or less at the time the plywood is nailed to the chord. For
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Bolts

wood that is unseasoned at the time of plywood attachment, shall be


determined from
=

NSCP Table 6.17 provides the safe loads in KN for bolts in shear in seasoned
lumber.

1 + 0.331
0.05

When wood is connected to concrete or masonry, the allowable shear value is


permitted to be one half the tabulated double shear values for a wood member
twice the thickness of the member attached to the concrete or masonry".

For chords with an effective buckling length greater than 2.40 m, shall be taken
as the value for a chord having an effective length of 2.40 m.
The buckling stiffness factor does not apply to short columns or trusses used
under wet conditions. The allowable unit compressive stress shall be modified by
the buckling stiffness factor when a truss chord is subjected to combined flexure
and compression and the bending moment in the direction that induces
compression stresses in the chord face to which the plywood is attached.

Nails and Spikes

Safe Lateral Strength: When used to fasten wood members together. The
maximum load causing shear and bending that a common wire nail driven
perpendicular to grain of the wood shall not exceed the safe lateral strength of the
wire nail or spike in NSCP Table 6.21.

The buckling stiffness factor shall apply as follows:

Use only 2/3 of the capacity of nail driven perpendicular to the grain when wire
nail is driven parallel to the grain of the wood.

Short column ( 11 )

Toenails shall be designed using only 5/6 of the lateral load allowed for nails
driven perpendicular to the grain.

Intermediate columns ( 11 ):

K = 0.671 E/

1 / 4
[
) ]
= 1 (
3

Long column ( )

4.6.7

Compression at Angle to Grain

0.30
( /d)2

4.6.9

Safe Resistance to Withdrawal: NSCP Table 6.21 provides the safe resistance of
nails wire driven perpendicular to grain of wood against withdrawal from
anchorage.

Working Stresses for Timber

The working stress for visually stress-graded unseasoned structural timber is


provided in Table 4-30. The relative densities for species to determine allowable
loads is provided in Table 4-31.

The allowable unit stress in compression at an angle of load to grain between 0


and 90 shall be computed from the Hankinson Equation as follows:
=

4.6.8


+ 2

Allowable values shall be adjusted for duration of load before use in


Hankinsons Equatioon. Values of and are not subjected to duration of load
modifications.

Timber Connectors and Fasteners

Mechanical wood connectors and fasteners are used to transfer member forces to
other structural elements. NSCP Section 619 provides us the allowable loads and
installation of timber connectors and fasteners. NSCP Tables 6.2, 6.17, 6.19 and
6.20 are the pertinent references for the allowable loads and installation for
timber connectors.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 4-30

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Working Stresses for Visually Stress-Graded Unseasoned Structural


Timber of Philippine Woodsa

80% Stress Grade

80% Stress Grade


Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending
and Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity
in Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(2)

(3)
103
MPa

(4)

(5)

(6)

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa
I.

II.

III.

4-90

High Strength Group

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending
and Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity
in Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(2)

(4)

(5)

(6)

MPa

(3)
103
MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Lanutan-bagyo [Gonystylus macrophyllum


(miq.) Airy Shaw]

15.0

6.06

8.96

2.02

1.84

Lauan (Shorea spp.)

13.9

5.83

8.18

1.72

1.48

Agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst)

26.3

8.22

14.5

5.91

2.95

Malaanonang (Shorea spp.)

13.8

5.41

8.54

1.96

1.59

Liusin [Parinari corymbosa (Blume) Miq.]

25.0

9.36

15.6

4.31

2.64

Malasaging (Aglaia spp.)

16.8

5.94

9.51

2.92

1.85

Malabayabas (Tristania spp.)

28.7

8.30

15.8

8.70

3.02

Malugai (Pometia spp.)

15.4

6.30

9.33

3.07

2.07

Manggachapui (Hopea spp.)

25.8

9.63

16.0

6.03

2.78

Miau (Dysoxylum spp.)

15.7

6.50

8.83

2.78

2.06

Molave (Vitex parviflora Juss.)

24.0

6.54

15.4

6.34

2.88

Nato (Palaquium spp.)

16.2

5.56

9.17

2.33

1.98

Narig (Vatica spp.)

21.8

8.33

13.7

4.97

2.61

Palosapis (Anisoptera spp.)

13.8

5.98

8.38

2.73

1.68

Sasalit [Teijmanniodendron ahernianum


(Merr) Bkh.]

31.3

9.72

21.60

10.2

3.38

Pine (Pinus spp.)

14.7

6.66

8.29

1.88

1.56

Yakal (Shorea spp.)

24.5

9.78

15.8

6.27

2.49

Salakin (Aphanamixis spp.)

15.7

5.67

8.83

2.94

1.88

Vidal lanutan [Hibiscus campylosiphon


Turcz. Var. glabrecens (Har. Ex. Perk.)]

19.5

5.83

8.54

2.65

2.39

Antipolo (Arthocarpus spp.)

18.6

5.35

10.8

3.90

2.06

Binggas (Terminalia spp.)

18.9

6.57

11.4

3.27

2.24

Almaciga [Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rilh.]

11.8

5.47

6.27

1.44

1.47

Bokbok (Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume)


Miq.]

18.1

6.36

11.3

3.41

2.18

Bayok (Pterospermum spp.)

12.6

4.75

7.33

1.30

1.20

Dao (Dracontomelon spp.)

16.2

5.43

9.44

2.27

1.92

Lingo-lingo (Vitex turczaninowii Merr.)

13.2

4.13

6.85

2.00

1.66

Gatasan [Garcinia venulosa (Blanco)


Choisy]

20.8

6.84

13.5

3.52

2.36

Mangasinoro (Shorea spp.)

12.8

5.36

7.46

1.97

1.44

Raintree [Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.]

11.9

2.75

7.23

3.32

2.07

Guijo (Shorea spp.)

21.8

8.47

13.2

4.26

2.40

Yemane (Gmelina arborea R. Br.)

12.6

4.09

7.87

3.40

1.96

Kamagong (Diospyros spp.)

20.9

7.20

11.7

4.39

2.47

Kamatog [Erythrophloeum densiflorum


(Elm) Merr.]

19.0

7.56

11.2

3.95

2.35

Katmon (Dillenia spp)

18.4

6.82

11.9

4.84

2.29

Kato (Amoora spp.)

18.4

8.04

10.6

3.46

1.96

Lomarau (Swintonia foxworthyi Elm.)

19.8

7.92

11.8

2.98

2.18

Mahogany, Big-leafed (Swietenia


macrophylla King)

16.5

4.66

10.5

3.83

2.71

Makaasim (Sysygium nitidum Benth)

20.5

6.72

11.4

3.70

2.40

Malakauayan [Decusocarpus
philippinensis (Fxw.) de Laub.]

18.9

6.66

11.12

2.32

2.14

Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd)

18.0

5.94

11.4

3.07

1.91

Pahutan (Mangifera spp.)

16.6

6.53

10.0

2.50

2.05

Moderately High Strength Group


IV.

63% Stress Grade

I.

Medium Strength Group


Apitong (Dipterocarpus spp.)

16.5

7.31

9.56

2.20

1.73

Bagtikan [Parashorea malaanonan


(Blanco) Merr.]

16.6

6.48

9.89

2.33

1.82

Dangkalan (Calophyllum spp.)

16.3

6.38

9.20

2.48

1.98

Gisau (Canarium spp.)

14.3

5.33

8.16

1.99

1.90

Moderately Low Strength Group

II.

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending and
Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity in
Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(7)

(9)

(10)

(10)

MPa

(8)
103
MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst)

20.7

6.47

11.4

4.65

2.32

Liusin [Parinari corymbosa (Blume) Miq.]

19.7

7.37

12.3

3.39

2.08

Malabayabas (Tristania spp.)

22.6

6.53

12.5

6.85

2.38

Manggachapui (Hopea spp.)

20.3

7.58

12.6

4.75

2.19

Molave (Vitex parviflora Juss.)

18.9

5.15

12.1

5.00

2.27

Narig (Vatica spp.)

17.2

6.56

10.8

3.92

2.06

Sasalit [Teijmanniodendron ahernianum


(Merr) Bkh.]

24.7

7.65

17.0

8.07

2.67

Yakal (Shorea spp.)

19.3

7.70

12.0

4.94

1.96

High Strength Group

Moderately High Strength Group

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

63% Stress Grade

III.

4-92

63% Stress Grade

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending and
Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity in
Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending and
Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity in
Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(7)

(9)

(10)

(10)

(1)

(7)

(10)

(10)

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

(8)
103
MPa

(9)

MPa

(8)
103
MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Antipolo (Arthocarpus spp.)

14.7

4.21

8.53

3.07

1.62

Binggas (Terminalia spp.)

14.9

5.17

8.98

2.57

1.77

Almaciga [Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rilh.]

9.26

4.30

4.94

1.13

1.16

Bokbok (Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume)


Miq.]

14.3

5.01

8.90

2.68

1.72

Bayok (Pterospermum spp.)

9.94

3.74

5.78

1.03

0.95

Dao (Dracontomelon spp.)

12.8

4.28

7.43

1.79

1.51

Lingo-lingo (Vitex turczaninowii Merr.)

10.4

3.25

5.39

1.58

1.31

Gatasan [Garcinia venulosa (Blanco)


Choisy]

16.4

5.39

10.6

2.77

1.86

Mangasinoro (Shorea spp.)

10.0

4.22

5.87

1.55

1.14

Raintree [Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.]

9.37

2.16

5.70

2.61

1.63

Guijo (Shorea spp.)

17.1

6.67

10.4

3.35

1.89

Yemane (Gmelina arborea R. Br.)

9.90

3.22

6.20

2.68

1.55

Kamagong (Diospyros spp.)

16.6

5.67

9.21

3.46

1.95

Kamatog [Erythrophloeum densiflorum


(Elm) Merr.]

15.0

5.95

8.79

3.11

1.85

Katmon (Dillenia spp)

14.8

5.37

9.38

3.81

1.80

Kato (Amoora spp.)

14.5

6.33

8.34

2.73

1.54

Lomarau (Swintonia foxworthyi Elm.)

15.6

6.24

9.30

2.34

1.71

Mahogany, Big-leafed (Swietenia


macrophylla King)

13.0

3.67

8.24

3.01

2.13

Makaasim (Sysygium nitidum Benth)

16.1

5.29

8.95

2.92

1.89

Malakauayan [Decusocarpus
philippinensis (Fxw.) de Laub.]

14.9

5.24

8.79

1.83

1.69

Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd)

14.2

4.68

8.97

2.42

1.51

Pahutan (Mangifera spp.)

13.1

5.15

7.88

1.97

1.61

IV.

Moderately Low Strength Group

50% Stress Grade

I.

Medium Strength Group

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending
and Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity
in Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(12)

(14)

(15)

(16)

MPa

(13)
103
MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst)

16.4

5.14

9.06

3.69

1.84

Liusin [Parinari corymbosa (Blume) Miq.]

15.6

5.85

9376

2.69

1.65

Malabayabas (Tristania spp.)

17.9

5.19

9390

5.44

1.89

Manggachapui (Hopea spp.)

16.1

6.02

10.0

3.77

1.74

Molave (Vitex parviflora Juss.)

15.0

4.09

9.60

3.96

1.80

Narig (Vatica spp.)

13.6

5.20

8.59

3.11

1.63

Sasalit [Teijmanniodendron ahernianum


(Merr) Bkh.]

19.6

6.08

13.5

6.40

2.12

Yakal (Shorea spp.)

15.3

3.11

9.55

3.92

1.55

Antipolo (Arthocarpus spp.)

11.6

3.34

6.77

2.44

1.29

High Strength Group

Apitong (Dipterocarpus spp.)

13.1

5.76

7.53

1.73

1.36

Bagtikan [Parashorea malaanonan


(Blanco) Merr.]

13.1

5.10

7.79

1.84

1.43

Dangkalan (Calophyllum spp.)

12.8

5.03

7.24

1.96

1.56

Gisau (Canarium spp.)

11.2

4.20

6.43

1.56

1.49

Lanutan-bagyo [Gonystylus macrophyllum


(miq.) Airy Shaw]

11.8

4.77

7.06

1.59

1.45

Lauan (Shorea spp.)

10.9

4.59

6.44

1.35

1.17

Binggas (Terminalia spp.)

11.8

4.11

7.13

2.04

1.40

Malaanonang (Shorea spp.)

10.9

4.26

6.72

1.54

1.25

11.3

3.97

7.06

2.13

1.36

Malasaging (Aglaia spp.)

13.3

4.68

7.49

2.30

1.46

Bokbok (Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume)


Miq.]

Malugai (Pometia spp.)

12.1

4.96

7.35

2.42

1.63

Dao (Dracontomelon spp.)

10.1

3.39

5.90

1.42

1.20

Miau (Dysoxylum spp.)

12.3

5.12

6.96

2.19

1.62

Gatasan [Garcinia venulosa (Blanco)


Choisy]

13.0

4.27

8.42

2.20

1.47

Nato (Palaquium spp.)

12.7

4.38

7.22

1.84

1.56

Guijo (Shorea spp.)

13.6

5.30

8.22

2.66

1.50

Palosapis (Anisoptera spp.)

10.9

4.71

6.60

2.15

1.33

Kamagong (Diospyros spp.)

13.1

4.50

7.31

2.74

1.54

Kamatog [Erythrophloeum densiflorum


(Elm) Merr.]

11.9

4.72

6.98

2.47

1.47

Katmon (Dillenia spp)

11.7

4.26

7.44

3.03

1.43

Kato (Amoora spp.)

11.5

5.02

6.62

2.17

1.23

Lomarau (Swintonia foxworthyi Elm.)

12.4

4.95

7.38

2.86

1.36

Pine (Pinus spp.)

11.6

5.24

6.53

1.48

1.23

Salakin (Aphanamixis spp.)

12.4

4.47

6.96

2.32

1.48

Vidal lanutan [Hibiscus campylosiphon


Turcz. Var. glabrecens (Har. Ex. Perk.)]

15.4

4.59

6.73

2.09

1.88

II.

Moderately High Strength Group

4-93

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

50% Stress Grade

III.

IV.

4-94

Species
(Common and Botanical Names)

Bending
and Tension
Parallel to
Grain

Modulus of
Elasticity
in Bending

Compression
Parallel to
Grain

Compression
Ppendicular
to Grain

Shear
Parallel
to Grain

(1)

(12)

(14)

(15)

(16)

MPa

(13)
103
MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Mahogany, Big-leafed (Swietenia


macrophylla King)

10.3

2.91

6.54

2.39

1.69

Makaasim (Sysygium nitidum Benth)

12.8

4.20

7.10

2.31

1.50

Malakauayan [Decusocarpus
philippinensis (Fxw.) de Laub.]

11.8

4.16

6.98

1.45

1.34

Narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd)

11.2

3.71

7.12

1.92

1.20

Pahutan (Mangifera spp.)

10.4

4.08

6.25

1.56

1.28

Apitong (Dipterocarpus spp.)

10.3

4.57

5.97

1.37

1.08

Bagtikan [Parashorea malaanonan


(Blanco) Merr.]

10.4

4.05

6.18

1.46

1.14

Dangkalan (Calophyllum spp.)

10.2

3.99

5.75

1.55

1.24

Gisau (Canarium spp.)

8.93

3.33

5.10

1.24

1.18

Lanutan-bagyo [Gonystylus macrophyllum


(miq.) Airy Shaw]

9.39

3.79

5.60

1.26

1.15

Lauan (Shorea spp.)

8.68

3.64

5.11

1.07

0.93

Malaanonang (Shorea spp.)

8.63

3.38

5.34

1.23

0.99

Malasaging (Aglaia spp.)

10.5

3.71

5.95

1.83

1.16

Malugai (Pometia spp.)

9.62

3.94

5.83

1.92

1.30

Miau (Dysoxylum spp.)

9.80

4.06

5.52

1.74

1.29

Nato (Palaquium spp.)

10.1

3.48

5.73

1.46

1.24

Palosapis (Anisoptera spp.)

8.65

3.73

5.24

1.70

1.05

Pine (Pinus spp.)

9.19

4.16

5.18

1.18

0.98

Salakin (Aphanamixis spp.)

9.83

3.54

5.52

1.84

1.18

Vidal lanutan [Hibiscus campylosiphon


Turcz. Var. glabrecens (Har. Ex. Perk.)]

12.2

3.64

5.34

1.66

1.50

Almaciga [Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rilh.]

7.35

3.42

3.92

0.90

0.92

Bayok (Pterospermum spp.)

7.89

2.97

4.58

0.81

0.75

Lingo-lingo (Vitex turczaninowii Merr.)

8.27

2.58

4.28

1.25

1.04

Mangasinoro (Shorea spp.)

7.98

3.35

4.66

1.23

0.90

Raintree [Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.]

7.43

1.72

4.52

2.07

1.30

Yemane (Gmelina arborea R. Br.)

7.86

2.55

4.92

2.13

1.23

Medium Strength Group

Moderately Low Strength Group

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Test procedures should be able to recreate the material design stresses. In the
absence of a reliable as-built plan, a comprehensive investigation should be
conducted which includes, but not limited to, the use of the following:

Rebound hammer test and concrete coring for compression tests

The PUNDIT (Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Digital Indicating Tester)


test for evaluating the uniformity of concrete, locating internal concrete voids
and cracks, and estimating severity of concrete deterioration.
Rebar locator for concrete structures

Corrosion and carbonation tests for concrete

Direct measurement of structural members including plumbness detection


Load testing

Structural analysis based on the test results will then be made to complete the
study.
Analysis may be code based or performance based.

Retrofitting work will follow the results of the structural analysis and review. The
retrofitting shall be dependent of the established criteria (code based or
performance based) and shall be considered on case by case basis depending on
the discovered inadequacies of the structure being investigated.
Code based: the intention of this type of analysis is essentially to bring the
existing structure into a design level consistent with the NSCP.

Performance based: Uses as an objective the "degree of acceptable risk" which


should be agreed upon by stakeholders. The structural engineer may consider, the
acceptable damage to the structure without loss of life. To the owner, the higher
construction cost in case the owner decides on a higher design criteria.
Expected performance level can be one of the four damage states after an
earthquake:

Fully operational use of structure is the same as before the earthquake

Operational building suffers some damage but remains functional and will
not collapse.
Life safety foremost in the consideration is the safety of the occupant and not
the prevention of structural and non structural member failure.

Collapse prevention. allows minimum design criteria and would require


extensive repair (or demolition) after an earthquake event.

References are:

Earthquake Engineering: From Engineering Seismology to PerformanceBased Engineering by Yousef Bozorgnia, Vitelmo V. Bertero 2004

Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, Amr S. Elnashai, Luigi Di Sarno


2008, ISBN 978-0-470-02483-6 (Hbk)

4-97

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Locations and details, expansion joint detail

Slab opening, corner reinforcements, depression details

Rebar splice, development length, hook schedule

Pipe sleeve on beam, change in elevation of beams

Framing Plans

Stair details

Shearwall and shearwall footing details, ramp details

Elevated water tank detail including concrete saddles


Cistern, septic tank details
Bay sections

Foundation Plan

Foundation plan should contain property line, footing and column


designations
Location of walls with wall footings, slab on fill thickness and rebar size and
spacing
Scale should be consistent with the floor plan scale
Excavation plan

Floor Framing Plans (including deck)

Beam and slab designations, scaled location of beams and columns, floor
openings
Columns terminated at a particular floor should be hatched
Scale should be consistent with the floor plan scale.

Roof Framing Plan

Roof beams, truss, rafters, bracings designations. Scaled location of beams,


truss
Rafters, bracings

Purlin size and spacing call out

Columns terminated at a particular floor should be hatched


Scale should be consistent with the floor plan scale

Schedule and Typical Details

4-102

Slabs, beams, footings showing all necessary dimensions and rebar size and
number

Detailed column section and typical column elevation showing rebars and
splice
Restrictions

Truss and rafter schematic diagrams with sizes and connection/anchoring


detail
Purlin, sagrod, bracing connection details

4-103

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.2.2

Availability of Power Source

Availability of power should be known beforehand. The type and characteristics


such as the number of phases, voltage rating and the frequency in Hertz should be
known and available. Samples of electric power source are as follow:
Primary Voltage:

34.5 kV, three-phase, four wire, 60 Hz or

34.5 kV, single-phase, two wire, 60 Hz or


20 kV, single-phase, three-wire, 60Hz or

13.8 kV, three-phase, four wire, 60 Hz or

13.8 kV, single-phase, two wire, 60 Hz or


13.2 kV, three-phase, four wire, 60 Hz or

13.2 kV, single-phase, two wire, 60 Hz or


7.62 kV, single phase, three-wire, 60 Hz

Secondary Voltage:

5.2.3

460/265 volts, three-phase, four wire, 60 Hz AC or


400/230 volts, three-phase, five wire, 60 Hz AC or
230 volts, three-phase, four wire, 60 Hz AC or
230 volts, single-phase, three wire, 60 Hz AC

230 volts, single phase, 60 Hz AC Multi-ground

Local Power Utility Company Requirements

Follow the rules and regulations of the local electric company, where applicable as
follows:

5-3

For projects requiring new electrical service, the electrical designer shall
coordinate requirements with the local utility service company. For
renovations of and/or additions to existing buildings, the electrical designer
shall investigate the existing electrical service/distribution system and
determine whether sufficient capacity is available to accommodate the new
loads. If applicable, the electrical designer shall inform the electric utility
company of the new service requirements and additional loads.
Major site distribution components, such as medium voltage and low voltage
power feeders, duct banks, and manholes, shall be shown on the civil utility
plans for coordination purposes. The routing of site utilities and location of
manholes should be determined early in the design process.
The service entrance location shall be determined concurrently with the
development of conceptual design. Space planning documents and standards
for equipment furnished by utility companies should be incorporated into the
concept design. Locations for transformers, unit substation, vaults, meters and

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 5-1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

General Lighting Load Density


Type of Occupancy

Load Density (VA per


m)

Office Buildings

39

Schools

33

Hospitals

22

Warehouse storages

Court Rooms

22

Auditoriums

11

Corridors

Clubs

22

Dwelling Units

33

Parking Area

Reception & Waiting Area/Lobby

Toilet & Washroom

Parking lots shall be designed with pole mounted luminaires that is


environment friendly and requires less energy but efficient. Emergency power
shall not be required for parking lot lighting.
Entrances: Lighting fixtures shall be provided at all entrances and exits of
major buildings and shall be connected to the emergency lighting circuit.

Loading Docks: Exterior door lighting shall be provided at loading docks.


Fixtures for illumination of the interior of trailers shall be provided at each
truck position.
The basic lighting density for roadway shall not exceed the maximum values
as indicated in Table 5-3.
Table 5-3

Maximum Values for Lighting Power for Roads and Ground Load Density
Type of Occupancy

Source: PEC Part 1, Table 2.20.2.3

Load Density
(W/m)

Work Area

Activity area for casual use (such as picnic, grounds, gardens, parks)

Private driveways/walkways

Exterior Lighting

The total lighting density for the exterior spaces of buildings shall not exceed the
maximum values for building areas as indicated in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2

Maximum Values for Lighting Power for Building Exterior Load Density

Building Area/Space

Lighting Power

Exit (with or without canopy)

60 W/L.m. of door opening

Entrance (without canopy)

90 W/L.m. of door opening

High Traffic (such as retail, airport)

100 W/m of area with canopy

Light Traffic (such as office, school)

10 W/m of area with canopy

Loading Area

3 W/m

Loading Door

50 W/L.m. of door opening

Total power allowance for the exterior (exclusive


of above allowances) of building perimeter for
buildings of up to 5 storey (above ground) plus
6W/L.m. of building perimeter for each additional
storey

100 W/L.m.

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

5-5

Exterior lighting is to comply with the local zoning laws of Barangay,


Municipalities and Cities. Use lighting levels appropriate for exterior areas as
indicated in the available standard references. Flood lighting shall also be
provided if necessary.

Parking and roadway lighting shall be of High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps
or Light Emitting Diode (LED). The illumination ratios shall not exceed 10 to 1
maximum to minimum ratio and a 4 to 1 average to minimum ratio.

Public driveways/walkways

1.5

Private Parking lots

1.2

Public Parking lots

1.8

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

5.3.2

Illumination Levels for Various Areas

For lighting levels for interior spaces please refer to the values indicated in Table
5-4 and 5-5. The electrical designer shall have the option to use the manual
calculation and/or the applicable lighting calculation software.
Table 5-4

Recommended Design Illuminance Levels

Task
Lighting for Infrequently Used

Lighting for Working Interiors

Localized lighting for Exacting tasks

Minimum and
Maximum
(Lux)

Application

50-150

Circulation area and Corridors

100-200

Stairs

100-200

Escalators

200-300

Infrequent reading and writing

300-750

General offices, typing and computing

300-750

Conference room

500-1000

Deep-plan general offices

500-1000

Drawing offices

500-1000

Proofreading

750-1500

Designing, architecture and machine


engineering

1000-2000

Detailed and precise work

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

5-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 5-5

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Illuminance Levels (Average)


Area

component of illumination only and ignore the indirect component of light, which
can contribute significantly to the uniformity. However, used within its limits, a
Spacing Criterion can be valuable. To use the Spacing Criterion, multiply the net
mounting height (luminaire to work plane) by the Spacing Criterion number.

Nominal Illuminance Level in


Lumens/m (lux)

Office Area
Normal work station area, open or closed offices

500

Automated Data Processing (ADP)

500

Conference Rooms

300

Training Rooms

500

Internal Corridors

200

Applicable Lighting Software shall be used to determine the required spacing


considering the technical characteristic of the luminaires to be used.

Public Areas
Entrance Lobbies

200

Elevator Lobbies, Public Corridors

200

Stairwells

200

5.3.4

200

Staff Locker Rooms

200

Storage Rooms, Janitors Closets

200

Electrical Rooms, Generator Rooms

200

Mechanical Rooms

200

Communications Rooms

200

Maintenance Shops

200

Loading Docks

200

Trash Rooms

200

Design for glare, contrast, visual comfort and color rendering and correction shall
be considered by the design engineer.
Task lighting shall be used in situations, such as areas of systems furniture, where
the general lighting level would be insufficient for the specific functions required.

Specialty Areas
Dining Areas

150-200

Kitchens

500

Outleased Area

500

Physical Fitness Area

500

Child Care Centers

500

Structured Parking, General Area

50

Structured Parking, Intersections

100

Structured Parking, Entrances

500

5.3.5

5.3.6

U.S. General Services Administration

5.3.3

Lighting Layout

Lighting shall be designed to enhance both the overall building architecture as


well as the effect of individual areas within the building with consideration on
energy efficiency.
For the required spacing with respect to mounting height between luminaires or
lighting outlets shall consider the spacing criteria recommended by the
manufacturer.

Spacing criteria provide the designer with information regarding how far apart
luminaires may be spaced while maintaining acceptable illumination uniformity
on the work plane based on the photometric data of the luminaire to be used.
Criteria for spacing are generally conservative; they take into account the direct
5-7

Office Lighting

Office lighting is generally fluorescent (tubular or CFL) and/or LED type lighting
fixtures utilizing pinlight or downlight. A lighting layout with a fairly even level of
general illumination is desirable. In open office areas with systems furniture
partitions, the coefficient of utilization shall be reduced to account for the light
obstruction and absorption of the partitions.

Support Areas
Toilets

Refer also to the recommendations of the DoE Manual of Practice on Efficient


Lighting.

5.3.7

5.3.8

If the area contains special work stations for computer graphics, dimmable CFL or
LED may be required. If a large area is segregated into areas of high and low
personnel activity, switching design should provide for separate control of lights
in high- and low-activity areas of the area.

Conference Rooms and Training Rooms

These areas shall have a combination of fluorescent (tubular or CFL) and/or


dimmable LED or halogen lighting fixture.

Lobbies, Auditorium and Public Corridors

Special lighting design concepts shall be applied in these areas. The lighting design
shall be an integral part of the architecture. Wall fixtures or combination wall and
ceiling fixtures shall be considered in corridors to help break the monotony of a
long, plain space.
Mechanical and Electrical Areas

Lighting in equipment rooms or closets shall be provided by industrial-type


fluorescent fixtures or vapor-tight fixtures. Care shall be taken to locate light
fixtures so that lighting is not obstructed by tall or suspended pieces of
equipment.

Dining Areas and Services

Ample daylight is the illumination of choice in dining areas, assisted by fluorescent


(tubular or CFL) and/or LED type fixtures. Limited CFL for accents shall be

5-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.3.9

5.3.10

5.3.11

5.3.12

5.3.13

5.3.14

5.3.15

considered if comparable architectural effect to LED or incandescent lighting can


be achieved.

Fixtures for parking areas shall be fluorescent strip fixtures with wire guards or
diffusers. Care must be taken in locating fixtures to maintain the required vehicle
clearance. Enclosed fluorescent or HID fixtures should be considered for abovegrade parking structures

Structured Parking

Task oriented lighting shall be chosen wherever applicable.

When choosing lighting fixtures, take into account the color rendition and
appearance of the area to be lighted. Refer Table 5-6.
Efficacy Ranges of Various Lamps

Lamp Type

Lighting in shop, supply, or warehouse areas with ceilings above 4900 mm shall
be color-improved HPS. In areas where color rendition is known to be of
particular importance, metal halide MH shall be used.

Rated Power Ranges


(watts)

Efficacy Ranges
(lumens/watt)

Linear/Tubular Fluorescent Lamp

Emergency Lighting

Emergency lighting shall be provided to designated areas and installed on wall


below the ceiling line.

Exit Lighting

Exit lighting shall be provided to all emergency and egress areas installed surface
mounted on the ceiling or wall mounted.

Halophosphate

10 40

55 70

Triphosphor

14 65

60 83

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

3 125

41 65

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

3 100

80 95

Incandescent Lamp

10 100

10 25

Mercury Vapor Lamp

50 2000

40 63

Metal Halide lamp

Up to 1000

75 95

Low Pressure Sodium Lamp

20 200

100 180

High Pressure Sodium Lamp

50 250

80 130

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

Energy Conservation

The largest factor in the energy consumption of a building is lighting. The overall
efficiency of the lighting system shall depend both on the individual components
and on the interaction of components in a system. A good controls strategy shall
be applied to eliminate lighting in unoccupied areas and reduces it where day
lighting is available that can contribute significantly to energy conservation.
Necessary applicable control methods shall be applied such as through a Building
Automation System (BAS) and other available technology to comply with the
energy conservation.

Consider the maximum practical room surface reflectance in the lighting


design. Utilize light finishes to attain the best overall efficiency of the whole
lighting system. Avoid dark surfaces because these absorb light. Table 5-7
shows the recommended room surface reflectance.

Table 5-7

Visual Impact

The location and selection of the electrical system shall have visual impact on the
interior and exterior of the building or facility that shall be closely coordinated
with the architectural design. This includes colors and finishes of lights, outlets
and switches.

Design of lighting shall use the energy efficient lighting fixtures. The lighting
system shall be selected to provide an aesthetic and adaptable environment in
accordance with the intended purpose and with the minimum likely energy
requirements.

Table 5-6

High Bay Lighting

Recommended Room Surface Reflectance

Surface

% Reflectance

Ceilings

80 92

Walls

40 60

Furniture

26 44

Floors dimming

21 39

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

5.3.16

General Requirements for Lighting Design

The minimum requirements in achieving energy efficient lighting design and


installations is one purpose of this guidelines. The provisions are expressed in
terms of lighting power density, luminous efficacy and illumination level. In
choosing suitable indoor illuminance level for an area, energy efficient shall be
considered plus other lighting requirements.

5-9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.3.17

Lighting Calculations

The designer has the option to use sample calculations as indicated in DoE Manual
of Practice on Efficient Lighting or from lighting software.

Lighting Controls

Manual (tumbler and dimmer switches), automatic, or programmable


microprocessor lighting controls shall be provided for all lighting, except those
required for emergency or exit lighting for security purposes. The application of
5-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

these controls and the controlled zones shall depend on a number of space factors:
frequency of use, available daylighting, normal and extended work hours and the
use of open or closed office plans. The factors to be considered when establishing
zones, zone controls, alternate control and appropriate lighting control are:

Every task lighting shall be provided with lighting control device.

The general lighting of any enclosed area equal to or greater than 10 m


wherein the connected loads is greater than 10 W/m for the entire area shall
be controlled so that the lights load may be reduced by at least one-half while
retaining a uniform level of illuminance all over the area. This process shall be
made by the use of dimmers, dual switching of alternate lighting fixture, or
switching each lighting fixture.
The quantity of control devices needed shall be at least one for every 1.5 kW of
connected lighting load. It shall also comply with the preceding item. The total
number of control points to be used is shown in Table 5-8.
Control Types and Equivalent Number of Control Points
Type of Control

Equivalent Number of
Control Points

Manually operated On-Off Switch

Occupancy Sensor

Timer Programmable from the space being controlled

3 Level step-control (including off) or preset dimming

4 Level step-control (including off) or preset dimming

Continuous (Automatic) dimming

Source: Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings (2007 Ed.)

Exterior lighting not intended for 24 hours continuous use or both all-night
and part-night lighting circuits shall be automatically switched on by a timer,
photocell or combination of both timer-photocell. This process shall be
provided with manual bypass switch.

Exceptions:
-

At least one lighting control device shall be provided for each space enclosed
by ceiling-height partitions. The device shall have the ability to switch on and
off all the lights within the area.

Table 5-8

location should not be considered as increasing the number of controls to


meet the requirements of Table 5-8.

5.3.18

Lighting control requirements for areas, which shall be used as a whole


shall be controlled in accordance with the work activities. Its controls
shall be centralized in remote places. These areas include public lobbies
of hospitals, office buildings, warehouses, store rooms and service
corridors under central control and monitoring system.

Automatic and non-automatic control devices may decrease the quantity


of controls required by using equivalent number of controls from Table
5-8.
Automatic Control System, Programmable Controllers

Lighting Controls requiring expert operators and lighting controls for


security and safety hazards.

Power Layout

Receptacle/Convenience Outlet Load Analysis

In establishing electrical loads for buildings or facility it is important to look its


actual requirements. Future changes have the effect of redistributing electrical
loads. The minimum connected receptacle loads indicated in Table 5-9 combined
with other building or facility loads multiplied by appropriate demand factors, and
with spare capacity added, shall be used for obtaining the overall electrical load of
the building.
Building standard receptacle shall be duplex. Single receptacle shall be used on
certain equipment to be used such as for Emergency Light, Exit Light, etc. Special
purpose receptacles shall be provided for window type Air-conditioning unit,
Electric Ranges, Heating and Refrigeration and other similar equipment. Device
plates shall be plastic, colored to match the receptacles.

Use manual or automatic controls where adequate day lighting is available.


Examples of automatic controls are photoelectric switches or automatic
dimmers. These controls shall not only be provided for day lighted spaces but
also to operate rows of lights parallel to front/exterior wall.
Continuous lighting shall be applied for security purposes,

Control Location

5-11

Lighting controls shall be readily accessible to area tenants.

Controls for task lighting areas shall be installed as part of the task lighting
system. Control switches controlling the same load from more than one
5-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 5-9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Minimum Connected Receptacle Load


Type of occupied area

Table 5-10
Load per square meter (VA)

Circuit Rating (Amperes)

Receptacle Rating (Amperes)

15

Not over 15

Normal systems
Office/Workstation

14

20

15 or 20

Non-workstation areas such as public and storage

10

30

30

40

40 or 50

50

50

Public areas
Electronic systems
Office/Workstation
Computer rooms

13

Source: PEC Part 1, Table 2.10.2.3(b)(3)

700

U.S. General Services Administration

Design the receptacle system per the following minimum requirements. The
designer shall create a design that provides for the average load requirement and
allows for flexibility for future additions and expansion. In this case the design
generally adheres to PEC requirement for general purpose receptacles in
residential buildings to provide a sufficient quantity of receptacles and meet any
future needs:

Receptacle Rating for Various Size Circuits

5.3.19

The motor nameplate horsepower shall be multiplied by the motor nameplate


service factor shall be at least 15% greater than the driven equipment operating
range maximum brake horsepower. For motors with 1.15 service factor, the
maximum load horsepower shall not exceed the motor nameplate.

For offices, minimum of 3.7 m spacing between receptacles is required.


However, for modular or workstation offices that requires computer, a
dedicated receptacle shall be provided.
For hallway and corridors (to accommodate cleaning equipment), minimum of
6 m spacing between receptacles is required.

Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) or Earth leakage circuit breaker


(ELCB) protection shall be provided on all receptacles located within 1.8
meter of sinks, water fountains, vending machines, and any equipment holding
a pool of water and connected to building plumbing.
Weatherproof receptacle shall be used for exterior installation exposed to
weather condition.

Receptacle Ratings: Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or


more receptacles or outlets, receptacle ratings shall conform to the values
listed in Table 5-10, or where larger than 50 amperes, the receptacle rating
shall not be less than the branch-circuit rating.

Motors

Provision of necessary power supplies for the intended operation and application
as indicated on the respective equipment schedule that requires motor loads.
Sizing of required starting equipment shall be of direct-on-line or full voltage, stardelta, auto-transformer and soft starters.

Location of receptacle outlets shall be readily accessible and the number of


outlets depends on the area requirement of the structure.

For any heating, air-conditioning, or refrigeration equipment, a dedicated


receptacle is required. Special purpose receptacle shall be used for the
applicable equipment.

Branch Circuit Requirement: The type of circuit is a general purpose branch


circuit, a circuit that serves two or more receptacles or outlets for lighting and
appliances. Each receptacle shall be valued at 180VA. In general every ten
220V receptacles requires one branch circuit at 80 percent of rated capacity.

5.3.20

Motors shall be designed in accordance with the latest applicable standards and
codes.
Branch Circuits, Feeders and Conduit/Raceways

Branch Circuits

The design for the minimum branch circuit conductor size, before the application
of any adjustment or correction factors, shall have an allowable ampacity not less
than the noncontinuous load plus 125% of the continuous load. Likewise, the
feeders shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with the provisions
PEC. The branch circuits shall be installed on the conduit/raceways that originate
from Panelboard and supply power to one or more loads as indicated in Table 5-1,
5-2 and 5-3 with its respective Load Densities or with specific load as indicated in
PEC Article 2.20.
For specific appliance and load shall be calculated based on the ampere rating of
the appliance or load served.
Feeders

The design for the minimum feeder conductor size, before the application of any
adjustment or correction factors, shall have an allowable ampacity not less than
the noncontinuous load plus 125% of the continuous load. Likewise, the feeders
5-13

5-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

shall be protected against overcurrent in accordance with the provisions PEC. The
feeders shall be installed on the conduit/raceways that originate at a primary
distribution center and supply power to one or more secondary
distribution centers, branch-circuit distribution centers, or a combination of these.
Conduit/Raceways for Wires

The design for the conduit/raceway systems used in supporting and protecting
electrical cable shall be in accordance with the provisions of the PEC.

5-15

Raceway system consists of manholes, ductbanks, entrance rooms and vaults,


equipment room(s), closets, and the sleeves, ducts, conduits, raceways and
outlets that comprise the horizontal pathways, backbone pathways and
workstation outlets of the technology infrastructure.

All cable trays except electronic trays shall be of trough or ladder type
construction with a maximum rung spacing of 150 mm, nominal depths of 100
mm to 150 mm, and various widths as required. There shall be a maximum
spacing of 2.4 m between cable tray supports, except fittings (elbows, tees,
etc.) which shall be supported in accordance with standards.
Raceways or cable trays or wire ways containing electric conductors shall not
contain any pipe, tube, or equal for steam, water, air, gas, drainage, or any
service other than electrical.

Metal raceways, cable armor, and other metal enclosures for conductors shall
be metallically joined together into a continuous electric conductor and shall
be connected to all boxes, fittings, and cabinets so as to provide effective
electrical continuity. Raceways and cable assemblies shall be mechanically
secured to boxes, fittings, cabinets, and other enclosures.
Electrical conduits shall be installed in concrete slab or wall or double walls
and floors.

PVC conduits shall be used for embedded and concealed installation, EMT for
concealed installation spaces up to 32 mm maximum size and RSC or IMC
conduit for exposed to weather, and in areas susceptible to damage and for
high and low-voltage feeders inside the building. PVC or RSC/IMC conduit
shall be used on underground installation with concrete encasement or duct
banks.

Flexible Steel Conduit (Aluminum Flex Not Allowed) shall be used for short
runs from ceiling Junction-Boxes to light fixtures, final connection to motors or
other appliances and equipment or where special permission is granted for
use.

Liquid tight flexible metallic conduit shall be used for damp location and for
connections to accessory devices such as: solenoid valves, limit switches,
pressure switches, etc.; for connections to motors or other vibrating
equipment; and across areas where expansion or movement of the conduit is
required.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.3.22

color coded insulation shall be applied for all the low voltage system for easy
identifying the phases, neutral and earth conductors. Wires/cables shall be of
the approved type meeting all the requirement of the PEC.
Bus Duct: Where plug-in bus duct is used, it should have an integral ground
bus, sized at 50% of the phase bus to serve as the equipment grounding
conductor.

Power Distribution Panels: Circuit breaker type panels shall be the standard
protection with respective interrupting capacity.

Lighting and receptacle panelboards shall be circuit breaker type. Shall have
minimum of 30 poles for 100 amps panelboards and minimum 42 poles for
225 amp panelboards.
Panelboard shall be located in wall at accessible area or in the Electrical Room.

All panelboards, switchboard/switchgear shall have a rating not less than the
minimum feeder capacity required for the load calculated.
Panelboard

Shall be classified for the purposes as either lighting and appliance branch circuit
panelboards or power panelboards, based on their content. A power panelboard is
one having 10 percent or fewer of its overcurrent devices protecting lighting and
appliance branch circuits. Overcurrent device to be installed shall be of miniature
circuit breaker (MCB) or molded case circuit breaker (MCCB). The enclosure shall
be either flush or surface mounted in wall and shall be located on designated area
or in the Electrical Room.

To ensure maximum flexibility for future systems changes, the following be sized
as follows:

Panelboard for branch circuits must be sized with at least 25% spare capacity

Panelboard and main switchgear for feeder shall provide at least 25% spare
ampacity

5-17

5.3.23

Insulated case and power air circuit breakers shall be electrically operated.
The enclosure shall be of free standing and shall be located in the Electrical
Room.
Required interrupting current capacity shall be provided to all the overcurrent
devices based on the short circuit calculations conducted. If applicable, the
designer shall conduct relay coordination study.

Switchboards shall be front and rear accessible. In smaller switchboards, front


access only is acceptable if space is limited.

The meter section shall contain a voltmeter, ammeter and watt-hour meter
with demand register. Meters maybe of pulse type or IED for connection to the
BAS. Providing a power monitoring and management system is an acceptable
option.

Unit Substation

The unit substation shall be installed on secured and protected conspicuous area
located indoor with necessary ventilation or cooling systems to maintain indoor
temperature as required for proper operation of the equipment.

A unit substation consists of one or more transformers mechanically and


electrically connected to and coordinated in design with one or more switchgear
or switchboard assemblies with the outgoing section shall be rated below 1000
volts.
A typical unit substation consists of three sections:

An incoming section that accepts incoming medium voltage (2400 to 34,500


volts) line. Air Interrupter Switch (fused or unfused) or Metal Clad Switchgear
(SF6 or Vacuum type circuit breaker) shall be used.

A transformer section that transforms incoming voltage down to utilization


voltage (480, 400 or 230 volts). Liquid filled or Dry Type Transformer shall be
used.
An outgoing section (power load center) that distributes power to outgoing
feeders and provides protection for these feeders for the utilization voltage.
The unit substation shall bring power as close as possible to the load center
and shall provide the following features:
-

Spare overcurrent devices shall be provided as well as bus extension for


installation of future protective devices

Switchboards/Switchgear shall be provided with a single main service


disconnect device. The devices shall be molded case, insulated case, power air
circuit breaker (ACB) or individually mounted, draw-out type (as applicable).

Switchboards/Switchgear

Overcurrent Protection. Feeders shall be protected against overcurrent by


providing overcurrent device such as the circuit breaker. Where a feeder
supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and
noncontinuous loads, the rating of the overcurrent device shall not be less
than the noncontinuous load plus 125% of the continuous load.

Panelboard, Switchboard/Switchgear

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Reduced power losses

Better voltage regulation

Improved service continuity

Increased functional flexibility


Lower installation cost

Efficient space utilization

Every component and assembly of the unit substations shall be designed as an


integral part of a complete system
5-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.3.24

Emergency/Standby Power Systems


Generator

Emergency power requirements for the building or facility shall be provided by a


dedicated diesel generator set to supply the essential and critical loads during the
failure of the normal supply. Manual or Automatic transfer switches (MTS/ATS)
shall be provided to transfer the power supply from emergency to normal or vice
versa. Refer Figure 5-1.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

A UPS system shall be sized with 25% spare capacity.


Critical Technical Loads

Capacity.

Generator Location

The generator shall be installed inside the buildings or facility with the required
area for the open type generator. Adequate and permanent ventilation to the
outside air in the form of louvered vents shall be required to be provided as part
of the generator room design. The required location shall be at the ground floor of
the building where it can easily be accessed. This is to ensure ease of installation
and future replacement/retirement. The emission of exhaust shall be routed
outside the atmosphere.
Silent outdoor type generator shall also be used and installed adjacent to the
building or facility.

Auxiliary Equipment

Battery shall be provided in racks within engine-generator set skid base. Voltage
regulated battery chargers shall be provided for engine-generator sets. Chargers
shall be furnished with float, taper, and equalize charge settings.
Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)

In some facilities, critical loads such as the computer system, etc. shall be
designed with a back-up systems such as the UPS.

Requirements for UPS systems shall be evaluated on a case by case basis. If UPS is
required, it may or may not require generator back-up. When generator back-up is
unnecessary, sufficient battery capacity shall be provided to allow for an orderly
shut-down.

5-19

Emergency Electrical Power Source Requirements

When the UPS is running on emergency power, the current to recharge the
UPS batteries shall be limited. This limited battery charging load shall be
added when sizing the emergency generator.

Electric generating system shall meet the design requirements of NFPA 110.

The engine generator shall be sized to approximately 110% of design load. Ideally
it shall run at 50% to 80% of its rated capacity after the effect of the inrush
current declines. When sizing the generator, consider the inrush current of the
motors that are automatically started simultaneously. The initial voltage drop on
generator output due to starting currents of loads must not exceed 15%.

The UPS system shall serve critical loads only. Non-critical loads shall be
served by separate distribution systems supplied from either the normal or
emergency power system.

If the UPS system is backed up by a generator to provide for continuous


operation, then the generator shall also provide power to all necessary
auxiliary equipment, i.e., the lighting, ventilation and air conditioning
supplying the UPS and serving the critical technical area.

System Status and Control Panel

The UPS shall include all instruments and controls for proper system
operation. The system status panel shall have an appropriate audio/visual
alarm to alert operators of potential problems. It shall include the following
monitoring and alarm functions: system on, system bypassed, system fault, out
of phase utility fault and closed generator circuit breaker. It shall have an
audible alarm and alarm silencer button. Since UPS equipment rooms are
usually unattended, an additional remote system status panel shall be
provided in the space served by the UPS. The alarms should also be
transmitted to the Building Automation System (if available).
UPS and Battery Room Requirements

Provide emergency lighting in both spaces. Provide a telephone in or adjacent


to the UPS room. Battery room design shall accommodate proper ventilation,
hydrogen detection, spill containment and working clearances.

Batteries

Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Battery shall be used for the UPS with an
immobilized electrolyte that is sealed in terms of electrolyte maintenance. The
battery contains a pressure relief valve that releases excessive internal pressure
to the atmosphere when the cell pressure exceeds a manufacturer's prescribed
level. The immobilizing electrolyte medium accommodates an oxygen
recombination cycle thus minimizing gassing and water consumption.
The battery cabinet shall be sized with adequate space between shelves to allow
maintenance and test measurement access. Increased clearance shall be required
for multiple rows of batteries behind the front row in the cabinet. Batteries on pull
out drawers are shall be provided with safety and maintenance access.

5-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

full-load primary current of the transformer for about 0.1 s when energized
initially.

Overcurrent protection for a transformer on the primary side is typically a fused


disconnect. In some instances where there is not a high voltage panel, there shall
be circuit breaker instead.

5.4.2

It is important to note that the overcurrent device on the primary side shall be
sized according to the transformer KVA rating and not sized based on the
secondary load to the transformer.

Transformer Vault

The transformer vault that to be installed inside the buildings or facility shall be
complied with the requirement of the PEC. The required location for the
transformer vault shall be at the ground floor of the building where it can easily be
accessed from the outside. This is to ensure ease of installation and future
replacement/retirement of the padmounted transformer.
The walls and roof shall be constructed using reinforced concrete not less than
150 mm thick. The floor shall have adequate strength for the load imposed on it
and shall be not less than 100 mm thick reinforced concrete when in direct
contact with earth or not less than 150 mm thick when located above another
storey. Floor finish shall be smooth and painted with one coat of polyurethane
sealer and two coats of epoxy dustproof coating.

There shall be a maximum of two (2) padmounted transformer units in a vault.


Generally, the minimum required dimension for the vault shall be 5 m (width) X 4
m (depth) for one (1) three-phase padmounted transformer or 8 m (width) X 4 m
(depth) for two (2) three-phase padmounted transformers units. This assumes
that a 3-m clear space in front of the equipment for switching operations can be
attained when the transformer access door is open. For 2nd floor and 1st
basement installations where this is not possible, a 6 m minimum depth for the
vault shall be required. [Exception: For 2nd floor transformer vault where a
hatchway is used, the depth required is 8 m.]
There shall be no openings, such as, doors, vents, etc., from the transformer vault
to any part of the building interior. All openings of the transformer vault shall only
lead to the outside of the building.
The concrete pad for the padmounted transformer shall be 75 mm height.

A 150 mm high door sill shall be provided by the as part of the transformer
vault liquid confinement area.

Adequate and permanent ventilation to the outside air in the form of louvered
vents shall be required to be provided as part of the transformer vault design. The
vents shall have a combined net area of opening (less the area occupied by the
louvers) of not less than 20cm per kVA of the transformer bank capacity
installed. For adequate natural air circulation, the intake and exhaust vents shall
be located on opposite sides of the padmounted transformer with half of the total

5-22

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.5.1

Major items of equipment, such as unit substations, transformer vault,


switchgear, motor control centers, relay panels, and control panels, shall have
integral ground buses which shall be connected to the ground grid.

Electronic panels and equipment, where required, shall be grounded utilizing


an insulated ground wire. Where practical, electronics ground loops shall be
avoided. Where this is not practical, isolation transformers shall be furnished.
All ground wires installed in conduit shall be insulated.

System Grounding

System grounding shall be extremely important, as it affects the susceptibility of


the system to voltage transients, determines the types of loads the system can
accommodate, and helps to determine the system protection requirements.
The system grounding arrangement shall be determined by the grounding of the
following power sources:

Utility Service: The system grounding shall be usually determined by the


secondary winding configuration of the upstream utility substation
transformer.

Generator: The system grounding shall be determined by the stator winding


configuration.
Transformer: The system grounding on the system fed by the transformer
shall be determined by the transformer secondary winding configuration.

Solidly-grounded Systems

The solidly-grounded system is the most common system arrangement, and one of
the most versatile. The most commonly-used configuration is the solidly-grounded
wye, since it will support single-phase phase-to- neutral loads.
Ungrounded Systems

This system grounding arrangement shall be at the other end of the spectrum
from solidly-grounded systems.

5.5.2

An ungrounded system is a system where there shall be no intentional


connection of the system to ground.

Equipment Grounding

Metal parts of electrical equipment shall be grounded (connected to the earth) to


reduce induced voltage on metal parts from exterior lightning so as to prevent
fires from an arc within the building/structure.

Metal parts of electrical raceways, cables, enclosures, or equipment shall be


bonded together in a manner that creates a low-impedance path for ground-fault
current to facilitate the operation of the circuit overcurrent device.

5-24

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5.5.3

A connection that provides a path to ground a conductor within the equipment. A


ground connection to any metal part of a wiring system or equipment that does
not carry current.
Lightning Protection Systems

The lightning protection system shall be designed for Early Streamer Emission
(ESE) air terminal in accordance to the UNE 21186 and similar ESE standards one
which conveys a lightning discharge to ground without electrification of its
supporting mast or pole and nearby structures. A set of protection system shall
consist of electrode, down conductor, ground rod(s), masts, fasteners and other
miscellaneous mounting hardware.
Lightning protection system shall be provided if lightning can easily strike a
building because of:
Its length

Its height, or the use to which it is located, or if

It is expected that a lightning strike would have serious consequences

The lightning protection ground shall be connected to the main building or facility
ground and any nearby buried metallic items and building or facility structures.

5.5.4

Test pit shall be provided and each down conductor requires a test clamp and
dedicated earth system of 10 ohms or less. Should 10 ohms not be achievable,
additional ground rods or conductor shall be provided.

Single Line Diagram

Starting at the top of the drawing with the building transformers, the designer
shall indicated all pertinent electrical equipment down to the panelboard level.
These equipment includes switchboard/switchgear, panelboards, MCCs,
generators, transfer switches, uninterruptible power supplies, and inverter
systems. For transformers, note kVA size, primary and secondary voltages,
phasing (building service entrance only), and impedance. Show the distribution
switchboard and switchgear in "expanded" form. On the drawing detail the main
breaker, tie breaker, feeder breakers, spare breakers, CTs, PTs, and meter. Note
switchboard rated amperage, voltage, and short-circuit capability. Include frame
and trip size of all breakers in the gear. Note service entrance, feeder wire and
conduit sizes.
For larger buildings, additional SLD drawings may be required. If the building uses
MCCs, separate SLDs may be required. When MCCs are necessary, shall provide in
"expanded" form. Drawings shall be called "MCC Single Line Diagram" and be
numbered sequentially with the main SLD. Indicate starter and breaker sizes, bus
tap sizes, wire, and conduit size ending with each motor or other load. If the
building has a large standby power system, shall provide an "expanded" SLD of
this system also.
In general, use the following guidelines:

5-25

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

5-27

Exterior Distribution System Plan


Technical Specifications
Bill of Materials

Project Estimate

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Heat generated by equipment and appliances

Heat gained from outside air (fresh air intake and ventilation)

After consideration of the factors, the amount of heat generated inside the room
will indicate the type of airconditioning system and its capacity requirement for
the room.
The heat loss/load equation is

Q = AUT
where:

6.3.4

surface area

overall heat transfer coefficient depending on the type of


construction materials

difference in outside and inside temperature

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer (U)

Using the principle of heat transfer, the overall coefficient, U, can be calculated
using the resistance method. The total resistance to heat flow through a flat
ceiling, floor or wall (or a curved surface if the curvature is small) is equal to the
sum of the resistances in series.
RT = R1 + R2 + R3.+Rn

Where R1, R2, R3. Rn are the individual resistances of the surface components and
RT is the total resistance.
The overall heat transfer coefficient is the summation of resistance of the various
components of an assembly. The general formula is:
U=

1
R1

1
R2

......

1
R1 Rn

1
Rn

For a wall of a single homogenous material of conductivity, k, and thickness, L,


with surface coefficient h1 and ho:
and

RT =
U=

1
h1

1
k

+ +

1
ho

1
RT

For a wall with air space construction, consisting of two homogenous materials of
conductivities k1 and k2 and thicknesses L1 and L2, respectively, separated by an
air space of conductance c:
RT =

1
h1

1
c

+ k1 + + k2 +
1

1
ho

6-3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

and

1
RT

U=

Over-all heat transfer coefficient for usual materials of construction are provided
in Table 6-1.
Table 6-1

Overall Heat Coefficient

Uo-value
Assembly

BTU/hr-sqft F

Roof Assemblies (Heat Flow Down)


Galvanized Iron Roof with Medium Density Fiber (MDF) Cement Board
ceiling, No insulation

0.55

Galvanized Iron Roof with cement (MDF) Board, 25 mm thick fiberglass


insulation

0.18

Galvanized Iron Roof with Medium Density Fiber Cement (MDF) Board, 50
mm thick fiberglass insulation

0.10

150 mm Roof Slab without ceiling

0.61

150 mm Roof Slab , 25 mm thick fiberglass insulation no ceiling

0.19

150 mm Roof Slab , no insulation, with 200mm air space and MDF Board

0.36

150 mm Roof Slab , 25 mm thick fiberglass insulation, with 200mm air space
and MDF Board

0.15

Outdoor Wall Assemblies


100 mm Concrete Block w/ 0.5 inch Plaster, both sides

0.72

150 mm Concrete Block w/ 0.5 inch Plaster, both sides

0.63

200 mm Concrete Block w/ 0.5 inch Plaster, both sides

0.56

Floor Assembly (Heat Flow up)


150 mm thick floor slab with no ceiling below

0.58

150 mm thick floor slab with 200 mm airspace and MDF ceiling

0.38

Ceiling Assembly (Heat Flow down)


150 mm thick floor slab with no ceiling below

0.43

150 mm thick floor slab with 200 mm airspace and MDF ceiling

0.64

Wall Partitions
100 mm CHB with 12 mm plaster finish on both sides

0.55

150 mm CHB with 12 mm plaster finish on both sides

0.50

25 mm thick fiberglass insulation sandwiched between Medium Density


Fiber Cement Board

0.18

50 mm thick fiberglass insulation sandwiched between Medium Density


Fiber Cement Board

0.11

Internal Heat Gain Sources: The air conditioned room may be considered to be a
black box where all the heat going into the box has to be removed by the air
conditioning. The internal sources of heat are the people, lights, appliances and
equipment.

6-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

6.5.1

6.5.2

NFPA 14: Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant and Hose
Systems
NFPA 20: Standard for the installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection

General Design Procedure

The project drawings are the take off point for any fire protection system that
would be designed. The use of the building will determine the type of fire
protection system to be provided or should any be installed at all. Republic Act
9514 known as the Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008 and its implementing
rules and regulation shall be consulted as minimum code requirement for the fire
protection system to be provided.

Automatic Fire Sprinkler System

General: One of the most reliable extinguishing system is the automatic sprinkler
system. The design of the automatic sprinkler system shall be based on the
provisions of NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation Sprinkler Systems. Facilities
requiring sprinkler systems shall be determined from the requirements of the Fire
Code of the Philippines of 2008.

Classification of Occupancies: Occupancy classification is used to determine


sprinkler installation only and does not supersede the requirements of the Fire
Code. Based on the available fuel during a fire, an area may be considered to be
light hazard if the combustibility of the contents is relatively low. Examples are
offices, restaurant sitting rooms, theaters. Ordinary Hazard on the other hand
have moderate to high rates of heat release. Examples of these are garages,
restaurant service areas and factories. Extra hazard occupancies have a very high
level of combustibles present. They include aircraft hangars, painting areas,
plywood manufacturing areas. Sprinkler installation guidelines are provided in
Table 6-3.
Table 6-3

Sprinkler installation guidelines

Occupancy Classification

Maximum Sprinkler
Protection Area,
m2

Sprinkler Spacing
(max:), m2

From Walls
(max:), m2

Light Hazard

20.9

4.5

2.25

Ordinary Hazard

12.0

4.5

2.25

Extra Hazard

9.2

3.6

1.8

Hydraulic Calculations

Pipe Friction Losses are determined by the Hazen-Williams formula where


P = 4.52 Q1.85
C1.85 d4.87

Where P is the friction loss in pounds per square inch per foot length of pipe, Q is
in gallons per minute. C is the Hazen-Williams coefficient dependent on the type of
pipe.
6-7

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Pm = __4.52 Q1.85__
C1.85 dm4.87

Where Pm is in pounds per square inch per foot length of pipe, Q is flow in gallons
per minute, dm is the actual internal diameter of the pipe in inches and C is the
friction loss coefficient of the pipe
In SI units Pm = 6.05 x _4.52 Q1.85 _ x 105
C1.85 dm4.87

where:
Pm

bars per meter length of pipe

dm

the actual internal diameter of the pipe in mm

flow in liters per minute

friction loss coefficient of the pipe

Table 6-4

Hazen Williams C values

Pipe or Tube Material

100

Black steel (Dry Pipe Systems)

100

Black steel (Dry Pipe Systems)

120

Galvanized (all)

120

Plastics (listed) all

150

Cement Lined ductile or Cast Iron

140

Table 6-5
Fittings and Valves

6.5.3

C Value

Unlined Cast or Ductile Iron

Equivalent Pipe Length Chart


Equivalent Pipe lengths in feet
1 in

1.25 in

1.5 in

2 in

2.5 in

3 in

4 in

5in

6in

45 Elbow

90 Standard Elbow

10

12

14

90 Long Radius Elbow

Tee or Cros

10

12

15

20

25

30

Butterfly Valve

10

12

10

Gate Valve

Swing Check Valve

11

14

16

22

27

32

Wet and Dry Standpipe Systems

General: A stand pipe system is an ideal supplement to an automatic


sprinkler system. A hose stream provides a high concentrated volume of
water to a fire. There are two (2) types of systems the first is the wet
standpipe system which has water in the pipes all the time and a dry
standpipe system is filled with water prior to use.

6-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 6-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Recommended Basic Water Requirements for Human Needs. a


Purpose

Recommended Minimum
(liters/person/day)

Range (liters/ person/ day)

Drinking Water

2 to 5

Sanitation Services

20

0 to over 75

Bathing

15

5 to 70d

Cooking and Kitchen

10

10 to 50d

Total Recommended Basic


50
Water Requirement
Source: Gleick, Peter H. Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs Water
International, Vol. 21, No. 2(1996). Page 88.
a.
b.
c.

d.

6.6.2

Excluding requirement to grow food.


This is a true minimum to sustain life in moderate climactic conditions and with average activity levels.
An average (not minimum) of 40 l/p/d is considered adequate for direct sanitation hookups in
industrialized countries. The upper end of the range represent extremely inefficient toilets. In water short
regions, sanitation systems that use no water are available, but rarely embraced socially.
The upper values here represent societal preferences for moderately industrialized countries. Use in
some water-rich regions may exceed these amounts. The lowest values reflect minimum uses in
developing countries.

Sizing Overhead Tanks, Transfer Pumps and Level Control

Overhead tanks supplied from cisterns shall be sized for a capacity of one day.
Float switches may be provided to activate transfer pumps.

Transfer pumps shall be provided to move water from the cistern to the overhead
tank. Water shall be transferred from the cistern to the overhead tank for a period
not exceeding two hours. Pumps operating in parallel is the preferred
configuration. Each pump shall be one-half the capacity of the maximum demand.
A third pump may be provided as a stand-by unit.

Pipes shall be sized for a velocity of 1 3 m/sec. The flow through black iron pipes
is indicated in Table 6-7.
Table 6-7

Flow through Schedule 40 B.I. Pipes in Liters per Minute

Velocity

NominalPipe Size (inches)

(mps)

Internal diameter (inches)


0.75

1.25

1.5

2.5

0.824

1.049

1.38

1.61

2.067

2.469

3.068

4.026

21

34

58

79

130

189

287

384

41

67

116

158

261

372

574

768

62

101

174

237

391

558

862

1,152

Calculating the total developed head (TDH) of the pump involves the summation
of the friction loss in feet of the pipe from the cistern to the overhead tank plus the
static head in feet between the cistern and tank.

Pump Total Develop Head = Pipe Friction Loss+ Static Head+Velocity Head.
6-10

The Hazen-Williams formula mentioned in Section 5.5.2 may be utilized to


calculate friction loss. Pump selection shall take into account the available power
supply and the technical capability of the user to operate and maintain the system.
The Pump Horsepower assist the designer in determining the horsepower of the
pump to guide him in selecting the appropriate unit. Pum motor horse power may
be determined as follows:
=

Example:

) ()

3960

Assume a two (2) storey school building with a canteen catering to a total
population of 360 students, teachers and staff. It is required that am overhead
tank, cistern tank connected by a pump and piping will be required. The pipe is 15
m long, with 3 elbows, 3 gate valves, 1 check valve. Based on Table 6-6, each
person will require 35 liters per day (drinking: 5 l, sanitation 20 l, cooking and
kitchen:10 l)
The overhead tank is calculated:

Over head tank capacity = 360 persons x 35 liters/person/day Table 6.6)


= 12,600 liters (or 3,315 gallons)

The cistern tank is a minimum of 2.5 times the overhead tank. The capacity is:
Cistern tank capacity = 12, 600 liters x 2.5 = 31,500 liters

To fill the tank in an hour, the pump flow capacity must be:
Pump capacity = 12,600 liters / 60 minutes

= 210 liters/ minute (55.25 gallons/minute)

From Table 6-5, a pipe 50 mm will be used.

The fittings to be used are:

If the floor to floor height is 3.6 m and a sink is 1.0 m above the floor, an overhead
tank may be mounted approximately 4.5 m above the point of use. The total height
shall therefore be 9.1 m above the ground or 30 feet.
Pipe length = 15 m = 49 feet

Equivalent pipe length of fittings (Table 6.5):


Elbows: 3 x 5
Gate Valve: 3 x 1
Check valve 1 x 11
Total

= 15 feet
= 3 feet
= 11 feet
= 29 feet

Pm = __4.52 Q1.85__ = __4.52 x 55.251.85___ = 0.031 psi

C1.85 dm4.87
1201.85 x 2.0674.87
Pipe friction loss = (49 feet + 29 feet) x 0.031 psi
= 2.48 psi x 2.31 feet H2O /psi
= 5.7 feet

6-11

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure 6-1

PROJECT
ROOM NO/DES.
DATE
Design Month
Design Time
Item

Sample Work Sheet for Mechanical Engineer

July
4:00 PM

Area or

Sun Gain

Quantity

or Tem p

Factor

CONDITIONS

Extension

Diff.
Solar Gain - Glass

DB
95

82

56

78

146

Room

75 62.5

50

60

78

Difference

20 XXX XXX XXX

Glass

Sq. Ft. x

33 x

0.94 =

Glass

Sq. Ft. x

11 x

0.94 =

Glass

Sq. Ft. x

11 x

0.94 =

People x

Glass

Sq. Ft. x

153 x

0.94 =

Sq Ft

Sq. Ft. x

112 x

0.94 =

Skylight

BYPASS FACTOR
Extension

OUTDOOR AIR
20

cfm/person =

cfm/sf

=
=

CFM Ventilation

Solar Gain - Walls & Roof

APPARATUS DEW POINT

Wall

Sq. Ft. x

13 x

0.49 =

Effective

Wall

Sq. Ft. x

31 x

0.49 =

Sens. Heat =

Eff. Rm Sen. Heat =

Wall

Sq. Ft. x

17 x

0.49 =

Factor

Eff. Rm. Total Ht.

Wall

Sq. Ft. x

31 x

0.49 =

Roof - Sun

Sq. Ft. x

46 x

0.49 =

Roof - Shaded

Sq. Ft. x

Tansm ission Gain - Except Walls & Roof

Indicated ADP

Selected ADP
DEHUMIDIFIED AIR QUANTITY

ADP Temp =

All Glass

Sq. Ft. x

Partition

Sq. Ft. x

Ceiling

Sq. Ft. x

Floor

Sq. Ft. x

ERSH

Fx

245 =

Infiltration

CFM

Pow er

hp

Lights

w atts

TRM -

TADP =

ADP TD=

cfm

Difference
DTR =(1-

BF)
1.08

Internal Heat

COIL CONDITIONS

People

Coil Entering Tem perature

2545 =

Entering Air

3.413 x

1.25 =

OA

cfm

FDB

Appl., etc.

RA

cfm

FDB

Additional Heat Gains

Total

cfm

Mixed Air

cfm

Sub-Total
10 %

Safety Factor

=
=

Room Sensible Heat

Flow

Temperature

Additional Heat Gain

Temperature
cfm

Gr/lb

RA

cfm

Gr/lb

Total

cfm

RA Duct Heat Gain

Mixed Air

cfm

%
cfm x

BF x

BF x

TADP + (

CFM

TADP) =

People

0.68 =

1050 =

Appl., etc.

Additional Heat Gains

Steam

lb/hr

Sub-Total
%

Safety Factor

Room Latent Heat

Additional Heat Gain


OA

cfm x

BF X (

BF x

BF x

Effective Room Latent Heat


OUTDOOR AIR HEAT
Sens

cfm x (1-

BF)x

1.08 =

Lat

cfm x (1-

BF)x

0.68 =

GRAND TOTAL HEAT

TEDB -

LATENT HEAT
Infiltration

Gr/lb

Coil Lvg Conditions

Effective Room Sensible Heat

SUM

OA

OA

FDB

Flow

SA Duct Heat Gain


Fan HP

SUM

Humidity
Entering Air

6-14

WB %RH DP Gr/Lb

Outdoor

BTUH

FDB

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Horizontal Sub-system

Backbone Cable (Data-Fiber Optic Media)

The horizontal cabling subsystem extends from a Floor Distributor (FD) to the
telecommunications outlet connected to it. The subsystem includes:

Fiber Optic Cable: Multi-mode and single-mode optical fiber cable shall be of
tight buffered or loose tube construction suitable for indoor or outdoor
applications and PVC or LSOH outer jacket.

Horizontal cables.

Jumpers and patch cords in the floor distributor.

Mechanical termination of the horizontal cables at the telecoms outlet.

Consolidation point (optional)

Horizontal cabling shall be Category 6 , 23 AWG, 4-pair UTP cable , with a PVC
jacketing material

Telecommunications outlets.

Impedance: 100 ohms + 15%, 1 MHz to 250 MHz

Category 6 patch panels shall be 1U high and support 24 modular jack ports or
2U high and support 48 modular jack ports, and shall accept RJ-45, 8-Position
modular plugs
Patch panels shall terminate the building cabling on an IDC (Insulation
Displacement Connector) type connector or module

Category 6 UTP modular jack insulation displacement contacts shall be


capable of terminating solid conductors from 0.5 mm to 0.65 mm (24 to 22
AWG)
The installed system shall comply with the Category 6 performance
characteristics as required by TIA and ISO standards.

Patch Cords: Patch cords shall be provided when patching of voice and / or data
circuits is required at the cross-connections. The patch cords supplied shall be
able to support the designed applications.
The patch cord shall include the following features:

The fiber optic cables shall meet the specifications and transmission
specification defined under TIA and ISO standards.

Fiber Connect Panel / Fiber Optic Patch Panel

Patch Panel: The patch panel shall include the following features:

Mechanical termination of the horizontal cables at the floor distributor


including the connecting hardware of the inter-connect or cross-connect.

Horizontal Cable: The horizontal cable shall meet the following characteristics:

RJ-45 Cat 6 patch cords shall be installed for equipment and patch panel

Patch cords shall be factory terminated with 4-pair UTP Cat6 stranded cable

Backbone Sub-system

The cable route within a building, connecting telecommunications rooms to the


equipment room is called the backbone cabling. The building backbone cabling
subsystem extends from Building Distributor (BD) or Main Distribution Frame
(MDF) to the Floor Distributor (FD) or Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF).

7-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The patch panel shall include the following features:

Modular design with snap in SC or LC adaptors

Equipped with fixing mechanism that ensures cable retention and support of
incoming fiber optic cable
Be able to accommodate both direct termination or splicing

Fiber Optic Connector

The patch cord shall include the following features:

The fiber optic connector shall be field installable using either a two
component epoxy glue or direct termination of factory pre-polished
connectors
The fiber optic connectors shall be LC or SC type

Fiber Optic Patch Cords

The patch cord shall include the following features:

Consist of one or two single, tight buffered, multimode graded-index fiber with
a 50 micron core with125 micron cladding (multi-mode) and 9 micron core
with 125 micron cladding (single mode) to suit the installed fiber optic cable.
Factory terminated with LC or SC ceramic connectors at each end.

Backbone Cable (Data-Copper Media)

UTP (4-pair) Category 6 cable: The backbone cable shall be UTP Category 6
compliant and shall meet the following specifications:

Backbone cabling shall be 23 AWG, 4-pair UTP, with a PVC jacketing material.
Impedance: 100 ohms + 15%, 1 MHz to 250 MHz.

Patch Panel: The patch panel shall include the following features:

Category 6 patch panels shall be 1 RU (Rack Unit) high and support 24


modular jack ports or 2U high and support 48 modular jack ports, and shall
accept RJ-45, 8-position modular plugs

The Cat 6 UTP modular jack insulation displacement contacts shall be capable
of terminating solid conductors from 0.5 mm to 0.65 mm (24 to 22 AWG)

7-5

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The installed system shall comply with the Category 6 performance


characteristics as required by TIA and ISO standards

Faceplate

Patch Cords: Patch cords shall be provided when patching data circuits is
required at the cross-connections to facilitate moves, adds and changes (MACs).
The patch cords supplied shall be able to support the designed applications.

The patch panel shall include the following features:

RJ-45 Cat 6 patch cords shall be installed for equipment

Patch cords shall be factory terminated with 4-pair UTP Cat6 stranded cable

Be 0.50 mm (24AWG) solid bare copper

The nominal diameter or maximum jacket diameter shall not exceed 13.0 mm.
Jacketing material ,non-plenum polyvinyl chloride(PVC)

IDC Wiring Block: IDC Wring Block All multi-pair voice backbone cable shall be
terminated on a 10-pair, 25-pair , 50-pair or 100-pair insulation displacement
connection (IDC) module or wiring block and shall:

Be made of flame-retardant thermoplastic, with the base consisting of


horizontal index strips for terminating UTP cable conductors.
Have bases available in rack or frame configurations and for rack mounting
with cable management hardware.
Shall comply with TIA (Cat 5e) or ISO 11801: (Class D).

Jumper Wire: The cross-connect or jumper cable shall be 100 ohms balanced UTP
cable in 1-pair or 2-pair configuration. It shall be Category 5e compliant and shall
meet the following specifications:

Be 0.50 mm (24AWG) solid bare copper

Shall comply with TIA (Cat 5e) or ISO 11801: (Class D)

Work-area Sub-system

The work area subsystem includes patch cords, connectors, faceplates, and
telecommunications outlet as well as the work area patch cords (equipment cord)
needed to make connections. A minimum of one work area outlet location
containing one voice and data shall be installed per work area.
The subsystem includes:

Patch Cords

7-6

RJ-45 Cat 6 patch cords shall be installed for the user work area

A choice of 1,2,3,4 outlets

A clear label for application of circuit identification


Shutter door for dust and contaminants protection
Accepts RJ45 jacks

Telecommunications Outlet

Backbone Cable (Voice-Copper Media)

UTP (25-pairs) Category 5e cable: The voice backbone cable shall be 100 ohms
balanced UTP multi-pair cable in 25-pair cable configuration. It shall be Category
5e compliant and shall meet the following specifications:

Patch cords shall be factory terminated with 4-pair UTP stranded cable

7.3.3

Modular jacks shall be un-keyed, unshielded, 4-pair, RJ-45, and shall fit in a
standard utility box or modular system furniture raceway
The insulation displacement connectors shall be capable of terminating solid
cable conductors from 0.5 mm to 0.65 mm (22-24 AWG).

Telecommunication Spaces

The design considerations and standards for telecommunications spaces and


rooms are described in TIA and ISO standards. The design for the
telecommunications spaces must ensure that the operational requirements
addressed and objectives are met.

Equipment Room (ER): An Equipment Room provides a controlled environment


to house telecommunications equipment, termination hardware, splice closures,
grounding and bonding facilities and protection apparatus where applicable
Equipment Room(ER) shall be designed and provisioned according to the
requirements of the standards.

Telecommunications Room (TR): A Telecommunications Room is an enclosed


space for housing telecommunications equipment, cable terminations,
interconnect and cross-connect. Telecommunications Rooms (TRs) differ from
equipment rooms (ERs) and entrance facilities (EFs) in that they are generally
considered to be floor serving.

Entrance Facility (EF): An Entrance Facility is a room or facility that provides all
necessary mechanical and electrical services that complies with all relevant
regulations, for the entry of telecommunications cables and other utility service
provider entrance cables into the building.

Building Distributor (BD): Building Distributor is the central point in a building


from where the building backbone fans out. It can be a single wiring closet,
multiple closets, a room or it can be combined with a floor distributor.
Floor Distributor (FD): A Floor Distributor is a floor serving facility that is used
to connect the horizontal cable and other cabling sub-systems or equipment.
Design Requirements

During the design phase, there are a number of electronics and communication
infrastructure requirements that must be addressed by the electronics design
7-7

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

engineer and shall be coordinated with the A/E (Architectural / Engineering) for
space planning.
Room Location

There are a number of factors that need to be considered when placing


Telecommunications Spaces (TS) within a new building or facility. Site selection
factors for the telecommunications rooms or spaces are listed below.
Telecommunications Spaces shall be:

Dedicated to the buildings telecommunications function and related support

facilities.

Located adjacent to vertical backbone pathway and as close as possible to the

center of the area served and preferably in the core area so that the average
horizontal cable run is 50 m or less and no individual cable run shall exceed 90
m, minimizing the length of the backbone and horizontal distribution cables.

Located in a clean and dry area that is not subjected to flooding.

Accessible directly from public hallways and not through offices or other utility

spaces.

Telecommunications Spaces shall not:

7-8

Be shared with electrical equipment, building services or other equipment


other than those required in direct support of the telecoms equipment and
services.
Contain other building systems, such as fire alarm panels, access control
systems, building management systems, audio-visual (A / V) equipment, etc.

Be located near electrical power supply transformers, elevator or pump


motors, generators, x-ray equipment, radio transmitters, induction heating
devices and other potential sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and
radio frequency interference (RFI).
Be located near sources of mechanical vibration that could be conveyed to the
room via the building structure.

Contain equipment not related to the support of the telecommunications


function (such as sprinkler, chilled water, supply and waste piping, ductwork)
shall not be installed in, pass through, pass overhead o enter the
telecommunications space.
Be located below water level unless preventive measures against water
infiltration are employed.

Be located in any place that may be subject to water or steam infiltration,


humidity from nearby water or steam, heat and any other corrosive
atmospheric or environmental conditions.
Share space in electrical closets, washrooms, janitorial closets and storage
rooms.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Room Size

The size of the Telecommunications Spaces is dependent upon the size of the area
that the room will serve and the variety of equipment installed within the room.
The Telecommunications Spaces shall provide enough space for all planned
termination and electronic equipment and cables that will be installed to within
the telecommunications room; including any environmental control equipment,
power distribution and uninterrupted power supply or UPS system.
Doors

The door shall be a minimum of 0.9 m wide and 2.4 m high, without a doorsill.

Door shall be fire rated to match the fire rating of the wall in which it is
installed, if applicable, or as required by local code requirements.
Doors shall not contain a glass viewing window or panel for added security.

If it is anticipated that large equipment will be delivered to the


Telecommunications Spaces, a double door without a doorsill and center post
is recommended.
Doors shall open outward (code permitting).

Floors

Floors shall be sealed concrete or tile to minimize dust and static electricity,
removable computer floor or raised flooring shall be of a tile type surface or
compact pressure laminate (CPL) type.
Floor loading capacity in the rooms shall be designed for a minimum
distributed load rating of 100 lbf / ft.

If a raised floor system is used, then it is possible the space will have to comply
with the requirements of Article 645 Information Technology Equipment
section of the National Electrical Code.

Walls

Interior finishes shall be in a light color to enhance room lighting.

At least one wall shall be lined with plywood backboard and mounted
vertically starting at 6-inches above the finished floor.
All plywood shall be painted with two coats of fire retardant paint.

The plywood shall be securely fastened to the wall-framing members.

Ceilings

For EF and BD, there shall be no suspended ceilings and the walls must be
continuous from floor to underside of the floor above.
Open structure ceilings shall provide the same environmental conditions as a
closed type of ceiling structure.

7-9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

7.3.4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Building Entrance Facility

Hard ceilings shall have IMC or EMT type conduit or pipe sleeves installed to
facilitate the installation and fire stopping of cables.

Building entrance facility is required whenever service provider entrance cables,


public and private network cables, cable television service providers including
Direct Antenna System (DAS) used by mobile service providers entering the
building.

Wall anchors shall be flush to the plywood surface as to not obstruct the
mounting of cabling hardware. The walls shall be capable of supporting
attached equipment.

Horizontal pathways shall terminate in the Telecommunications Spaces


located on the same floor as the area being served.

Be accessible directly from public hallways and not through offices or other
utility spaces and accessible for the delivery of large equipment to the room.

Vertically aligned or stacked within a multi-floor building; each FD is placed


above each floor and shall have easy access to distribution cable pathways.

Special Design Considerations

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

The Telecommunications Spaces (TS) shall not be located near electrical power
supply transformers, elevators, pump motors, generators, x-ray equipment, radio
transmitters, radar transmitters, induction heating devices or other potential
sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Emergency Back-up Power

Sub-panels shall be connected to an emergency power source whenever such a


source is provided to the building.

Emergency power is especially important in telecommunications spaces and


rooms with emergency or life safety systems and critical electronics systems for
the building operations that are required to remain operational during power
outages that may extend past the systems battery backup capability.

HVAC Requirements

The special requirement for the TS such as ER and IDF rooms where telecoms
and network equipment are housed-in, the electronics design consultant must
coordinate with mechanical design consultant for the Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning (HVAC) requirements.

7-10

For ER ,the air handling system and environment controls for TSs shall be
continuous and dedicated and designed to provide positive airflow and
cooling even during times when the main building systems are shut down.
The HVAC unit shall not be powered off the same electrical panel as the
telecommunications spaces.

For specialized area such as Data Center where the room house-in sensitive
electronic components that will generate heat, it shall be provided with
proper cooling to maintain operating performance.

7.3.5

The Entrance Facility (EF) room shall be as close as practicable to the


building entrance point and shall be located in a dry area not subjected to
flooding.
The building Entrance Facility (EF) room may be located next to the electrical
service room in order to reduce the length of equipment potential bonding
conductors to the electrical grounding system.
Entrance conduit shall be schedule 40 PVC, corrosion resistant plastic with a
4-inch inside diameter for underground installations.

Entrance conduit shall be encased in concrete or cement slurry when the


minimum conduit depth cannot be attained and conduits pass under
roadways, driveways, where bend points are subject to movement.

All entrance conduit penetrations or structural changes shall be approved by


the structural engineer of the building.

Pathways (Conduit, Cable tray, Trunking, Wireway, and Raceway)

The cable must have a defined route that will protect it according to the
environment in which it exists. Generally electronics engineers are expected to
use common sense to ensure the cable is adequately protected at the same time all
installation shall be in compliance with PEC or NEC and TIA or ISO pathways
standards.
Conduit: Conduit is an enclosed tube made of metal or plastic which provides
mechanical protection to the cable.

The cable should not take up more than 50% of the available cross-sectional
area of the conduit.
Maximum pathways capacity shall not exceed a 40% fill.

Conduit fill capacity shall not exceed a 40% fill, refer to cabling manufacturer
for their cable fill chart for various size and type of conduit with reference to
the nominal diameter of their cable.
Conduit systems should be available at intervals of no greater than 12 m.

Maximum of 30 m between pull points and not more than two 90 bends.

The inside bend radius of the conduit must not be less than six times the inside
diameter of the conduit.

Tray, Trunking, Wireway and Raceway: Tray is a cable containment or pathway


type that can hold cables in place as its use implies. The term cable tray is used as
the generic term for enclosed / non-enclosed, rigid, cable support structures.

The most commonly used form and terminology are:

7-11

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Labeling: Each piece patch panel and outgoing cable from the patch panels shall
be labeled. Corresponding labeling and numbering shall also be provided on the
telecoms outlets.

- Ladder ( the construction looks like a ladder)


- Solid-bottom cable tray

- Perforated or through cable tray

7.3.6

- Wire tray (welded wire construction)

Installation Requirements

General: All installation of the Structured Cabling System or Information


Technology-Generic Cabling for Customer Premises shall comply with the
governing laws and applicable codes and standards.

The installer shall be certified and experienced in the proper installation and
testing of SCS and trained by the cabling system manufacturer.

Installation practices: Install all system components and cross-connect


hardware according to manufacturers specifications and instruction as well as
all applicable local codes and standards. All horizontal and backbone cables shall
be installed in the following manner:

7-12

All horizontal cables shall not exceed 90 meters from the telecommunications
outlets in the work area to the horizontal cross connect or FD.

The cables minimum bend radius of 4 times the cable diameter.

The maximum cable pulling tension of 25 lbs. shall not be exceeded.

The cabling system and support hardware shall be installed so that it does not
obscure any valves, fire alarm conduit, boxes, or other control devices.
Cables shall be dressed and terminated in accordance with the standards,
manufacturers recommendations, and best industry practices.

Cables shall be neatly bundled and dressed to their respective panels or


blocks.

Each panel or block shall be fed by an individual bundle separated and dressed
back to the point of cable entrance into the rack or frame.
Each cable shall be clearly labeled on the cable jacket behind the patch panel
at a location that can be viewed without removing the bundle support ties.
The cable jacket shall be maintained as close as possible to the termination
point.

Rack, Panels & Wiring Modules: A unique identifier shall be marked on the
connecting hardware.

Equipment racks or frames and metallic pathways shall be earthed or


connected to the Telecommunications Bonding Backbone (TBB) of the
building

The TBB backbone shall be used to ground all telecommunications cable


shields, equipment, racks, cabinets, raceways, and other associated hardware
that has the potential for acting as a current carrying conductor.

Firestopping: All firestop systems shall be installed in accordance with the


manufacturers recommendations and shall be completely installed and available
for inspection by the local inspection authorities prior to cabling system
acceptance.

Cables shall be installed in continuous lengths from origin to destination.

Cable shall be installed above fire-sprinkler and systems and shall not be
attached to the system or any ancillary equipment or hardware.

Faceplates: A unique identifier shall be marked on each faceplate.

Grounding and Bonding: Communications grounding and bonding shall be in


accordance with the requirements of NEC and TIA or ISO telecommunications
bonding and grounding standard and shall be observed throughout the entire
cabling system.

Personnel Qualification: The installation of SCS, including pathways and


conduit layout, wiring, cable termination and, testing shall be done by a certified
installer under the supervision of a duly registered Professional Electronics
Engineer (PECE) and / or certified designer for Structured Cabling System.

Cables: Horizontal and backbone cables shall be labeled at each end.

7.3.7

Apply fire-rated materials into penetrations in fire rated barriers such as


penetrations to floor slabs in the telecommunication riser / chase to establish
the fire-resistance rating and also to avoid fumes or gases from escaping or
penetrating thru the barrier.

All penetrations through fire-rated building structures (walls and floors) shall
be sealed with an appropriate firestop system.

Testing, Administration and Documentation

Testing: All cables and termination hardware shall be 100% tested for defects in
installation and to verify cable performance under installed conditions. All
conductors of each installed cable shall be verified useable by the contractor prior
to system acceptance.

All UTP and fiber optic cable field testing shall be performed with an approved
test device 100% of cables installed shall be tested and shall all result to PASS
remarks channel or permanent link.

All field testers shall be factory calibrated each calendar year by the field test
equipment manufacturer.

Test and Evaluation Reports: Provide test documentation after the completion
of the project. Summary test results and individual test results shall be part of the
close-out submittals and as-built plans.
7-13

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Detectors, initiating devices, manual call points and notification devices shall
be installed throughout the building as required by the relevant authority or
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) or the local BFP.
All buildings, facilities, structures, and premises, except those locations where
protection is not required shall have a fire detection and alarm system that
complies with the local fire code (FCP) and applicable codes and standards.
Each room shall be separately protected.

When a room is divided into sections by walls or partitions, each section shall
be separately protected.

Areas where Detection is not Required

Detectors are not required in the following locations:

Toilet or bathroom with a floor area of less than 4 m2.


Exhaust ducts exhausting from toilets or bathroom.

Spaces under raised floor with a height of 250 mm or less.


Spaces above drop ceiling with a height of 1 m or less.

Concealed spaces under the roof with a height of 1 m or less.

Covered paths, balconies, open-sided covered walkways & staircases,


overhanging roof areas, verandas, provided they are not used for storage of
goods.

Area Limitation

A separate zone shall be provided for each 800 m2 of protected floor area.
The number of detectors required for this area shall not exceed what is
specified by the fire alarm system manufacturer.

False Alarm

The system designer shall take care that in complying with the design
requirements contained herein in this document so that in any given instance
it will not result in a system that is prone to false alarms. Any alarm at the
control panel shall be treated as a fire until it can be proven to be a false
alarm, rather than being treated as a false alarm until proven to be a fire.

7-15

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Monitor and Control of Other Equipment / Systems

The requirements for buildings or facilities with sprinkler flow switch,


supervisory switch, fire pump, jockey pump and gas suppression panel are:

Each sprinkler flow switch shall be monitored by the Fire Alarm and Control
Panel (FACP) as one distinct alarm point or zone.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

- Each alarm zone

- Each elevator lobby

Each jockey pump shall be monitored by the FACP as one distinct alarm point
or zone.

- Each elevator machine room


- Generator set room

Each gas suppression panel or pre-action deluge panel shall be monitored by


the FACP as one distinct alarm point or zone.

- Fire pump room

- Inside the enclosed exit stairwell at each floor level

One-Way Emergency Communications System (ECS)

Pressurization Fan, Exhaust Fan, Smoke Damper, HVAC, Elevator, Security System, Smoke Control
System

The one-way emergency communications sub-system, when activated by an


initiating device going into alarm, shall automatically send out an alarm tone
and a pre-recorded warning message, alternating with each other, to serve as
the programmed zone alarm.

The requirements for buildings or facilities with pressurization fan, exhaust fan,
smoke damper, HVAC, elevator, security system, smoke control system are:

A one-way Emergency Communications System(ECS) or Emergency Voice


Alarm Communication(EVAC) shall be required for the following facilities:

The microphone shall be secured inside the locked FACP cabinet, and shall be
accessible only to responsible personnel authorized to operate it.

- airports

- transportation terminals with total floor area, including indoor loading /

- seaports

unloading and parking areas, of more than 10,000 m2.

- office buildings with total floor area of more than 20,000 m2

- buildings classified as high rise building (75 ft or 23 m. above ground level)

Two-Way Telephone Communications System

The two-way telephone communications system or firemans telephone shall be


part of the fire alarm system and used by the fire responders in the event of fire or
emergency:

7-16

At least one telephone jack shall be provided at the following locations:

- Each floor level

Each fire pump shall be monitored by the FACP as one distinct alarm point or
zone.

A one-way emergency communications system or emergency voice alarm


communications (EVAC) shall form part of the fire alarm system:

If telephone jacks are used instead of telephone stations, at least two portable
handsets shall be stored at the Fire Command Center or FACP for use by the
responsible authorized personnel or emergency responders

For addressable systems with more than 200 automatic detectors, a two-way
telephone communications system shall be required
The FACP shall be capable of individually selecting the phone circuits for
communication and each telephone jack shall be labeled as specified

The two-way telephone communications sub-system shall operate on a


common talk or conference call mode

Each pressurization fan shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct output
point or zone.
Each exhaust or ventilating fan shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct
output point or zone.

Each smoke damper shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct output
point or zone.

Each air handling unit (AHU) shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct
output point or zone.
Each elevator shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct output point or
zone.

Each elevator shall be controlled by the FACP as one distinct output point or
zone.
The electrically-controlled doors of the security access control system shall be
controlled by the FACP as one output group.
Each smoke control door, wall, or partition shall be controlled by the FACP as
one distinct output point or zone.

Primary Power Supply

The primary power supply to the fire alarm control panel and the entire system
shall be from the electric utility company, normally direct or derived 220 ~ 240
VAC single phase.

7-17

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The primary power supply circuit shall be terminated to the integral power
supply inside the FACP cabinet and no external switch shall be installed
between the circuit breaker at the electrical distribution panel and the FACP.

The primary power supply shall come from a dedicated and exclusive branch
circuit.

Secondary Power Supply / Battery Capacity

The secondary power supply, normally use a gel cell or nickel cadmium batteries
with an automatic charger.

The secondary power supply shall have sufficient capacity to operate the
system under normal non-alarm condition for a minimum of 24 hours, and at
the end of that period, capable of operating all alarm notification appliances
and emergency communications systems for a period of 5 minutes.
The changeover from primary to secondary power supply on primary power
failure, and from secondary to primary power supply on primary power
restoration, shall be automatic.
The system operating on secondary power supply is considered a trouble
condition.

Building Management System

7.4.3

A building management system (BMS) shall not control the functions of the FDAS
but can only monitor it. It shall not be used to replace in whole or in part the FDAS.
The FDAS shall be capable of operating independently at all times.

System Components, Device and Equipment

All components shall be listed (UL) by institutions recognized by relevant


authorities and suitable to use in the locality or region.
Fire Alarm Control Panel

The FACP shall be programmable equipped with panel mounted LCD text display
which will indicate the location of the alarm and fault and resets events showing
the date and time with the zone and loop number.
Location and Environment

7-18

The FACP or network display shall be located in the fire command center of
the building or complex.

In the absence of a fire command center, it should be located ideally in a


position clearly visible from the main entrance or lobby of the building.
If the fire alarm panel is located in another location acceptable to the AHJ, an
annunciator or repeater panel that fully mimics it shall be installed in a
position clearly visible from the main entrance of the building.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Smoke Detectors

The installation of smoke detectors shall comply with the listed spacing specified
in the code (NFPA 72) as applicable and appropriate. Smoke detectors shall be
designed for detection of abnormal smoke densities by the photoelectric or
ionization principle and shall have a time delay to prevent false alarm. The
placement of smoke detectors is very important. Sleeping areas need the most
protection.
Location and Spacing of Smoke Detectors

Smoke detector shall be located on the ceiling. If installed on a sidewall, it shall


be located at a point not more than 300 mm from the ceiling to the top of the
detector.

The quantity of smoke detectors connected on a single zone of a conventional


system, or to a zone monitor module in a semi-addressable system shall not be
more than 20.
For flat ceilings with a height of not more than 4 m, the following shall be
complied with:

- Smoke detector spacing shall not be more than 9 m and all points on the

ceiling shall have a detector within a distance of 6.4 m.

- Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions shall not be less than 300 mm

and not more than 4.5 m.

Smoke detectors shall not be installed less than 500 mm from any air supply
diffuser or outlet, or any other ceiling devices or fixtures that may cause
electromagnetic induction.

For ceilings with a height of more than 6 m, spot-type smoke detectors shall
not be used, instead, beam-type smoke detectors shall be used.

Heat Detectors

Heat detectors are normally used where the speed of operation of smoke
detectors is not required or where, for environmental or other such reasons,
smoke detectors cannot be used in the system. In such circumstances, heat
detectors can provide an acceptable, though less sensitive alternative. Heat
detectors are designed to operate when the temperature rises abnormally quickly
or when a pre-selected temperature is reached.
Location and Spacing of Heat Detectors

Heat detector shall be located on the ceiling. If installed on a sidewall, it shall


be located at a point not less than 150 mm and not more than 300 mm from
the ceiling to the top of the detector.
For flat ceilings of not more than 4m, heat detector spacing shall not be more
than 7.5 m. Therefore, all points on the ceiling shall have a detector within a
distance of 5.3 m.

7-19

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Spacing of detectors from walls or partitions shall not be less than 150 mm
and not more than 3.75 m.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

A heat detector shall not be installed in a location wherein the ambient


condition is such that the relative humidity is above 93%.

Beam Type Smoke Detector

This type of detector is specifically designed for interior use in large opentype
areas, such as warehouses, workshops, etc. where the installation of pointtype
detectors would be difficult.For ceilings with a height of more than 6 meters,
beam-type smoke detectors shall be used in place of spot type smoke detectors:

Location of Beam Type Detectors

The beam length and width coverage shall not exceed the maximum permitted
by the manufacturers published specifications and instructions.

Beam-type detectors and mirrors or reflectors shall be mounted on stable


surfaces to prevent false operation or trouble occurrences due to movement.

Beam-type detectors and mirrors or reflectors shall be mounted on stable


surfaces to prevent false operation or trouble occurrences due to movement.

The duct smoke detector shall be listed for use with the air velocity present in
the duct. Further, it shall be listed for use over the complete range of
temperature and humidity expected at the detector when the AHU is
operating.
The duct smoke detector shall be installed in such a way as to obtain a
representative sample of the airstream. To achieve this, the detector shall be
installed outside the duct with rigidly mounted sampling tubes protruding
into the duct.

Manual Pull Station

Manual fire detection is achieved through the activation of fire alarm manual pull
station or call point. The basic principle of manual pull station is that no one
should be able to leave a building or a storey of a building, without passing a
manual pull station or call point. The fire code recommends that manual pull
stations should be located on escape routes or fire exits.
Location and Mounting of Manual Pull Station

7-20

Manual fire alarm stations shall be located within 1.5 m of each exit door on
each floor.

Additional manual fire alarm stations shall be so located that from any point
within the building, the travel distance to activate the alarm shall not be more
than 30 m, measured horizontally on the same floor.
Manual fire alarm boxes or pull stations shall be constructed with clearly
visible operating instructions provided on the cover and the word FIRE shall
appear on the front of the stations.

The alarm sound from audible notification appliances shall be clearly audible
throughout the floor and / or building in which they are installed. It should be
sufficient to warn and initiate evacuation of all occupants for whom the alarm
sound is intended.

Location of Duct Type Detectors

Manual fire alarm stations shall be mounted on a background of contrasting


color, and in a well-lighted location, so that they can be easily seen.

Notification Appliances

Duct Type Smoke Detector

For centralized air-conditioning systems, the return air duct of all air handling
units (AHU) shall be equipped with a duct-mounted smoke detector.

Manual fire alarm stations shall be installed at a height of 1.4 m above the
finished floor level and shall be located at easily accessible points, free from
obstructions.

Audible and visible notification appliances that produce audible and visible
alarm signals, such as horn strobes or speaker strobes, shall be used in all
public building. Any other facility that does not use audible or visible
notification appliances shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ.

A sufficient number of audible notification appliances shall be used to produce


a minimum sound level of 65 dBA, or 10 dB above the ambient noise level and
having a duration of at least 30 seconds.
The sound level produced by audible notification appliances and the ambient
noise combined shall not exceed 115 dBA.
The horizontal spacing between notification appliances shall not be more than
30 m.
Trouble conditions in the system shall not cause the automatic activation of
any notification appliance.

For facilities that use the bell sound as part of regular operations, such as
schools, horns or sounders shall be used instead.

Annunciator Panel

For all buildings or facilities, at least one secondary display, such as a LCD display
that annunciates the exact information shown at the FACP primary display, shall
be installed in another appropriate location within the protected premises.

The zone annunciator shall be directory type or graphical type, wherein the
display or indicator lamp would represent one alarm zone.
In buildings or facilities where people sleep, such as hospitals, or the like, at
least one zone annunciator per floor level shall be installed so that occupants
get immediate information on the location of the fire detection.

7-21

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

7.4.4

In office buildings, hospitals, or the like, wherein the automatic detectors


inside the rooms or units on the same floor are connected as a zone, an
indicator light or annunciator shall be installed outside the room and clearly
visible from the corridor to indicate the actuation of the detectors.

Installation Requirements

All installation of the fire alarm system shall comply with the applicable codes and
requirements referred herein and approved by the authority having jurisdiction
(AHJ). The installation of FDAS, including conduit layout works, wiring, equipment
mounting and installation, equipment connection and termination, programming,
testing and commissioning, shall be done by qualified personnel or by installers
under the supervision of qualified personnel.

Fire Alarm Cable: NEC Article 760 covers the installation of wiring of fire alarm
systems, including all circuits controlled and powered by the fire alarm system.
Wiring shall be in accordance with local and national codes and as recommended
by the manufacturer of the fire alarm system.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

shall be subject for final inspection to be conducted by in the presence of the


authorized representative and electronics engineer.

As-built Plans and Drawings: As-built plans and drawings of the complete
installation including all floor plans and a single line diagram of the system shall
be provided to the user before final inspection by the AHJ. A copy of the as-built
drawings shall be on hand at the Fire Command Centre or near the FACP at all
times.
Operation and Maintenance Manuals: Operation and maintenance manuals of
the installed equipment shall be provided to the user and shall include complete
trouble-shooting instructions and guidelines. A complete copy shall be on hand at
the Fire Command Centre or near the fire alarm control panel.

All wire and cable shall be UL listed and approved by a recognized testing
agency for use for fire alarm and protective signaling system.

Number and size of conductors shall be as recommended by the fire alarm


system manufacturer, but not less than 18 AWG (1.02 mm) for Initiating
Device Circuits, Signaling Line Circuits and Notification Appliance Circuits.

Conduits and boxes: All conduits and boxes shall be in accordance with the
Philippine Electrical Code (PEC), NEC and local code requirements. All boxes and
cabinets shall be approved particular use and purpose.

Where required, all wiring shall be installed in conduit or raceway.

Conduit fill shall not exceed 40% of interior cross sectional area where
three or more cables are contained within a single conduit.

Cable must be separated from any open conductors of power, or Class 1


circuits, and shall not be placed in any conduit, junction box or raceway
containing these conductors.

Testing Documentation and Administration

Testing: The service of a competent, factory-trained engineer or technician


authorized by the manufacturer of the fire alarm equipment shall be provided to
technically supervise and participate during all of the adjustments and tests for
the system. All installation shall tested in accordance with the requirements of
the code the tests should be conducted by in the presence of the authorized
building representative and Engineer On Record (EOR) .The test results should
be entered in the log or record.

Final Inspection: At the final inspection, a factory-trained representative of the


manufacturer of the major equipment shall certify and demonstrate that the
system functions properly in every respect. All devices and equipment tested

7-22

7-23

8-5
56.8 -132.5
28.4

Public parks with bathhouse, showers and flush toilets


37.8

Swimming pools and bathing places*


37.8

Laundry residences
378.5-567.8

Country Clubs per resident members*


94.6 189.3

Country clubs per member present*


94.6- 189.3

Source: Excerpts from Table1ofChapterXVIIIRRCodeonSanitationofthePhilippinesPD856


each

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

for

each

1 per 25
Over 150, add one fixture for
each additional 50 males

1:1-100
2:101-200
3:201-400
4:401-600
Over 600, add one fixture for
each additional 300 males

for

Urinals
(Fixtures/Person)

Minimum Requirements for Various Occupancies

Public picnic parks (toilet waste only)

1 per room

283.9 473.1

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

567.8 946.3

Public Institutions other than hospitals

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

Hospitals* (Liters per bed)

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

56.8

Hospitals

Factories (Liters /person/shift. exclusive of industrial waste)


283.9 - 378.5

Hospitals for employee use

75.7

1 per room

Day school with cafeteria but no gym or showers (Quantity estimated from
maximum no. expected to use gyms and showers in one day)

Hospital waiting rooms

45.4

1 per dwelling or apartment


unit

Day school with cafeterias but not gymnasiums or showers (Quantity


estimated from no. of meals served or 80% of enrollment)

Dwellings
Single dwelling
Multiple dwelling or apartment houses

30.3

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

Day school without cafeterias, gymnasium or showers*

1 per 50

189.3

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

Work and construction camps (semi-permanent)

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Day workers at schools and offices


283.9 - 378.5

Dormitories for Staff use

Boarding schools
189.3

1 per 8

Luxury camps
132.5 - 189.3

Add 1 fixture for each


additional 25 males (over
10) and 1 for each additional
20 females (over 8)

Resort camps (night and day) with limited plumbing


3.8 - 11.4

1 per 10

Tourist camps or trailer parks


26.5 37.8

Dormitories
School

189.3

Over 400, add one fixture


for each additional 500
males and 1 for each
additional 125 females

Hotels and motels

3: 1-50
4:51-100
8:101-200
11:201-400

189.3

1: 1-100
2: 101-200
3: 201-400

Boarding houses

Assembly places, theaters, Auditoriums,


convention halls, etc. for public use

151.4

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

Rooming houses

Male Only

189.3

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

Multiple Family use

Female

Kitchen wastes at hotels, camps, boarding houses, etc. serving 3 meals/day

283.9 378.5

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

Restaurants (kitchen waste per meal serve)

189.3

Male

Large dwellings with numerous fixtures

Liters/Person

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Type of Establishment

Assembly places, theaters, Auditoriums,


convention halls, etc. for permanent
employee use

Small dwellings and cottages

Water
Closet(Fixtures/Person)

Waste water contribution per capita / day

Type of Building or Occupancy

Table 8-2

Table 8-1

Female

1: 1-200
2:201-400
3:401-750

1 per 40

1 per 12

1 per 40

1 per room

1 per 40

1 per room
1 per 40

1 per dwelling or apartment


unit

1 per 40

Over 12, add 1 fixture for


each additional 20 males and
1 for each additional 15
females

1 per 12

Over 750, add one fixture for


each additional 500 persons

1: 1-200
2: 201-400
3: 401-750

1 per 40

Male

Lavatories
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per room

1 per dwelling
apartment unit

1 per 8

or

1 per 8
For females , add 1
bathtub per 30,
Over 150, add 1
bathtub per 20

Bathtubs or Showers
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1:1-150
2:151-400
3:401-750
Over 750, add one
fixture
for
each
additional 500 persons

Drinking Fountains
(Fixtures/Person)

8-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

8-7

1: 1-10
2: 11-25
3: 26-50
4: 51-75

Industrial
Warehouses, workshops, foundries and
similar establishments- for employees use

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Institutional other than hospitals or penal


institutions (on each occupied floor) for
employees use

3: 1-50
4:51-100
8:101-200
11:201-400

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

1: 1-25
2: 26-100
4: 101-200
8: 201-400

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

1: 1-20
2:21-50

1 per 40
1 per 40
1 per 150
1 per 150

Secondary
Others (colleges, universities, Adult
Centers, etc.)
Worship places educational and activities
Unit
Worship places principal assembly place

Source: Table 4-1US Uniform Plumbing Code 2009

1 per 30

1 per 75

1 per 75

1 per 30

1 per 30

1 per 25

Over 50, add 1 fixture for


each additional 50 persons

1: 1-20
2: 21-50

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Over 400, add 1 fixture for


each additional 500 males
and one for each 150
females

1: 1-100
2: 101-200
3: 201-400
6: 201-300

Over 300, add 1 fixture for


each additional 200 persons

Elementary

Schools for student use


Nursery

Schools for staff use


All schools

Retail or Wholesale Stores

1: 1-50
2: 51-150
3: 151-300

Restaurants, pubs, and lounges

1: 1-50
2: 51-150
4: 151-300

Same as office or Public


Building employees use

Public or professional offices

Female
1 per exercise room

Male

Water
Closet(Fixtures/Person)

1 per cell

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

1: 1-15
2: 16-35
3: 36-55

Over 400, add one fixture


for each additional 500
males and 1 for each
additional 150 females

1: 1-100
2: 101-200
3: 201-400

Cell
Exercise room

Type of Building or Occupancy

Penal institution for prison use

Penal institution for employees use

Office or public buildings for employees


use

1: 1-15
3:16-35
4: 36-55

1 per 20

Over 55, add 1 fixture for


each additional 40 persons

1 per 25

Institutional other than hospitals or penal


institutions (on each occupied floor)

Office or public buildings

1: 1-10
2:11-25
3:26-50
4:51-75

Female

Over 100, add 1 fixture for


each additional 30 persons

1 per 8 patients

Male

Water
Closet(Fixtures/Person)

Individual room
Ward Room

Type of Building or Occupancy

for

for

each

each

Public

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 35

1 per 35

1 per 75

1 per 50

0:0-25
1:26-100
2:101-200
3:201-400
4:401-600
Over 600, add one fixture for
each additional 300 males

0:1-150
Over 150, add one fixture for
each additional 150 males

Same as office or
Building employees use

Male Only

each

each

Female

1: 1-200
2:201-400
3:401-750

1 per cell

1 per 40

1 per 40

1 per 40

Over 750, add one fixture for


each additional 500 persons

1: 1-200
2: 201-400
3: 401-750

1 per 10

1 per 10

Up to 100, 1 per 10 persons


Over 100, 1 per 15 persons

1 per 10 patients

Male

Lavatories
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per 8

1 per 8

1 shower for each 15


persons exposed to
excessive heat or to
skin contamination with
poisonous, infectious
or irritating material

1 per 20 patients

Bathtubs or Showers
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per cell block floor

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

Drinking Fountains
(Fixtures/Person)

Female

1: 1-150
2: 151-200
3: 201-400

1: 1-25
2:26-50

1 per 40

1 per 40

1 per 35

1 per 2 water closets

1 per 2 water closets

1 per 40

1 per 40

1 per 35

Over 50, add 1 fixture for


each additional 50 persons

1: 1-25
2: 26-50

1 per 40

1 per 2 water closets

Over 400, add 1 fixture for


each additional 400 persons

1: 1-150
2: 151-200
3: 201-400

Same as office or Public


Building employees use

1 per exercise room

Male

Lavatories
(Fixtures/Person)

Bathtubs or Showers
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

1 per 150

0: 1-30
1:31-150
One additional drinking
fountain for each 150
persons thereafter

Same as office or Public


Building employees use

1 per exercise room

Drinking Fountains
(Fixtures/Person)

8-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

for

for

Urinals
(Fixtures/Person)

1 per exercise room

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

1:1-100
2:101-200
3:201-400
4:401-600
Over 600, add one fixture for
each additional 300 males

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

0:1-9
1:10-50
Add one fixture
additional 50 males

Male Only

Urinals
(Fixtures/Person)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

8-9

Drinking Fountains shall not be installed in Toilets rooms.


Laundry trays, One (1) laundry tray or one (1) automatic washer standpipe for each dwelling unit or one (1) laundry tray or one (1) automatic washer standpipe or combination thereof, for each
twelve (12) apartments. Kitchen sinks, one (1) for each dwelling or apartment unit.
Automatic washer standpipe or combination thereof, for each twelve (12) apartments. Kitchen sinks, one (1) for each dwelling or apartment unit.
For each urinal added in excess of the minimum required, one water closet shall be permitted to be deducted. The number of water closets shall not be reduced to less than two-thirds (2 / 3) of
the minimum requirement.
As required by Sanitation in Places of Employment.
Where there is exposure to skin contamination with poisonous, infectious, or irritating materials, provide one (1) lavatory for each five (5) persons.
600 mm of wash sink, 450 mm of circular basin, when provided with water outlets for such space, shall be considered equivalent to one (1) lavatory.
Laundry trays, one (1) for each fifty (50) persons, Service sinks, one (1) for each hundred (100) persons.
General. In applying this schedule of facilities, consideration shall be given to the accessibility of the fixtures. Conformity purely on a numerical basis may not result in an installation suited to
the needs of the individual establishment. For example, schools should be provided with toilet facilities on each floor having classrooms.
Surrounding materials, wall and floor space to a point 600 mm in front of urinal lip and 1,200 mm above the floor, and not less than 600 mm to each side of the urinal shall be lined with nonabsorbent materials.
Through urinals shall be prohibited.
A restaurant is defined as a business that sells food to be consumed on the premises.
The number of occupants for a drive-in restaurant shall be considered as equal to the number of parking stalls.
Hand-washing facilities shall be available in the kitchen for employees
Where foods is consumed indoors, water stations shall be permitted to be substituted for drinking fountains. Offices or Public buildings for use by more than six (60 persons shall have one (1)
drinking fountain for the first one-hundred fifty (150) persons and one (1) additional fountain for each three-hundred (300) persons thereafter.
There shall be at least one (1) drinking fountain per occupied floor in schools, theaters, auditoriums, dormitories, offices or Public buildings.
The total number of water closets for females shall be equal to the total number of water closets and urinals required for males. This requirement shall not apply to Retail or Wholesales Stores.
For smaller-type Public and Professional Offices such as banks, dental offices, law offices, real estate offices, architectural offices, engineering offices and similar uses. A Public area in these
offices shall use the requirement for the Retail or Wholesale Stores.
Recreation or community room in multiple dwellings of apartment buildings, regardless of their occupant load, shall be permitted to have separate single-accommodation facilities in commonuse areas within tracts or multi-family residential occupants where the use of these areas is limited exclusively to owners, residents and their guests. Examples are community recreation or
multi-purpose areas in apartments, condos, townhouses, or tracts.
A drinking fountain shall not be required in occupancies of 30 or less.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21.

Notes for Table 8-2


1.
Building categories not shown on this Table shall be considered separately by the Sanitary Engineer.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

8.3.2
Sanitary Drainage Systems

Use of formula and empirical data must be directly applicable to the behavior
of liquid waste matter or solutions in terms of velocity, roughness coefficient,
slope and pressure. Sanitary and Waste will be designed with a minimum
slope of one percent (1%), or as permitted by this DGCS Volume 6.
Sizes will be computed using the following:

Manning Equations
=

Maximum Velocity

32 mm

40 mm

50 mm

80 mm

100 mm

1 2
3

Minimum Velocity

0.75m/sec

Coefficient of Roughness 0.011 or as specified


by pipe manufacturer

Velocity of Sewage Flow


=

Sewage shall be computed using Drainage Fixtures Unit values in accordance


with Section 8.3.1.

1
2

Exception: On self-service laundries.

and Q = AV

3.05m/sec
Wetted perimeter

Slope

Fixture Units Equivalents

The unit equivalent of plumbing fixtures shown in Table 8-3 shall be based on
the size of the trap required, and the unit equivalent of fixtures and devices
not shown in Table 8-3 shall be based on the rated discharge capacity in liters
per second in accordance with Table 8-4.

Maximum trap loadings for sizes up to 100 mm are as follows:


-

1unit

3units

4units

8units

6units

8-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU)

Plumbing Appliance, Appurtenance or


Fixture

Min Trap
Size and
Trap Arm7

Nonpublic

Bath tub or Combination Bath/Shower

38

2.0

Bidet

32

1.0

32

2.0

50

3.0

Bidet
ClothesWasher,domestic,standpipe

Co on
public

Assembly8

Min Trap
Size and
Trap Arm7

Nonpublic

Co on
public

Assembly8

Liters/Flush

2.0

3.0

3.0

1.0

1.0

Urinal, exposed trap

382

2.0

2.0

5.0

Water Closet, 6.1 Liters / Flush


GravityTank6

75

3.0

4.0

6.0

Water Closet, 6.1 Liters / Flush


Flushometer Tank6

75

3.0

4.0

6.0

Dental Unit, cuspidor

32

3.0

4.0

6.0

382

2.0

2.0

2.0

Water Closet, 6.1 Liters / Flush


Flushometer Valve6

75

Dishwasher ,domestic, with independent


drain

4.0

6.0

8.0

32

0.5

0.5

1.0

Water Closet, greater than 6.1 LPF


GravityTank6

75

Drinking Fountain or Water cooler (per


head)

4.0

6.0

8.0

50

3.0

3.0

Water Closet, greater than 6.1 Liters /


Flush Flushometer Valve6

75

Food-waste-grinder, commercial
Floor Drain, emergency

50

0.0

0.0

Source: Excerpts from Table 8-3 UPC 2000 Edition


Footnotes of Table 8-3:
1. Indirect waste receptors shall be sized based on the total drainage capacity of the fixtures that
drain therein to, in accordance with Table 8-4.
2. Provide a 50 mm minimum drain.
3. For refrigerators, coffee maker, water stations, and similar low demands.
4. For commercial sinks, dishwashers, and similar moderate or heavy demands.
5. Buildings having a clothes washing area with clothes washers in a battery of three (3) or more
clothes washers shall be rated at six (6) fixture units each for purposes of sizing common
horizontal and vertical drainage piping.
6. Water closets shall be computed as six (6) fixture units when determining septic tank sizes
based on.
7. Trap sizes shall not be increased to the point where the fixture discharge may be inadequate to
maintain their self-scouring properties.
8. Assembly/ Public Use (See Table 8-1)

Floor Drain(for
Section7.3.2)

additional

sizes

see

50

2.0

2.0

2.0

Shower single head trap

50

2.0

2.0

2.0

Multi-head, each additional

50

1.0

1.0

1.0

Lavatory, single

32

1.0

1.0

1.0

Lavatory in sets of two or three

38

2.0

2.0

2.0

Wash fountain

38

2.0

2.0

Wash fountain

50

3.0

3.0

Mobile Home, trap

75

Receptor,indirectwaste1,3

38

Seenote1
and 3

Seenote1 and
3

Receptor,indirectwaste1,4

50

Seenote1
and 4

Seenote1 and
4

Receptor,indirectwaste

75

Seenote1

Seenote1

12.0

Bar

38

1.0

Bar

382

2.0

2.0

Clinical

75

6.0

6.0

Commercial with food waste

382

3.0

3.0

Special Purpose

38

2.0

3.0

3.0

Special Purpose

50

3.0

4.0

4.0

Special Purpose

75

6.0

6.0

Kitchen, domestic
(with or without food-waste-grinder and/or
dishwasher)

382

2.0

2.0

2.0

Laundry
(with or without discharge from a clothes
washer)

38

2.0

Service or Mop Basin

50

3.0

3.0

Service or Mop Basin

75

3.0

3.0

Service, flushing rim

75

6.0

6.0

2.0

2.0

Wash, each set of faucets

Table 8-4

Discharge Capacity in Liters per Second for Intermittent Flow Only


L/sec

Sinks

8-11

Plumbing Appliance, Appurtenance or


Fixture

Urinal, integral trap 3.78 Liters/Flush 3.78


Liters/Flush 1.0GPF2

50

2.0

2.0

5.0

Urinal, integral trap greater than 3.78

50

2.0

2.0

6.0

Up to 0.47

Equals

1 Unit

0.50 to 0.95

Equals

2 Units

1.00 to 1.89

Equals

4 Units

1.95 to 3.15

Equals

6 Units

Source: Table 8-4 UPC 2000 Edition

Size of Drainage Piping

The minimum sizes of vertical and / or horizontal drainage piping shall be


determined from the total of all fixture units connected thereto, and
additionally, in the case of vertical drainage pipes, in accordance with their
length.

Table 8-5 shows the maximum number of fixture units allowed on any vertical
or horizontal drainage pipe, building drain or building sewer of a given size;
the maximum number of fixture units allowed on any branch interval of a
given size; and the maximum length (in feet and meters) of any vertical
drainage pipe of a given size.

8-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump, sump
ejector, air conditioning equipment, or similar device, two (2) fixture units
shall be allowed for each 0.06 L/sec. of flow.
Fixture Connections (Drainage)

Drainage piping shall be provided with approved inlet fittings for fixture
connections, correctly located according to the size and type of fixture
proposed to be connected.

Two fixtures set back-to-back, or side-by-side, within the distance allowed


between a trap and its vent, may be served by a single vertical drainage pipe
provided that each fixture wastes separately into an approved double fixture
fitting having inlet openings at the same level.

Pot sinks, scullery sinks, dish washing sinks, silverware sinks, commercial
dishwashing machines, silverware-washing machines, and other similar
fixtures shall be connected directly to the drainage system. A floor drain shall
be provided adjacent to the fixture, and the fixture shall be connected on the
sewer side of the floor drain trap, provided that no other drainage line is
connected between the floor drain waste connection and the fixture drain. The
fixture and floor drain shall be trapped and vented as required by these Design
Guidelines.
Closet Rings (Closet Flanges)

Closet rings (closet flanges) for water closets or similar fixtures shall be of
an approved type and shall be bronze, copper, hard lead, cast iron,
galvanized malleable iron, ABS, PVC, or other approved materials. Each
such closet ring (closet flange) shall be approximately 175 mm in diameter
and, when installed, shall, together with the soil pipe, present a 38 mm
wide flange or face to receive the fixture gasket or closet seal.

Caulked-on closet rings (closet flanges) shall be not less than 6 mm thick and
not less than 50 mm in overall depth.
Closet rings (closet flanges) shall be burned or soldered to lead bends or stubs,
shall be caulked to cast iron soil pipe, shall be solvent cemented to ABS and
PVC and shall be screwed or fastened in an approved manner to other
materials.
All such closet rings (closet flanges) shall be adequately designed and secured
to support fixtures connected thereto.

Closet screws, bolts, washers, and similar fasteners shall be of brass, copper,
or other listed, equally corrosion resistant materials. All such screws and
bolts shall be of adequate size and number to properly support the fixture
installed.

8-13

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

shall be so constructed as to insure a positive mechanical seal. Such backwater


valves shall remain sufficiently open during periods of low flows to avoid
screening of solids and shall not restrict capacities or cause excessive
turbulence during peak loads. Unless otherwise listed, valve access covers
shall be bolted type with gasket and each valve shall bear the manufacturers
name cast into body and cover.
The drainage and venting systems in connection with fixtures, sumps,
receiving tanks, and mechanical waste lifting devices, shall be installed under
the same requirements as provided for in this Guidelines for gravity systems.

Sumps and receiving tanks shall be water tight and shall be constructed of
concrete, metal, or other approved materials. If constructed of poured
concrete, the walls and bottom shall be adequately reinforced and designed to
recognized acceptable standards. Metal sumps or tanks shall be of such
thickness as to serve their intended purpose and shall be treated internally
and externally to resist corrosion.

All such sumps and receiving tanks shall be automatically discharged and,
when in any Public use occupancy, shall be provided with dual pumps or
ejectors arranged to function independently in case of overload or mechanical
failure. The lowest inlet shall have a minimum clearance of 50 mm from the
high water or starting level of the sump.

Sumps and receiving tanks shall be provided with substantial covers having a
bolt and gasket type manhole or equivalent opening to permit access for
inspection, repairs, and cleaning. The top shall be provided with a vent pipe
which shall extend separately through the roof, or when permitted, may be
combined with other vent pipes. Such vent shall be large enough to maintain
atmospheric pressure within the sump under all normal operating conditions
and, in no case, shall be less in size than that required by Table 7-5 for the
number and type of fixtures discharging into the sump, nor less than 38 mm in
diameter.
When the foregoing requirements are met and the vent, after leaving the
sump, is combined with vents from fixtures discharging into the sump, the size
of the combined vent need not exceed that required for the total number of
fixtures discharging into the sump. No vent from an air-operating sewage
ejector shall combine with other vents.
Air tanks shall be so proportioned as to be of equal cubical capacity to the
ejectors connected therewith in which there shall be maintained an air
pressure of not less than 3 kg for each meter of height the sewage is to be
raised. No water operated ejectors shall be permitted.
When subsoil drainage systems are installed, such systems shall be discharged
into an approved sump or receiving tank and shall be discharged in a manner
satisfactory to the Sanitary Engineer/ Master Plumber.

Grinder Ejector Pump: With the approval of the Sanitary Engineer/ Master
Plumber, a grinder pump may be used. A Grinder Ejector pump is used to
discharge wastewater that cannot be discharged through a gravity system and
8-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

no joint or pipe in the building (except the uppermost 3.048 m.) of the system
shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 3.048 m. head of water. The
water shall be kept in the system, or in the portion under test, for at least
fifteen (15) minutes before inspection starts. The system shall then be tight at
all points.

8.3.4

Air Test: The air test shall be made by attaching an air compressor testing
apparatus to any suitable opening, and, after closing all other inlets and outlets
to the system, forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gage pressure
of 34.5 kPa or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 254 mm in height. The
pressure shall be held without introduction of additional air for a period of at
least fifteen (15) minutes.
Building Sewers

Every building in which plumbing fixtures are installed and every premises
having drainage piping thereon, shall have a connection to a Public or Private
sewer, except as provided below.
When no Public sewer, intended to serve any lot or premises, is available in
any thoroughfare or right of way abutting such lot or premises, drainage
piping from any building or works shall be connected to an approved Private
sewage disposal system.

Within the limits prescribed by article immediately below hereof, the


rearrangement or subdivision into smaller parcels of a lot which abuts and is
served by a Public sewer shall not be deemed cause to permit the construction
of a Private sewage disposal system, and all plumbing or drainage systems on
any such smaller parcel or parcels shall connect to the Public sewer.

The Public sewer may be considered as not being available when such Public
sewer or any building or any exterior drainage facility connected thereto, is
located more than 60.8 meter from any proposed building or exterior drainage
facility on any lot or premises which abuts and is served by such Public sewer.

No permit shall be issued for the installation, alteration, or repair of any


Private sewage disposal system, or part thereof, on any lot for which a
connection with a Public sewer is available.
On every lot or premises hereafter connected to Public sewer, all plumbing
and drainage systems or parts thereof, on such lot or premises shall be
connected with such Public sewer.

Exception: Single family dwellings and buildings or structures accessory


thereto, existing and connected to an approved Private sewage disposal
system prior to the time of connecting the premises to Public sewer may,
when no hazard, nuisance, or insanitary condition is evidenced and written
permission has been obtained from the Sanitary Engineer, remain connected
to such properly maintained Private sewage disposal system when there is
insufficient grade or fall to permit drainage to the sewer by gravity.

8-22

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Exception:
When approved by the Sanitary Engineer and where it is impractical, due to
the depth of the street sewer or to the structural features or to the
arrangement of any building or structure, to obtain a slope of 20.9 mm/m, any
such pipe or piping 100 mm through 150 mm may have a slope of not less
than 10.5 mm/m and any such piping 200 mm and larger may have a slope of
not less than 5.3 mm/m.
Building sewer piping shall be laid on a firm bed throughout its entire length,
and any such piping laid in made or filled-in ground shall be laid on a bed of
approved materials and shall be adequately supported to the satisfaction of
the Sanitary Engineer.

8.3.5

No building sewer or other drainage piping or part thereof, which is


constructed of materials other than those approved for use under or within a
building, shall be installed under or within 600 mm of any building or
structure, or part thereof, nor less than 300 mm below the surface of the
ground. The provisions of this subsection include structures such as porches
and steps, whether covered or uncovered, breezeways, roofed porte-cocheres,
roofed patios, carports, covered walks, covered driveways, and similar
structures or appurtenances.
Cleanouts

Cleanouts shall be placed inside the building near the connection between the
building drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at the
lower end of the building drain and extended to grade. Additional building
sewer cleanouts shall be installed at intervals not to exceed 30.48 meter in
straight runs and for each aggregate horizontal change in direction exceeding
one hundred thirty-five (135) degrees (2.36 rad).
When a building sewer or a branch thereof does not exceed 3.048 meter in
length and is a straight line projection from a building drain which is provided
with a cleanout, no cleanout will be required at its point of connection to the
building drain.

All required building sewer cleanouts shall be extended to grade and shall
comply with all appropriate sections of Cleanouts, Section 8.3.6 for sizing,
construction and materials. When building sewers are located under buildings,
the cleanout requirements of Section 8.3.6 shall apply.
Each cleanout shall be installed so that it opens to allow cleaning in the
direction of flow of the soil or waste or at right angles thereto, and except in
the case of wye branch and end-of-line cleanouts, shall be installed vertically
above the flow line of the pipe.
Cleanouts installed under concrete or asphalt paving shall be made accessible
by yard boxes, or extending flush with paving with approved materials and be
adequately protected.

8-24

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Sterile Equipment: Appliances, devices, or apparatus such as stills, sterilizers,


and similar equipment requiring water and waste and used for sterile
materials shall be drained through an air gap.
Appliances: Appliances, devices, equipment, or other apparatus not regularly
classed as plumbing fixtures which are equipped with pumps, drips, or
drainage outlets may be drained by indirect waste pipes discharging into an
approved type open receptor.
When the condensate waste from air conditioning coils discharges by direct
connection to a lavatory tailpiece or to an approved accessible inlet on a
bathtub overflow, the connection shall be located in the area controlled by the
same person controlling the air-conditioned space.

When undiluted condensate waste from a fuel burning condensing appliance


is discharged into the drainage system, the material in the drainage system
shall be cast iron, galvanized iron, plastic, or other materials approved for this
use.
Exceptions: When the above condensate is discharged to an exposed fixture
tailpiece and trap, such tailpiece and trap may be brass.

Any materials approved in Section 8.3.13 MATERIALS FOR SANITARY


DRAINAGE may be used when, in the opinion of the Sanitary Engineer,
condensate waste from a fuel burning condensing appliance is diluted either
before or after discharge into the drainage system.
No domestic dishwashing machine shall be directly connected to a drainage
system or food waste disposer without the use of an approved dishwasher
airgap fitting on the discharge side of the dishwashing machine. Listed airgaps
shall be installed with the flood level (FL) marking at or above the flood level
of the sink or drainboard, whichever is higher.

Cooling Water: When permitted by the Sanitary Engineer, clean running


water used exclusively as a cooling medium in an appliance, device or
apparatus, may discharge into the drainage system through the inlet side of a
fixture trap in the event that a suitable fixture is not available to receive such
discharge. Such trap connection shall be by means of a pipe connected to the
inlet side of an approved fixture trap, the upper end terminating in a funnel
shaped receptacle set adjacent, and not less than 150 mm above the overflow
rim of the fixture.
Drinking Fountains: Drinking fountains may be installed with indirect
wastes.

Steam and Hot Water Drainage Condensers and Sumps: No steam pipe
shall be directly connected to any part of a plumbing or drainage system, nor
shall any water having a temperature above 60C be discharged under
pressure directly into any part of a drainage system. Pipes from boilers shall
discharge by means of indirect waste piping, as determined by the Sanitary
Engineer or the boiler manufacturers recommendations.

8-30

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Such pipes may be indirectly connected by discharging into an open or closed


condenser, or intercepting sump of approved type, that will prevent the
entrance of steam or such water under pressure into the drainage system. All
closed condensers or sumps shall be provided with a vent which shall be taken
off the top and extended separately, full size above the roof. All condensers
and sumps shall be properly trapped at the outlet with a deep seal trap
extending to within 150 mm of the bottom of the tank. The top of the deep seal
trap shall have a 20 mm opening located at the highest point of the trap to
serve as a siphon breaker.

Outlets shall be taken off from the side in such a manner as to allow a water
line to be maintained that will permanently occupy not less than 50% the
capacity of the condenser or sump. All inlets shall enter above the water line.
Wearing plates or baffles shall be installed in the tank to protect the shell. The
sizes of the blow off line inlet, the water outlets, and the vent shall be as shown
in Table 8-9. The contents of condensers receiving steam or hot water under
pressure must pass through an open sump before entering the drainage
system.
Table 8-9

Pipe Connections in Blow-off Condensers and Sumps

Boiler Blowoff

Water Outlet

Vent

20 mm*

20 mm*

50 mm

25 mm

25 mm

65 mm

32 mm

32 mm

80 mm

40 mm

40 mm

100 mm

50 mm

50 mm

125 mm

65 mm

65 mm

150 mm

Source: Table 8-1 UPC 2000 Edition


*To be used only with boilers of 9.29 sq.m of heating surface or less.

Sumps, condensers, or intercepting tanks which are constructed of concrete


shall have walls and bottom not less than 100 mm in thickness, and the inside
shall be cement plastered not less than 12 mm in thickness. Condensers
constructed of metal shall be not less than No. 12 U.S. Standard gauge 2.77 mm
and all such metal condensers shall be protected from external corrosion by
an approved bituminous coating.
Sumps and condensers shall be provided with suitable means of access for
cleaning and shall contain a volume of not less than twice the volume of water
removed from the boiler or boilers connected thereto when the normal water
level of such boiler or boilers is reduced not less than 100 mm.
Strainers: Every indirect waste interceptor receiving discharge containing
particles that would clog the receptor drain shall have a readily removable
beehive strainer.

Chemical Wastes: Chemical or industrial liquid wastes which are likely to


damage or increase maintenance costs on the sanitary sewer system,
8-31

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

mm/m or one percent slope and shall be of approved corrosion-resistant


material not smaller than the outlet size as required in either Section 310.3 or
310.4 of the UPC 2000 edition, below for air-cooling coils or condensing fuelburning appliances, respectively. Condensate or waste water shall not drain
over a Public way. Indirect Drainage shall be provided for Air-conditioning
condensate waste pipes shall be independent of any drainage and waste
system and shall not be smaller than shown in Table 8-10.
Table 8-10

Minimum Size Condensate Drain Pipes

Minimum Condensate
Pipe Diameter (mm)

Equipment Capacity in Tons of Refrigeration (Kw)


Through 3 (Through 10.56)

20 mm

Through 20 (Through 70.33)

25 mm

Through 90 (Through 316.48)

32 mm

Through 125 (Through 439.6)

40 mm

Through 250 (Through 879.2)

50 mm

Source: Table 8-2 UPC 2000 Edition

The size of condensate waste pipes may be for one unit or a combination of
units, or as recommended by the manufacturer. The capacity of waste pipes
assumes a 10.5 mm/m) or one percent slope, with the pipe running 75% full
at the following conditions:
Outside Air-20%
Room Air 80%

DB

32C

DB

24C

WB

23C

WB
17

a) Condensate drain sizing for other slopes or other conditions shall be


approved by the Sanitary Engineer. Air conditioning waste pipes shall be
constructed of materials specified in Section 7.3.

b) Point of Discharge: Air-conditioning condensate waste pipes shall


connect indirectly to the drainage system through an airgap or airbreak to:

8.3.6

A properly trapped receptor

To a points of discharge acceptable by Sanitary Engineer, including dry


wells, leach pits, the tailpiece of plumbing fixtures, etc.
Condensate or waste water shall not drain over a Public way.

Traps and Interceptors

Each plumbing fixture, excepting those having integral traps shall be


separately trapped by an approved type water seal trap. Not more than one
(1) trap shall be permitted on a trap arm.
One (1) trap may serve a set of not more than three (3) single compartment
sinks or laundry tubs of the same depth or three (3) lavatories immediately
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-12

Grease Traps

Total Number of Fixtures


Connected

Required Rate of Flow per


Minute, Liters

Grease Retention Capacity,


kg

76

18

95

22

132

31

189

45

Source: Table 10-2 UPC 2000 Edition


Note:
For installations with more than four (4) fixtures, the Sanitary Engineer may permit the use of larger
grease traps designed not to exceed the parameters of Section 8.3.6.9, but not to exceed 284 liters
per minute.

Recommended Procedures for Design, Construction and Installation of Commercial Kitchen


Grease Interceptors:

General: The provisions of this recommended procedure shall apply to the


design, construction, installation, and testing of commercial kitchen grease
interceptors.

Waste Discharge Requirements: Waste discharge from fixtures and


equipment in establishments which may contain grease, including but not
limited to, scullery sinks, pot and pan sinks, dishwashing machines, soup
kettles and floor drains located in areas where grease-containing materials
may exist, may be drained into the sanitary waste through the interceptor
when approved by the Sanitary Engineer.
Toilets, urinals, and other similar fixtures shall not drain through the
interceptor.
All waste shall enter the interceptor through the inlet pipe only.

Design: Interceptors shall be constructed in accordance with the design


approved by the Sanitary Engineer and shall have a minimum of two
compartments with fittings designed for grease retention.

There shall be an adequate number of manholes to provide access for cleaning


all areas of an interceptor; a minimum of one (1) per 3.048 m of interceptor
length. Manhole covers shall be gastight in construction having a minimum
opening dimension of 508 mm.
In areas where traffic may exist the interceptor shall be designed to have
adequate reinforcement and cover.

Location: Each grease interceptor shall be so installed and connected that it


shall be at all times easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, and removal of
the intercepted grease. A grease interceptor may not be installed in any part of
a building where food is handled. Location of the grease interceptor shall meet
the approval of the Sanitary Engineer.
Interceptors shall be placed as close as practical to the fixtures it serves.

Each business establishment for which a grease interceptor is required shall


have an interceptor which shall serve only that establishment.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

separator shall flow by gravity or shall be pumped to a higher elevation by


an automatic pump. Pumps shall be adequately sized and accessible. Waste
oil tanks shall have a 50 mm minimum pump-out connection at grade and
40 mm minimum vent to atmosphere at an approved location at least
3.048m above grade.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

approved indirect waste pipes into a floor sink or other approved type
receptor.

Size of Vents:

Design of Interceptors:

Each manufactured interceptor that is rated shall be stamped or labeled by


the manufacturer with an indication of its full discharge rate in L/s. The
full discharge rate to such an interceptor shall be determined at full flow.
Each interceptor shall be rated equal to or greater than the incoming flow
and shall be provided with an overflow line to an underground tank.

Interceptors not rated by the manufacturer shall have a depth of not less
than 600 mm below the invert of the discharge drain. The outlet opening
shall have not less than 457 mm water seal and shall have a minimum
capacity as follows: where not more than three (3) motor vehicles are
serviced and / or stored, interceptors shall have a minimum capacity of
0.2 cubic meter, and 0.03 cubic meter of capacity shall be added for each
vehicle up to ten (10) vehicles. Above ten (10) vehicles, the Sanitary
Engineer shall determine the size of the interceptor required.
Where vehicles are serviced only and not stored, interceptor capacity
shall be based on a net capacity of 0.03 cubic meter for each 9.3 sq.m of
surface to be drained into the interceptor, with a minimum of 0.2 cubic
meter.

Exception:

8.3.7

A combination oil and sand interceptor may be installed when the design
is approved in writing by the Sanitary Engineer.

Each plumbing fixture trap, except as otherwise provided in these Design


Guidelines, shall be protected against siphonage and back-pressure, and
air circulation shall be assured throughout all parts of the drainage system
by means of vent pipes installed in accordance with the requirements of
this Section and as otherwise required by these Design Guidelines.

Vents Not Required:

8-45

Where permitted by the Sanitary Engineer, vent piping may be omitted on


an interceptor when such interceptor acts as a primary settling tank and
discharges through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary
interceptor. The second interceptor shall be properly trapped and vented.
Traps serving sinks which are part of the equipment of soda fountains, and
counters, need not be vented when the location and construction of such
soda fountains, and counters is such as to make it impossible to do so.
When such conditions exist, said sinks shall discharge by means of

No more than one-third (1 / 3) of the total permitted length, per Table 8-5,
of any minimum sized vent shall be installed in a horizontal position.
When a minimum sized vent is increased one (1) pipe size for its entire
length, the maximum length limitation does not apply.

Vent Pipe Grades and Connections:

Vents

Vents Required:

When connected to a common building sewer, the drainage piping of two


(2) or more buildings located on the same lot and under one (1)
ownership may be vented by means of piping sized in accordance with
Table 8-5, provided the aggregate cross-sectional area of all vents is not
less than that of the largest required common building sewer.

Exception:

Combination Oil and Sand Interceptor:

The size of vent piping shall be determined from its length and the total
number of fixture units connected thereto, as set forth in Table 8-5. The
diameter of an individual vent shall not be less than 32 mm nor less than
fifty percent (50%) the diameter of the drain to which it is connected. In
addition, the drainage piping of each building and each connection to a
Public sewer or a Private sewage disposal system shall be vented by
means of one or more vent pipes, the aggregate cross-sectional area of
which shall not be less than that of the largest required building sewer, as
determined from Table 85.

All vent and branch vent pipes shall be free from drops or sags and each
such vent shall be level or shall be so graded and connected as to drip back
by gravity to the drainage pipe it serves.
Where vents connect to a horizontal drainage pipe, each vent pipe shall
have its invert taken off above the drainage center line of such pipe
downstream of the trap being served.
Unless prohibited by structural conditions, each vent shall rise vertically
to a point not less than 150 mm above the flood level rim of the fixture
served before offsetting horizontally, and whenever two or more vent
pipes converge, each such vent pipe shall rise to a point at least 150 mm
in height above the flood level rim of the plumbing fixture it serves before
being connected to any other vent. Vents less than 150 mm above the
flood level rim of the fixture shall be installed with approved drainage
fittings, material and grade to the drain.
All vent pipes shall extend undiminished in size above the roof, or shall be
reconnected with a soil or waste vent of proper size.
The vent pipe opening from a soil or waste pipe, except for water closets
and similar fixtures, shall not be below the weir of the trap.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Two (2) fixtures may be served by a common vertical pipe when each such
fixture wastes separately into an approved double fitting having inlet
openings at the same level.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Frost or Snow Closure:

Vent Termination:

Each vent pipe or stack shall extend through its flashing and shall
terminate vertically not less than 150 mm above the roof nor less than 300
mm from any vertical surface.

Each vent shall terminate not less than 3.048 m from, or at least 914 mm
above any openable window, door, opening, air intake, or vent shaft, nor
less than 914 mm in every direction from any lot line; alley and street
excepted.
Vent pipes shall be extended separately or combined, of full required size,
not less than 150 mm above the roof or fire wall. Flag poling of vents shall
be prohibited except where the roof is used for purposes other than
weather protection. All vents within 3.048 m of any part of the roof that is
used for such other purposes shall extend not less than 2.134 m above such
roof and shall be securely stayed.
Vent pipes for outdoor installations shall extend at least 3.048 m above
the surrounding ground and shall be securely supported.
Joints at the roof around vent pipes shall be made water tight by the use of
approved flashings or flashing material.

Lead:

Vent Stacks and Relief Vents:

For safe pans:

Not less 19.5 kg / m2 or 1.6 mm thick.

For flashings or vent terminals:

Not less than 14.7 kg / m2 or 1.2 mm thick.

Lead bends and lead traps shall not be less than 3.2 mm wall
thickness.

8-47

Each drainage stack which extends ten (10) or more stories above the
building drain or other horizontal drain, shall be served by a parallel vent
stack which shall extend undiminished in size from its upper terminal and
connect to the drainage stack at or immediately below the lowest fixture
drain. Each such vent stack shall also be connected to the drainage stack at
each fifth floor, counting down from the uppermost fixture drain by means
of a yoke vent, the size of which shall be not less in diameter than either
the drainage or the vent stack, whichever is smaller.
The yoke vent intersection with the vent stack shall be placed not less than
1.067m above the floor level, and the yoke vent intersection with the
drainage stack shall be by means of a wye branch fitting placed below the
fixture branch serving that floor.

Vertical Wet Venting:

See Table14-1 US UPC2000 Edition. Sheet lead shall be not less than the
following:

Where frost or snow closure is likely to occur in locations having minimum


design temperature below (-17.8C), vent terminals shall be a minimum of
50 mm in diameter but in no event smaller than the required vent pipe.
The change in diameter shall be made inside the building at least 300 mm
below the roof in an insulated space and terminate not less than 254 mm
above the roof, or as required by the Sanitary Engineer.

Wet venting is limited to vertical drainage piping receiving the discharge


from the trap arm of one (1) and two (2) fixture unit fixtures that also
serves as a vent for not to exceed four (4) fixtures. All wet vented fixtures
shall be within the same story; provided, further, that fixtures with a
continuous vent discharging into a wet vent shall be within the same story
as the wet vented fixtures. No wet vent shall exceed 1.829 m in developed
length.
The vertical piping between any two (2) consecutive inlet levels shall be
considered a wet vented section. Each wet vented section shall be a
minimum of one (1) pipe size larger than the required minimum waste
pipe size of the upper fixture or shall be one (1) pipe size larger than the
required minimum pipe size for the sum of the fixture units served by
such wet vented section, whichever is larger, but in no case less than 50
mm.

Common vent sizing shall be the sum of the fixture units served but in no
case smaller than the minimum vent pipe size required for any fixture
served, or by Section 8.3.7 Size of Vents.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Special Venting for Island Fixtures:

Exception:

Traps for island sinks and similar equipment shall be roughed in above the
floor and may be vented by extending the vent as high as possible, but not
less than the drainboard height and then returning it downward and
connecting it to the horizontal sink drain immediately downstream from
the vertical fixture drain. The return vent shall be connected to the
horizontal drain through a wye-branch fitting and shall, in addition, be
provided with a foot vent taken off the vertical fixture vent by means of a
wye-branch immediately below the floor and extending to the nearest
partition and then through the roof to the open air or may be connected to
other vents at a point not less than 150 mm above the flood level rim of the
fixtures served.

Drainage fittings shall be used on all parts of the vent below the floor level
and a minimum slope of 20.9 mm/m back to the drain shall be maintained.
The return bend used under the drainboard shall be a one (1) piece fitting
or an assembly of a forty-five (45) degree (0.79 rad), a ninety (90) degree
(1.6 rad) and a forty-five (45) degree (0.79 rad) elbow in the order named.
Pipe sizing shall be as elsewhere required in these Design Guidelines. The
island sink drain, upstream of the returned vent, shall serve no other
fixtures. An accessible cleanout shall be installed in the vertical portion of
the foot vent.

8.3.8

8-49

Combination waste and vent systems shall be permitted only where


structural conditions preclude the installation of conventional systems as
otherwise prescribed by this Design Guidelines.

Plans and specifications for each combination waste and vent system shall
first be approved by the Sanitary Engineer before any portion of any such
system is installed.

Each combination waste and vent system, shall be provided with a vent or
vents adequate to assure free circulation of air. Any branch more than
4.572m) in length shall be separately vented in an approved manner. The
minimum area of any vent installed in a combination waste and vent
system shall be at least fifty percent 50% the inside cross-sectional area of
the drain pipe served. The vent connection shall be downstream of the
uppermost fixture.

Each waste pipe and each trap in any such system shall be at least two (2)
pipe sizes larger than the sizes required by Section 8.3.4 of this Design
Guidelines, and at least two (2) pipe sizes larger than any fixture tailpiece
or connection.

Unless specifically required or permitted by the Sanitary Engineer, no


vertical waste pipe shall be used in any such system, except the tailpiece or
connection between the outlet of a plumbing fixture and the trap
therefore. Such tailpieces or connections shall be as short as possible, and
in no case shall exceed 600 mm.

Cleanouts may not be required on any wet vented branch serving a single
trap when the fixture tailpiece or connection is not less than 50 mm in
diameter and provides ready access for cleaning through the trap. An
accessible cleanout shall be installed in each vent for the combination
waste and vent system.
No water closet or urinal shall be installed on any such system. Other one
(1), two (2), or three (3) unit fixtures remotely located from the sanitary
system and adjacent to a combination waste and vent system may be
connected to such system in the conventional manner by means of waste
and vent pipes of regular sizes, providing that the two (2) pipe size is
based on the total fixture unit load connected to the system.

Subsoil Drains

Combination Waste and Vent Systems:

Branch lines may have forty-five (45) degree (0.79 rad) vertical offsets

Subsoil drains shall be provided around the perimeter of buildings having


basements, cellars, or crawl spaces or floors below grade. Such subsoil
drains may be positioned inside or outside of the footing, shall be of
perforated, or open-jointed approved drain tile or pipe not less than 80
mm in diameter, and shall be laid in gravel, slag, crushed rock, approved
19.1 mm crushed recycled glass aggregate, or other approved porous
material with a minimum of 100 mm surrounding the pipe on all sides.
Filter media shall be provided for exterior subsoil piping.
Subsoil drains shall be piped to a storm drain, to an approved water course,
to the front street curb or gutter, or to an alley; or the discharge from the
subsoil drains shall be conveyed to the alley by a concrete gutter. Where a
continuously flowing spring or groundwater is encountered, subsoil drains
shall be piped to a storm drain or an approved water course.

Where it is not possible to convey the drainage by gravity, subsoil drains


shall discharge to an accessible sump provided with an approved
automatic electric pump. The sump shall be at least 375 mm in diameter,
457 mm in depth, and provided with a fitted cover. The sump pump shall
have an adequate capacity to discharge all water coming into the sump as
it accumulates to the required discharge point, and the capacity of the
pump shall not be less than 1.0 L/s. The discharge piping from the sump
pump shall be a minimum of 40 mm in diameter and have a union or other
approved quick disconnect assembly to make the pump accessible for
servicing.

For separate dwellings not serving continuously flowing springs or


groundwater, the sump discharge pipe may discharge onto a concrete
splash block with a minimum length of 600 mm. This pipe shall be within
100 mm of the splash block and positioned to direct the flow parallel to the
recessed line of the splash block.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Urinals:
Urinals shall have an average water consumption of not more than 1.0 gallon
(3.8 liters) of water per flush.

Exception:

If approved by the Sanitary Engineer, blowout urinals may be installed for


Public use in stadiums, race courses, fairgrounds, and other structures used
for outdoor assembly and for similar uses.

Non-Metered Faucets:

Lavatory faucets shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not
exceed a water flow rate of 8.4 liters per minute.
Metered Faucets:

Self-closing or self-closing metering faucets shall be installed on lavatories


intended to serve the transient Public, such as those in, but not limited to,
service stations, train stations, airports, restaurants and convention halls.
Metered faucets shall deliver not more than 1.0 liter of water per use.
Kitchen Faucets:

Faucets for kitchen sinks shall be designed and manufactured so that they will
not exceed a water flow rate of 8.4 liters per minute.
Shower Heads:

Shower heads shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not exceed
a water supply flow rate of 9.5 liters per minute.
Exception:

Emergency safety showers.


Installation:

Water-conserving fixtures shall be installed in strict accordance with the


manufacturers instructions to maintain their rated performance.
Materials Alternates:

Special use fixtures may be made of soapstone, chemical stoneware, or may be


lined with lead, copper base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corrosion-resisting
steel, or other materials especially suited for the use for which the fixture is
intended.
Zinc Alloy Components:

Zinc alloy components shall meet the applicable nationally recognized


standards and shall be used in accordance with their listing.
Overflows:

When any fixture is provided with an overflow, the waste shall be so arranged
that the standing water in the fixture cannot rise in the overflow when the
stopper is closed or remain in the overflow when the fixture is empty. The
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

overflow pipe from a fixture shall be connected on the house or inlet side of the
fixture trap, except that overflow on flush tanks may discharge into the water
closets or urinals served by them, but it shall be unlawful to connect such
overflows with any other part of the drainage system.
Strainers and Connections:

Strainers. All plumbing fixtures, other than water closets and urinals, shall be
equipped with approved strainers having an approved waterway area.
Strainers serving shower drains shall have a waterway equivalent to the area
of the tailpiece.
Connections:

Fixtures having concealed slip joint connections shall be provided with an


access panel or utility space at least 305 mm in its least dimension and so
arranged without obstructions as to make such connections accessible for
inspection and repair.

Continuous wastes and fixture tailpieces shall be constructed from the


materials specified in Section 8.3.13 Materials For Drainage for drainage
piping, provided, however, that such connections where exposed or
accessible may be of seamless drawn brass not less than No. 20 B&S Gauge
0.8 mm. Each such tailpiece, continuous waste, or waste and overflow shall
not be less than 40 mm O.D. for sinks, dishwashers, laundry tubs, bathtubs,
urinals and similar fixtures, and not less than 32 mm) for lavatories, drinking
fountains, and similar small fixtures.

Approved wye or other directional type branch fittings shall be installed in all
continuous wastes connecting or receiving the discharge from food waste
disposal units, dishwashers, clothes washers, or other force discharge fixtures
or appliances. No dishwasher drain shall be connected to a sink tailpiece,
continuous waste or trap on the discharge side of a food waste disposal unit.
Prohibited Fixtures:

Water closets having an invisible seal or an unventilated space or having walls


which are not thoroughly washed at each discharge shall be prohibited. Any
water closet which might permit siphonage of the contents of the bowl back
into the tank shall be prohibited. Drinking fountains shall not be installed in
Public toilet rooms.
Prohibited Urinals:

Floor-type and wall -hung-type trough urinals shall be prohibited. Urinals


which have an invisible seal or which have an unventilated space or wall
which is not thoroughly washed at each discharge shall be prohibited.

Fixed wooden, concrete, cement, or tile wash trays or sinks for domestic use
shall not be installed in any building designed or used for human habitation.
No sheet metal lined wooden bathtub shall be installed or reconnected. No dry
or chemical closet (toilet) shall be installed in any building used for human
habitation, unless first approved by the Sanitary Engineer.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

corrosion-resistant screws or bolts. The closet flange shall be secured to a


firm base.

Where floor-mounted, back-outlet water closets are used, the soil pipe shall
not be less than 80 mm in diameter. Offset, eccentric, or reducing floor flanges
shall not be used.
Setting:

Fixtures shall be set level and in proper alignment with reference to adjacent
walls. No water closet or bidet shall be set closer than 381 mm from its center
to any side wall or obstruction nor closer than 762 mm center to center to any
similar fixture. The clear space in front of any water closet or bidet shall not be
less than 600 mm. No urinal shall be set closer than 305 mm from its center to
any side wall or partition nor closer than.
Installations for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs):

Where facilities for the PWDs are required in applicable building regulations,
the facilities shall be installed in accordance with those regulations.
Supply Fittings:

The supply lines or fittings for every plumbing fixture shall be so installed as
to prevent backflow as required in Section 8.3.17.
Water Closets:

Water closet bowls for Public use shall be of the elongated type. In nurseries,
schools, and other similar places where plumbing fixtures are provided for the
use of children under six (6) years of age, water closets shall be of a size and
height suitable for childrens use. All water closets shall be equipped with
seats as required below.
Water Closet Seats:

Water closet seats shall be of smooth non-absorbent material.

All water closet seats, except those within dwelling units, shall be of the
open front type.
Water closet seats shall be properly sized for the water closet bowl type.

Seats for use in Public buildings shall conform to the standard listed in
Table 14-1 of Standards for Materials, Equipment, Joints and Connections
US UPC 2000 Edition.

Urinals:

8.3.10

Every water supply to a urinal shall be protected by an approved type vacuum


breaker or other approved backflow prevention device as described in Section
8.3.17.3.
Flushing Devices for Water Closet and Urinals

Flushing Devices Required: Each water closet, urinal, clinic sink, or other
plumbing fixture which depends on trap siphonage to discharge its waste
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

contents shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer tank or flush


tank designed and installed so as to supply water in sufficient quantity and
rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture to which it is connected, to
cleanse the fixture, and to refill the fixture trap, without excessive water use.
Flushing devices shall meet anti-siphon requirements required in Section
8.3.17.
Automatic Flushing Tanks: Tanks flushing more than one (1) urinal shall be
automatic in operation and of sufficient capacity to provide the necessary
volume to flush and properly cleanse all urinals simultaneously. Automatically
controlled flushometer valves may be substituted for flush tanks.

Flushometer Valves: No manually controlled flushometer valve shall be used


to flush more than one (1) urinal and each such urinal flushometer valve shall
be an approved, self-closing type discharging a predetermined quantity of
water. Flushometers shall be installed so that they will be accessible for repair.
Flushometer valves shall not be used where the water pressure is insufficient
to properly operate them. When the valve is operated, it shall complete the
cycle of operation automatically, opening fully and closing positively under the
line water pressure. Each flushometer shall be provided with a means for
regulating the flow through it.

Water Supply for Flush Tanks: An adequate quantity of water shall be


provided to flush and clean the fixture served. The water supply for flushing
tanks and flushometer tanks equipped for manual flushing shall be controlled
by a float valve or other automatic device designed to refill the tank after each
discharge and to completely shut off the water flow to the tank when the tank
is filled to operational capacity. Provision shall be made to automatically supply
water to the fixture so as to refill the trap seal after each flushing. The water
supply to flush tanks equipped for automatic flushing shall be controlled by a
suitable timing device.

Flush Valves in Flush Tanks: Flush valve seats in tanks for flushing water
closets shall be at least 25 mm above the flood level rim of the bowl connected
thereto, except in approved water closet and flush tank combinations designed
so that when the tank is flushed and the fixture is clogged or partially clogged,
the flush valve closes tightly so that water does not spill continuously over the
rim of the bowl or backflow from the bowl to the tank.
Overflows in Flush Tanks: Flush tanks shall be provided with overflows
discharging into the water closet or urinal connected thereto and shall be of
sufficient size to prevent tank flooding at the maximum rate at which the tank
is supplied with water under normal operating conditions.

Floor Drains and Shower Stalls: Floor drains shall be considered plumbing
fixtures and each such drain shall be provided with an approved type strainer
having a waterway equivalent to the area of the tailpiece. Floor drains, floor
receptors, and shower drains shall be of an approved type, suitably flanged to
provide a water tight joint in the floor.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Location of Floor Drains: Floor drains shall be installed in the following


areas:

8.3.11

Toilet rooms containing two (2) or more water closets or a combination of one
(1) water closet and one (1) urinal, except in a dwelling unit. The floor shall
slope toward the floor drains.
Commercial kitchens

Laundry rooms in commercial buildings and common laundry facilities in


multi-family dwelling buildings.

Food Storage Areas: If drains are provided in storerooms, walk-in freezers,


walk-in coolers, refrigerated equipment, or other locations where food is
stored, such drains shall have indirect waste piping. Separate waste pipes shall
be run from each food storage area, each with an indirect connection to the
building sanitary drainage system. Traps shall be provided if required under
Section 8.3.5.5 and shall be vented.

Indirect drains may be located in freezers or other spaces where freezing


temperatures are maintained, provided that traps, when provided, are located
where the seal will not freeze. Otherwise, the floor of the freezer shall be
sloped to a floor drain located outside of the storage compartment.
Floor Slope: Floors shall be sloped to floor drains where drainage occurs on a
regular or frequent basis, or as otherwise required by the Sanitary Engineer.

Shower receptors are plumbing fixtures and shall conform to the general
requirements therefore contained in Section 8.3.8.1. Each such shower
receptor shall be constructed of vitrified china or earthenware, ceramic tile,
porcelain enameled metal or of such other material as may be acceptable to
the Sanitary Engineer. No shower receptor shall be installed unless it
conforms to acceptable standards as referenced in Table 14-1 of US UPC 2000
Edition or until a specification or a prototype or both of such receptor has first
been submitted to and approval obtained from the Sanitary Engineer.
Each shower receptor shall be an approved type and be so constructed as to
have a finished dam, curb, or threshold which is at least 25 mm lower than the
sides and back of such receptor. In no case shall any dam or threshold be less
than 50 mm or more than 229 mm in depth when measured from the top of
the dam or threshold to the top of the drain. Each such receptor shall be
provided with an integral nailing flange to be located where the receptor
meets the vertical surface of the finished interior of the shower compartment.
The flange shall be water tight and extend vertically a minimum of 25 mm
above the top of the sides of the receptor. The finished floor of the receptor
shall slope uniformly from the sides toward the drain not less than 20.9
mm/m, nor more than 41.8 mm/m. Thresholds shall be of sufficient width to
accommodate a minimum 559 mm door. Shower doors shall open so as to
maintain a minimum 559 mm unobstructed opening for egress.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Exception: Showers which are designed to comply with the accessibility


standards listed in Table 14-1 of Standards for Materials, Equipment, Joints
and Connections US UPC 2000 Edition.

All shower compartments, regardless of shape, shall have a minimum finished


interior of 0.66 m2 and shall also be capable of encompassing a 750 mm circle.
The minimum required area and dimensions shall be measured at a height
equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline. The
minimum area and dimensions shall be maintained to a point 1.778 m above
the shower drain outlet with no protrusions other than the fixture valve or
valves, shower head, soap dishes, shelves and safety grab bars or rails. Folddown seats in accessible shower stalls shall be permitted to protrude into the
750 mm circle.
Exception: Showers which are designed to comply with the accessibility
standards listed in Table 14-1 of Standards for Materials, Equipment, Joints
and Connections US UPC 2000 Edition.

When the construction of on-site built-up shower receptors is permitted by


the Sanitary Engineer, one of the following means shall be employed:

Shower receptors built directly on the ground: Shower receptors built


directly on the ground shall be water tight and shall be constructed from
approved type dense, non-absorbent and noncorrosive materials. Each such
receptor shall be adequately reinforced, shall be provided with an approved
flanged floor drain designed to make a water tight joint in the floor, and shall
have smooth, impervious, and durable surfaces.

Shower receptors built above ground: When shower receptors are built above
ground the sub-floor and rough side of walls to a height of not less than 76 mm)
above the top of the finished dam or threshold shall be first lined with sheet
plastic*, lead* or copper* or shall be lined with other durable and water tight
materials.
All lining materials shall be pitched 20.9 mm/m to weep holes in the subdrain
of a smooth and solidly formed sub-base. All such lining materials shall extend
upward on the rough jambs of the shower opening to a point no less than 76
mm above the top of the finished dam or threshold and shall extend outward
over the top of the rough threshold and be turned over and fastened on the
outside face of both the rough threshold and the jambs.

Non-metallic shower sub-pans or linings may be built-up on the job site of not
less than three (3) layers of standard 6.8 kg asphalt impregnated roofing felt.
The bottom layer shall be fitted to the formed sub-base and each succeeding
layer thoroughly hot mopped to that below. All corners shall be carefully fitted
and shall be made strong and water tight by folding or lapping, and each corner
shall be reinforced with suitable webbing hot-mopped in place. All folds, laps,
and reinforcing webbing shall extend at least 100 mm in all directions from the
corner and all webbing shall be of approved type and mesh, producing a tensile
strength of not less than 344.5 kPa in either direction. Non-metallic shower
sub-pans or linings may also consist of multi-layers of other approved
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

equivalent materials suitably reinforced and carefully fitted in place on the job
site as elsewhere required in this section.

Linings shall be properly recessed and fastened to approved backing so as not


to occupy the space required for the wall covering and shall not be nailed or
perforated at any point which may be less than 25 mm above the finished dam
or threshold. An approved type sub-drain shall be installed with every shower
sub-pan or lining. Each such sub-drain shall be of the type that sets flush with
the sub-base and shall be equipped with a clamping ring or other device to
make a tight connection between the lining and the drain. The sub-drain shall
have weep holes into the waste line. The weep holes located in the subdrain
clamping ring shall be protected from clogging.

*Lead and copper sub-pans or linings shall be insulated from all conducting
substances other than their connecting drain by 6.8 kg asphalt felt or its
equivalent and no lead pan or liner shall be constructed of material weighing
less than 19.5 kg/m2. Copper pans or liners shall be at least No. 24 B & S Gauge
0.5 mm. Joints in lead pans or liners shall be burned. Joints in copper pans or
liners shall be soldered or brazed. Plastic pans shall not be coated with asphalt
based materials.
All shower lining materials shall conform to approved standards acceptable to
the Sanitary Engineer.

Tests for Shower Receptors: Shower receptors shall be tested for water
tightness by filling with water to the level of the rough threshold. The test plug
shall be so placed that both upper and under sides of the sub-pan shall be
subjected to the test at the point where it is clamped to the drain.

Floors of Public shower rooms shall have a non-skid surface and shall be
drained in such a manner that waste water from one bather will not pass over
areas occupied by other bathers. Gutters in Public or gang shower rooms shall
have rounded corners for easy cleaning and shall be sloped not less than 2%
toward drains. Drains in gutters shall be spaced not more than 2438 mm from
side walls nor more than 4.897 mm apart.
Location of Valves and Heads: Control valves and shower heads shall be
located on the sidewall of shower compartments or be otherwise arranged so
that the showerhead does not discharge directly at the entrance to the
compartment and the bather can adjust the valves prior to stepping into the
shower spray.

8.3.12

Water Supply Riser. Every water supply riser from the shower valve to the
shower head outlet, whether exposed or not, shall be securely attached to the
structure.
Minimum Number of Required Fixtures

Fixture Count. Plumbing fixtures shall be provided for the type of building
occupancy and in the minimum number shown in Table 8-2.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Access to Fixtures: In multi-story buildings, accessibility to the required


fixtures shall not exceed one (1) vertical story.
Fixtures accessible only to Private offices shall not be counted to determine
compliance with this section.
Separate Facilities: Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for each sex.

Exceptions: Residential installations.

In occupancies serving ten (10) or fewer people, one (1) toilet facility,
designed for use by no more than one (1) person at a time, shall be permitted
for use by both sexes.

In business and mercantile occupancies with a total floor area of 139.5 m2 or


less, one (1) toilet facility, designed for use by no more than one (1) person at a
time, shall satisfy the requirements for serving customers and employees of
both sexes.
Fixture Requirements for Special Occupancies: Additional fixtures may be
required when unusual environmental conditions or special activities are
encountered.
In food preparation areas, fixture requirements may be dictated by health
Codes.

Types of occupancy not shown in Table 8-2 shall be considered individually by


the Sanitary Engineer
Facilities in Mercantile and Business Occupancies Serving Customers

Requirements for customers and employees shall be permitted to be met with


a single set of restrooms accessible to both groups. The required number of
fixtures shall be the greater of the required number for employees or the
required number for customers.
Fixtures for customer use shall be permitted to be met by providing a centrally
located facility accessible to several stores. The maximum distance from entry
to any store to this facility shall not exceed 152.4 m.

In stores with a floor area a 13.9 m2 or less, the requirement to provide


facilities for employees shall be permitted to be met by providing a centrally
located facility accessible to several stores. The maximum distance from entry
to any store to this facility shall not 91.4 m.
Food Service Establishments: Food service establishments with an occupant
load of one hundred (100) or more shall be provided with separate facilities
for employees and customers. Customer and employee facilities may be
combined for occupant loads less than one hundred (100).

Toilet Facilities for Workers: Suitable toilet facilities shall be provided and
maintained in a sanitary condition for the use of workers during construction.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

8.3.13

Fixtures and Fixtures Fittings for Persons with Disabilities

Plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings for persons with disabilities shall
conform to the appropriate standards referenced in Table 14-1 of US UPC
2000 Edition.

Whirlpool Bathtubs: Unless otherwise listed, all whirlpool bathtubs shall


comply with the following requirements:
A removable panel of sufficient dimension shall be provided to access the
pump.
The circulation pump shall be located above the crown weir of the trap.

The pump and the circulation piping shall be self-draining to minimize water
retention in accordance with standards referenced in Table14-1 of US UPC
2000 Edition.
Suction fittings on whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with the listed standards.

Installation of Fixtures Fittings: Faucets and diverters shall be installed and


adjusted so that the flow of hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left
hand side of the fitting during fixture operation.
Exception: In single handle mixing valves, the flow of hot water shall
correspond to the markings on the fitting.

Bidets: Materials. Bidets shall conform to the standards listed in Table14-1 of


US UPC 2000 Edition.
Backflow Protection. The water supply to the bidet shall be protected
according to Section 8.3.17, which allows for an airgap or vacuum breaker.

Future Fixtures: When provision is made for the future installation of


fixtures, those provided for shall be considered in determining the required
sizes of drain pipes. Construction for future installations shall be terminated
with a plugged fitting or fittings. Where the plugged fitting is at the point
where the trap of a fixture may be installed, the plumbing system for such
fixture shall be complete and conform with all plumbing requirements of these
Design Guidelines.

Shower and Tub/Shower Combination Control Valves: Showers and tubshower combinations in all buildings shall be provided with individual control
valves of the pressure balance or the thermostatic mixing valve type. Gang
showers, when supplied with a single temperature controlled water supply
pipe, may be controlled by a master thermostatic mixing valve in lieu of
individually controlled pressure balance or thermostatic mixing valves.
Handle position stops shall be provided on such valves and shall be adjusted
per the manufacturers instructions to deliver a maximum mixed water setting
of 49C. The water heater thermostat shall not be considered a suitable
control for meeting this provision.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Underground Main Sewer and Waste Lines, Main Sewer and Waste Lines shall be
Bell and spigot cast iron pipe (CIP) and fittings conforming to ASTM A74. Or PVC
series 1000 and fittings Or HDPE and fittings, Schedule 40 ABS DWV, Schedule
40 PVC DWV, extra strength vitrified clay pipe, or other approved materials
having a smooth and uniform bore conforming to ATSM referred to in Table 141 UPC 2000 Edition, except that:
No galvanized wrought iron or galvanized steel pipe shall be used
underground and shall be kept at least 150 mm all be installed except for
individual single family dwelling units, materials exposed within ducts or
plenums shall have a flame-spread index of not more than 25 and a smokedeveloped index of not more than 50, when tested in accordance with the Test
for Surface-Burning Characteristics of the Building Materials

No vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be used above ground or where


pressurized by a pump or ejector. They shall be kept at least 300 mm below
ground.
Copper tube for drainage and vent piping shall have a weight of not less than
that of copper drainage tube type DWV.

Drainage fittings shall be of cast iron, malleable iron, lead, brass, copper,
ABS, PVC, vitrified clay, or other approved materials having a smooth
interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served and all such
fittings shall be compatible with the type of pipe used. Pump Discharge Pipe
shall be black iron pipe (BIP) and fittings conforming to ASTM A53.
Fittings on screwed pipe shall be of the recessed drainage type. Burred ends
shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe.

The threads of drainage fittings shall be tapped so as to allow 20.9 mm/m


grade.
Fittings used for drainage shall be of the drainage type, have a smooth interior
waterway, and be constructed so as to allow 20.9 mm/m per foot grade.

Lead: See Table 14-1 of US UPC 2000 Edition Sheet lead shall be not less than
the following:
For safe pans: not less than 19.5 kg / m2

For flashings or vent terminals: not less than 15 kg / m2 or 1.2 mm thick.

Lead bends and lead traps shall not be less than 3.2 mm wall thickness.

Ferrules and Bushings: Caulking ferrules shall be manufactured from


bronze or copper and shall be in accordance with Table 8-13.

Soldering bushings shall be of bronze or copper in accordance with Table 8-14.

Materials for Sanitary Drainage: Sewer lines shall be designed with a


minimum slope of one percent (1%), For high-rise buildings; Soil stack shall be
cast iron pipe (CIP) and fittings conforming to ASTM A74. Or HDPE and fittings,
8-61

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-16

Hangers and Support

Material
Cast

Type of Joints
Lead Oakum

Compression
Gasket

Horizontal

Vertical

(1,524 mm), (3,048


mm) where foot lengths
3,048 mm are
installed1,2,3
Every other joint, unless
over 1,219 mm, then
support each joint1,2,3

Base and each floor not


to exceed 4,572 mm
Base and each floor
maximum of 4,572 mm

Cast Iron Hubless

Shielding
Coupling

Every other joint, unless


over 1,219 mm, then
support each joint1,2,3,4

Base and each floor


maximum of 4,572 mm

Copper Tube and Pipe

Soldered or
Brazed

40mm and smaller,


1,829 mm, 50 mm and
larger,3,048 mm

Each floor, a maximum


of 3,048 mm,5

Steel and brass Pipe


for Water or DWV

Threaded of
Welded

and smaller, (3,048


mm), 25 mm and larger,
(3,658 mm)

Every other Floor, a


maximum of 7,620 mm5

Steel, Brass and


Tinned Copper Pipe for
Gas

Threaded of
Welded

15mm (1,829 mm), 20


mm and (2 5 mm),
(2,436 mm),
(32 mm) and larger,
(3,048 mm)

(12 mm) (1,829 mm)


(20mm) and 25 mm,
2,436 mm,
(32 mm) every floor
level

Schedule 40 PVC and


ABS DWV

Solvent Cemented

All sizes, (1,219 mm).


Allow for expansion
every (9,144 mm)3,6

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides. Provide for
expansion every (9,144
mm)3

CPVC

Solvent Cemented

(25 mm) and smaller,


(914 mm),(32 mm) and
larger, (1,219 mm)

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides6

PEX

Metal Inserts and


Metal
Compression

(813 mm)

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides

PEX-ALPEX

Metal Inserts and


Metal
Compression

(12 mm),(20 mm) and


(25 mm) all (2,489 mm)

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides

PE-AL-PE

Metal Inserts and


Metal
Compression

(15 mm) (20 mm) and


(25 mm) all sizes 98
(2,489 mm)

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides

Polypropylene (PP)

Fusion Weld
(socket, but,
saddle,
electrofusion),
threaded (metal
threads only), or
mechanical

(25 mm) and smaller,


813 mm), (32 mm) and
larger, 4 feet (1,219
mm)

Base and each floor


Provide mid-story
guides

Source: US-UPC 2009 (Table 3-2)


Footnotes of Table 8-16:
1. Support adjacent to joint, a maximum of eighteen 457 mm
2. Brace at a maximum of 12,192 mm intervals to prevent horizontal movement
3. Support at each horizontal branch connection
4. Hangers shall not be placed on the coupling
5. Vertical water lines shall be permitted to be supported in accordance with recognized
engineering principles with regard to expansion and contraction, approved by authority having
jurisdiction
6. See the appropriate IAPMO Installation Standard for expansion and other special requirements

8-65

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

required by this section. Drain pipe shall be placed on filter material in an


approved manner. The drain lines shall then be covered with filter material to
the minimum depth required by this section and this covered with untreated
building paper, straw, or similar porous material to prevent closure of voids
with earth backfill. No earth backfill shall be placed over the filter material
cover until after inspection and acceptance.
Exception: Listed or approved plastic leaching chambers may be used in lieu
of pipe and filter material. Chamber installations shall follow the rules for
disposal fields, where applicable, and shall conform to manufacturers
installation instructions.
A grade board staked in the trench to the depth of filter material shall be
utilized when distribution line is constructed with drain tile or a flexible pipe
material which will not maintain alignment without continuous support.

When seepage pits are used in combination with disposal fields, the filter
material in the trenches shall terminate at least 1.524 m from the pit
excavation and the line extending from such points to the seepage pit shall be
approved pipe with water tight joints.

Where two (2) or more drain lines are installed, an approved distribution box
of sufficient size to receive lateral lines shall be installed at the head of each
disposal field. The inverts of all outlets shall be level and the invert of the inlet
shall be at least 25.4 mm above the outlets. Distribution boxes shall be
designed to insure equal flow and shall be installed on a level concrete slab in
natural or compacted soil. Distribution boxes shall be coated on the inside
with a bituminous coating or other approved method acceptable to the
Sanitary Engineer.
All laterals from a distribution box to the disposal field shall be approved pipe
with water tight joints. Multiple disposal field laterals, wherever practicable,
shall be of uniform length.
Connections between a septic tank and a distribution box shall be laid with
approved pipe with water tight joints on natural ground or compacted fill.

When the quantity of sewage exceeds the amount that can be disposed in
152.4 m of leach line, a dosing tank shall be used. Dosing tanks shall be
equipped with an automatic siphon or pump which discharges the tank once
every three (3) or four (4) hours. The tank shall have a capacity equal to 60 to
75% of the interior capacity of the pipe to be dosed at one time. Where the
total length of pipe exceeds 304.8 m, the dosing tank shall be provided with
two (2) siphons or pumps dosing alternately and each serving one half (1/2)
of the leach field.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-19
Structure

Location of Sewage Disposal System

Water supply wells


Streams

Disposal Field

Single Family
Dwellings
Number of
Bedrooms

Seepage Pit or
Cesspool

*Capacity of Septic Tanks


Multiple Dwelling
Units or
Apartments One
Bedroom Each

Other Uses:
Maximum Fixture
Units Served per
Table7-3

Minimum
Septic Tank
Capacity
Liters

1.524

2.438

2.438

1 or 2

15

2838

1.524

1.524

2.438

20

3785

15.24 3

15.24

30.5m

45.7

Clear

25

4542

33

5678

45

7570

55

8516

60

9463

70

10,409

80

11,355

Trees

3.048

Seepage pits or cesspools

1.524

1.524

3.658

Disposal field

1.524

1.219 4

1.524

On site domestic water service line

1.524

1.524

1.524

3.048

1.524

1.524

90

12,301

3.048

10

100

13,248

Pressure Public water main

3. 048

3.048

30.5

2 units

15.24

15.240 6

4
5 or 6

15.24

Distribution box

8-77

Septic Tank

0.610

Property line adjoining Private property

Table 8-20

Minimum Horizontal Distance Clearance


Required
Building
Sewer

Buildings or structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

3.048

3.048

Source: Table K-1 UPC 2000 Edition

Source: Table K-2 UPC 2000 Edition

Footnotes of Table 8-19:


When disposal fields and / or seepage pits are installed in sloping ground, the minimum horizontal
distance between any part of the leaching system and ground surface shall be 4.572 m.

Footnotes of Table 8-20:


1. Extra bedroom, 568 liters each.
2.

Extra dwelling units over 10, add 946 liters each.

1.

3.

Extra fixture units over 100, add 95 liters per fixture unit.

Including porches and steps, whether covered or uncovered, breezeways, roofed portecocheres, roofed patios, carports, covered walks, covered driveways and similar structures or
appurtenances.

2.

No building sewer or other drainage piping or part thereof, constructed of materials other than
those approved for use under or within a building, shall be installed under or within 0.610 m of
any building or structure, or less than 0.305 m below the surface of the ground.

3.

All drainage piping shall clear domestic water supply wells by at least 15.24 m. This distance
may be reduced to not less than 7.62 m when the drainage piping is constructed of materials
approved for use within a building.

4.

Plus 0.61 m for each additional 0.305 m of depth in excess of 0.305 m below the bottom of the
drain line. (See also Section 8.3.15.7).

5.

For parallel construction: For crossings, approval by the Health Department shall be required.

6.

These minimum clear horizontal distances shall also apply between disposal field, seepage
pits, and the ocean mean higher high tide line.

*Septic tank sizes in this table include sludge storage capacity and the connection of domestic food
waste disposal units without further volume increase.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-21

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Estimated Waste / Sewage Flow Rates


Type of Occupancy

Recommended Design Criteria. Sewage disposal systems sized using the


estimated waste / sewage flow rates should be calculated as follows:

Liters Per Day

Airports

56.8 per employee

18.9 per passenger


Bowling alleys (snack bar only)

283.9 per land


Camps

Campground with central comfort station

132.5 per person

Campground with flush toilets, no showers

94.6 per person

Day camps (no meals served)

56.8 per person

Summer and seasonal

189.3 per person

Churches (Sanctuary)

18.9 per seat

with kitchen waste

26.5 per seat

Dance halls

Waste/sewage flow, over 5677.5 L / day Flow x 0.75 + 1125 = septic tank
size
Secondary system shall be sized for total flow per 24 hours.

Table 8-22

Design Criteria of Five Typical Soils

Required leaching
area / L
(sq.m / L)

Type of Soil

18.9 per person


Factories

Maximum absorption
capacity in L / sq. m of
leaching area for
a 24 hrs period

Coarse sand or gravel

0.005

203.7

Fine sand

0.006

162.9

No showers

94.6 per employee

Sandy loam or sandy clay

0.010

101.8

With showers

132.5 per employee

Clay with considerable sand or gravel

0.022

44.8

Cafeteria, add

18.9 per employee

Clay with small amount of sand or gravel

0.030

32.6

Hospitals

946.3 per bed

Kitchen waste only

94.6 per bed

Laundry waste only

151.4 per bed

Hotels (no kitchen waste)

Source: Table K-4 UPC 2000 Edition


Table 8-23

227.1 per bed (2 person)

Septic Tank Capacity Limits

Institutions (Resident)

283.9 per person

Required Square meter of


Septic Tank Capacity (m2 / L)

Nursing home

473.1 per person

0.0050.006

28,387.5

Rest home

473.1 per person

0.010

18,925.0

189.3 per wash cycle

0.022

13,247.5

Restaurants cafeterias

75.7 per employee

0.030

11,355.0

Toilet

26.5 per customer

Source: Table K-5 UPC 2000 Edition

Laundries, self-service ,in. 10 hrs / day

kitchen waste
add for garbage disposal
add for cocktail lounge
kitchen waste disposable service

3.8 per meal


7.6 per customer
7.6 per meal
75.7 per person

Elementary students

56.8 per person

Intermediate and high

75.7 per student

with gym and showers, add

18.9 per student

with cafeteria, add

11.4 per student

Boarding, total waste

378.5 per person

Service station, toilets

3785 for first bay

Public restrooms, add


Swimming pools, Public
Theaters, auditoriums
Drive-in
Source: Table K-3 UPC 2000 Edition

Maximum Septic Tank


Size Allowable (Liters)

22.7 per meal

Schools Staff and office

Stores

8-79

Waste/sewage flow, up to 5677.5 L / day Flow x 1.5 = septic tank size

75.7 per employee


1 per 4.1m2 of floor space
37.9 per person
18.9 per seat
37.9 per space

8.3.16

Storm Drainage System

Similar in physical design to Sewerage system but differs in discharge content


which is storm water, the system discharges areas but not limited to: service
areas exposed to atmosphere precipitations or other influenced areas wherein
storm water is the main matter to discharge, such All roofs, paved areas, yards,
courts, and courtyards, roof, decks, balconies, parking, site areas shall be
drained into a separate storm sewer system, or into a combined sewer system
where a separate storm sewer system is not available, or to some other place
of disposal satisfactory to the Sanitary Engineer. The system is connected by
gravity flow into the Public storm drainage, physically constrained gravity
discharges requires ejector pumps for proper discharging. In Parking areas Oil
Interceptors must be added into the system sub-collector lines at points
appropriate for maintenance. In the case of one- and two-family dwellings,
storm water may be discharged on flat areas such as streets or lawns so long
as the storm water shall flow away from the building and away from adjoining
property, and shall not create a nuisance.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

diameter and have a union or other approved quick disconnect assembly to


make the pump accessible for servicing.

For separate dwellings not serving continuously flowing springs or


groundwater, the sump discharge pipe may discharge onto a concrete splash
block with a minimum length of 600 mm. This pipe shall be within 100 mm of
the splash block and positioned to direct the flow parallel to the recessed line
of the splash block.

Subsoil drains subject to backflow when discharging into a storm drain shall be
provided with a backwater valve in the drain line so located as to be accessible
for inspection and maintenance.

Nothing in Section 8.3.17.2 shall prevent drains that serve either subsoil
drains or areaways of a detached building from discharging to a properly
graded open area, provided that:

They do not serve continuously flowing springs or groundwater;

The point of discharge is at least 3.048 m from any property line; and

It is impracticable to discharge such drains to a storm drain, to an


approved water course, to the front street curb or gutter, or to an alley.

Drain Systems: Building Subdrains. Building subdrains located below the


Public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or receiving tank, the contents
of which shall be automatically lifted and discharged into the drainage system
as required for building sumps.

Areaway Drains: All open subsurface space adjacent to a building, serving as


an entrance to the basement or cellar of a building, shall be provided with a
drain or drains. Such areaway drains shall be 50 mm minimum diameter for
areaways not exceeding 9.3 m2 in area, and shall be discharged in the manner
provided for subsoil drains not serving continuously flowing springs or
ground water (see Section 8.3.16.1) Areaways in excess of 9.3 m2 shall not
drain into subsoil. Areaway drains for areaways exceeding 9.3 m2 shall be
sized according to Table 8-23.

Window Areaway Drains: Window areaways not exceeding 0.9 m2 in area


may discharge to the subsoil drains through a 50 mm pipe. However, window
areaways exceeding 0.9 m2 in area shall be handled in the manner provided
for entrance areaways.
Filling Stations and Motor Vehicle Washing Establishments: Public filling
stations and motor vehicle washing establishments shall have the paved area
sloped toward sumps or gratings within the property lines. Curbs not less than
152 mm high shall be placed where required to direct water to gratings or
sumps.
Paved Areas: Where the occupant creates surface water drainage, the sumps,
gratings or floor drains shall be piped to a storm drain or an approved water
course.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Roof Drainage: Primary Roof Drainage. Roof areas of a building shall be


drained by roof drains or gutters. The location and sizing of drains and gutters
shall be coordinated with the structural design and pitch of the roof. Unless
otherwise required by the Sanitary Engineer/ Master Plumber, roof drains,
gutters, vertical conductors or leaders, and horizontal storm drains for
primary drainage shall be sized based on a storm of sixty (60) minutes
duration and 100 year return period.

Secondary Roof Drainage: Where parapet walls or other construction extend


above the roof and create areas where storm water would become trapped if
the primary roof drainage system failed to provide sufficient drainage, an
independent secondary roof drainage system consisting of scuppers,
standpipes, or roof drains shall be provided. Secondary roof drainage systems
shall be sized in accordance with Section 8.3.16.1 Roof Drainage of these
Design Guidelines. Overflow drains shall be the same size as the roof drains
with the inlet flow line 50 mm above the low point of the roof and shall be
installed independent from the roof drains.
Where secondary roof drainage is provided by means of roof drains or
standpipes, the secondary system shall be separate from the primary system
and shall discharge independently at grade or other approved point of
discharge.

Where secondary roof drainage is provided, the overflow level(s) into the
secondary system shall be determined by the structural design of the roof,
including roof deflection, at a level not less than 50 mm above the level of the
primary drain. An allowance shall be made to account for the required
overflow head of water above the secondary inlets. The elevation of the
secondary inlet plus the required overflow head shall not exceed the
maximum allowable water level on the roof.
Scuppers shall be sized as rectangular weirs, using hydraulic principles to
determine the required length and resulting overflow head. Secondary roof
drains and standpipes shall be sized according to Table 8-24. Where
standpipes are used, the head allowance required under Section 8.3.16.1
Secondary Roof Drainage shall be not less than 38 mm.

Equivalent Systems: When approved by the Sanitary Engineer, the


requirements of Section 8.3.16.1 Roof Drainage shall not preclude the
installation of an engineered roof drainage system that has sufficient
capacity to prevent water from ponding on the roof in excess of that
allowed in the roof structural design with a rainfall rate of at least twice
that for a 100-year, 60-minute storm and with a blockage in any single point
in the storm drainage system.
Cleanouts: For building storm drains shall comply with the requirements of
Section 8.3.3.5.

Rain leaders and conductors connected to a building storm sewer shall have a
cleanout installed at the base of the outside leader or outside conductor before
it connects to the horizontal drain.
8-83

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-24

Sizing Roof Drains, Leaders, and Vertical Rainwater Piping (METRIC)

Size of Drain,
Leader or
Pipe
Mm

Flow
L/s

Maximum Allowable Horizontal Projected Roof Areas


Square Meters at Various Rainfall Rates mm/hour
25

50

75

100

125

150

50

1.5

202

101

67

51

40

34

80

4.2

600

300

200

150

120

100

100

9.1

1286

643

429

321

257

214

125

16.5

2334

1117

778

583

467

389

150

26.8

3790

1895

1263

948

758

632

200

57.6

8175

4088

2725

2044

1635

1363

Source: Table 11-1 UPC 2000 Edition


Footnotes for Table 8-24:
1.
2.
3.

The sizing data for vertical conductors, leaders, and drains is based on the pipes flowing 7/24
full.
For rainfall rates other than those listed, determine the allowable roof area by dividing the area
given in the 25 mm / hour column by the desired rainfall rate.
Vertical piping may be round, square, or rectangular. Square pipe shall be sized to enclose its
equivalent round pipe. Rectangular pipe shall have at least the same cross-Sectional area as
its equivalent round pipe, except that the ratio of its side dimensions shall not exceed 3 to 1.

Table 8-25
Size of
Pipe mm

Sizing of Horizontal Rainwater Piping


Flow at 10
mm/m
Slope L/s

Maximum Allowable Horizontal Projected Roof Areas, Square


Meters at Various Rainfall Rates mm / hour
25

50

75

100

125

150

80

2.1

305

153

102

76

61

51

100

4.9

700

350

233

175

140

116

125

8.8

1241

621

414

310

248

207

150

14.0

1988

994

663

497

398

331

200

30.2

4273

2137

1424

1068

855

713

250

54.3

7692

3846

2564

1923

1540

1282

300

87.3

12,375

6187

4125

3094

2476

2062

375

156.0

22,110

11,055

7370

5528

4422

3683

8-86

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-26
Size of
Pipe,mm

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Sizing of Horizontal Rainwater Piping


Flow at 20
mm/m
Slope L/s

Table 8-28

Maximum Allowable Horizontal Projected Roof Areas Square


Meters at Various Rainfall Rates mm / hour
25

50

75

100

125

150

80

3.0

431

216

144

108

86

72

100

6.9

985

492

328

246

197

164

125

12.4

1754

877

585

438

351

292

150

19.8

2806

1403

935

701

561

468

200

42.7

6057

3029

2019

1514

1211

1009

250

76.6

10,851

5425

3618

2713

2169

1807

300

123.2

17,465

8733

5816

4366

3493

2912

375

220.2

31,214

15,607

Table 8-27
Size of
Pipe,mm

Flow at 40
mm/m
Slope,L/s
4.3

125

17.5

200

60.3

150

6248

5202

9.8

Maximum Allowable Horizontal Projected Roof Areas Square


Meters at Various Rainfall Rates mm / hour
25

50

75

611

305

204

2482

1241

1400

28.1

3976

250

108.6

15,390

375

312.0

300

7804

Sizing Of Horizontal Rainwater Piping

80

100

10,405

174.6

100
153

700

465

350

1988

1325

994

827

152:4

5:2 mm/m Slope


80

31.6

21.0

15.8

12.6

10.5

100

66.9

44.6

33.4

26.8

22.3

125

116.1

77.5

58.1

46.5

38.7

150

178.4

119.1

89.2

71.4

59.5

175

256.4

170.9

128.2

102.2

85.3

200

369.7

246.7

184.9

147.7

123.1

250

668.9

445.9

334.4

267.6

223.0

80

44.6

29.7

22.3

17.8

14.9

100

94.8

63.3

47.4

37.9

31.6

125

163.5

108.9

81.8

65.4

54.5

150

252.7

168.6

126.3

100.8

84.1

175

362.3

241.5

181.2

144.9

120.8

200

520.2

347.5

260.1

208.1

173.7

250

947.6

631.7

473.8

379

315.9

42.2

31.6

25.3

21.0

10:4 mm/m Slope

80

63.2

100

133.8

89.2

66.9

53.5

44.6

4125

125

232.3

155.0

116.1

92.9

77.5

150

356.7

237.8

178.4

142.7

118.9

175

512.8

341.9

256.4

204.9

170.9

200

739.5

493.3

369.7

295.4

246.7

250

133.8

891.8

668.9

534.2

445.9

12,374

8250

6187

Source: Table 11-2 UPC 2000 Edition

232

127:0

1423

24,749

14,753

280

101:6

1709

2137

22,110

102

76:2

413

2847

44,220

122

Maximum Rainfall mm/hour


50:8

494

4273

5128

150

Diameter of Gutter mm

621

8547

7695

125

Size of Gutters

797

3846

3080

11,055

8853

4942

663

2564
7367

Footnotes for Table 8-25 to 27:


The sizing data for horizontal piping is based on the pipes flowing full.
For rainfall rates other than those listed, determine the allowable roof area by dividing the area given
in the 25 mm / hour column by the desired rainfall rate.

20:9 mm/m Slope

41:7 mm/m Slope


80

89.2

59.5

44.6

35.7

29.7

100

189.5

126.3

94.8

75.8

63.2

125

328.9

219.2

164.4

131.5

109.6

150

514.7

343.3

257.3

206.2

171.9

175

724.6

483.1

362.3

289.9

241.4

200

1040.5

693.0

520.2

416.2

346.5

250

1858.0

1238.4

929.0

743.2

618.7

Source: Table 11-3 (METRIC) UPC 2000 Edition

Strainers for Flat Decks: Roof drain strainers for use on sun decks, parking
decks, and similar areas which are normally serviced and maintained may be
of the flat surface-type. Such roof drain strainers shall be level with the deck
and shall have an available inlet area of no less than two (2) times the area of
the conductor or leader to which the drain is connected.
Roof Drain Flashings: Connection between the roof and roof drains which
pass through the roof and into the interior of the building shall be made water
tight by the use of proper flashing material.
8-87

8-88

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Where lead flashing material is used, it shall be a minimum of 19.5 kg/m2.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table 8-29

Controlled Flow Maximum Roof Water Depth

Where copper flashing material is used, it shall be a minimum of 3.7 kg/m 2.

Size of Leaders, Conductors, and Storm Drains: Vertical Conductors and


Leaders. Vertical conductors and leaders shall be sized on the basis of the
maximum projected roof area and Table 8-22.

Size of Horizontal Storm Drains and Sewers: The size of building storm
drains or building storm sewers or any of their horizontal branches shall be
based upon the maximum projected roof or paved area to be handled and
Table 8-25 to Table 8-30.
Size of Roof Gutters: The size of semicircular gutters shall be based on the
maximum projected roof area and Table 8-25 to 8-26.

Side Walls Draining onto a Roof: Where vertical walls project above a roof so as
to permit storm water to drain to the roof area below the adjacent roof area may
be computed from Table 8-22.

For one (1) wall add fifty (50%) percent of the wall area to the roof area
figures.

For two (2) adjacent walls add thirty-five (35%) percent of the total wall
areas.
Two (2) walls opposite of same height add no additional area.

Two (2) walls opposite of differing heights add fifty (50%) percent of
wall area above top of lower wall.

Walls on three (3) sides add fifty (50%) percent of area of the inner wall
below the top of the lowest wall, plus allowance for the area of wall above
top of lowest wall, per (2) and (4) above.
Walls on four (4) sides no allowance for wall areas below top of lowest
wall add for areas above the top of the lowest wall per (1), (2), (4) and
(5) above.

Values for Continuous Flow: Where there is a continuous or semicontinuous discharge into the building storm drain or building storm sewer, as
from a pump, ejector, air-conditioning plant, or similar device, 3.8 L / min. of
such discharge shall be computed as being equivalent to 2.2 m2 of roof area,
based upon a rate of rainfall of 100 mm per hour.
Controlled-Flow Roof Drainage: Application. In lieu of sizing the storm
drainage system in accordance with this section Size of Leaders,
Conductors, and Storm Drains, the roof drainage may be sized on the basis
of controlled flow and storage of the storm water on the roof, provided the
following conditions are met:
The water from a 25 year frequency storm shall not be stored on the roof for
more than twenty-four (24) hours.

During the storm, the water depth on the roof shall not exceed the depths
specified in Table 8-29.

8-89

*Roof Rise mm

Max Water Depth at Drain mm

(Flat)

75

50

100

100

125

150

150

Source: Table 11-4 UPC 2000 Edition

*Vertical measurement from the roof surface at the drain to the highest point of the
roof surface served by the drain, ignoring any local depression immediately adjacent
to the drain.

No less than two (2) drains shall be installed in roof areas of 929.0 m2 or less,
and no less than one (1) additional drain shall be installed for each 929.0 m 2 of
roof area over 929.0 m2.
Each roof drain shall have a pre-calibrated, fixed (non-adjustable), and
proportional weir (notched) in a standing water collar inside the strainer. No
mechanical devices or valves shall be allowed.

Pipe sizing shall be based on the pre-calibrated rate of flow L/s of the precalibrated weir for the maximum allowable water depth, and Table 8-22 and
Table 8-23 to 8-25. The height of stones or other granular material above the
waterproofed surface shall not be considered in water depth measurement,
and the roof surface in the vicinity of the drain shall not be recessed to create a
reservoir.

Roof design, where controlled flow roof drainage is used, shall be such that
the minimum design roof live load is 146.5 kg / m 2 to provide a safety factor
above the 73.2 kg / m 2 represented by the depth of water stored on the roof
as indicated in Table 8-28.

Scuppers shall be provided in parapet walls. The distance of scupper bottoms


above the roof level at the drains shall not exceed the maximum distances
specified in Table 8-30.
Table 8-30

Distance of Scupper Bottoms above Roof

Roof Rise mm

Maximum Distance of
Scupper Bottom
Above Roof Level at Drains mm

(Flat)

75

50

100

100

125

150

150

Source: Table 11-5 UPC 2000 Edition

Scupper openings shall be a maximum of 25.4 mm high. A sufficient number of


scuppers shall be provided so that the total scupper cross-Sectional area is at
least equal to that required for horizontal storm drains in Table 8-23 to Table
8-25 (column for 12.7 mm slope).
8-90

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

pressure of 34.5 kPa or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 254 mm


in height. This pressure shall be held without introduction of additional air
for a period of at least fifteen (15) minutes. Schedule 40 plastic DWV
systems shall not be tested by the air test method.

Exceptions: When circumstances exist that make air and water tests,
impractical, and for minor maintenance, repairs and installations, the Sanitary
Engineer may perform the inspection as considered advisable by said authority
to assure that the work has been in accordance with provisions of these Design
Guidelines.
Material Uses: Rainwater piping placed within the interior of a building or
run within a vent or shaft shall be of cast iron, galvanized steel, wrought iron,
brass, copper, lead, Schedule 40 ABS DWV, Schedule 40 PVC DWV, or other
approved materials, and changes in direction shall conform to the
requirements of Section 8.3.3.4, ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall
be installed except for individual single family dwelling units, materials
exposed within ducts or plenums shall have a flame-spread index of not more
than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 50, when tested in
accordance with the Test for Surface-Burning Characteristics of the Building
Materials.
Expansion Joints Required: Expansion joints or sleeves shall be provided
where warranted by temperature variations or physical conditions.

8.3.17

Hangers and supports: Hangers and support shall be the same as referred to in
Section 8.3.14.2.

Water Supply and Distribution System

Description: The water is supplied from a local water utility service through a
metering device and into the building and / or a storage tank. The water
distribution design is based on the architectural plan. The system may be up
feed or gravity feed depending on the approach of the engineer. Potable water
is distributed by to the fixtures depending on the system adopted by the
designer.

Running Water Required: Except where not deemed necessary for safety or
sanitation by the Sanitary Engineer, each plumbing fixture shall be provided
with an adequate supply of potable running water piped thereto in an approved
manner, so arranged as to flush and keep it in a clean and sanitary condition
without danger of backflow or cross-connection. Water closets and urinals shall
be flushed by means of an approved flush tank or flushometer valve. In
jurisdictions which adopt Reclaimed Water for non-Residential Buildings
(Appendix J of UPC 2000 Edition), water closets, urinals, and trap primers in
designated non-residential buildings may be provided with reclaimed water as
defined and regulated by same referenced appendix.

Identification of a Potable and NonPotable Water System: In all buildings


where potable water and non-potable water systems are installed, each
system shall be clearly identified. Each system shall be color coded as follows:

8-92

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Potable Water Green Background with White Lettering: Non-potable


Water Yellow background with black lettering, with the words CAUTION:
NONPOTABLEWATER, DO NOT DRINK. Each system shall be identified with
a colored band to designate the liquid being conveyed, and the direction of
normal flow shall be clearly shown. The minimum size of the letters and
length of the color field shall conform to Table 8-31.

A colored identification band shall be indicated every 6.096m but at least once
per room, and shall be visible from the floor level. Where vacuum breakers or
backflow preventers are installed with fixtures listed in Table 14-1 of UPC 2000
Edition, identification of the discharge side may be omitted. Each outlet on the
non-potable water line which could be used for special purposes shall be posted
as follows:
CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK
Table 8-31

Minimum Length of Color Field and Size of Letters

Outside Diameter of Pipe or


Covering
mm

Minimum Length of Color


Field
Mm

Minimum Size of Letters


mm

15 to 32

203

12.7

40 to 50

203

19.1

65 to 150

305

32

200 to 250

619.0

64

Over 250

813.0

89

Source: Table 6-1 UPC 2000 Edition

Reclaimed Water Purple (Pantone color #512) background and shall be


imprinted in nominal 1/2 (12.7 mm) high, black, upper case letters, with the
words CAUTION: RECLAIMED WATER, DO NOT DRINK.

Design Criteria
Water Distribution System

Hot and Cold Water Supply


1. Operating Pressure
Minimum

Maximum

=
=

2. Pressure Drop Due to Friction

1.7 kg/sq.cm.

4.22kg/sq.cm.

Pressure drop is determined to provide minimal effect on the delivery of


water to the fixtures. Friction effect will be lower using smoother the pipes.
for Galvanized Steel Pipe

120

for Copper Pipe

120

for Cast Iron Pipe


for polymer Pipe

3. Velocity

=
=

110
130

Optimum velocity for cold water piping


Mains (maximum)

1.8 m/s

Branches (maximum)

3.0 m/s

Risers (maximum)
Pipe Sizing

2.4 m/s

Shall be based on water flow requirement and as provided by National Plumbing


Code minimum requirement, refer to Section 8.3.18.7 for Pipe Sizing for Potable
Water.
Connections Prohibitions

Faucets and Diverters: Faucets and diverters shall be connected to the water
distribution system so that hot water corresponds to the left side of the
fittings.

Unlawful Connections: No installation of potable water supply piping or part


thereof shall be made in such a manner that it will be possible for used,
unclean, polluted or contaminated water, mixtures, or substances to enter any
portion of such piping from any tank, receptor, equipment, or plumbing fixture
by reason of back-siphonage, by suction or any other cause, either during
normal use and operation thereof or when any such tank, receptor,
equipment, or plumbing fixture is flooded, or subject to pressure in excess of
the operating pressure in the hot or cold water piping.
No person shall make a connection or allow one to exist between pipes or
conduits carrying domestic water supplied by any Public or Private water
service system, and any pipes, conduits, or fixtures containing or carrying
8-93

8-94

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-6

A-7

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-1 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-7

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-2 Use / Occupancy

A-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-8

A-9

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-2 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-9

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-3 Use / Occupancy

A-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-10

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-1 Use / Occupancy

Note: The Minimum NBCP


setbacks may have to be
relaxed as these will cause
extreme hardship and losses to
the lot owner i.e. as the resultant
to utilization is much too low.

A-11

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-11

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-2 Use / Occupancy

A-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-12

A-13

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-2 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-13

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-1 Use / Occupancy

A-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-14

A-15

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-3 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-15

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-1

A-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-16

A-17

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-3 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-17

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for C-3 Use / Occupancy

A-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-18

A-19

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-19

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Maximum

A-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-20

A-21

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-4 Maximum

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-21

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-5 Use / Occupancy

A-22

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-22

A-23

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-23

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-1

A-24

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-24

A-25

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-25

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Basic

A-26

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-26

A-27

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Basic

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-27

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Basic

A-28

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-28

A-29

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Basic

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-29

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Maximum

A-30

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-30

A-31

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Maximum

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-31

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Maximum

A-32

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-32

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-2 Maximum

Note: The Minimum NBCP setbacks may have


to relaxed as these will cause extreme
hardship and losses to the lot owner i.e. as the
resultant lot utilization is much too low.

A-33

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-33

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 basic

A-34

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-34

A-35

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Basic

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-35

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Basic

A-36

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-36

A-37

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Basic

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-37

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Maximum

A-38

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-38

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Maximum

Note: The Minimum NBCP setbacks may


have to be relaxed as these will cause
extreme hardship and losses to the lot
owner i.e. as the resultant lot utilization is
much too low.

A-39

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-39

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-3 Maximum

A-40

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-40

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-4 Maximum

Note: The Minimum NBCP setbacks may have


to be relaxed as these will cause extreme
hardship and losses to the lot owner i.e. as the
resultant lot utilization is much too low.

A-41

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-41

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-4 Maximum

A-42

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-42

A-43

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-4 Maximum

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-43

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-5 Use / Occupancy

A-44

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-44

A-45

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-5 Use / Occupancy

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure A-45

Suggested Minimum Lot Sizes, Lot Dimensions and Types for R-5 Use / Occupancy

A-46

Annex B

Outermost Faces of Buildings (OFB)


and Outermost Limits of Building
Projections (OLBP) under the 2004
Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096 (1977
NBCP)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Contents
B.1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 1

Tables, Figures and Equations


Table B-1

List of Acronyms used for this Annex ........................................................................................................................1

Figure B-1

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 3.00

Figure B-2

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 8.00

Figure B-3
Figure B-4
Figure B-5
Figure B-6
Figure B-7
Figure B-8
Figure B-9
Figure B-10
Figure B-11
Figure B-12
Figure B-13
Figure B-14
Figure B-15
Figure B-16

B-i

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................2
m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-17

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00

Figure B-18

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00

Figure B-19
Figure B-20
Figure B-21

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 19
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 26.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 40.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 50.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 22

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 8.00

m RR ...........................................................................................................................................................................................4
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 12.00

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................5
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................6
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................7
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................8
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00

m RROW ...................................................................................................................................................................................9
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 24.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 30.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 40.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 12
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 6.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 6.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 10.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 15
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 12.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00

m RROW ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
B-ii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

B.1

Introduction
This Annex graphically illustrates the prescribed compliances for the Outermost Face
of Buildings (OFB) and Outermost Limits of Building Projections (OLBP) based on the
derived angles from the road right-of-way (RROW) centerline as dictated by the local
government unit (LGU)-approved land use or zoning classification, RROW width,
prescribed building setbacks (including incremental setbacks), building height limit
(BHL), etc. And the resultant NO-BUILD ZONE (NBZ) under the 2004 Revised IRR of
P.D. No. 1096 (the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines/ NBCP). The
document is intended for ready reference by physical planners, architects, designers,
and the competent reviewing authorities authorized to review/ process and approve
building plans under P.D. No. 1096.
Table B-1

Term

B-1

List of Acronyms used for this Annex

Definition

C-1

Commercial 1 (Light Commercial) classification i.e. a neighborhood or


community level of commercial use or occupancy, characterized mainly
as a low-rise building/ structure for low intensity commercial/trade, service and
business activities, e.g. one to three (1 to 3) storey shopping centers, small
offices or mixed use/ occupancy buildings and the like) under Rule VII of the
2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096 (NBCP);

C-2

Commercial 2 (Medium Commercial) classification i.e. a municipal or city level


of commercial use or occupancy, characterized mainly as a medium-rise
building/structure for medium to high intensity commercial/ trade, service and
business activities, e.g. three to five (3 to 5) storey shopping centers, medium
to large office or mixed use/ occupancy buildings/ structures and the like) under
Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096 (NBCP);

C-3

Commercial 3 (Metropolitan Commercial) classification i.e. a metropolitan level


of commercial use/ occupancy, characterized mainly as a medium-rise to highrise building/ structure for high to very high intensity commercial/ trade, service
and business activities, e.g. large to very large shopping malls, very large office
or mixed use/ occupancy buildings and the like) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR
of P.D. No. 1096 (NBCP);

R-1

Residential 1 classification (low density residential zone e.g. single family,


single-detached dwellings) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096
(NBCP);

R-2

Residential 2 classification (medium density residential use or occupancy e.g.


low-rise single-attached, duplex or multi-level building/ structure for exclusive
use as multi-family dwellings) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096
(NBCP);

R-3

Residential 3 classification (high density residential use or occupancy e.g. lowrise or medium-rise building/ structure for exclusive use as multiple family
dwellings with mixed housing types) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No.
1096 (NBCP);

R-4

Residential 4 classification (medium to high density residential use or


occupancy e.g. low-rise townhouse building/ structure for exclusive use as
multiple family dwellings) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096
(NBCP); and

R-5

Residential 5 classification (very high density residential use or occupancy e.g.


medium-rise or high-rise condominium building/ structure for exclusive use as
multiple family dwelling) under Rule VII of the 2004 IRR of P.D. No. 1096
(NBCP).

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-1

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 3.00 m RROW

B-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-2

B-3

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 8.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-3

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 8.00 m RR

B-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-4

B-5

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 12.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-5

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00 m RROW

B-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-6

B-7

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-7

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00 m RROW

B-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-8

B-9

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-9

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 24.00 m RROW

B-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-10

B-11

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 30.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-11

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 40.00 m RROW

B-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-12

B-13

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 6.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-13

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 6.00 m RROW

B-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-14

B-15

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 10.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-15

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 12.00 m RROW

B-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-16

B-17

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 16.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-17

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00 m RROW

B-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-18

B-19

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 20.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-19

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 26.00 m RROW

B-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-20

B-21

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 40.00 m RROW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure B-21

RROW Angles from Centreline that Determine the OFB of Buildings / Structures along a 50.00 m RROW

B-22

Annex C

Proposed Typical Public Buildings


(Reference Concept-Level
Architectural Plans and Designs for
Proposed Typical Buildings Intended
for Public Use)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Contents
C.1

PROPOSED TYPICAL PUBLIC BUILDINGS (REFERENCE CONCEPT-LEVEL ARCHITECTURAL PLANS


AND DESIGNS FOR PROPOSED TYPICAL BUILDINGS INTENDED FOR PUBLIC USE) ............................. 1

C.1.1
C.1.2
C.1.3
C.1.4
C.1.5
C.1.6
C.1.7
C.1.8
C.1.9
C.1.10
C.1.11
C.1.12
C.1.13

FIVE-STOREY SECONDARY SCHOOL BUILDING ....................................................................................................... 1


FOUR- TO EIGHT-STOREY PUBLIC HOUSING BUILDING .......................................................................................... 3
CIVIC CENTRE BUILDING (OPTION 1) .................................................................................................................. 9
CIVIC CENTRE BUILDING (OPTION 2) ................................................................................................................ 13
EXPANDABLE 2-STOREY HALL OF JUSTICE BUILDING ........................................................................................... 21
2-STOREY FIRE AND POLICE STATION BUILDINGS ............................................................................................... 25
CITY BUS TERMINAL BUILDING ......................................................................................................................... 29
PUBLIC MARKET BUILDING ............................................................................................................................... 31
PUBLIC GYMNASIUM BUILDING.......................................................................................................................... 36
PUBLIC POOL AND BATH BUILDING .................................................................................................................... 37
COVERED COURT BUILDING ............................................................................................................................... 39
4-STOREY PUBLIC COVERED PARKING BUILDING ................................................................................................. 40
SMALL AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING (PTB) ................................................................................... 44

Tables, Figures and Equations


Table C-1

Spatial Programming of 5-Storey Secondary School Building .........................................................................3

Table C-3

Spatial Programming of Civic Centre Building (Option 1) ............................................................................. 11

Table C-2

Spatial Programming of 5-Unit per Floor, 4-Storey/ 8-Storey Public Housing Building .....................8

Table C-4

Spatial Programming of Civic Center Building (Option 2) .............................................................................. 16

Table C-6

Spatial Programming of 2-storey Fire Station Building ................................................................................... 27

Table C-5
Table C-7
Table C-8
Table C-9

Table C-10
Table C-11
Table C-12
Table C-13
Table C-14
Table C-15

Spatial Programming of Expandable 2-storey Hall of Justice Building ..................................................... 24


Spatial Programming of Police Substation Building .......................................................................................... 29
Spatial Programming of City Bus Terminal Building ........................................................................................ 31

Spatial Programming of Public Market Building ................................................................................................. 34

Figure C-7
Figure C-8
Figure C-9
C-i

Conceptual Architectural Plans of 2-Storey Hall of Justice Building .......................................................... 22

Figure C-13
Figure C-14
Figure C-15
Figure C-16
Figure C-17
Figure C-18
Figure C-19
Figure C-20
Figure C-21
Figure C-22
Figure C-23
Figure C-24
Figure C-25
Figure C-26
Figure C-27
Figure C-28
Figure C-29
Figure C-30
Figure C-31
Figure C-32

Perspectives of 2-storey Hall of Justice Building ................................................................................................ 21


Perspective of 2-Storey Fire Station Building ...................................................................................................... 25
Conceptual Architectural Plans of 2-Storey Fire Station Building .............................................................. 26

Perspective of Police Substation Building.............................................................................................................. 28


Conceptual Floor Plan of Police Substation Building ........................................................................................ 28

Perspectives of City Bus Terminal Building .......................................................................................................... 29


Conceptual Architectural Plans of City Bus Terminal Building .................................................................... 30
Perspectives of Public Market Building .................................................................................................................. 31
Conceptual Architectural Plans of Public Market Building ............................................................................ 32
Perspective of Public Gymnasium Building........................................................................................................... 36

Conceptual Architectural Plans of Public Gymnasium Building .................................................................. 36


Perspective of Public Pool and Bath Building ...................................................................................................... 37
Conceptual Architectural Plan of Public Pool and Bath Building ................................................................ 38
Perspective of Covered Court Building ................................................................................................................... 39
Conceptual Architectural Plan of Covered Court Structure ........................................................................... 39
Perspective of Public Covered Parking Building ................................................................................................. 40
Conceptual Architectural Plans of Public Covered Parking Building......................................................... 40
Perspectives of a Small Airport Passenger Terminal Building ..................................................................... 44
Conceptual Architectural Plan of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB) .......................... 45

Perspectives of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB) Option 1 ........................................... 46


Conceptual Architectural Plan of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB) Option 2.. 47

Spatial Programming of 4-storey Public Covered Parking Building .......................................................... 42


Spatial Programming of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB) Option 1 ......................... 45

Spatial Programming of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB) Option 2 ..................... 47

Perspectives of 4-storey Public Housing Building ................................................................................................3

Figure C-6

Figure C-12

Figure C-11

Spatial Programming of Covered Court Structure ............................................................................................. 40

Figure C-3
Figure C-5

Conceptual Architectural Plans of Civic Center (Option 2) ............................................................................ 13

Spatial Programming of Public Pool and Bath Building................................................................................... 38

Perspective of a 5-storey Secondary School Building ..........................................................................................1

Figure C-4

Figure C-10

Spatial Programming of Public Gymnasium Building ....................................................................................... 37

Figure C-1

Figure C-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Conceptual Architectural Plans of 5-storey Secondary School Building .....................................................1

Conceptual Architectural Plans of 4-storey Public Housing Building ..........................................................4


Perspectives of 8-storey Public Housing Building ................................................................................................6
Perspectives of 8-storey Public Housing Building ................................................................................................6

Perspectives of Civic Center Building (Option 1) ..................................................................................................9

Conceptual Architectural Plans of Civic Center Building (Option 1) ............................................................9

Perspectives of Civic Center Building (Option 2) ............................................................................................... 13


C-ii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

C-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

C-5

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-2

Spatial Programming of 5-Unit per Floor, 4-Storey/ 8-Storey Public


Housing Building

5-UNIT PER FLOOR, 12-STOREY


BUILDING
NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

12.8

3.6

46.08

Stairwell

2.85

11.4

Elevator

2.8

2.6

7.28

2.6

2.6

Open Area / Circulation

16.4

24.5

334.12

TOTAL GROUND FLOOR AREA

16.4

26

411

TYPICAL UNIT [X5]

5.5

10

275

Balcony

5.5

1.5

8.25

SUBTOTAL
(sq.m)

GROUND FLOOR
Garden/Atrium

E.E.

TYPICAL 2ND - 11TH FLOOR

Bedroom

2.7

Master's Bedroom

3.5

2.7

9.45

Dining and Living

5.8

16.8

Toilet and Bath 01

2.4

1.8

3.96

Toilet and Bath 02

2.4

1.4

3.72

Kitchen

2.4

2.6

6.24

Stairwell

2.85

11.4

Elevator

2.8

2.6

7.28

2.6

2.6

Subtotal: Typical Unit

E.E.

54.42

Circulation
TOTAL TYPICAL 2ND-11TH FLOOR
AREA

109.92
16.4

27.5

406.2

2.85

11.4

Machine Room

5.4

2.6

14.04

Open Area

16.4

27.5

380.76

TOTAL ROOF DECK FLOOR AREA

16.4

27.5

406.2

ROOF DECK
Stairwell

TOTAL 5-UNIT PER FLOOR, 12STOREY PUBLIC HOUSING


BUILDING FLOOR AREA

C-7

5285.4

C-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

C-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Spatial Programming of Civic Centre Building (Option 1)

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 1]


NAME OF SPACE

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 1]

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Lobby

50

40

1400

Male's Toilet

3.5

10

35

Female's Toilet

3.5

10

35

SUBTOTAL
(sq.m)

GROUND FLOOR

Subtotal: Public Space

1470

Enclosed Hallways (Left Wing)

260

Enclosed Hallways (Right Wing)

226

Subtotal: Private Circulation

DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Public Service

10

20

200

Public Service

10

17

170

Treasurer

10

20

200

Storage

10

70

E.E.

10

30

Utility Storage

10

70

Subtotal: Private Spaces


5000

SECOND FLOOR

Stairwell 1

18

Stairwell 1

18

Stairwell 2

18

Stairwell 2

18

Stairwell 3

10

10

100

Stairwell 3

10

10

100

136

Subtotal: Stairwells

136

Consultation Office

10

10

100

Lobby & Open Hallways

50

40

1520

Legal Affairs Office

10

10

100

Male's Toilet

3.5

10

35

Attorney's Office

10

10

100

Female's Toilet

3.5

10

35

Traffic Office

10

10

100

Public Library

30

37

1110

Social Welfare and Development Office

10

10

100

Subtotal: Public Spaces

Engineering Design

10

10

100

Hearing Room 1

10

10

100

Engineering Office

10

10

100

Hearing Room 2

10

10

100

Planning and Development Office

10

10

100

Hearing Room 3

10

10

100

Mayor's Office

10

80

Attorney's Office 1

10

10

100

Vice Mayor's Office

10

80

Attorney's Office 2

10

10

100

Conference Room

56

Hearing Room 4

10

10

100

Files storage

10

80

Hearing Room 5

10

10

100

Files storage (Clerical)

21

Hearing Room 6

10

10

100

Clerical

35

Council Chamber 01

30

17

510

Personnel Office

10

80

Council Chamber 02

30

20

600

Administrator Office

10

80

Storage

10

70

Plan Checking Office

35

Utility Storage

10

70

Files Storage (Plan Checking Office)

21

E.E.

10

30

Budget Office

10

80

Enclosed Circulation

Treasurer Office

10

80

Subtotal: Private Spaces

Clerical

35

TOTAL SECOND FLOOR

5000

Accounting Clerical

35

10

70

TOTAL CIVIC CENTER BUILDING


[OPTION 01] FLOOR AREA

10000

Conference Room
Vault

10

10

100

Chief Deputy Auditor Office

10

80

Accounting Office

10

80

Clerical

35

Clerical

35

Public Service

10

17

170

SUBTOTAL
(sq.m)

2908

TOTAL GROUND FLOOR


486

Subtotal: Stairwells

C-11

NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM

2700

84
2164

C-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

C-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-4

Spatial Programming of Civic Center Building (Option 2)

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 2]


NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Stairwell 1

18

Stairwell 2

18

Stairwell 3

10

10.5

105

Stairwell 4

10

10.5

105

Stairwell 5

6.5

19.5

Stairwell 6

6.5

19.5

Subtotal
(sq.m)

LOWER GROUND FLOOR

Subtotal: Stairs

285

General Storage Room 1

56

General Storage Room 2

56

Parking for dump truck 1

10

40

Parking for dump truck 2

10

40

Garbage Disposal Area 1

42

Garbage Disposal Area 2

42

Driveway

10

697

6970

Parking Space [x301]

2.5

3762.5

70.5

52

3666

Open Area / Atrium


Islands and Walkways

940.5

TOTAL GROUND FLOOR

15900

UPPER GROUND FLOOR

C-15

General Storage Room 1

56

Planning and Development Office

10

7.3

73

Chief Engineering Office

10

6.5

65

Photocopy Room

10

40

Storage Room 1

4.5

31.5

Maintenance office

10

6.5

65

Conference room 1

10

60

Vault

10

17

170

Records Storage Room

13.8

96.6

Conference room 2

8.5

59.5

Files Storage Room

14

98

Conference room 3

7.5

52.5

Files Storage Room

14.5

101.5

Clerical Area 1

10

13.8

138

Clerical Area 2

10

13.8

138

Clerical Area 3

10

13.2

132

Clerical Area 4

10

13.2

132

Budget Office

10

8.5

85

Treasurer's Office

10

8.5

85

Public Service 1

10

24

240

Public Service 2

10

23.5

235

C-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 2]


NAME OF SPACE

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Subtotal
(sq.m)

NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

Auditor's Office

10

8.3

83

Females Toilet

Chief Deputy Auditor Office

10

8.3

83

Waiting Areas & Circulation

Conference room

10

60

Subtotal: Public Spaces

Accounting Office

10

60

Stairwell 1

18

Treasurer Office

10

8.5

85

Stairwell 2

4.5

13.5

Personnel Office

10

8.5

85

Stairwell 3

18

Engineering Design Office

10

11.5

115

Stairwell 4

4.5

13.5

Plan Checking Office

10

11.5

115

Stairwell 5

10

10.5

105

Water Services Office

10

11.5

115

Stairwell 6

10

10.5

105

Public Information Office

10

11.5

115

Subtotal: stairwells

Consultation Office

10

11.5

115

UPPER GROUND FLOOR TOTAL

Legal Affairs Office

10

11.5

115

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

Traffic Office

10

11.5

115

Councillors Office 1

10

11.5

115

Social Welfare and Development Office

10

11.5

115

Councillors Office 2

10

11.5

115

Control centre

20

22.3

446

Legal Counsel Office

10

11.5

115

Information Desk and Public Service

20

23.5

470

Library

20

11.5

230

Police Assembly Room

24.5

13.8

338.1

Clustered Cell 1

10

11.5

115

Police Office

24.5

32

784

Clustered Cell 2

10

11.5

115

Police Chief Office

10

60

Clustered Cell 3

10

11.5

115

Police Public Safety Office 1

10

8.5

85

Clustered Cell 4

10

11.5

115

Interview Room 03

30

Clustered Cell 5

10

11.5

115

Interview Room 04

30

E.E. 2

6.5

19.5

Police Public Safety Office 2

10

8.5

85

Shower and Locker Area

32

File/s Storage Room

6.5

39

Utilities Storage

Conference room

6.5

8.5

55.25

Dining and Dayroom Area 1

12

17

197.4

Police Office 1

10

11.5

115

Dining and Dayroom Area 2

12

23.5

282

Police Office 2

10

11.5

115

Prison Area

58

53

2210

Police Office 3

10

11.5

115

Kit

10

40

Police Office 4

10

11.5

115

Storage Room

42

Police Office 5

10

11.5

115

Interrogation Room

10

5.25

52.5

Police Office 6

10

11.5

115

Visiting Room 1

10

5.25

52.5

Police Office 7

10

11.5

115

Visiting Room 2

10

6.5

65

Police Office 8

10

11.5

115

Warden's Office

10

9.3

93

General Storage Room 2

56

Police Captain's Office

10

9.3

93

Clustered Cell 1

10

7.3

73

Conference Room

9.3

74.4

Clustered Cell 2

10

6.5

65

Patrol Guards Office

20

23.5

470

Clustered Cell 3

10

40

File/s Storage Room

14.5

101.5

Firearms and Equipment Storage Room

10

17

170

Conference Room

10

60

Storage Room

4.5

31.5

Assistant City Management Office

10

8.5

85

Clerical

10

60

11.5

34.5

City Management Office

10

8.5

85

3.5

9.5

33.25

File/s Storage Room

14

98

E.E.
Males Toilet

7307.45

3.5

9.5

AREA(m)

Subtotal: Private Spaces

C-17

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 2]

Subtotal
(sq.m)

33.25
5445.55
5546.55

273
13127

C-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 2]


NAME OF SPACE

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Conference Room

7.5

52.5

Council Hall 2

30

21.5

Council Hall 1

30

Councillors Office 3

Subtotal
(sq.m)

NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Shower and Locker Area

32

645

Utilities Storage

22.3

669

General Storage Room 2

56

10

7.3

73

Attorney's Office 1

10

7.3

73

Councillors Office 4

10

6.5

65

Attorney's Office 2

10

6.5

65

Photocopy Room

10

40

Photocopy Room

10

40

Storage Room

42

Storage Room

42

Maintenance Office

10

6.5

65

Maintenance Office

10

6.5

65

Conference Room

10

80

Conference Room

10

80

City Administrator's Office

10

6.5

65

Judge's Office 1

10

6.5

65

Vice Mayor's Office 1

10

6.5

65

Judge's Office 2

10

6.5

65

Vice Mayor's Office 2

10

6.5

65

Judge's Office 3

10

6.5

65

Mayor's Office

10

6.5

65

Judge's Office 4

10

6.5

65

General Storage Room

56

Bailiff 1 of Courthouse 1

7.3

51.1

General Storage Room

56

Storage of Courthouse 1

6.5

45.5

E.E.

11.5

34.5

Bailiff 2 of Courthouse 1

8.5

59.5

Courthouse 1

30

22.3

669

Subtotal: Private Areas

7509.8

Males Toilet

3.5

9.5

33.25

Bailiff 1 of Courthouse 2

6.5

45.5

Females Toilet

3.5

9.5

33.25

Storage of Courthouse 2

7.8

54.6

Waiting Areas & Circulation

8038.7

Subtotal: Public Spaces

8139.7

Bailiff 2 of Courthouse 2

7.2

50.4

Courthouse 2

30

21.5

645

File/s Storage Room

14.5

101.5

Stairwell 1

18

Stairwell 2

6.5

19.5

Conference Room

10

60

Stairwell 3

18

Hearing Room 03

10

8.5

85

Stairwell 4

6.5

19.5

Clerical

10

60

Stairwell 5

10

10.5

105

Hearing Room 04

10

8.5

85

Stairwell 6

10

10.5

105

Dining and Dayroom Area 1

12

17

197.4

Dining and Dayroom Area 2

12

23.5

282

Prison Area

58

53

2210

Kit

10

40

Storage Room

42

Subtotal: stairwells

285

TOTAL SECOND FLOOR

15900

THIRD-FOURTH FLOOR

C-19

CIVIC CENTER BUILDING [OPTION 2]

General Storage Room 1

56

E.E.

11.5

34.5

Interrogation Room

10

5.25

52.5

Public Attorney's Office

10

11.5

115

Visiting Room 1

10

5.25

52.5

Hearing Room 1

10

11.5

115

Visiting Room 2

10

6.5

65

Hearing Room 2

10

11.5

115

Warden's Office

10

9.3

93

Library

20

11.5

230

Police Captain's Office

10

9.3

93

Clustered Cell 1

10

11.5

115

Conference Room

9.3

74.4

Clustered Cell 2

10

11.5

115

Patrol Guards Office

20

23.5

470

Clustered Cell 3

10

11.5

115

Subtotal: Private Areas

Clustered Cell 4

10

11.5

115

Males Toilet

3.5

9.5

33.25

Clustered Cell 5

10

11.5

115

Females Toilet

3.5

9.5

33.25

E.E. 2

6.5

19.5

Waiting Areas & Circulation

Subtotal
(sq.m)

7665.9

7882.6

C-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-5

Spatial Programming of Expandable 2-storey Hall of Justice Building

EXPANDABLE 2-STOREY
HALL OF JUSTICE BUILDING
NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Judge's Office 01

10

60

Judge's Office 02

10

60

Entry to Cells

3.6

21.6

Cell 1

3.8

11.4

Cell 2

3.8

11.4

Judge's Office 03

7.5

60

Staff's Office 01

7.5

60

Attorney's Office 3

7.5

60

Attorney's Office 4

7.5

60

Attorney's Consultation

10

80

Judge's Office 04

7.5

60

Staff's Office 02

7.5

60

File Storage

40

Male's Toilet

3.25

23.1635

Female's Toilet

3.25

23.1635

Storage

24

General Office

10

80

Court room 01

8.85

8.85

78.3225

Court room 02

8.85

8.85

78.3225

Court room 03

8.85

8.85

78.3225

Court room 04

8.85

8.85

78.3225

Court Lobby

17.7

20

304

Stairs 01

4.25

14.625

Stairs 02

4.25

14.625

Stairs 03

25

Stairs 04

25

37.7

47.7

1798.29

Judge's Office 01

10

60

Judge's Office 02

10

60

File Storage

24

Entry to Cells

3.6

21.6

Cell 1

3.8

11.4

Cell 2

3.8

11.4

Judge's Office 03

7.5

60

Hearing Room 01

7.5

60

Attorney's Office 01

7.5

60

Attorney's Office 02

7.5

60

Attorney's Consultation

10

80

GROUND FLOOR

Circulation
GROUND FLOOR TOTAL

307.023

SECOND FLOOR

C-23

C-24

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure C-14

Conceptual Architectural Plans of 2-Storey Fire Station Building

C-26

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-6

Spatial Programming of 2-storey Fire Station Building

2-STOREY FIRE STATION BUILDING


NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

Maintenance Area

10

14

140

Fire hose Storage

3.5

14

Turnout Storage

3.5

14

Medical Supplies Storage

3.5

14

GROUND FLOOR

Stairwell

3.2

9.6

Clinic

24

Clinic Head's Office

24

Firefighter's Captain Office

24

Chief Firefighter's Office

24

Admins Office

24

Lobby

20

106

Conference Room

45

Alarm / Watch Room

Fire Trucks

29

14

354.4

TOTAL GROUND FLOOR AREA

826

SECOND FLOOR
Male Firefighter's Dressing Room

36

Utility Storage

Male Firefighter's Toilet and Bath

42

Female Firefighter's Toilet and Bath

42

Utility Storage

Female Firefighter's Dressing Room

36

Male Firefighter's Quarters

16

96

16.05

96.3

Stairwell

3.2

9.6

Circulation

38.1

14

157.5

Female Firefighter's Quarters

C-27

TOTAL SECOND FLOOR AREA

375.9

TOTAL FIRE STATION BUILDING


FLOOR AREA

1201.9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-9

Spatial Programming of Public Market Building


PUBLIC MARKET
NAME OF SPACE

DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

STALL(LEFT WING) Comfort Room

7.2

9.6

69.12

1 to 16

7.2

12

86.4

7.2

7.2

51.84

4.8

9.6

46.08

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

9.6

46.08

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

9.6

46.08

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

9.6

46.08

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

7.2

34.56

7.2

9.6

69.12

7.2

12

86.4

7.2

7.2

51.84

17 to 40

41 to 64

65 to 88

89 to 112

113 to 136

Subtotal: LEFT WING

C-33

SPACE PROGRAM

967.68

C-34

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

PUBLIC MARKET
NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

7.2

7.2

51.84

7.2

12

86.4

7.2

12

86.4

1 to 6(Left)

7.2

7.2

51.84

8 to 33(Right)

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

4.8

23.04

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

4.8

23.04

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

4.8

23.04

4.8

7.2

34.56

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

12

57.6

4.8

4.8

23.04

8.4

7.2

60.48

8.4

12

100.8

8.4

12

100.8

8.4

12

100.8

8.4

7.2

60.48

STALL(RIGHT WING)
1 to 7 (Right)

7 to 20(Left)

21 to 34(Left)

60 to 85(Right)

35 to 48(Left)
86 to 111(Right)

49 to 62(Left)

1 to 24

Subtotal: RIGHT WING


Hallway

C-35

1621.44
50.4

36

846.72

50.4

64.8

1644.48

Arcade

513.78

TOTAL PUBLIC MARKET BUILDING


FLOOR AREA

5594.1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table C-13

Spatial Programming of 4-storey Public Covered Parking Building

PUBLIC COVERED PARKING BUILDING


NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

26.2

131

23.6

118

10

31.2

312

GROUND FLOOR PLAN


Parking Slot

Subtotal: Parking Slots


Stair

561
3.25

2.45

Subtotal: Stairs
Island

23.8875
1.825

2.6

Subtotal: Islands
Comfort Room

7.9625

4.745
14.235

4.85

2.45

11.8825

Subtotal: Comfort Rooms

23.765

Ramp(computed at 2nd floor)

80.25

Driveway

23.075

52.4

TOTAL GROUND FLOOR AREA

505.9925
1209.13

2ND FLOOR
Parking Slot

10.4

52

7.8

39

10

31.2

312

Subtotal: Parking Slots


Stair

403
3.25

2.45

1.825

2.6

Subtotal: Stairs
Island

C-41

7.9625
23.8875
4.745

C-42

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

PUBLIC COVERED PARKING BUILDING


NAME OF SPACE

SPACE PROGRAM
DIMENSION (m)
W

Subtotal: Islands
Comfort Room

AREA(m)
14.235

4.85

2.45

11.8825

Subtotal: Comfort Rooms

23.765

Ramp

98.14

Subtotal: Ramps

196.28

Driveway

23.075

52.4

TOTAL 2ND FLOOR AREA

547.9625
1209.13

3RD FLOOR
Parking Slot

10.4

52

7.8

39

10

31.2

312

Subtotal: Parking Slots


Stair

403
3.25

2.45

Subtotal: Stairs
Island

1.825

2.6

Subtotal: Islands
Comfort Room

7.9625
23.8875
4.745
14.235

4.85

2.45

Subtotal: Comfort Rooms

11.8825
23.765

Ramp

98.14

Subtotal: Ramps

196.28

Driveway

23.075

52.4

TOTAL 3RD FLOOR AREA

547.9625
1209.13

ROOF DECK
Parking Slot

10.4

52

7.8

39

10

31.2

312

Subtotal: Parking Slots


Stair

403
3.25

2.45

Subtotal: Stairs
Island

23.8875
1.825

2.6

Subtotal: Islands
Comfort Room

4.745
14.235

4.85

2.45

11.8825

Subtotal: Comfort Rooms

23.765

Ramp

98.14

Subtotal: Ramps

196.28

Driveway

C-43

7.9625

23.075

52.4

547.9625

TOTAL ROOF DECK AREA

1209.13

TOTAL COVERED PARKING BUILDING


FLOOR AREA

4836.52

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure C-30

Conceptual Architectural Plan of a Small Port Passenger Terminal


Building (PTB)

Table C-14

Spatial Programming of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB)


Option 1

SMALL PORT
PASSENGER TERMINAL BUILDING (PTB)
OPTION 1
NAME OF SPACE

DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

20

140

Electrical Room

1.5

Departure Lounge Toilet

1.5

Arrival Toilet

1.5

Utlity Room

Departure Lounge

C-45

SPACE PROGRAM

1.5

Information / Check-in

18

Information / Check-in Storage

1.8

5.4

Pantry

2.2

6.6

Storage

Office

13

60

Arrival

20

140

TOTAL SMALL PORT PASSENGER


TERMINAL BUILDING (PTB) OPTION 1
FLOOR AREA

20

20

400

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Figure C-32

Conceptual Architectural Plan of a Small Port Passenger Terminal


Building (PTB) Option 2

Annex D

Table C-15

Spatial Programming of a Small Port Passenger Terminal Building (PTB)


Option 2

SMALL PORT PASSENGER TERMINAL


BUILDING (PTB) OPTION 2
NAME OF SPACE

DIMENSION (m)

AREA(m)

13.4

95.375

Ticket Queueing Area

6.8

2.7

18.36

Office and Ticketing

5.2

11

57.2

16

116.175

Departure Lounge Toilet

1.5

2.2

3.3

Arrival Area Toilet

1.5

2.2

3.3

Storage 1

1.5

4.5

Storage 2

1.6

4.8

TOTAL SMALL PORT PASSENGER


TERMINAL BUILDING (PTB) OPTION 2
FLOOR AREA

19

16

304

Departure Lounge

Arrival Lounge

C-47

SPACE PROGRAM

Minimum Performance Standards and


Specifications (MPSS) for New Public
Buildings (also applicable private
buildings)

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Contents
D.1
D.2
D.2.1
D.2.2
D.2.3
D.2.4
D.2.5
D.2.6
D.2.7

D.2.8
D.2.9

D.2.10
D.2.11
D.3

PURPOSE .................................................................................................................................................. 1
DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
SCOPE OF DESIGN SERVICES ...................................................................................................................... 3
COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS OF DETAILED ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING DESIGN

(DAED) BY BUILDER .................................................................................................................................... 3


GOVERNING CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................... 5
ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS................................................................................................................... 5
STRUCTURAL STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 8
ELECTRICAL STANDARDS ......................................................................................................................... 10
SANITARY AND PLUMBING STANDARDS ................................................................................................ 11

TOILETS ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................................ 11
OTHER STANDARDS .................................................................................................................................. 15
OTHER REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 15

CONSTRUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 16

D.3.1

SCOPE OF CONSTRUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 16

D.3.3

DETAILED CONSTRUCTION PLAN ............................................................................................................ 16

D.3.2
D.3.4
D.3.5

STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION .................................................................... 16

TEST REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................................... 17


COMPLETION OF CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................................... 17

Tables and Figures


Table D-1

Live Loads ........................................................................................................................................................................................9

Figure D-1 Scope of Design..............................................................................................................................................................................3

D-i

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Acronyms and Abbreviations


Term
C

Definition

degree Celsius

ACI

American Concrete Institute (ACI)

ACP

Architectural Code of the Philippines, DPWH 2000

ADR

Alternative Dispute Resolution

AISC

American Institute of Steel Construction

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

AWS

American Welding Society

B.P.

Batas Pambansa (national law)

BoQ

bill of quantities

BPS

Bureau of Product Standards

BRS

Bureau of Research and Standards

CAED

Conceptual Architectural and Engineering Design

CCD

Construction Completion Deadline

CCN

Construction Completion Notice

CED

Conceptual Engineering Design

CO

convenience outlet

CoC

Certificate of Completion

CoFA

Certificate of Final Acceptance

cu.ft.

cubic foot/ feet

cu.m.

cubic meter/s

dB (A)

decibel/s

DAC

Design Approval Committee

DAED

Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design

DBS

Design-Build Services

DCE

detailed cost estimate

DCP

Detailed Construction Plan

DED

Detailed Engineering Design

DIN

Deustche Industrie Norm

DLP

Defects Liability Period

DILG

Department of the Interior and Local Government

DoH

Department of Health

DoLE

Department of Labor and Employment

DoTC

Department of Transportation and Communications

DPWH

Department of Public Works and Highways

DTI

Department of Trade and Industry

E.O.

Executive Order

FCP

Fire Code of the Philippines

FCL

finished ceiling line

D-ii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Term

Definition

Term

Definition

FFL

finished floor line

RC

Referral Code/s

FGL

finished grade line

RCN

Rectification Completion Notice

FRD

Final Rectification Deadline

RH

relative humidity

FFFE

Furniture/ Furnishings, Fixtures & Equipment

RI

Rectification Inspection

IC

Independent Consultant

RLAs

registered and licensed architects

IM

Information Memorandum

SIF

seismic importance factor

IMC

intermediate metallic conduit

sqm

square meter/s

IRR

Implementing Rules and Regulations

WIF

wind importance factor

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ITB

Instructions to Bidders

ITPB

Instructions to Prospective Bidders

kg

kilogram/s

kpa

kilopascals

kph

kilometers per hour

LD

liquidated damages

meter/s

m3

cubic meter/s

MDP

main distribution panel

mg

milligram/s

mm

millimeter/s

mpa

megapascal/s

mpm

meters per minute

m/s

meters per second

MPSS

Minimum Performance Standards and Specifications

MSDS

material safety data sheet

NBCP

National Building Code of the Philippines

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

NGL

natural grade line

NSCP

National Structural Code of the Philippines

NTP

Notice to Proceed

OSHS

Occupational Safety and Health Service

P.D.

Presidential Decree

PCBs

polychlorinated biphenyls

PCM

Project or Construction Manager

PEC

Philippine Electrical Code

PMC

Philippine Mechanical Code

PNS

Philippine National Standards

PRLs

professional regulatory laws

psf

pounds per square foot

psi

pounds per square inch

PVC

polyvinyl chloride

R.A.

Republic Act (national law)

RC

reinforced concrete

D-iii

D-iv

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.1

Purpose
The purpose of these Minimum Performance Standards and Specifications (MPSS) is
to:

D.1.1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Establish the minimum requirements that the Builder must conform w ith in the
design and construction of new Public Buildings to be sited at their respective
PROJECT SITES (the Project).
Create certainty for both the Procuring Agency and the Builder in the standards of
performance expected of the Builder.

The Builder is the winning Bidder i.e. Designer and/or Constructor (the Builder)
under the Agreement (the Agreement). This MPSS and its Annexes form part of the
Agreement and the Builder is required to conform with all the MPSS provisions.

Architecture and R.A. No. 10587 for Environmental Planning (the last 4 only as
applicable), etc. and their derivative regulations]
R.A. No. 4566, the 1965 Contractors Licensing Law, implemented by the DTI

R.A. No. 8293, The 1997 Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines,
implemented by the DTI
R.A. No. 386, the New Civil Code of the Philippines (1949), particularly the civil
liability provisions under its Art. 1723
E.O. No. 1008, the Law on Construction Arbitration, implemented by the DTI

R.A. No. 9285, The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Act of 2004, its IRR and
Special Rules of Court on ADR, promulgated by the Supreme Court (SC) and
denominated as A.M. No. 07-11-08-SC

Other Documents for use as Reference for the Procurement Effort

The other key documents that shall primarily govern the procurement effort are:

D.1.2

the MPSS

Unless otherwise specified in the ITB and these MPSS, all information contained in the
ITB, these MPSS, and the Agreement supersede any information supplied in the
Information Memorandum (IM) and previous versions of the MPSS.

Governing Laws and Regulations for the Procurement Effort

D-1

the Instructions to Bidders (ITB)

R.A. No. 9184, the Government Procurement Reform Act (GPRA) and its latest
implementing rules and regulations (IRR)

R.A. No. 6957, as amended by R.A. No. 7718, the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT)
Law and its latest IRR

P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP), its 2004
Revised IRR, duly promulgated by the DPWH and its various Referral Codes (RCs),
mostly official executive issuances or self-regulatory documents in their latest
versions [RCs such as valid and subsisting laws e.g. the Water and Sanitation
Codes (P.D. Nos. 1067 & 856) and the 2010 (or latest) edition of the National
Structural Code of the Philippines/ NSCP], respectively, etc.

R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP) and its 2009 IRR, duly
promulgated by the DILG
B.P. Blg. 344, The Law to Enhance the Mobility of Disabled Persons and its IRR/
Annex as well as the applicable provisions of R.A. No. 7277, otherwise known as
The Magna Carta for Disabled Persons

the various professional regulatory laws [PRLs, e.g. R.A. No. 9266 in the case of
State-registered and licensed architects/ RLAs, R.A. No. 544, as amended by R.A.
No. 1582 for registered and licensed civil engineers/ RLCEs, R.A. No. 1364 for
Sanitary Engineering, R.A. No. 1378 for Master Plumbing, R.A. No. 8560 for
Geodetic Engineering, R.A. No. 4209 for Geology, R.A. No. 7920 for Electrical
Engineering, R.A. No. 8495 for Mechanical Engineering, R.A. No. 9292 for
Electronics and Communications Engineering, R.A. No. 9053 for Landscape
D-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2

Design

D.2.1

Scope of Design Services

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Under the Agreement, the Builder shall prepare the Detailed Architecture and
Engineering Design (DAED) during the Pre-Construction Stage of the Contract Package
and Builder shall also submit its DAED to the Independent Consultant (IC) for review
and concurrence, whereby the IC shall be procured through the Procuring Agencys
regular procurement program under R.A. No. 9184, the Government Procurement
Reform Act (GPRA) of 2003 and its latest IRR, well before the submission of the DAED.

The Builder shall prepare the DAED (a) based on its Conceptual Architectural and
Engineering Design (CAED) submitted in the Technical Proposal which is part of its
Bid, and (b) in accordance with these MPSS, as shown in Figure D-1 hereafter.
Figure D-1

Scope of Design

D.2.2

D.2.2.1

The DAED, which the Builder shall prepare and submit to the Project and/or
Construction Manager (PCM) or Independent Consultant (IC) for review and
concurrence, shall cover the following components and outputs:

Design Deliverables

The DAED shall include the following outputs which shall all conform to the MPSS for
Design, and provide a level of detail that will enable quantities to be estimated up to
the plus/ minus five percent (+5%) of the final quantities. The outputs shall be
transmitted using international paper/ sheet/ board sizes (i.e. A4 and A3 page size or
A2, A1 and A0 sheet size).

Description of the proposed technology and materials e.g. use of pre-fabricated


components and/ or conventional built-on-site technology; use of concrete/ steel/
fiber cement/ other materials, etc. (A4 page size).

Detailed/ technical specifications of materials and workmanship. As applicable,


these shall include the certificate of accreditation from the Department of Public
Works and Highways (DPWH) Bureau of Research and Standards (BRS) on the
acceptance of new materials/ technology or of equivalencies in materials for use
in the Project. (A4 and/or A3 page size).
Proof of structural quality and integrity of a completed building, particularly for
projects which used new materials/ technologies. (A4 and/or A3 page size).

Detailed architectural and engineering design (DAED) analyses and computations.


(A4 and/or A3 page size).
Quantity and cost estimates for the buildings/ structures/ grounds i.e. BoQ and
DCE. (A4 and/or A3 page size).
Detailed Construction Management Plan (DCMP) including Construction Schedule.
(A4 or A3 page size and/or A2 sheet size).
Supporting data:

- (1) Simple longitudinal and cross sectional profiles of the ITSP site;

- Geotechnical investigation report (as applicable)/ geological information


report; and

Components and Outputs of Detailed Architecture and Engineering Design


(DAED) by Builder

The DAED shall cover the pertinent Public Buildings as defined by the Procuring
Agency.

D-3

The Builders CAED shall form part of the MPSS. The CAED, together with the MPSS
provisions on Construction shall govern the actual construction of the Contract
Package to be undertaken by the Builder.

DAED plans, elevations, cross-sections and interior/ exterior perspectives of the


Public Buildings/ Structures at a scale of 1:100 meters (m) or as applicable,
distinguishing between the various building components i.e. architectural,
engineering and allied works [architectural interiors (AI), interior design (as
needed), furniture design, landscape architecture, etc.] and noting the vastly
different site characteristics and existing/ potential hazards to development and
continued use/ occupancy. For the structural design, sufficiently detailed
information is required for the proposed substructure (i.e. foundation and ground
floor slab) and the superstructure. For AI, material/ sample and color boards are
required for the key public areas of the Project. (A2, A1 and/ or A0 sheet size).

D.2.2.2

- Building drainage design report. (A4 and/or A3 page size)

Property Development Component

Should a property development component be introduced as a component of the


Public Building/ Complex, the same requirements shall be required for submission, in
addition to:

A market study

Business plan. (A4 and/or A3 page size)

Furniture/ Furnishings, Fixtures & Equipment (FFFE) Component

The DAED for FFFE shall include the following outputs based on the MPSS for FFFE:

Detailed Layouts, Plans and Design of FFFE, showing their dimensions;


perspectives, plans, and elevations at a scale of 1:10 m, with details at a scale of
1:5 m; materials specifications; and other basic properties. (A4 and/or A3 page
size).
Detailed Cost Estimate (DCE). (A4 and/or A3 page size).

D-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Governing Codes and Specifications

The minimum height of the fixed louver or transom window above the operable
windows shall be at 300 mm i.e. measured from the glass part of the window.

The DAED for the Project shall be governed by the following Design Codes and
Specifications.

P. D. No. 1096, the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP), its
2004 Revised IRR and its various Referral Codes (RCs) such as R.A. No. 9514, the
2008 Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP), P.D. No. 1067, the Water Code of the
Philippines, P.D. No. 856, the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, Batas Pambansa
(B.P.) No. 344, the Law to Enhance the Mobility of Disabled Persons and its IRR/
Annexes, and by executive issuances and/or self-regulatory documents such as
the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP), Volume I, 2010, Philippine
Electrical Code (PEC), 2009, Revised National Plumbing Code, the 2000
Architectural Code of the Philippines (ACP), etc..

Interior window panels (if introduced along passage-ways such as corridors), when
opened, must NOT pose an obstruction nor a physical threat along such passage-ways.
D.2.4.2

The door swing-out should be 180 degrees for rooms/ enclosed spaces with 30 or
more occupants.

US Standards:

The door leaf must be at least 900 mm in clear width and 2,100 mm in clear height.

The doors MUST withstand normal wear and tear and shall be provided with keyed
lever-type locksets.

- American Concrete Institute (ACI), as applicable

PVC doors shall NOT be used. If doors made of materials other than wood are to be
introduced by the Builder, these MUST be fire-rated and thoroughly tested for toxicity
(normal and burning conditions) and shall have the prior acceptance/ approval by the
DPWH BRS.

- American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), as applicable


- American Welding Society (AWS), as applicable

D.2.4

D.2.4.1

- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), as applicable

Philippine National Standards or PNS Appendix G of PEC1 2009

R.A. No. 6716 on rainwater collection system

Architectural Standards

Window sills must NOT be lower than 600 millimeters (mm) NOR higher than 900
mm from the finished floor line (FFL) i.e. measured from the glass part of the window.

Toilet doors shall be of framed plywood flush or solid door construction with jamb
material [preferably of local (non-banned) or imported hardwood] duly accepted/
approved by the DPWH BRS, and painted or stained as appropriate.

Floor

The finished floor must be of non-skid finish.

The finished floor line (FFL) at enclosed spaces should be higher than the passage-way
(common area) FFL by a maximum of 25 mm.
The first level FFL elevation of the passage-way (common area) MUST be above the
one hundred (100)-year flood level to be identified by the Builder.

Windows

The total area of window openings must be at least equal to 10.0 square meters (sqm)
of the enclosed space being served (or better) to provide for natural ventilation and
illumination. Windows MUST allow the entry of daylight even if closed. If firewalls are
introduced, there shall be NO operable/ non-operable windows on such firewalls.
However, fire-rated glass blocks or light and ventilation wells may be allowed on such
firewalls, in full accordance with the NBCP and FCP, whichever is more stringent.

D-5

D.2.4.3

The architectural quality of the Public Building/ Structure MUST be in full accordance
with law, specifically with P.D. No. 1096 (1977 NBCP) and its 2004 Revised IRR, with
the applicable portions of the 2000 ACP, and as described in the architectural sections
of the Technical Specifications.
architectural documents i.e. architectural
perspectives, plans, designs, drawings, computations and like deliverables by the
Builder MUST be in full compliance with R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004)
and its 2004 IRR, as well as with the applicable sections of the Development
Guidelines and Design Guidance (DGDG) for the PROJECT.
Windows must be of the transparent or translucent types, and both operable and/or
fixed/ non-operable as applicable.

Doors

There shall be at least two (2) doors for every room/ enclosed space for thirty (30) or
more occupants.

- American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), as applicable

The window frames MUST be sturdy enough to withstand vandalism.

D.2.4.4

A ramp MUST be provided with a maximum gradient of 1:12 in compliance with the
Accessibility Law (B.P. Blg. 344) and properly labelled with the international symbol
of access, either formed of concrete/ cement or metal.

Suspended Ceiling and Ceiling Cavity

The clear height of enclosed spaces, reckoned from FFL to finished ceiling line (FCL)
MUST be at least 2.7 m.
Maintenance access to the ceiling cavity (if provided) MUST be primarily through the
passage-way (common area).

The ceiling height of the toilets may be lower than 2.7 m, only for as long as the same
still fully satisfies the minimum requirements under P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 NBCP.

D-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.4.5

Roof and Roof Cavity


The Builders choice of roofing material MUST be adequately protected from rust/
oxidation, salt air, acid rain or other sources and forms of corrosion and leaks. If of
metal, the roofing sheets MUST be of the thickest material commercially available in
the Philippines and amply protected from the elements.

While the Procuring Agency shall undertake the requisite periodic maintenance
regimen on an annual basis, the Builder MUST warrant the performance and condition
of the entire roofing system and its adjunct drainage system and shall undertake the
requisite repair/s within the minimum Constructors Liability period (reckoned from
the Procuring Agency issuance of the Certificate of Completion) for any damage to the
Public Building that may arise from faulty design or construction.

D.2.4.6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.4.9

Artificial ventilation inside each room/ enclosed space MUST be supplied in full
accordance with the NBCP and/or with the MCP, whichever is more stringent.

D.2.4.10

Partitions, if introduced, MUST be fire-rated, and must be from the top of the
structural floor to the bottom (soffit) of the upper floor suspended slab.

D.2.4.7

D.2.4.8

D-7

Information Boards

The Public Buildings MUST be provided with built-in information boards, of various
types and materials, electronic or illuminated or non-electronic/ non-illuminated, of
the appropriate widths, heights and thicknesses, with mounting heights and material
and finish specifications as per applicable international standards.

The roof cavity (if introduced) MUST be naturally ventilated and pest-proofed.
Whenever applicable, the ceiling cavity for the regular floors (only if introduced), shall
be naturally ventilated and pest-proofed.

Grounds Development and Civil Works

The land area enveloping the Public Building shall be treated as part of the Project
since the same constitutes the building grounds in which pedestrian/ PWD access
systems and the wastewater lines, roadways/ streets, drainage/ flood protection
provisions and related civil works are situated above and below the surface
respectively. These areas shall be cleared and made safe for use.

Circulation and Emergency Egress: Corridors (Single-Load), Main Staircases, Service/


Emergency Egress Staircases, Fire Exit Ladders and Railings

To fully comply with the FCP, the minimum passage-way (common area) clear width
MUST be 2.44 m for the Public Buildings. All staircases MUST have a minimum clear
flight width of 1.83 m (3.66 m total clear staircase width). The clear flight width for
the service staircase/ emergency egress/ fire exit MUST be from 1.22 m to 1.83 m
(2.44 or 3.66 m total clear staircase width). The fire exit ladders MUST have a
minimum clear width of 0.80 m. All stair treads that shall get in contact with water
MUST provide all weather traction, particularly if the treads are wet and shall have a
sloped finished for easy drainage. The stair nosings shall be of sturdy metal and
round-edged, or of better design, to prevent injury during egress occasioned by
extreme/ emergency events. The staircase, corridor and ramp railings shall be of
metal pipe construction and securely anchored to the staircase, hallway and ramp.

Ventilation

Natural ventilation shall be primarily supplied for some rooms (which are not
artificially ventilated) through operable windows. However, whenever such windows
are fully closed, the source of natural ventilation may be through fixed louvers above
or beside the operable windows.

The minimum horizontal clear length of eaves (only if introduced, including exterior
gutter width) shall be: front = 2.438 meters (m); rear = 2.438 m; and sides = 1.829 m
i.e. NO interior gutter shall be introduced in the Public Buildings. Maintenance access
to the roof cavity (only if introduced) must be through the passage-way (common
area).

Partitions

The ceiling (suspended ceiling, suspended slab soffit and stair slab soffit), if exposed
shall be flat white while the roof, if of metal construction, MUST be colored light to
maximize unwanted light and heat reflectance. The paints/ coloring materials MUST
maintain their quality based on applicable Procuring Agency and/or DPWH standards
for at least five (5) years.

D.2.5

The civil works plan and design for the Project grounds MUST fully conform to the
DPWH Standard Specifications for Public Works Structures, Volume III, 1995 (Blue
Book).

Structural Standards

The structural design MUST be in accordance with P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 NBCP and
its 2004 Revised IRR, and specifically with the latest edition of the National Structural
Code of the Philippines (NSCP), Volume 1, 2010 (or later).

Classification of Structure: In accordance with the NSCP, the Public Buildings/


Structures shall be designed for the classification, based on the nature of occupancy, of
Essential Facilities.
Wind Load: The Public Buildings/ Structures, their roofing and walls shall be
designed to withstand a minimum wind speed of 250.0 kilometers per hour (kph).

Painting

A Wind Importance Factor of 1.15, based on the NSCP, shall be used as generic
reference.

Where applicable, metal, wood, and plastic components MUST be coated with enamel
paint, with color subject to Procuring Agency approval. Masonry wall components
MUST be coated with latex paint, with topcoat color subject to official Procuring
Agency approval.

Seismic Load: The Public Buildings/ Structures shall be designed to withstand


earthquakes for Seismic Zone 4 with a corresponding Seismic Zone Factor of 0.40, as
specified in the NSCP.

The structure should be fully sealed against rainwater intrusion during typhoons and
heavy rains to protect sensitive materials and equipment. All doors and windows
MUST be fully sealed against strong vertical and lateral rains.

D-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

A Seismic Importance Factor of 1.50 shall be used as generic reference. Builders are
advised to factor in the effect of the nearby fault lines.

Live Loads: The minimum occupancy or live loads shown in Table D-1 shall be used in
the design.
Table D-1

D.2.6

Electrical Standards

D.2.6.1

Roughing-ins

- Service entrance conduit shall be made of intermediate metallic conduit (IMC).


Underground runs shall be encased in concrete envelope or reinforced concrete
envelope when crossing a roadway. Ends of conduits shall be provided with a
sealing compound.

Live Loads

Structure Part

Live Load

General Activity Level


Car Parking Level
Shop Level

- Exposed service entrance conduits shall be painted with epoxy primer in three
(3) coats application.

1.9 kpa

Toilets
Hallways/ Stairs

4.8 kpa

Deck Roof Level

1.0 kpa

- Conduits shall be properly reamed.

Note: kpa = kilopascals

Design Life: The structure shall have a design life of at least fifty (50) years.

Branch circuit conduits, boxes, fittings and supports shall run parallel to walls,
columns and beams of the building.

- Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) solvent shall be applied on all PVC pipe joints/
connections.
- End bells shall be used at the end of PVC pipes and locknut and bushing shall be
used for metallic conduit on all boxes and gutters termination.

Consistent with law and with industry practice, the Builders designers and builders
shall assume the full professional responsibility and civil liability for the foundation
and structural design, supervision and construction of the Public Buildings/
Structures. In the case of structural designers who are foreign nationals, the Philippine
civil/ structural engineer affixing his/ her signature and dry seal on the structural
plans, designs and computations (submitted for building permit application) shall
solely assume the same. As such, the Procuring Agency shall NOT accept any form of
waiver anent the attached professional responsibility or civil liability over the
foundation/ structural design of the Project.

Wall Vibration: Walls must NOT unduly vibrate due to impact caused by any part of
an adult human body and must NEITHER be dented NOR punctured by deliberate
punches or kicks by adult humans.

Rib-type or double tee suspended slab soffits are acceptable but subject to the PCM or
IC acceptance of the quality of their structural connections and finish.

- The service entrance shall be at least 1.60 m above the natural grade line.

- Metal boxes, gutters, supports and fittings shall be painted with epoxy primer
in three (3) coats prior to installation.

Building Foundation: The foundation shall be designed for an allowable soil bearing
pressure of 96 kpa (2,000 pounds per square foot or psf). Consistent with best
practices, the Builder MUST undertake the prior appropriate studies/ investigations
for use as basis/ bases for the foundation and structural design of the Public
Buildings/ Structures.

Suspended Slabs as Sub-floors: Sub-floors shall only be of suspended concrete slabs


(which are either cast-on-site/ cast in situ concrete or pre-cast concrete). Sub-floor
materials that are highly flammable, that do NOT uphold the fire integrity among the
floors, that may contain formaldehydes or other potentially harmful substances, that
conducts/ transfers radiant heat and which do NOT possess positive acoustical
properties are not considered the equivalent of a suspended concrete slab and must
NOT be used for the Public Building/ Structure.

Service Entrance

D.2.6.2

- Branch circuit conduits shall be either metallic or non-metallic as applicable.

Ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures: Flexible metallic tubing shall be used as drop


pipe from a junction box to a lighting fixture.

In-sight disconnecting means: Watertight type straight or angle connectors shall


be used from pumps, condensing units and other equipment that will be in
possible contact with water or rain.

Centralized panelling: Breaker and wire gutter shall be used for proper
arrangement of main distribution panel (MDP).
Stub-out conduits for spares: 15 mm diameter PVC or IMC pipes shall be provided
as stub-out conduits at different panel boards as per schedule of loads. Ends of
stub-out conduits shall be threaded and capped.

Wires and Wiring Devices

Wires shall be properly designed in accordance with Article 3.10 and the grounding
system shall conform to Article 2.50 of the PH Electrical Code (PEC).
D.2.6.3

Wiring devices must be of modern type and approved for both location and purpose.

Lighting and Fixtures

Each room/ enclosed space must be provided with a lighting product(s) that can
produce 400 lux or better at the tabletop/ countertop level.

Duplex convenience outlets (COs) of the grounding type must be provided for all
rooms/ enclosed spaces.
D-9

D-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.7

The hallways must be provided with a lighting product(s) that can produce 5,000
lumens or better.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.9.1

For structural members, minimum compressive strength of 20.7 megapascals (mpa)


(3,000 pounds per square inch or psi).

Sanitary and Plumbing Standards

For non-structural members minimum compressive strength of concrete shall be 17


mpa (2,500 psi).

Waste and vent line piping system: The drain, waste and vent line piping system
must be according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-2729, ISO
4435 and ISO 3633.

At the very minimum, reinforcing bars shall be ASTM A706 with a minimum yield
strength, fy, of 413 mpa for 16 mm diameter and larger, and 275 mpa (33,000 psi) for
12-mm diameter and smaller. Alternately, ASTM 615 can be used subject to the
conditions specified in the NSCP, as follows:

Waterline piping system: The system must be according to E DIN1988 for


Polypropylene Random Copolymer (PP-R) type 3 pipe and ASTM A53/ A53M. The
system must provide for a waterline service entrance.

Plumbing Fixtures: These must be according to American National Standards


Institute (ANSI)/ American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), A112.19.4m,
A112.19.3, A112.19.5.

Drainage system: The storm drainage system must be sized according to the rainfall
intensities, slope, and roof areas of the building. Provision shall be made for the future
installation of rainwater collection system in compliance with R.A. No. 6716 An Act
Providing for the Construction of Water Wells, Rainwater Collectors, Development of
Springs and Rehabilitation of Existing Water Wells in all Barangays in the Philippines.

For the BUILDING Project, only provision/s for connections to future rainwater
collectors, consistent with DPWH design standards are required of the Builder. These
provisions must be reflected in all CAEDs and DAEDs of the Public Buildings.

D.2.8

Septic vault: All concrete septic tanks shall be protected from corrosion by coating
with an approved bituminous coat or by other acceptable means.

Toilets

The Toilets shall be properly ventilated and provided with running water through a
piped water supply system. The supply of running water to the toilets shall be the
responsibility of the Builder.

D.2.9

The specific types and numbers of fixtures shall depend on full Builder compliances
with the applicable provisions of the NBCP and the Sanitation Code of the PH (and its
IRR and with the pertinent issuances of the DoH), whichever is more stringent.
Additionally, considerations of gender sensitivity e.g. breastfeeding stations, diaper
changing stations, sanitary product dispensers, etc. shall be factored in.

Materials

At the very minimum, all construction materials for the Project MUST conform to the
DPWH Standard Specifications for Public Works Structures, Volume III, 1995 (Blue
Book). New materials which are NOT covered by the Blue Book, however, MUST pass
the requirements of the Product Accreditation Scheme prescribed under DPWH
Department Order No. 189, series of 2002, and be accredited by the DPWH before
these are used in the Project.

D-11

Reinforced Concrete

D.2.9.2

D.2.9.3

The actual yield strength based on mill tests does NOT exceed fy by more than 125
mpa.

The ratio of the actual tensile strength to the actual yield strength is NOT less than
1.25.

Structural Steel

This shall be ASTM A36 with a minimum yield strength, fy, 248 mpa (36,000 psi). All
structural steel works shall be painted with red oxide primer and shall be final coated
with aluminum silver paint.

Protection from Heat

Air Supply: Under applicable conditions, clean fresh air shall be supplied to enclosed
spaces at an average rate of NOT less than 20 to 40 cubic meters (700 to 1400 cu.ft.)
an hour per occupant, or at such a rate as to effect a complete change of air a number
of times per hour varying from four (4) for sedentary occupants to eight (8) for active
occupants.

Where an adequate supply of fresh air cannot be obtained by natural ventilation or


where it is difficult to get the desired amount of air at the center of the workroom
without creating uncomfortable drafts near inlets, mechanical ventilation devices that
are capable of generating fresh air (and NOT merely re-circulating air inside a room or
other confined spaces such as toilets), shall be provided.

Air Movement: The air movement in enclosed spaces shall be arranged such that the
occupants are NOT subjected to objectionable drafts. The air velocity shall NOT fall
below 15 meters per minute during the rainy season and 45 meters per minute during
the summer season.
The rooms and component materials MUST provide for a suitable inside room
temperature compliant with safety and health standards on air temperature, humidity
and air movement.
Provision shall be made to control radiant heat from roofing by installing ceilings/
ceiling cavities, which may be provided with fire retardant and thermal insulation
materials.

Insulating material and ventilation inside a room should reduce infiltration of too
much radiant and convective heat and should result in the room/ enclosed space
temperature (measured at the center of the room) being at least one degree Celsius (1
oC) lower than the outside temperature.

D-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The air velocity in enclosed rooms shall be from 0.25 m/s to 0.75 m/s based on the
requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Service/ OSHS of the Department
of Labor and Employment (DoLE).

D.2.9.4

D.2.9.5

D.2.9.6

D.2.9.7

Illumination falling at countertop height MUST NOT be less than 400 lux taken with
combined artificial and natural lighting.

Resistance to Termites

Where applicable, the Public Building/ Structure MUST be resistant to termites for at
least five (5) years.

Protection from Corrosion

Where applicable, the Public Building/ Structure MUST be protected from corrosion/
rust up to at least five (5) years.

Fire Protection

Fire protection requirements for the Public Building/ Structure shall mainly be as per
R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP) and its 2009 (or later) IRR.
However, the Builder must always check which of the following is the most stringent:
1) P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP) and its
2004 Revised IRR; 2) R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 FCP and its 2009 IRR; 3) the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes, standards or related issuances; or 4) other
applicable local fire safety standards. The most stringent rule shall always be applied
for the Project.

Noise Level Limit

The sound transmission class/ noise reduction rating of the Public Building and its
component materials, including walls partition and floor slabs, MUST reduce noise
level such that it will comply with accepted standards on noise reduction.

Appropriate sound-absorbing or sound insulation material MUST be used on walls


and partitions to reduce sound transmission inside the rooms/ enclosed spaces.

Acoustic materials, finishes or treatments shall be used at interior walls, ceilings and
ceiling cavities in the event of reverberation/ echoing of sound inside lower floor
rooms/ enclosed spaces.
Pertinent occupational safety and health standards such as the permissible noise
exposure limit, threshold limit value and other applicable occupational and safety
standards MUST be complied during the construction of the Public Building.

Acoustic material or finish used should offer reduction of noise and noise level which
should NOT exceed 55 dB (A) measured in an unoccupied classroom (to include
ambient noise) and MUST comply with ASHRAE provisions on indoor air quality.
Ambient noise MUST necessarily exclude intermittent heavy noise sources such as
passing vehicles e.g. airplanes, trains, tricycles, old trucks/ buses and the like.

D-13

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.9.8

Protection from Toxicity


Enclosed spaces must be designed in such a way that their locations are far from
sources of noxious elements such as paint, varnish, toilets, chemical storage and
garbage collection/ storage/ handling points.

The building and finishing material to be used like panel/ ceiling boards, paints,
varnish, etc. must NOT contain or emit any carcinogenic or toxic substances which
may pose risk on the health of occupants (such as asbestos, polychlorinated
biphenyls/ PCB, benzene and the like). A material safety data sheet (MSDS) detailing
the composition of the construction materials used, must be presented by the Builder
for joint OSHC/ DPWH/ Procuring Agency/ PCM or IC evaluation and possible OSHS
certification (on an absolute need basis).

Newly constructed rooms should be well ventilated prior to occupancy to purge and
remove the airborne contaminants trapped and emitted inside the rooms/ enclosed
spaces during painting, sanding, varnishing, etc. Purging of airborne contaminants and
ventilation of the rooms should be for at least one week or until such time that
discernible odor is gone. There should be NO toxic airborne contaminants prior to
building occupancy.

Adequate air movement and supply of fresh air should be provided via natural or
artificial means to dilute any contaminants, which may be emitted in the course of
occupancy.
The non-skid flooring should help prevent the accumulation of dust in small cracks
and crevices.

Based on US Environment Protection Agency Air Quality Standards, the dust


concentration for total dust particulates should NOT exceed 0.26 mg/m3, and for
respirable dust should NOT exceed 0.15 mg/ m3.

Rule 1076.03 Cleanliness: Dusts, gases, vapors, or mists generated and released in
work process shall be removed at the points of origin and NOT permitted to permeate
the atmosphere of the enclosed rooms/ spaces.

Rule 1093.07 Prevention of Dust Accumulation: In rooms where materials producing


flammable dusts are processed, handled and stored;

dusts shall be removed daily from floors, equipment and other horizontal surfaces,
preferably by means of appropriate vacuum apparatus; and

all fixtures, ledges, projections, bearings, sidewalks, ceilings and other parts shall
be cleaned and freed of dusts at least once a week.

Floors: Where practicable, floors or rooms in which harmful dust is liberated shall:

be smooth, impervious and easy to clean; and

NOT be covered with loose sheets, metal or other materials under which dust can
accumulate.

Resistance to water penetration: The structure shall be free from water leaks.
Relative Humidity (RH) Range: RH range shall be at 55% plus or minus 5%.

D-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.2.10

Other Standards
The set of FFFE items MUST harmonize, in terms of functionality and design, with the
intended use of the spaces at the Public Building (including the possible Property
Development Component/s).

D.2.11

FFFE materials may be wood or non-wood, resistant to termites (if of wood) for at
least two (2) years, and protected from rust for at least for five (5) years. They should
NOT contain or emit any carcinogenic or toxic substance. New materials must first be
certified by the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) of the Department of Trade and
Industry (DTI).

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

D.3

Construction

D.3.1

Scope of Construction

D.3.2

The Builder shall undertake the Construction Works for the Contract Package as
described in the Information Memorandum.

Standards and Specifications for Construction

The construction of the Project shall be implemented according to the DAED prepared
by the Builder, as reviewed and concurred with by the Project or Construction
Manager (PCM) or by the Independent Consultant (IC).

Other Requirements

b. The Construction of the Project shall also comply with the MPSS for Construction
herein prescribed. The MPSS for Construction includes conformance to the provisions
pertaining to building under the DPWH Blue Book, Volume III.

Since the Builder will undertake Design-Build Services, the conduct of the soil
investigations and of the requisite environmental investigations, MUST all be
undertaken by the Builder on their account.

The Blue Book prescribes, among other things, the material requirements and
construction requirements for different items of work, including the tests to be
conducted during Construction by the Builder. The Blue Book incorporates provisions
of the ASTM and ACI, among others, pertaining to construction. Attention shall be
given to the relevant items of work in the following Parts of the Blue Book:

All conceptual through detailed architectural and engineering design (CAED to DAED)
plans, designs, drawings/ details, schedules, specifications, bill of quantities (BoQ),
detailed cost estimates (DCEs) and similar regulated professional practice documents
must be signed and dry-sealed by Filipino registered and licensed professionals
(RLPs) in full accordance with law e.g. only registered and licensed architects (RLAs)
shall prepare, sign and seal the pertinent architectural documents. The As-Built plans
are to be transmitted to the Procuring Agency by the Builder at the completion of the
construction work for the Project.

During construction, the Project site must be protected by a 3.0 m tall temporary
perimeter enclosure, where the height shall be reckoned from either the natural or
finished grade line (NGL/ FGL). Such an enclosure should be of sturdy construction
such that it does NOT constitute a danger during extreme events e.g. storms,
earthquakes, fire, widespread civil disturbances, and similar occurrences.

The Builder MUST provide a certification that the parts and spares for all components
under the Contract Package shall be available to the Procuring Agency over a period of
at least ten (10) years after the completion of the Works under the Project.

D.3.3

Part A - Earthwork

Part B Plain and Reinforced Concrete Works

Part C Finishing

Part D Electrical (and Electronics)


Part E Sanitary/ Plumbing Works

For materials and technologies NOT covered by the Blue Book, or if the Builder
intends to use any new material/ technology which is NOT accredited by the DPWH
Bureau of Research and Standards (BRS), the Builder shall submit a certification from
a recognized foreign/ international institution to the effect that the new materials/
technology meets the Minimum Performance Standards and Specifications (MPSS) for
this Project and that the new materials/ technologies have been successfully used in
existing structures with proven integrity.

Detailed Construction Plan

The Builder shall prepare a Detailed Construction Plan (DCP) as part of the DAED that
it shall submit to the PCM or IC for review and concurrence. The DCP shall be based on
the preliminary Construction Plan submitted in the Technical Proposal of the Builders
Bid, as updated and detailed to fit the elements of the DAED. The DCP MUST identify
the procedures, processes and management systems that the Builder will apply to
ensure the implementation of the Construction Works in accordance with the
Agreement.
As a minimum, the DCP must define the following:

D-15

Construction organization and management structures for the Contract Package,


identifying key personnel and positions, Constructors, and sub-constructors.

D-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Construction methodology and procedures, including pre-fabrication if any.


Quality control and assurance system for all Works.

Construction schedule, milestones, and S-curve covering all Contract Package


components and Project site.
Major construction equipment and materials to be used.

Health, safety, and security program in accordance with Department Order No. 13,
series of 1998, of the Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE).
Measures and procedures for:

- Control and monitoring of the construction schedule as against actual


construction works;
- Supervision and monitoring of the quality control and assurance system for the
Works, including the integrity of tests conducted;

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

- Survey and condition monitoring;

Strategies for:

Annexes for this MPSS follow.


Very Important Notes:

- Managing risks

- Obtaining all necessary approvals and permits from national and local
government authorities

D.3.4

- Details of records management and indexing protocols that will enable


referencing of all design and construction records to the Contract Package
components, work type and location

Test Requirements

The Builder shall undertake tests during construction in accordance with the
schedule of minimum testing requirements for items of work and materials covered
by the Blue Book.

D.3.5

If any new Construction materials proposed by the Builder are NOT covered by the
Blue Book, these materials shall first pass the evaluation and accreditation system of
the DPWH BRS, certified by the PCM or IC, and approved by the Procuring Agency,
before the new materials are used in the Project.

The completed Project can be safely and reliably placed into normal use and
occupancy by the competent authorities and end-users.

The Builder MUST submit (1) the As-Built Drawings, (2) an Asset Register to include a
description of all assets constructed, and (3) the Construction Completion Report for
the Project under the Contract Package, to the Procuring Agency NOT later than two
(2) months after the issuance of the Certificate of Completion for the Project.

- Monthly updating of the Construction Plan and monthly progress reports;


- Development and approval of Construction documentation; and

All parts of the Project have been completed in accordance with the DAED, as
certified by the PCM or IC, and with the MPSS for Construction, including the
rectification of all defects.

This procurement effort involves both design preparation and construction


delivery by the Builder being sought. The Builder is expected to prepare both its
Conceptual Architectural and Engineering Design (CAED) and Detailed
Architectural and Engineering Design (DAED) for the Public Building (the
Project).
In the event of a possible conflict or inconsistency between the content of these
MPSS and its future Annexes or between such future MPSS Annexes, the Builder
must bring the matter to the attention of the Procuring Agency and its Project or
Construction Manager (PCM) or Independent Consultant (IC) at the soonest time
possible.
Further, for both bid preparation and design/ construction purposes, the Builder
is instructed to always adopt the provision that shall result in the most
appropriate, the most responsive and the most complete design/ construction/
operation/ maintenance solution that shall be consistent with the best local and
international industry practices for design and construction.

On matters of compliance with these MPSS and its future Annexes, the PCM or IC
shall be the designated sole authority for design review, construction assessment
and initial alternative dispute resolution (ADR) for design and construction issues
arising from differing interpretations of the MPSS.

Completion of Construction

The IC shall be required to determine and certify that the Builder has fully complied
with the following requirements for the completion of Construction and, if so, shall
notify the Procuring Agency, which shall then issue the Certificate of Completion to
the Builder in accordance with the Agreement:

D-17

All Tests for Construction comply with the pertinent provisions of the Blue Book
and other test requirements of the MPSS for Construction.

D-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Contents

Annex E

Development Guidelines and Design


Guidance (DGDG) for Buildings and their
Sites / Grounds
Important Note: This brief presents the potentially optimum development guidelines
and design guidance (DGDG) allowed under existing national and local Philippine (PH)
laws for the buildings and the properties/ sites/ grounds under consideration.
Property Owners are at liberty to scale down the proposed development to the
desired/ required/ affordable limit.

This deliverable offers suggestions as to what to look for while reviewing the physical
planning, design and development of various building and sites/ grounds project
components.

E.1

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................... 1

E.1.1

INTENT OF THE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES ................................................................................... 1

E.1.2

DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY PHILOSOPHY .............................................................................. 1

E.2

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR PROPOSED BUILDINGS ............................................................... 2

E.2.1

LAND USE STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................ 2

E.2.2

GENERAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES .............................................................................. 5

E.2.3

ROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY (RROWS)/ STREETS AND LEGAL EASEMENTS .......................................... 8

E.2.4

MISCELLANEOUS GUIDELINES ............................................................................................................12

E.2.4.1

ADMINISTRATION ...............................................................................................................................13

E.2.4.2

UPDATE AND REVISION OF THESE DGDG (ON A NEED BASIS) ........................................................14

E.3

PHYSICAL PLANNING GUIDANCE........................................................................................................15

E.3.1

SITE DEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE ........................................................................................................15

E.3.2

CIVIL WORKS GUIDANCE ....................................................................................................................18

E.3.3

URBAN DESIGN GUIDANCE .................................................................................................................21

E.4

DESIGN/ POST-DESIGN GUIDANCE ....................................................................................................24

E.4.1

DETAILED DESIGN PROCESS...............................................................................................................24

E.4.2

POST-DESIGN PROCESS .......................................................................................................................28

E.4.3

ARCHITECTURAL GUIDANCE ..............................................................................................................28

E.4.4

SUGGESTED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OBJECTIVES........................................................................30

E.4.5

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONCEPTS ................................................................................................31

E.4.6

SUGGESTED ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN CRITERIA ................................................32

E.4.7

OTHER ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS....................................................................................34

E.4.8

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE GUIDANCE ..........................................................................................36

E.5

ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDANCE .............................................................................................................40

E.6

NON-MOBILE BILLBOARDS (NMBS)/ ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS AND SIGNAGES .............................59

E.6.1

REGULATION OF NMBS/ ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS WITHIN A LGU ..................................................63

E-i

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Tables, Figures and Equations

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Table E-1

Term

Definition

AFSU

amenities/ facilities/ services/ utilities

AI

Architectural Interiors

AMBF

Allowable Maximum Building Footprint

B.P.

Batas Pambansa (State law)

BHL

Building Height Limit

BoD

Bureau of Design

BOD

Bio-Oxygen Demand

Table E-2
Table E-3
Table E-4
Table E-5

Table E-6
Table E-7
Table E-8
Figure E-1

E-ii

Setbacks for Commercial and Industrial Buildings (applicable to BUILDINGS)..2


Reference Table of Maximum Allowable PSO, Maximum Allowable ISA, the MACA, the

Minimum USA and the TOSL for a PUD ...............................................................................................................3


Minimum Requirements for Air Changes ...........................................................................................................6
Range of Required Sidewalk and Planting Strip Widths (total at both sides of RROW) by

RROW Width ................................................................................................................................................................. 11


Minimum Planting Strip Widths by RROW Width ....................................................................................... 11
Example of the Application of the Basic Sustainable Development Controls under P.D. No.

BOT

Build-Operate-Transfer

1096 (NBCP) ................................................................................................................................................................. 51

CBB

Wood-Wool Cement-Bonded Board

CDMP

Comprehensive Development Master Plan

for a Typical Public Building .................................................................................................................................. 55

cum

cubic meter

DGDG

Development Guidelines and Design Guidance

DoE

Department of Energy

DoLE

Department of Labor & Employment

DPWH

Department of Public Works & Highways

EMoP

Environmental Monitoring Program

EMP

Environmental Management Plan

EMS

Environmental Management Standards

EPI

Environmental Performance Indicators

FCB

Fiber Cement Board

FCL

Finished Ceiling Line

FFL

Finished Floor Line

FGL

Finished Grade Line

FLAR

floor to lot area ratio (same as FAR/ floor area ratio)

GFA

Gross Floor Area

HLURB

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board

IRR

Implementing Rules And Regulations

LGU

Local Government Unit

meter

mm

millimeter

MVB

Maximum Volume of Building

MDP

Master Development Plan

MPSS

Minimum Performance Standards And Specifications

Reviewer

DPWH BoD

NBCP

National Building Code of the Philippines

NGL

Natural Grade Line

NMB

Non-Mobile Billboard

OFB

Outermost Face of Building

OSR

Open Space Requirement

P.D.

Presidential Decree

PH

Philippine/s

Embodied Energy Levels of the Construction and Finishing Materials Specified and Used

Initially Calculated Carbon Footprint for a Typical Low-Rise Public Building ............................... 58
STANDARD FORM (Type A0, A1, A2 and A3) FOR BUILDING PLANS/ CONSTRUCTION

DRAWINGS Figure III.1.(of the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP) ............................................... 27

E-iii

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Glossary

Term

Definition

ppm

parts per million

PPP

Public-Private Partnership

Term

Definition

PRC

Professional Regulation Commission

GFA

PSO

percentage of site occupancy

PUD

planned unit development

The total floor space within the perimeter of the permanent external building walls (inclusive of the additional
building/ enclosed area/s); areas such as open/ semi-covered parking, walks/ covered walks, courts, pools,
ponds/ grotto, generator shed/ pump room/s and elevated platforms/ view decks do NOT form part of the
GFA.

RLA

registered and licensed Architect

impervious surface

RLLA

registered and licensed Landscape Architect

A paved surface, usually just outside the building perimeter, that prevents surface water percolation i.e. the
sinking of water into the ground or paved surfaces that do not have the capability to retard surface water flow,
thereby contributing to flashfloods;

RLECE

registered and licensed Professional Electronics Engineer

RROW

RLEnP

registered and licensed Environmental Planner

RLPEE

registered and licensed Professional Electrical Engineer

The area existing between two (2) or more defined activity spaces that afford such areas direct pedestrian and
vehicular access only; in particular, the RROW/ street shall consist of the sidewalk, the curb and gutter (where
present), the carriageway and all of the other hard-scapes (including street furniture) and soft-scapes that may
be initially introduced by the Owner on the property;

RLPME

registered and licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer

street

Same as road right-of-way (RROW); common term for RROW;

RLSnE

registered and licensed Sanitary Engineer

PUD

ROI

return-on-investment

ROW

right-of-way

SDP

site development planning

A planned unit development (PUD) refers to a land development scheme for a new project site wherein said
project site must have a Comprehensive Development Master Plan (CDMP) or its acceptable equivalent i.e. a
unitary development plan/ site plan that permits flexibility in planning/ urban design, building/ structure siting,
complementarity of building types and land uses, usable open spaces for general public use services and
business activities and the preservation of significant natural land features if feasible, whereby said CDMP
must be duly approved by the LGU concerned;

SPP

Standards of Professional Practice (for State-registered and licensed architects/ RLAs in the PH)

TGFA

STS

sewage treatment system

SWMS

solid waste management system

sqm

square meter

The total floor space within a building (inclusive of extensions/ additions to such a building/ enclosed area)
and auxiliary buildings; the TGFA consists of the GFA and all other enclosed/ partially enclosed support areas
that are built up and/ or paved (with an impervious surface) together with all other usable horizontal areas/
surfaces above and below the finished grade line (FGL) that are all physically attached to such a building;
areas such as open/ semi-covered parking, walks/ covered walks, courts, pools, ponds/ grotto, generator
shed/ pump room/s and elevated platforms/ view decks all form part of the TGFA.

sqmm

square millimeter

Urban Design

TA

transaction advisor

TGFA

total gross floor area

The 2004 IRR of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) defines urban design as the
physical and systematic design undertaken by a State-registered and licensed architect (RLA) on a
community and urban plane, more comprehensive than, and an extension of the architecture of buildings,
spaces between buildings, entourage, utilities and movement systems. Presently, this definition is the primary
legal basis for interpreting the scope of urban design in the Philippines, even as it applies to projects in rural
settings such as environmentally- sustainable developments.

TLA

total lot area

TOSL

total open space within lot

WHO

World Health Organization

E-iv

E-v

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.1

Introduction

E.2

Development Guidelines for Proposed BUILDINGS

E.1.1

Intent of the Development Guidelines

E.2.1

Land Use Standards

E.2.1.1

Development Standards

The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Design Guidelines,


Criteria and Standards (the DGCS) and its Volume 6 (Buildings and Related/ Other
Documents) Annex [Development Guidelines and Design Guidance (the DGDG)]
have been formulated for the following purposes:

E.1.2

Further promote and protect the health, safety, comfort, convenience and general
welfare of the Owners and the pre-identified users of the buildings for which the
pertinent plans, designs and documents are to be reviewed by the DPWH BoD.
Protect the character and stability of the development as a physically planned
community and to promote an orderly and beneficial process of development/
redevelopment.
Regulate the location, footprint, height, bulk, gross and total gross floor areas
(GFA/ TGFA) and open space ratios of the planned buildings/ structures in order
to diminish the potentially negative effects of these elements on overall/ general
public safety, health and welfare.

Protect and enhance the open spaces of the buildings in order to preserve the
desired character and ecology of the development and its setting.

Contribute to the process of decision-making in the implementation of the


development plan/ effort.

The DPWH BoD as Reviewer shall actively interpret and continually evolve (and
improve upon) these DGDG, duly aided by qualified technical consultants (as needed),
particularly on any question or possible uncertainty that may arise regarding these
DGDG or of any other matters of importance to the well-being of BUILDING end-users.

Development and Community Philosophy

A BUILDING Project (the Project) shall provide the advantages of safety, community
and a productive and uplifting environment. With integrated activity spaces as a
BUILDINGs primary focus, the designers shall situate a BUILDINGs target public
users within highly functional spaces on a setting of limited open spaces, hopefully
attaining a high degree of integration of the natural and built environments.

All activities and functions must promote the well-being of the individual end-users,
and of the community as a whole, and must not be detrimental to a BUILDINGs
intended utilitarian character. A balance between the needs and expectations of
individuals and the community as a whole must be achieved and maintained.

E-1

The applicable overall development standards must necessarily include the pertinent
issuances of the PH National Government, NOT limited to certain physical planningrelated guidelines of P.D. No. 1096, otherwise known as the 1977 National Building
Code of the Philippines (NBCP) and its 2004 Revised Implementing Rules and
Regulations (IRR, effective 01 May 2005), local development-related ordinances, or
even certain issuances of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) as
may be applicable, and the like.

E.2.1.2

Compliances with the applicable stipulations of the 1977 NBCP and its 2004 Revised
IRR effective May 2005, the Referral Codes (RCs) of the NBCP (e.g. Fire/ Structural/
Electrical/ Mechanical/ Sanitation/ Architectural/ Water/ Sanitation Codes, the
Accessibility Law, etc.), applicable ordinances of the host local government unit (LGU),
which shall be applied suppletorily, and which should not be in conflict with (and
should be more stringent than) the minimum development controls prescribed under
the NBCP and its 2004 Revised IRR and RCs) and all other applicable laws are
required for all architects, engineers, designers, developers, constructors, subconstructors, etc. who shall work on Project components on-site.

Setbacks and Foot-printing within the Defined Building Sites

Being parts of planned unit developments (PUDs), the footprints of BUILDINGS must
be set at a specific minimum distance from the edge of their respective RROWs, as
follows:
Table E-1

Setbacks for Commercial and Industrial Buildings (applicable to BUILDINGS)

Road Right-of-Way (RROW) Width


(meters)

Front
(meters)

Side
(meters)

Rear
(meters)

30.0 and above

8.0

5.0

5.0

25.0 to 29.0

6.0

3.0

3.0

20.0 to 24.0

5.0

3.0

3.0

10.0 to 19.0

5.0

2.0

2.0

Below 10.0 (if introduced)

5.0

2.0

2.0

Source: Table VIII.3 of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP

The Open Space Requirement (OSR), otherwise referred to as the Percentage of Site
Occupancy (PSO) or Allowable Maximum Building Footprint (AMBF) for buildings
under the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP, that MUST be satisfied for BUILDING
properties shall be at sixty percent (60.0%) of the total lot area (TLA). The applicable
breakdown of the Total Open Space within Lot (TOSL) to be satisfied shall at
maximum development be as follows:

E-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table E-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Reference Table of Maximum Allowable PSO, Maximum Allowable ISA, the


MACA, the Minimum USA and the TOSL for a PUD

the NBCP), the maximum depth of the basement can then be made equal to onehalf (0.5) of the height of the building above grade; if the prescriptions for
natural lighting and ventilation are satisfied, the basement depth can therefore
be as much as one-third (0.33) of the combined height of the building to be
constructed above grade and below grade.

Building/
% of Total Lot Area (TLA)
Structure Use or
Occupancy
Duly-Approved Zoning
Maximum
Maximum
Minimum USA TOSL d
(or Land Use)
Allowable PSOAllowable ISAc (Unpaved Open
(ISA +
(examples only)
(Paved
Open
Spaces)
USA)
Spaces)
70
PUD at an inland area
close to an operating
airport

10

20

30

70
PUD at a reclamation
area
close to
an
operating airport

15

15

30

- The center portion of all basement levels shall be reserved for the satisfaction
of the basement level may extend by a minimum clear distance of 1.4 m from
the outermost face of the building (OFB) at grade level.

- The OFB at the second and lower basement levels shall follow the line of the
OFB at grade level.

Source: Table VIII.1 of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP

Additionally, there are applicable Angles/ Slopes emanating from the centerlines of
the road rights-of-way (RROWs or streets) that limit architectural projections and
that must be complied with to satisfy additional natural light and ventilation
requirements along both the RROWs and the front yards of the proposed buildings at
DPWH properties (reference Figure VII.G.1/ G.2 and Table VII.G.3 of the 2004 Revised
IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP).
E.2.1.3

The stated BHL excludes basement construction where legally and technically feasible.
The NBCP does NOT prescribe a minimum number of basement structures, only that
such basements not be under the RROW i.e. excluding below-grade crossings.
Basement levels are NOT suggested for BUILDING sites on reclaimed land. In the event
however that a Proponent suggests a basement level for a reclaimed BUILDING site,
the applicable rules are as follows:

Maximum Configuration of Basement Levels: While basements may be developed


for medium to very high density mixed-use developments, BUILDING planning,
design and construction shall observe the following limitations:

- The minimum RROW width that services the lot on which the basement can be
constructed should be at least 10.0 m wide.

- For basements to be allowed, the prescribed setbacks and yards must be


satisfied for the building/ structure above grade in as much as the very same
setbacks shall apply below grade to determine the maximum depth or width of
the basement level.

- If the NBCP prescriptions for introducing natural light and ventilation into all
basement levels are first satisfied (referencing Fig. VIII.G.23. of the 2004 IRR of
E-3

Minimum Provisions for Natural Lighting and Ventilation at Basement Levels: If


basements are to be developed, the following minimum provisions for natural
light and ventilation shall be satisfied:

- A primary or main natural light and ventilation shaft (vertical) with a clear
distance of at least 3.0 m shall be located at the center of the building and shall
traverse the entire combined height of the building above and below grade;
(referencing Fig. VIII.G.23. of the 2004 IRR of the NBCP).
- Secondary or support natural light and ventilation shaft/s (angular) with a
clear distance of at least 1.2 m shall emanate from the front and rear perimeters
of the building and shall traverse the entire depth of the basement; the angular
shaft/s shall be at an angle of 60 from the horizontal, consistent with the
maximum Philippine solar angle; separate angular shafts emanating from the
side perimeters of the building are encouraged.

Building Height Limit (BHL) and Basements


As a BUILDING is usually part of a planned unit development (PUD) e.g. located at an
inland area close to an operating airport, the maximum allowable height for a building/
structure on the property shall be from 3- to 25-storeys i.e. 10.0 m to 75.0 m (with
CAAP-prescribed BHL as needed) as measured from the top/ finished surface of the
average sidewalk elevation along the RROW/ street immediately fronting the
BUILDING site, or as otherwise lawfully provided under Table VII.2 and related rules
of the 2004 Revised IRR (effective 01 May 2005) of Presidential Decree (P.D.) No.
1096, otherwise known as the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP).

- All drainage structures below grade shall not exceed the OFB below grade.

E.2.1.4

- Both the vertical and angular shafts shall only be used for natural air and light
intake and shall not be used for any form of exhaust or air exchange to keep the
temperature inside the shafts at a minimum.

Building Bulk

The applicable Floor to Lot Area Ratio (FLAR) i.e. same as Floor Area Ratio (FAR)
rights at maximum development (including the maximum building/ enclosed area
additions) shall be at:

2.0 to 3.0 times the total lot areas (TLAs) for a building site i.e. if the development
is classified exclusively as an institutional use.

6.0 to 18.0 times the total lot area (TLA) for the building site i.e. if the
development is classified as part of a PUD at an inland area close to an operating
airport.

6.0 times the total lot area (TLA) for the building site i.e. if the development is
classified as part of a PUD at a reclamation area close to an operating airport
(reference Table VII.G.1 of the 2004 Revised IRR of the NBCP) but these may still be
adjusted through the proper representations with either the Local Building
Official (BO) or the DPWH Secretary (in his capacity as the National Building
Official/ NBO under P.D. No. 1096 (1977 NBCP), mainly if there can be potentially
resultant hardship on the part of the Building Owner, considering the very high
value of the properties (which must both yield a decent return). The applicable
Gross Floor Area (GFA) and Total Gross Floor Area (TGFA) at maximum
E-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.2.2
E.2.2.1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

development (including the maximum building/ enclosed area additions) shall


arise from the utilized FLAR rights.

be provided with a window or windows with an area not less than 1/20 of the floor
area of such rooms, provided that such opening shall not be less than 240 sqmm. Such
a window or windows shall open directly to a court, yard, public street or alley, or to
an open watercourse.

General Use and Development Guidelines

The required windows may open into a roofed porch where the porch:

Parking Provision

Under the NBCP, the required parking for a public school development shall be as
follows (for confirmation):

E.2.2.2

E.2.2.3

The maneuvering area of buses shall be outside of the RROW i.e. within the
property or lot lines only (reference Table VII.4 of the 2004 Revised IRR of the
NBCP).

There shall absolutely be no openings on/ at/ within/ through all types of abutments
(such as firewalls) erected along property lines or along the edge of RROWs, except
possibly for correctly positioned and properly/ duly-permitted vent wells. In locating
window openings it should be borne in mind that in cases of extreme emergencies,
windows must serve as emergency egress to vacate the premises or access for rescue
operations. Such windows shall meet the following requirements:

Rooms for human habitation - 6.0 sqm with a least dimension of 2.0 m;
Kitchen - 3.0 sqm with a least dimension of 1.5 m; and

Bath and toilet - 1.2 sqm with a least dimension of 900 mm.

Minimum Air Spaces

The minimum air spaces shall be provided as follows:

School rooms - 3.0 cum with 1.0 sqm of floor area per person;

E.2.2.6

These can be opened from the inside without the use of any tools;

The minimum clear opening shall have a width not less than 820 mm and a height
of 1.0 m
The bottom of the opening should not be more than 820 mm from the floor;

Where storm shutters, screens or iron grilles are used, these shall be provided
with quick opening mechanism so that they can be readily opened from the inside
for emergency egress and shall be so designed that when opened they will not
drop to the ground
All areas immediately outside a fire exit window/ grille must be free of obstacles
and must lead to a direct access down into the ground or street level.

2.2.6.

Artificial Ventilation

Rooms or spaces housing heating equipment shall be provided with artificial means of
ventilation to prevent excessive accumulation of hot and/or polluted air. Whenever
artificial ventilation is required, the equipment shall be designed to meet the following
minimum requirements in air changes as shown in Table E-3 hereafter.

Table E-3

Workshop/ laboratory and offices - 12.0 cum of air space per person; and
Habitable rooms - 14.0 cum of air space per person.

Window Openings

Rooms intended for any use, not provided with artificial ventilation system, shall be
provided with a window or windows with a total free area of openings equal to at
least 10% of the floor area of the room, provided that such opening shall be not less
than 1.0 sqm. However, toilet and bath rooms, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall
E-5

Minimum Sizes and Dimensions of Rooms

E.2.2.5

Eaves, canopies, awnings (or media agua) over required windows shall not be less
than 750 mm from the side and rear property lines.

One off-RROW (off-street) passenger loading space that can accommodate two (2)
queued jeepney/ shuttle slots; or two (2) queued bus slots whichever is applicable.

Habitable rooms provided with artificial ventilation shall have ceiling heights not less
than 2.4 m measured from the floor to the ceiling. The 2004 IRR of the NBCP further
provides that for buildings of more than one (1) storey, the minimum ceiling height of
the first storey shall be 2.7 m and that for the second storey, it shall be 2.4 m. The
succeeding stories (above the 2nd storey) shall have an unobstructed typical headroom clearance of not less than 2.1 m above the finished floor. Enclosed spaces with
natural ventilation shall have ceiling heights of not less than 2.7 m while mezzanine
levels shall have a clear ceiling height of not less than 1.8 m above and below it.

Has one of the longer sides at least 65% open and unobstructed

Minimum Ceiling Heights at Buildings

Has a ceiling height of not less than 2.7 m

One (1) car slot for every 500.0 sqm of GFA or fraction thereof.

The minimum sizes of rooms and their least horizontal dimensions shall be as follows:

E.2.2.4

Abuts a court, yard, public street or alley, or open watercourse and other public
open spaces

Minimum Requirements for Air Changes


Cubic Meter (CuM)
Per Minute
Per Person
(examples)

Air Changes Per Hour


Ceiling Height
(meters)

Min.

Max.

2.4

3.0

3.7

4.9

6.1

Cafeteria

0.43

0.57

4-

3-

2-

1-

Chapel

0.14

0.22

1-

Shop, Retail

0.22

0.29

1-

Office

0.29

0.43

2-

1-

Cafeteria Kitchen

0.34

0.43

3-

1-

E-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Source: Table VIII.4 of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP

E.2.2.7

Utility meter centers shall not be obstructed or altered and the maintenance of utility
meter centers shall be conducted by authorized personnel only.

For other rooms or spaces not specifically covered in Table E-3, the applicable
provisions of the pertinent referral code/s apply.

Building Modifications

No building/ structure shall be modified to the point where it detracts from the visual
harmony of the schooling community.

E.2.2.10

No lumber, metals or other bulk materials shall be kept, stored or allowed to


accumulate on any part of the development except during limited/ permitted periods
during construction or alteration.

Additions and alterations shall only be in the same architectural style as the original
building/ structure. Additional building materials and color, on the exterior face, shall
be similar to the existing building/ structure. Roof slope and/ or parapet construction
shall likewise match those at the pre-existing building/ structure.

No machinery or equipment shall be stored or operated upon any part of the


development unless necessary and customary for the ordinary use of the property or
for limited construction or alteration work.

All building modifications must be approved by the DPWH Administrator, including


repainting, which must still comply with the prescribed/ original color scheme/s.

Roof or gutters of building additions shall not be drained onto neighbouring parcels.

E.2.2.8

Retaining walls (if provided) shall not be altered, demolished, or changed by building
additions. Walls for building additions shall have proper structural foundation, such as
cantilever footings or grade beams, independent from that of the retaining wall.

Trash and Recycling

No person, including any of the end-users and visitors, shall dump refuse on any part
of the property, except in the designated areas for such material/ refuse.

No weeds, rubbish, debris, objects or materials of any kind shall be placed or


permitted to accumulate within the development.

Garbage and recycling materials shall be placed in covered containers only, preferably
out of public view. Waste shall be segregated by using separate trash containers for
biodegradable and non-biodegradable trash. Trash collection and handling shall be
conducted according to or higher than local standards and will be contracted by the
Building Owner.

Storage

Front and optional side yard areas visible to the public shall not be used for storage of
any form. Personal property shall be stored completely out of public view.

DPWH-permitted additions and alterations to buildings/ structures shall strictly


conform to the intent of these DGDG.

Building additions (if and only if applicable) shall preferably not be constructed at the
front yard area but shall be encouraged at the rear yards, provided no violations of the
minimum standards prescribed under the 2004 Revised IRR of the NBCP are made.

Groundwater wells shall preferably not be constructed within the development.


Rainwater collection devices shall be preferably maintained but kept completely out
of public view.

E.2.3

Generator sets shall be pre-approved by the Building Designers before any installation
commences. The appropriate pollution control or mitigation devices should be
provided i.e. noise and air pollutants, etc.

Road Rights-of-Way (RROWs)/ Streets and Legal Easements

Within the BUILDING sites, the generated RROWs shall constitute the primary free
access zone i.e. where all users (pedestrians and vehicles) may pass for ingress/
egress purposes (intra-property and extra-property movements/ circulation).

The RROW is essentially made up of three (3) parts i.e. the carriageway (or roadway)
on which vehicles pass, and which usually take up to 2/3 of the RROW width, the
sidewalk on which pedestrians pass, and which usually take up to 1/3 of the RROW
width, and the curb and gutter assembly, which acts as the transition between the
carriageway (at a lower surface elevation) and the sidewalk (at a higher surface
elevation).
The RROW/ street areas extend throughout all the three (3) identifiable physical
development levels of the RROW i.e. grade (street) level, below grade (under the
surface of the street) and above grade (above the surface of the street), more properly
defined as follows:

Composting of contained and inoffensive kitchen and yard waste is encouraged only if
space can be made available. Approved composting devices shall be maintained
completely out of public view e.g. at the well-ventilated green roof (if introduced).
E.2.2.9

The burning of trash and refuse is absolutely prohibited under law.

Utilities

To avoid interference with utility and wastewater lines and surface water drainage,
future excavations onsite shall not exceed 0.30 m in depth.

E-7

RROW ABOVE GRADE - refers to the portion of the RROW reckoned from the
finished surface of the carriageway and/or the sidewalk/ arcade all the way up to
the air; if this level of the RROW is utilized for whatever purpose, it is the air rights
that come into play; the minimum clear height for the utilization of air rights
above RROW shall be 4.27 m from the finished crown elevation of the
carriageway;

RROW AT GRADE - refers to the portion of the RROW reckoned from the natural
grade line (NGL) up to the finished surface of the carriageway and/ or the
sidewalk/ arcade; this portion of the RROW is generally utilized for the movement
of the general public (motorists and pedestrians alike); and

E-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.2.3.1

RROW BELOW GRADE - refers to the portion of the RROW reckoned from the
finished surface of the carriageway and/or the sidewalk all the way down into the
ground.

Allowed or Encouraged Structures/ Developments Within the RROW/ Street

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.2.3.3

E.2.3.2

Vehicular transportation and ambulant pedestrian-related structures and like


uses whether temporary or permanent e.g. Carriageway, sidewalk, street furniture
such as waiting sheds, traffic outposts, streetlamps/ signages and their support
structures, barriers, planterboxes and the like;

Limited commercial structures/ uses above grade (RROW air rights utilization) or
below grade, provided that these are ancillary or supplementary/ complementary
to the transportation/ pedestrian-related structures/uses allowed in the previous
paragraph, and the like;
Improvements on the RROW and on all building components/ elements found at
all building physical levels e.g. Sidewalks, carriageway, arcades and medians (only
if introduced), planting strips, street furniture, elevated or underground crossings
or access-ways, and the like; and

Utility/ service structures/uses (power, water, drainage, sewerage,


telecommunications, gas, etc.) at all physical levels of the RROW provided that
these do not restrict nor impede the movement of people and vehicles and
provided further that the rights to utilize the portions of the RROW are properly
secured and permitted by the Building Administrator.

Disallowed or Prohibited Structures/ Developments at the RROW/ Street

The RROW is part of the public domain within a building site, which should be equally
enjoyed by all end-users; as such, the RROW is not to be used for the following types of
buildings/ structures/ occupancies or others similar to them:

E-9

Any form of semi-permanent/ permanent or semi-enclosed/ enclosed commercial


structure/ use and like structures/uses not specifically permitted by the Building
Administrator.

Any form of temporary, semi-permanent/ permanent or semi-enclosed/ enclosed


residential structure/use and like structures/uses not specifically permitted by
the Building Administrator.

Long-term or overnight vehicle parking i.e. Unless duly permitted by the Building
Administrator.
As a depository of stalled or abandoned vehicles, mechanical devices and the like,
which shall be removed upon instruction by the Building Administrator.

The conduct of non-institutional activities deemed incompatible with the


character of the RROW and of the building site.
Unauthorized recreational or entertainment usage and the like which will only
benefit certain entities and which will ultimately result in inconvenience/
nuisance/ safety problems to the other end-users, nor

Preservation of View Corridors and/or Sight Lines

The RROW at all BUILDING physical levels may only be used for the following types of
structures/ uses or others similar to them, to wit:

E.2.3.4

Any other form of private use, gain, enjoyment or profit at the expense of the
motoring or walking public.
The carriageway/ roadway portion of the RROW shall be free of structures,
particularly from commercial signs that will impede the view corridor and sight
lines within the RROW.

View corridors or sight lines from buildings/ structures on a higher or lower lot
shall not be entirely blocked by the intervening buildings to allow sight lines to
exist.
In case of allowed structures within the RROW for transportation or ambulant
mobility e.g. elevated or ramped crossings/ overpass and the like, the appropriate
designs shall be adopted to maximize light, ventilation and view.

Sidewalks

Subject to existing laws and regulations, the local planning authority shall be
optionally consulted in the determination as to which RROW/ street (particularly at
the building site perimeters) shall have an open sidewalk or an arcaded (or covered)
sidewalk, or a combination of both.

The minimum width of the sidewalk for a RROW width of 9.0 m or more shall be 1.2 m
on each side of the RROW or a total of 2.4 m on both sides of the RROW. For the
minimum width of sidewalk for RROW of less than 9.0 m wide (if introduced),
reference Table VIII.G.3 of Rule VIII of the 2004 IRR of the 1977 NBCP.
Sidewalk widths shall be based on the following considerations:

Volume of pedestrians (regular/ periodic end-users, visitors and the like) who will
use the sidewalks.

Type, intensity or level of operation and size/ expanse of the allowed uses/
occupancies along the RROW.

Types and volume of street furniture e.g. street lighting and traffic signs/ signal
supports, pedestrian barriers/ aids, etc., and other urban design elements that will
be allowed as permanent fixtures within the width of the sidewalk.
Width of the planting strips (if introduced).

Spatial needs for placements of utility/ service lines underneath the sidewalk and
for utility/service poles.
Compliance with accessibility requirements as stipulated under Batas Pambansa
(B.P.) Blg. 344 (Accessibility Law).

Provisions for commuters e.g. waiting sheds, loading/ unloading areas (as
introduced) and the like.
Provisions for vehicle crossings/ driveways between the carriageway and the
front yards of buildings/ structures or provisions for loading/ unloading
platforms (if allowed/ needed).
Need for introduction of allowed uses/ elements within the sidewalk area only if
there is sufficient sidewalk width e.g. bicycle lanes, jogging lanes and the like.
E-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Climate, light, ventilation, safety, security and overall maintenance of the sidewalk
and all BUILDING surface areas.

a separating strip between the arcaded portion and the open portion of the sidewalk
(reference is also made to Figure VIII.G.16. of the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP).

Sidewalks shall be of uniform width throughout the entire length of the RROW/ street.
The sidewalk width grade and finish of the dominant use/ occupancy along the RROW
shall be generally observed.

Grade of Sidewalks

The width of the sidewalk shall be as follows:

Table E-4

Range of Required Sidewalk and Planting Strip Widths (total at both sides of
RROW) by RROW Width

Road Right-of-Way (RROW) Width

Range of Required Sidewalk Widths


(total at both sides of the RROW)

30.0 m and above

from 1/6 up to 1/4 of RROW width

25.0 - 29.0 m

from 1/6 up to 1/3 of RROW width

20.0 - 24.0 m

from 1/6 up to 1/3 of RROW width

10.0 - 19.0 m

from 1/4 up to 1/3 of RROW width

Below 10.0 m

from 1/4 up to 1/3 of RROW width

Source: Table VIII.G.4 of Rule VIII of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP

The width of the sidewalk shall include both the paved and unpaved (and possibly
planted) portions. (Refer Table E-5).

Table E-5

Minimum Planting Strip Widths by RROW Width

Road Right-of-Way
(RROW) Width

Total Minimum Widths of Planting Strip within RROW


(width per sides of the RROW in meters)

30.0 m & above

1.2 (0.6)

25.0 - 29.0 m

0.6 (0.3)

20.0 - 24.0 m

0.6 (0.3)

10.0 - 19.0 m

0.4 (0.2)

Below 10.0 m

Optional

Source: Table VIII.G.5 of Rule VIII of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ 1977 NBCP

For allowed, disallowed and prohibited structures/ developments within the RROW,
refer to Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of these DGDG.
The sidewalk pavement shall have a non-slip surface and shall slope down from the
building line towards the curb line at not more than 1/50 and shall level off with the
curb (reference is also made to Figure VIII.G.14. of the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977
NBCP).

Sidewalks of 2.0 m or more in width shall include a planting strip of not less than 800
mm in width up to a maximum of 1/3 of the allowed sidewalk width, separating the
curb from the sidewalk pavement. For wider RROWs (where vehicle speeds are
faster), the planting strip must always be near the curbline to protect the ambulant
pedestrian (reference is also made to Figure VIII.G.15. of the 2004 Revised IRR of the
1977 NBCP).
Combined open and arcaded sidewalks shall be provided with a planting strip of not
less than 800 mm in width up to a maximum of 1/3 of the allowed sidewalk width, as

E-11

E.2.4

Sidewalks shall, as much as possible, be level and of uniform grade throughout the
entire length of the RROW/ street.

Whenever the slope of the street does not exceed 1/12 the sidewalk grade shall
follow the level or slope of the RROW/ street (reference is also made to Figure
VIII.G.17. of the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP).

Whenever the slope of the street is 1/10, the sidewalk shall be maintained level
for every 20.0 to 40.0 m of run (reference is also made to Figure VIII.G.18. of the
2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP).

Sidewalks of different levels shall be joined by means of a ramp having any


convenient slope not exceeding 1/6 (reference is also made to Figure VIII.G.18. of
the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP).

When the grade of two (2) connecting sidewalks are between 1/10 and 1/8, the 2
sidewalks shall be joined by means of a ramp having any convenient slope not
exceeding 1/10.

No BUILDING/ structure shall be constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access to a


public space, yard or RROW/ street on at least one (1) of BUILDING sides. All
BUILDINGS/ structures shall face a RROW/ street which has been duly approved by
the proper authorities.

Miscellaneous Guidelines

No activities in the designated front yard areas (including porches and decks if
introduced) shall compromise or detract from the decidedly institutional character of
the development. The Building Administration shall be primarily responsible for
creating a list of specifically prohibited activities.

Unless specifically permitted, restricted and monitored by the Building


Administration, no business or commercial activity shall be conducted within the
BUILDING sites, particularly if such activity will result in or involve exterior
advertising (i.e. signs, non-mobile billboards/ NMBs/ electronic displays/ mobile
billboards mounted on vehicles, etc.), increased traffic or parking, significant
deliveries and/ or shipments or external storage of commercial goods.

Dangerous, noxious, and offensive activities are absolutely prohibited within the
BUILDING sites. Activities causing unreasonable or continuing annoyance or nuisance
to the BUILDING end-users are similarly prohibited. The Building Administration shall
define these.

Unless forming part of carefully considered and proposed engineering interventions,


changes to the artificial/ future surface water drainage patterns on-site are
prohibited. Adjacent properties shall be protected from surface run-off from the
building site. Drainage of site and structure run-off shall be directed to the nearest
RROW/ street or other appropriate channeling/ discharge/ collection devices.

All grounds surrounding buildings and structures shall be maintained in such a


manner as to prevent or minimize the risk of fire and other dangers to the BUILDING
E-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

sites, as well as the neighboring parcels. This includes landscaping maintenance,


including tree-trimming, removal of dry or high grass and removal of dead tree limbs.

observer. The Building Administrator shall develop procedures for such required
dispute resolutions in full accordance with R.A. No. 9285 (The Alternative Dispute
Resolution Act of 2004) and its IRR. Should such a process fail, the Building
Administrator shall then officially endorse the dispute to the concerned purok/ sitio
and barangay having jurisdiction over the BUILDING sites, for additional mediation.

Respect the Rights of Others. All end-users and visitors are enjoined to fully respect
other entities rights to enjoy and to make full use of public amenities by using
common courtesy and good judgment at all times.

Landscaping Treatment and Maintenance. The Building Administrator shall be


responsible for the maintenance of all landscaping elements onsite, including
vegetation, paving, decorative items, fountains, etc. No person shall remove any
landscaping element nor add any element to the designated public/ common areas,
unless permitted by the Building Administrator.

Parking and Vehicles. Parking on any designated on-street parking areas is


permitted only during operating hours. Parking in landscaped or other areas not
intended for vehicle use is absolutely prohibited. Vehicles violating parking
requirements will be subject to immediate towing at the vehicle owner's expense.
Washing, maintenance, and repair of motor vehicles are prohibited onsite.

Animals and Pets. Household pets (dogs, cats, etc.) may be allowed onsite subject to
control by their owner. Owners must clean up after their pets. Pet owners shall be
liable to other end-users and visitors of the building for any harm and/ or damage to
persons or property caused by pets.

E.2.4.2

Penalties and Fine System for Violation/s of These DGDG: The Building
Administrator shall formulate a system of notifying, charging and collecting fines for
violations of these DGDG or for the assignment of penalties (including waiver of rights
to access to and/or use of facilities onsite) for continued or repeated violations of
these DGDG.

Update and Revision of These DGDG (on a Need Basis)

The Building Administrator may periodically update and revise these DGDG on an
absolute need basis. Thereafter, sufficient notices shall be furnished all parties
concerned before the updated/ revised DGDG can take effect.

Firearms and Weapons. No firearms or other weapons (including dangerous


recreational items such as real bow and arrows) shall be used or brought onsite
except by authorized law officers, which includes the BUILDINGs security services.

Utilities. The Building Owner shall be responsible for maintaining or contracting for
the maintenance of all utilities and utility structures and facilities. No public access
shall be provided or allowed to any utility structure or facility.

Access to Public Facilities. All end-users and visitors must present a valid
identification card or similar device for entry and use of designated common facilities
wherever controlled access is enforced. A limited number of guests (to be determined
by the Building Administrator or facility management) may use the common facilities
if accompanied by an authorized entity.

Hours of Operation and Use. The Building Administrator shall determine the hours
for use of the public facilities onsite. Use of these facilities during non-operating hours
is prohibited.

Facility-Specific Rules. Particular public facilities onsite e.g. chapel (if introduced),
etc. may develop rules specific to their use and operation. These rules shall be posted
in full public view and shall be considered part of the DGDG. The Building
Administrator shall approve such rules and any future amendments.

E.2.4.1

Personal Items. All end-users and visitors shall remove all personal belongings when
leaving the designated public areas onsite.

Administration

Dispute Resolution Among End-users and Visitors: The Building Administrator


shall serve as either a conciliatory or mediating body to settle onsite disputes. In a
conciliation mode, the Building Administrator shall actively participate in seeking a
resolution to the dispute. In a mediation mode, the Building Administrator shall allow
the parties to resolve the dispute and simply act as a facilitator, recorder and
E-13

E-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Physical Planning Guidance

These guidance for physical planners, designers, constructors and developers define
the type and intensity of land use for public school developments such as those
envisioned for the BUILDING sites. These are meant to be the minimum requirements
such that the expected standard is met. The BUILDINGs technical team will have to
define their specific goals, or development characteristics, in each particular case, in
accordance with their expectations and development strategies. However, the
resulting specifications should never go below the minimum standards under these
physical planning and design guidance.

E.3.1

E.3.1.1

Nevertheless, and in order not to restrain, or even prevent possible creative or


innovative inputs by the physical planners/ designers, the guidance is not to be taken
as rigid rules, but rather as having a considerable degree of latitude and allowing
interpretation and adjustment to specific situations and site conditions, which must all
be fully compliant with the dictates of law. It will be up to the physical planning/
design authority to ascertain the adequacy, acceptability or even quality of the
particular proposals assuming the same depart from the base criteria/ considerations.

E.3.1.3

Site Development Guidance

Site development planning (SDP) and design standards must be institutionalized, as


described in the succeeding sections. Guidance that are applicable to proposed public
school facility planning as well as to general developments and to environmentallysensitive areas help ensure a functional, safe and attractive environment for the
building and grounds end-users and visitors.

E.3.1.4

Site Development Standards

There are several types of specific standards that are applicable to the controlled
development of institutional facilities. These standards typically include:

E.3.1.2

Development density
Building height

Building setbacks from amenity features, rows and other buildings/ structures

Floor to lot area ratio (FLAR)

Site coverage i.e. Percentage of site occupancy (PSO) by buildings and other
structures
Parking requirements

Other requirements, such as those for landscaping and open space, public access
to amenity features, signs and utility lines.

Establishing Site Development Guidelines

The exact requirements for the site development guidelines shall vary depending on
the intended character of the public school development and on the environmental
situation, although there is a generally accepted range of requirements.

E.3.1.5

Site Coverage: the percentage of the site area that may be occupied by buildings/
structures at ground level (referred to as the PSO under the 2004 Revised IRR of
the 1977 NBCP which took effect 01 May 2005).

Building Height: measured both in numbers of storeys and height in meters (m)
and related to location, existing built environment and natural features; further
restrictions are imposed on the proportion of building volume that may reach the
maximum height expressed as a percentage of the total building floor area
(referred to as Maximum Volume of Building/ MVB and partly referred to under
Floor to Lot Area Ratio or FLAR under the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP);
this regulation is partly intended to promote variety in the building volumes.

Car Parking: reference the minimum parking regulations under the 2004 Revised
IRR of the 1977 NBCP for mixed-use developments or for specific building
occupancies forming such developments.

Setbacks and Easements: reference the provisions of both the 1949 (1954) New
Civil Code and the 1977 NBCP and its 2004 Revised IRR.

Density

Density refers to the number of end-users or buildings/ structures per hectare (ha.),
which determines to a great extent the overall character of the development.

Building Heights

The maximum allowable heights of buildings greatly influence the character of an


institutional development due to the visibility of taller buildings. If a very natural site
appearance is desired, the BUILDINGS could be limited to three (4) or even up to five
(5) fully functional levels, combined with larger building footprints coupled with
generous open space and landscaping. Taller buildings will create a more urban
character of development, although, if combined with ample open space and
landscaping, taller buildings can be widely acceptable in a high density institutional
environment (and possibly even on reclaimed land, if not for cost and ROI
considerations). The BUILDINGS shall require elevators to move large numbers of
passengers and heavy/ very heavy furniture and equipment, which entails additional
costs for installation and maintenance.
Building Setbacks

The setbacks or minimum distances required of main buildings from amenity features,
RROWs and other buildings, are important to maintain a sense of openness and
sufficient space for landscaping, privacy of building occupants, and in some cases for
safety and security reasons. Adequate setbacks are particularly necessary for several
reasons:

Protection of buildings and their foundations from any perceivable damage.

Allowance of adequate space from the RROW for public access and recreational
use by end-users/ visitors.

Key Planning Factors:


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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.3.1.6

E.3.1.7

E.3.1.8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Floor to Lot Area Ratio (FLAR)


Floor Area Ratio (FAR), also referred to as the Floor to Lot Area Ratio (FLAR) under
the 2004 Revised IRR of the NBCP, is a measure of the intensity of development, and
refers to the ratio between the total floor area of all storeys/ levels of all the buildings
and the total site area of the DPWH properties (or total lot area/ TLA in the case of
individual buildings). The FLAR is calculated by dividing the generated gross floor
area (GFA) by the area of the site (or of the individual lot) and is expressed as a
percentage (%).

E.3.1.10

Site Coverage

The site coverage by buildings and structures, also referred to as the PSO under the
2004 IRR of the 1977 NBCP, is likewise indicated as a percentage (%), and is an
important development control on the amount of impervious surface limit i.e. not
penetrable by surface/ rain water, landscaped areas and open space within the
development.

E.3.1.11

Provisions in full accordance with the 2004 IRR of the 1977 NBCP should be made for
sufficient off-street parking to handle all vehicles, including parking/ layover/ waiting
spaces for staff/ end-users/ visitors at the defined peak period use, so that the
RROWs/ streets shall not become congested with parked/ waiting/ queued vehicles. A
special provision for larger spaces may need to be made for the parking of special
vehicles/ conveyances. The specific requirements for off-street parking will vary
greatly, depending on the location, building type and intended occupancies/ usage of
the component developments onsite.

E.3.1.9

A green roof may be introduced atop the BUILDINGS (if provided with deck roof
levels) to replace the natural ground/ vegetation lost to building footprinting. Such a
green roof may be a combination of hardscaping i.e. walks, paths, squares, railings,
barriers, landscaping furniture, lighting, plant/ soil and water holders/ structures/
E-17

E.3.1.12

Landscaping and Green Roof

In addition to the site coverage requirement, it is common practice to also require that
a minimum amount of landscaping be developed (including any naturally-occurring
vegetation onsite, as may be applicable), and that landscaping be provided in
otherwise unattractive spaces, including large parking areas, alongside RROWs and
around utility buildings and structures, in order to screen these from view. The
minimum landscaping requirement may also be expressed as a percentage (%) of total
site area.

Public Access

Adequate public access should be provided at amenity features and public facilities. In
addition to incorporating public access in the respective master development plans
(MDPs), these can be generally required by regulation, such as the introduction of
public access points to a suitable section set apart at regular distances e.g.
approximately every one thousand meters (1,000.0 m) as a possible maximum in a
developed area.
Sign Controls

Large, unattractive, and inappropriately located signs, whether commercial or


directional, can greatly detract from the appearance/ character of the BUILDING
developments. Sign control standards should be established with respect to their type,
location, size, materials used and lighting. Often, an approach applied is not to allow
any outdoor advertising signs onsite, but only well-designed identification and
directional signs constructed of materials that are compatible with the environment
and that can be discretely lighted at night.

Off-street Parking

For some BUILDING areas, it may be difficult to precisely project parking


requirements, and in fact these requirements may change over time. In these
situations, provision can be made for possible future parking needs by allowing for
vertical parking expansion in appropriate locations, but initially landscaping these as
part of the interim/ initial open space until such time as these may actually be needed.
In this manner, an excessively large area is not reserved for parking lot development,
but sufficient parking spaces will be made available for possible future use. Parking
areas of any type should be well landscaped and must fit into the overall environment
of the intended development.

containers, and the like plus softscaping i.e. soil, water, vegetation, trees and the like. A
portion of the green roof may be assigned for composting to create fresh garden soil
or for activities such as vermiculture, hydrophonics within or near a mini-greenhouse
setting. The bulk of the created spaces at the green roof may serve a variety of social
functions and amenity-related uses.

E.3.2

In the event that the DPWH officially permits the mounting of non-mobile billboards
(NMBs)/ electronic displays on any of the sides of the BUILDINGs exterior surfaces,
these must be fully compliant with the latest valid and subsisting issuances of the
DPWH and its NBO, particularly on the sizing and mounting of such NMBs at any point
or elevation onsite as well as the satisfaction of the minimum requirements for natural
light and ventilation both inside and outside the BUILDING (refer to Section 6. of this
DGDG).
Underground Utility Lines

Overhead electric and telephone lines and their supporting poles are unattractive
elements and disturb views in any environment. Although very high voltage electric
lines are difficult to place underground (particularly at reclaimed areas that still need
to settle over time), the lower voltage distribution lines can still be located
economically underground. Placing utility lines under the natural ground line (NGL) is
initially more expensive but because of lower maintenance costs, may be no more
costly over the long term than overhead lines. In areas prone to occasional high winds
that can topple utility poles and lines (or trees over the lines), underground i.e. below
NGL lines offers additional safety and maintenance advantages.

Civil Works Guidance

As with the other plan/ design disciplines, climatic characteristics establish the basic
factors that need to be taken into account in terms of building grounds and RROW
features related to access and drainage plans/ designs for public school buildings/
grounds sited in a hot-humid tropical climate such as that found in the Philippines
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

(PH). Image should also evolve in the planning stage as a consequence of the physical
and market analyses as each site is unique and hence should be allowed to name and
evolve its own character and image.

The building grounds should be developed to enable all types of end-users to move
around freely and safely. This requires the removal or treatment of site hazards e.g.
abrupt changes in ground elevation, presence of large amounts of running or surface
water, sharp rocks or geologic formations, soft soil and the like. Natural lighting and
ventilation within the grounds and the RROWs, if present/ provided, are requirements
to be fully satisfied but it is equally important to introduce provisions that protect all
end-users from excessive sun, light and heat.

The use of the correct surface colour and texture selection for construction and
finishing materials to balance reflected light and heat is a must. The use of paving
materials that allow surface water percolation is highly encouraged e.g. porous/ welldrained asphalt mixes, smooth stones, paver blocks/ tiles on sand bedding and the
like, except in areas directly above basements.

When choosing between asphalt and concrete pavement, the light and heat absorption
or reflection properties (and ambient heat generated by the material), surface traction
and surface water percolation should become key factors for material choice. Asphalt
pavement if properly founded and well-drained can last up to three (3) decades
without need for major repair, especially for inland locations.

All developments should be sufficiently drained to prevent a host of sanitation/


health-related problems, particularly where stagnant water can be found. Only
properly sized, connected and sloped drainage and sewerage lines must be in place.

E.3.2.1

E.3.2.2

If at all possible, all developments must never interfere with the normal movement of
water/ hydraulics in and around the Project site. Intervention is however encouraged
if damage is caused to the land by excessive water movements e.g. scouring and
erosion.

E.3.2.3

E.3.2.4

E.3.2.5

E.3.2.6

General Engineering Guidelines

Engineering design standards for the Project area should be evolved and established
to ensure that at least minimum infrastructure and construction requirements are met
in designated development areas. In less-developed countries or regions where these
standards have not yet been adopted or exist but are considered unsuitable,
international standards or those of a more developed country can be adopted, adapted
(modified or customized) and/ or applied. The basic types of engineering standards
are reviewed in the following sections.

E.3.2.7

Road Rights-of-Way (RROW)

For inland sites, various categories of RROWs are established based on projected
traffic usage, as well as respective RROW widths and related drainage-ways,
walkways, and landscaping requirements determined. Cross-sections of these various
types of roadways are drawn, and construction and materials specifications are
generally written in conformity to accepted international standards.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.3.2.8

Drainage
In addition to the drainage associated with RROWs, the specifications for other types
of drainage-ways, such as for various sizes of culverts and canals, are to be
established.

Water Supply

Water supply quality standards are evolved and established based on either local
standards, if they are acceptable, or on international standards such as those set by
the World Health Organization (WHO). The source of water supply will of course
depend on local conditions, but standards should be established for the amount of
water required for various activities within an institutional development, the quality
level of the water, water pressure to be maintained, and the specifications of the
distribution system. Water supply standards should include provisions for fire
protection and water conservation techniques.

Electric Power

The source of electric power will also vary from place to place, but standards can be
evolved and established for the amount of power to be available, based on projected
demand, reliability of supply, consistency of voltage, and the specifications for
installation of the distribution system. Any possibilities for utilizing energy
conservation techniques such as solar heating/ power generation should be applied as
much as possible.
Sewage Disposal

The type of sewage disposal system will depend on the scale of development and local
conditions, and may range from the use of septic tanks to large integrated sewage
collection and treatment systems e.g. centralized sewage treatment plan (STP),
although portable compartmentalized STP units are already available in the PH
market. Standards should be evolved and established with respect to the degree of
treatment required - primary, secondary, or tertiary - and the disposal technique of
effluent, based on preventing any pollution. Investigation should be made as to the
potential for recycling sewage effluent, especially in water-deficient areas, for use as
landscaping irrigation water or other domestic or even possible potable use.
Solid Waste Disposal

The type of solid waste disposal will also vary, depending on the local situation, but
standards should likewise be evolved and established to ensure that there is proper
disposal and that the techniques of disposal, such as landfill (if introduced), will not
generate any other pollution problems. Recycling of solid waste should be required to
the greatest extent possible.

Telecommunications

International standards exist that can be applied to the development of internet,


telephone, telegraph/ telex (where still needed/ applicable), radio-telephone,
cellular/ mobile and other means of wireless (or wired) telecommunications.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.3.2.9

E.3.2.10

E.3.2.11

E.3.2.12

E.3.2.13

E.3.3

E-21

Building Construction Standards


Standards and specifications for the construction of public school buildings and other
structures are essential. Usually, these already exist in the area in the form of the 1977
NBCP and its2004 Revised IRR, but should be reviewed to ensure that they are
suitable, including review for public safety and fire protection. For example, sprinkler
systems may now be required for low-rise buildings under R.A. No. 9514, the 2008
Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP) and its 2009 IRR.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

buildings, spaces between buildings, entourage, utilities and movement systems.


Presently, this definition is one of the primary legal basis for interpreting the scope of
urban design in the Philippines.
Urban design quality necessitates addressing the following considerations:

Sanitation and Public Health Standards

Maintaining minimum sanitation and hygiene standards is also essential in


institutional developments, especially for restaurants, bars, and toilet/ bathing
facilities. Usually sanitation standards, in the form of a national or local public health
code (such as The PH Sanitation Code), cover institutional areas but should be
reviewed to make certain that they are adequate.

Public health standards also relate to room size, ventilation, and fenestration (door,
window or other natural light and/ or ventilation opening) requirements.
Other Types of Engineering Design Standards

permeability
legibility

quality of the public realm


ease of movement
robustness
diversity

appraisal of context

defining framework within which development will take place

- pattern, grain
- movement

- legibility, landmarks, views


- blocks and plots

Engineering-related Safety and Security Standards

- density and form


- mixing uses

- landscaping

connecting the development to movement and utilities (traffic management,


parking etc.)
designing the details that make the place a unique place

- public realm
- massing

Operations and Management Guidelines

Good planning and design of a public school development is only as good as the
operation and management of the facility. Sustainable development requires an
ongoing environmental management program (EMP) that covers environmental
awareness, good practice, staff training, visitor education and environmental
monitoring and evaluation procedures.

continuity and enclosure

The four (4) basic urban design elements are:

Other types of engineering design considerations for institutional developments


include, for example, elevator equipment, mechanized walk/ walkalator systems (if
introduced), and the like, which all require specific standards, especially as related to
operational and safety factors.
Maximum attention must be given to engineering provisions fully addressing safety
and security matters i.e. fire integrity of buildings/ structures, fire protection
provisions and response mechanism (including building floor/ level fire searches and
fire-fighting), incidents/ accidents, natural disaster (earthquake, grass fire, flashflood,
animal attack and the like), crime, medical (including first aid and CPR) and related
emergency responses, telecommunications/ linkages to the proper authorities,
evacuation and the like; monitoring and prevention management devices and
techniques should be well in place when the BUILDING operates.

character

- robustness

- building and open space details

The applicable urban design applications for institutional projects envisioned for the
DPWH properties are:

Urban Design Guidance

What is urban design? The 2004 IRR of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9266 (The
Architecture Act of 2004) defines urban design as the physical and systematic design
undertaken by a State-registered and licensed architect (RLA) on a community and
urban plane, more comprehensive than, and an extension of the architecture of

place markers and directional signage and/or way-finding systems


RROWs including possible arcades

wide open flexible use/ assembly areas and walking spaces


street furniture in urbanized and highly built-up areas
other forms of open public spaces

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.3.3.1

E.3.3.2

Street Furniture Guidelines (where applicable)


The overall quality of any development depends upon all aspects being
sympathetically designed within an overall approach. For example, ill-considered
detail in street furniture e.g. sidewalks/ paths, curb and gutter, railings/ barriers,
benches/ rest furniture, site lighting, directional signage and related way-finding
treatments, driveways, drop-off areas, bus/ mega-taxi/ jeepney stops (outside the
property line), etc. can impact unfavorably upon the overall impression of the Project.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.4

Design/ Post-Design Guidance

E.4.1

Detailed Design Process


If applicable, all aspects of detailed plan/ design preparation for all facilities/
buildings/ structures onsite must conform to the 2004 Revised Implementing Rules
and Regulations (R-IRR, effective 01 May 2005), of Presidential Decree (P.D.) No.
1096 otherwise known as the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines
(NBCP) and its approximately twenty (20) referral codes (RCs, particularly R.A. No.
9514/ 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines and B.P. Blg. 344/ the Accessibility Law),
which should be familiar to most Philippine physical planners, architects, engineers
and designers, who shall necessarily assume the attendant professional responsibility
and civil liability for the projects onsite.

Signs and Information Panels

Signage should not dominate or block views and is more effective if a simple, easy to
read design is used and the chosen materials and colors blend in with the natural
setting. Outdoor displays are a good way to introduce the end-user/ visitor to the
introduced flora in the Project area.

However, if the guidelines and standards under this document or its subsequent
iterations may in effect supplant/ complement/ supplement the absent, unexplained,
insufficient or conflicting provisions under the NBCP and its 2004 Revised IRR, insofar
as the physical planning and design of the proposed facilities/ buildings/ structures
onsite are concerned, the same shall be fully complied with, particularly if the same
are more stringent than the minimum standards prescribed by the NBCP.

Lighting should be chosen to emphasize moods, themes and create a relaxed


atmosphere e.g. the use of the night-time sky can be dramatic. However, light
intrusion and over-lighting glare can obscure what little night vision is available. Care
is therefore required to limit night lighting to the minimum necessary for safety. Light
fixtures should remain close to the ground to minimize eye level glare.

E.4.1.1

Established principles for creating sustainably-planned/ designed, green architecture


(GA)-oriented and tropical design-oriented solutions are also strongly suggested for
adoption into detailed designs for all facilities and buildings/ structures onsite.

Detailed Design Documentation

The minimum design documentation for public school projects are as shown
hereafter:
Pre-Design Documents which may include the following:

E-23

The identification or confirmation (in case a master development plan/ MDP had
already been prepared) of land (and available water) uses and access systems and
the cross-effects between these and the proposed horizontal and vertical
developments, on-site analyses on the physical characteristics and development
potentials of the Project site, the proposed environmental design elements
(including those that will define movement/ access/ privacy/ security, future
access/ expansion), compliance with existing site master planning and design
guidelines for institutional estate developments, national building laws e.g.
concerning the delineation of structure footprints and construction areas and
even local development-related ordinances.

In instances where a MDP has already been prepared, the identification or


confirmation of base data on the topography, soil condition, domestic water
sources, drainage capability, flood cycles and levels, existing land use/ activities,
existing utilities, access points and road rights-of-way (RROWs), rights-of-way
(ROWs)/ legal easements, Philippine sun-path, solar angle and prevailing wind
orientations, view orientation and sight lines, visual quality, environmental
quality, climate and possible volcanic/ seismic activity/ fault-line locations, etc.

In instances where a MDP has already been prepared, the identification or


confirmation of data needed to fully comply with institutional-related planning
and design guidelines/ laws/ ordinances to finalize siting, orientation,
E-24

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

configuration, sizing and clustering of the proposed development components, to


specify view corridors that will maximize privacy and security within each
development, to specify the appropriate structures and materials to make the
built environment earth-friendly and end-user-friendly, to specify the types of
plants suitable to the place, to specify site civil works, etc.

Pre-Design Documents for the horizontal and vertical development components


of the Project in accordance with the stipulations of the pertinent Standards of
Professional Practice (the SPP, effective March 2011) documents promulgated
by the Philippine Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) as part of the
Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9266,
otherwise known as the Architecture Act of 2004, and covering such
professional responsibilities and deliverables as spatial and building program,
architectural program, initial project cost determination, design briefs, etc., which
altogether constitute the bases for design.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The necessary reportage and work phase documentation.

Conceptual plans and designs for the horizontal and vertical development
components of the Project in full accordance with the stipulations of the pertinent
SPP documents (effective March 2011 and thereafter) promulgated by the PRC as
part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266, and covering such professional responsibilities
and deliverables as the schematic architectural/ space, supportive engineering
and allied plans/ layouts, initial plan and design analyses, budgetary cost estimate
of the Project development cost, etc.; and

- Floor Plans drawn to scale of not less than 1:100 m showing: gridlines,
complete identification of rooms or functional spaces.

- Elevations, at least four (4), same scale as floor plans showing: gridlines;
natural ground to finish grade elevations; floor to floor heights; door and
window marks, type of material and exterior finishes; adjoining existing
structure/s, if any, shown in single hatched lines.

Preliminary plans and designs for the horizontal and vertical development
components of the Project in full accordance with the stipulations of the pertinent
SPP documents (effective March 2011 and thereafter) promulgated by the PRC as
part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266 and covering such professional responsibilities
and deliverables as the preliminary architectural/ space, supportive engineering
and allied plans/ layouts, outline specifications, revised budgetary cost estimate of
the Project development cost, etc.

Contract Documents (or their official equivalents) which may include the following:

E-25

Detailed plans and designs for the horizontal and vertical development
components of the Project in full accordance with the stipulations of the pertinent
SPP documents (effective March 2011 and thereafter) promulgated by the PRC as
part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266, and covering such professional responsibilities
and deliverables as detailed architectural/ space, supportive engineering and
allied plans/ layouts and the attendant technical specifications (all signed and
sealed by duly-qualified and suitably-experienced registered and licensed
professionals/ RLPs registered and licensed by the PRC in compliance with the
pertinent professional regulatory laws/ PRLs), schedules of materials and
finishes, final or detailed cost estimate of the Project development cost, tender

Vicinity Map/ Location Plan within a 2.0 kilometer radius for commercial,
industrial, and institutional complex and within a half-kilometer radius for
residential buildings, at any convenient scale showing prominent landmarks or
major thoroughfares for easy reference.

- Perspective drawn at a convenient scale and taken from a vantage point (birds
eye view or eye level).

The necessary reportage and work phase documentation.

The necessary reportage and work phase documentation.

Architectural Plans/ Drawings

- Site Development Plan (SDP) showing technical description, boundaries,


orientation and position of proposed building/structure in relation to the lot,
existing or proposed access road and driveways and existing public utilities/
services. Existing buildings within and adjoining the lot shall be hatched and
distances between the proposed and existing buildings shall be indicated.

Design Development Documents (or their official equivalents) which may include
the following:

In the case of architectural documents as defined under PH law and international


practice i.e. architectural plans, designs, drawings, details, specifications,
schedules, reportage and contract documents, R.A. No. 9266 and its IRR specify
that only registered and licensed architects (RLAs) shall prepare, sign and seal
such architectural documents.

Sec. 302.4 of the 2004 Revised IRR of the NBCP enumerates architectural documents
as follows:

Schematic Design Documents (or their official equivalents) which may include the
following:

documents, supportive engineering analyses, bid bulletins including schedules of


material suppliers, official forms for permitting purposes, etc.

- Sections, at least two (2), showing: gridlines; natural ground and finish levels;
outline of cut and visible structural parts; doors and windows properly labeled
reflecting the direction of opening; partitions; built-in cabinets, etc.;
identification of rooms and functional spaces cut by section lines.

- Reflected ceiling plan (RCP) showing: design, location, finishes and


specifications of materials, lighting fixtures, diffusers, decorations, air
conditioning exhaust and return grills, sprinkler nozzles, if any, at scale of at
least 1:100 m.

Details, in the form of plans, elevations/sections:

- Accessible ramps
- Accessible stairs

- Accessible lifts/elevators

- Accessible entrances, corridors and walkways


- Accessible functional areas/comfort rooms
- Accessible switches, controls

- Accessible drinking fountains


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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

- Accessible public telephone booths

- Detail design of major architectural interior elements.

- Accessible audio visual and automatic alarm system

- Plan and layout of interior, wall partitions,


equipment/appliances at a scale of at least 1:100 m.

- Accessible access symbols and directional signs

furnishing,

furniture,

- Typical wall/bay sections from ground to roof

- Interior wall elevations showing: finishes, switches, doors and convenience


outlets, cross window sections with interior perspective as viewed from the
main entrance at scale of at least 1:100 m.

- Fire escapes/exits

- List of materials used.

- Reserved parking for disabled persons


- Stairs, interior and exterior

- Floor/ceiling/wall patterns and finishing details.

- Built-in cabinets, counters and fixed furniture


- All types of partitions

Schedule of Doors and Windows showing their types, designations/marks,


dimensions, materials, and number of sets.

Schedule of Finishes, showing in graphic form: surface finishes specified for


floors, ceilings, walls and baseboard trims for all building spaces per floor level.

Details of other major Architectural Elements.

Figure E-1

- Cost Estimates.

Plans and specific locations of all accessibility facilities of scale of at least 1:100 m.

Detailed design of all such accessibility facilities outside and around buildings/
structures including parking areas, and their safety requirements all at scale of
1:50 m or any convenient scale.
Fire Safety Documents

- Layout plan of each floor indicating the fire evacuation route to safe dispersal
areas, standpipes with fire hose, fire extinguishers, first aid kits/cabinets, fire
alarm, fire operations room, emergency lights, signs, etc.

STANDARD FORM (Type A0, A1, A2 and A3) FOR BUILDING PLANS/
CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS Figure III.1.(of the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977
NBCP)

- Details of windows, fire exits with grilled windows and ladders.

- Details of fire-resistive construction of enclosures for vertical openings.

- Details of fire-resistive construction materials and interior decorative materials


with fire-resistive/ fire-retardant/ fire-spread ratings
- Other Related Documents

E.4.2

- Other related documents

Post-Design Process

The post-design process shall generally include the following sets of activities:

MODEL TITLE BLOCK for Building Plans/Construction Drawings Figure III.2. (of the 2004 Revised IRR of the
1977 NBCP)

Architectural Interiors/ Interior Design

- Space Plan/s or layout/s of architectural interior/s.


- Architectural interior perspective/s.

- Furniture/ furnishing/ equipment/process layout/s.


- Access plan/s, parking plan/s and the like.
E-27

E.4.3

Pre-construction activities which include other project management work, design


review and modification, contractor pre-qualification, bidding and award/
selection.

Construction activities which include actual construction and finishing works,


construction management.

Post-construction activities which include project documentation, commissioning


works, turnover, acceptance, occupancy.
The necessary reportage and work phase documentation.

Architectural Guidance

Climatic characteristics establish the basic factors that need to be taken into account
in terms of building features related to the architecture of low-/ medium-density
terminal buildings in a hot-humid tropical climate.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Image: This consideration should evolve in the planning stage as a consequence of the
physical and market analysis. Each site is unique and hence should name its own
characteristic image.

or recycled wood are preferred over naturally grown/ harvested tree varieties,
particularly PH hardwoods which are scarce and some species of which are banned
for construction use. The use of alternative construction and finishing materials such
as the CBB or FCB and the like, which use both natural and artificial components, are
also encouraged to avail of their superior material qualities (as compared with some
conventional construction materials).

Building Form, Finishes and Layout: It is accepted that most rooms will be
preferably/ optionally air-conditioned (for indoor climate control) but end-users
should also be able to benefit from outdoor breezes. However, the main objectives are
to encourage breezes to pass through the non-air-conditioned communal/ common
building spaces and outdoor spaces. The orientation and construction of buildings to
exploit the maximum amount of air movement is very important.

The use of imported construction/ finishing materials is only recommended if the


comparative environmental planning/ design value of the material is high to very
high.

Interior/ Architectural Interior (AI): In any mixed-use development facility, and


especially in hot-humid tropical areas such as the PH, the interiors/ AI should be
considered carefully. Major internal spaces are the heart of any facility, being the areas
through which all people move. The treatment of such spaces should reflect a Project's
unique quality.

While natural ventilation is a must, it is equally important to complement it with


sufficient provisions that protect the end-users from excessive sun, light and heat. The
use of the correct exterior color selection to balance reflected light and heat is a must
while the selection of non-traditional building materials that have high to very high
insulating, pest-proofing, fire-resisting, water-repelling and other beneficial
properties is encouraged e.g. wood-wool cement-bonded board (CBB), fiber cement
board (FCB) and the like which come in different densities, textures and finish
preparations.
The broad factors to be observed are:

Major buildings should be designed with relatively open, elongated plan form with
rooms generally distributed in single rows to allow maximum cross ventilation
and penetration of breezes (passive cooling techniques through the floor, walls
and ceiling when and where applicable).

Suggested Architectural Design Objectives

E.4.4.1

General Design Objectives

Projecting canopies or broad overhanging eaves should provide shading to


outdoor sitting and circulation areas shading devices provide both essential
protection and a means to define and articulate architectural characteristics.

High ceilings or use of double roof construction should be used as applicable;


enclosed ceiling cavities, if introduced must either be actively or passively cooled.

Inexpensive insulating and pest-proofing devices for all building elements should
be considered.

Window openings should ideally be considered in relation to sunlight i.e. The


integration of shading devices that minimize direct radiation, reduce sky glare,
permit adequate natural lighting and allow outward views.

Materials: These should reflect the development image, visual context, the Project
site's setting within the area and degree of harmony, or contrast, being sought. Where
possible, properly-treated/ processed local materials, preferably pest-proof and more
importantly, fire-resistant or retardant, should be extensively used.

High quality materials and furniture, roadway, footpath and hard open space surfaces,
shade structures, fencing, walls, lighting, bollards, rails and the like, can make an
immense difference to the quality of the grounds development. The materials and
architectural form can help integrate them with their environment.

General/ overall environmental sustainability is a foremost consideration in base


construction and finishing material selection. Commercially-grown hardwood/
softwood varieties, processed wood products from wood wastes/ debris/ driftwood
E-29

E.4.4

Main public facilities should be accessible from open galleries.

The use of water and water mist/ spray can also be employed to cool the building
environment and its grounds.

Sympathy and Consistency of Detail: The design should evolve from careful study of
the BUILDING Project sites and their surroundings, and once in place, the intent
should be visible and consistent, extending from broad concepts to the choice of
motifs.

E.4.4.2

Cost-effective space planning/ design/ implementation/ startup/ operation/


maintenance.
Good return-on-investment (ROI) for the building owner.

Enhancement of owners image through the creation of an appealing architectural


design solution.

Improvement of the quality of functions, services, circulation and security through


sensitive/ sensible/ practical design and efficient architectural and space
planning.
Enhancement of public areas such as the lobbies, lounges, waiting areas, etc. to
foster better relations with entities being served; improvement of personnel
efficiency of the public school facilities through the betterment of building usage
conditions and environment.

Specific Design Objectives

Optimization of spatial provisions for internal building/ structure circulation/


traffic.
Optimization of space provisions for basic building operational tasks.

Optimization of space provisions for amenities/ facilities/ services/ utilities (the


AFSU).

Balance among end-users, planned spaces and identified activities that shall take
place inside the building/ structure/ facility.
Balance between the building and the natural environment.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Balance between the buildings function and form.

Balance between present and future end-user needs.

Balance between the BUILDINGs strength and economy.

Balance between the user-friendliness of the BUILDING and its grounds/


perimeter areas with overall operations/ upkeep/ maintenance considerations.
Balance between energy efficiency and a good operating environment.

Architectural Design Concepts

E.4.5.1

General Concepts

Since the Project is essentially institutional and supposed to be sited on lots with
optimal sizes and configurations, with projected numbers of future building users and
with the certain possibility of future operational expansion, it may be worth
considering to provide for maximized vertical expansion flexibility, only if
countenanced under existing development controls such as the 2004 Revised IRR of
the 1977 NBCP.

Specific Concern on What the Proposed BUILDING/ Structures Should Have

There are many specific concepts that will be generated by Project consultants for
discussion with the Building Owner, and among these are:

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Balance between the BUILDINGs interior and exterior i.e. Organic design or the
interplay of interior and exterior spaces a preferred spatial and design solution.

E.4.5

E.4.5.2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

The correct physical orientation to achieve maximum indoor climate control and
energy efficiency.

The maximization of operational efficiency indoors and outdoors through the


correct use of materials, lighting, forms, finishes and textures, etc.

Employment of passive cooling/ lighting technology as applicable for both the


buildings and their grounds.

The projected building exterior/ interior images should convey combinations of


strength, stability, efficiency, honesty, nationalism (and possibly even hints of
dedication to civic duty and public service), approachability at all times,
accessibility and possibly even a sense of appreciation for art/ history and culture.

Exterior/ interior areas must use a good mix of light colors for body, and dark
colors for accent to achieve a good measure of climate and psychological control.

If possible, forms should follow lines so that the buildings appearance would not
age easily in terms of aesthetic appeal.
The buildings should all be human in scale and proportion, with the direct
application and judicious mix of both asian and western space planning/
architectural design standards.

Provision of a visitor-friendly and worker-friendly environment i.e. The buildings


and their grounds should be safe and easy to use at all times for people of all ages,
physical capabilities and backgrounds.
Provision of optimum room for future operational expansion and growth.

Maximization of the use of all horizontally, generated spaces through the use of all
available vertical spaces.
Maximization of the use of all horizontally generated spaces by allowing for the
flexibility and multiplicity of space uses.
Generated space plans should reflect considerations of time and motion studies.

Generated space plans must reflect considerations for territoriality i.e. The human
bubble which can be opened or closed depending on the type of activity and the
situations called for.
Generated space plans may either show considerations for the way people tend to
behave inside enclosed/ confined spaces or measures to curb what may be
considered as unproductive/ undesirable behaviour.

Maximization of use of locally available (but of good quality) and/ or imported but
locally-sourced materials to generate cost savings, to facilitate project
implementation, and for ease of upkeep/ maintenance.

Maximization of building and equipment lifecycles through the proper selection/


mix of the necessary components.

Maximization of the use of trees, plants and other soft landscaping elements to
cleanse/ purify the atmosphere at the micro-environment level and to achieve
exterior and interior micro-climate control e.g. Near-ground ambient
temperature/ heat levels caused by heat-/ light-reflective materials.
Optimum to maximum attention given to health and sanitation matters.

Maximum attention given to safety and security matters, particularly the fire
integrity and defensibility of buildings/ structures.

E.4.6

Suggested Architectural Planning and Design Criteria

E.4.6.1

Function
This criterion has to be addressed above all others inasmuch as it pertains to how the
resulting BUILDINGS shall be utilized to realize key Building Owner goals and
objectives. Inasmuch as the Projects are mainly public service-related structures, the
key considerations are:

The types and numbers of end-users.

The types of activities that shall take place within each building by such as official
business, personal transactions, instructional, social, recreational, religious,
commercial.
The quantity/ quality of spaces to be generated, by type.

As all of the foregoing factors are closely interrelated, an exhaustive identification and
analysis of the end-users together with the hierarchy of their needs and activities, as
well as of the optimum spaces required to satisfy these end-user needs/ activities
shall be undertaken by Project consultants to establish and possibly rank or prioritize
all the necessary amenities/ facilities/ services/ utilities (AFSU).

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.4.6.2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Form or Integration of Architectural Design Elements

BUILDINGS. The resulting structure should be safe for everyone to use i.e. including
children, the elderly and the persons with disabilities (PWDs), women, etc.

This criterion pertains to the need to relate existing site/ building conditions with the
planned physical/ social/ psychological environments as well as with the envisioned
quality of generated spaces. Various design elements have to be carefully utilized to
realize the best architectural solution and of these, form is one of the most important.

E.4.6.3

E.4.6.4

The satisfaction of the minimum physical planning and design standards by


compliance with all applicable local and international laws must be observed by all
Project consultants, particularly the State-registered and licensed environmental
planners (the RLEnPs) and the State-registered and licensed architects (RLAs)
who will be held primarily responsible and liable for their respective Project roles
under the concerned PH PRLs and the New Civil Code (1949/ 1954).

Although form is the logical consequence of having initially established the buildings
function/s (which is/ are the primary consideration/s for any building plan/ design),
it shall be qualitatively expressed in terms of lines, scale, proportion, the use of light
and shade, textures, finishes and color. If properly integrated, all of these would
contribute in projecting a very stable and efficient image for the Owner/ Proponent,
which will ultimately redound to each end-user's pride in his/ her abode, recreational
space and/or workplace.

Before getting engaged in local mixed-use projects, foreign or expatriate physical


planning and/ or architectural consultants must secure the necessary permits from
the PRC i.e. a Special/ Temporary Permit (STP) to practice a State-regulated
profession on PH soil, the PH Department of Labor & Employment (DoLE), the Bureau
of Immigration and Deportation (BID), as well as from the PH Department of Foreign
Affairs (DFA).

Adherence to Basic Architectural Design Principles

BUILDINGS should preferably all be "self-contained systems" that shall be planned/


designed to promote health and sanitation, worker efficiency and minimal disturbance
to the natural and built environments.

A judicious mix of the basic architectural design principles of unity of design and of
the use of repetition, rhythm, balance and emphasis should be regularized in support
of the public nature of the proposed BUILDINGs and grounds.

Budget and Economy in Space Planning/ Architectural Design

The availability of funds for planning/ design/ implementation/ startup/ operation/


maintenance will influence all planning/ design options that shall be made available to
the Building Owner by the Project planning or architectural consultant.

E.4.6.5

The satisfaction of the sub-criterion of design economy starts with correct space
planning and this is the reason why this particular component of the Pre-Design
service should be carried out well. Design should only result from careful interior
space planning and site development planning but such good plans can only become
possible with the utmost cooperation of the Owner/ Proponent, the end-users, other
identifiable stakeholders and the host community in general. Therefore, interactive
discussions between the parties and the Project consultants are a must and should be
regularized.

Time Consideration

From the architectural planning/ design viewpoint, this criterion has to do mainly
with the anticipation of future BUILDING use changes, supplementary operational
requirements and expansion potentials all of which would have to be satisfied to
forestall future growth difficulties. A normal planning-design horizon is from 10 - 15
years on a Project life cycle of 25 years.

E.4.6.6

From the Project implementation standpoint, this criterion would mean


considerations such as those that will affect construction phasing and the project
timetable (from pre-construction to occupancy/ startup of the structure).

Safety, Security, Accessibility and Environmental Considerations

These architectural planning/ design criteria must reflect the Project consultants
major concern for the well-being of all identified end-users of the proposed
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E.4.6.7

E.4.7

E.4.7.1

Maximum attention given to architectural provisions fully addressing safety and


security concerns i.e. fire integrity of buildings/ structures, fire protection provisions
and response mechanism (including fire/ floor/ level searches and fire-fighting),
incidents/ accidents (including possible yacht-related events/ occurrences at the
marina), natural disaster (earthquake, tsunami, grass fire, flashflood, animal attack
and the like), crime, medical (including first aid and CPR) and related emergency
responses, telecommunications/ linkages to the proper authorities, evacuation and
the like; monitoring and prevention management devices and techniques should be
well in place when the institutional facilities operate.

Application of Internationally-Recognized Architectural Planning and Design Standards and of


Anthropometrics

In as much as the proposed BUILDINGS shall be accorded a high profile and


international character by virtue of its function, a judicious mix of Filipino, Asian and
Western planning/ design standards shall be applied. Anthropometrics must always
play a key role in making the institutional environment easy and safe to use. The
resultant anthropometrics-based plans/ designs shall ultimately redound to the
attainment of savings and efficiency of operations.

Other Architectural Considerations

Other architectural considerations for the envisioned BUILDINGS shall be as follows:


General Architectural Design

Architectural design guidelines for public service-related facilities must be more


flexible than development standards to allow for the creativity of the Architect/
Designer. However, when a certain design character is desired in an area or
development site, basic guidelines should be established and provided to the
Architects/ Designers for their use in the space planning and design process. These
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

guidelines are also to be used by the approving authorities in their review of the
proposed facility design.

E.4.7.2

Some basic types of guideline considerations are mentioned elsewhere hereafter e.g.
standards on mixed-use facility layouts, room sizes, length of corridors, and other
standards, which are generally available in design reference books on such subjects.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.4.7.6

Local Styles and Motifs

E.4.7.4

E.4.7.7

Use of Local Building Materials

For example, metal roofs and expansive masonry walls generate very hot building
interiors in high temperature environments, leading to increased demand for airconditioning (which is contrary to energy conservation).
Environmental Relationships

Building design should relate to the natural environment. For example, in tropical and
subtropical areas, buildings should incorporate indoor-outdoor (or organic designoriented) relationships through use of open-sided lobbies, patios, and courtyard
gardens. In tropical climates, designing for natural ventilation may preclude the need
for air-conditioning during much of the year but demand for air-conditioned facilities
should never be discounted as the PH is a hot-humid tropical zones i.e. high humidity
E-35

Roof Lines

To the greatest extent possible, local building materials should be utilized, especially if
they relate to the local architectural style (primarily based on functional
considerations), as is often the case with wood or stone construction. Also, the use of
local building materials may be less expensive than imported materials and provides
employment and may provide some measure of possible income for residents of the
host area. Exceptions to this standard are where use of traditional local materials,
even though attractive and functional, may create environmental problems.

E.4.7.5

In some instances, there is a problem of completely integrating the local style due to
differences in scale and function, but usually some local motifs can still be utilized.
Local motifs, including handcrafted materials, can also be incorporated into the
interior decor of the facilities. If no local styles prevail, sometimes a neutral
international but environmentally-oriented style is appropriate, rather than wholly
importing a style from elsewhere that is not related to the area.

The design of roofs (flat, pitched, overhang, etc.) is an especially critical design
element inasmuch as rooflines are very visible for low-rise buildings, and these
greatly influence the character and appearance of the buildings/ structures to be
erected onsite. Rooflines should preferably reflect the local architectural style
(primarily based on functional considerations) and be consistent with the
characteristics of the natural environment.

Design for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)

More emphasis is now being placed on architectural designs for the PWDs (in
compliance with both Batas Pambansa Bilang (B.P.) Blg. 344: The Accessibility Law of
1982 and its IRR and with R.A. No. 7277 (otherwise known as the Magna Carta for
Disabled Persons of 1991) and its IRR, including provisions for the physically
impaired, sensory-impaired, slower moving elderly people, and the mentally impaired.
This design approach is also being extended to end-users who are PWDs. Barrier-free
architectural design should be applied to the envisioned BUILDING and attractions,
with techniques applied such as:

If there are distinctive local, traditional, or historic architectural styles already


developed in the host area/s and environs, these should be incorporated into the
institutional facility designs to the greatest extent possible so that these facilities fit
into the local environment, reinforce the architectural character of the area, and
impart a distinct sense of place to the BUILDING development.

E.4.7.3

levels. Building design should also take advantage of any views fronting the site to
help maximize organic relationships with the host site.

E.4.8

Developing hard, relatively smooth, wide indoor paved surfaces;

Ramped access with automatic door openings or through bars at entrances to


buildings/ structures, and
Restrooms and public telephones designed for use by persons in wheelchairs.

In high ambulatory/ pedestrian traffic areas, vehicular traffic should be well separated
from pedestrian access-ways for safety reasons in general and especially for the safety
of the PWDs. At such areas, presentation techniques should include those that can be
appreciated by the sensory-impaired and mentally impaired, with special programs
organized where relevant.

Design for Gender and Age

Emphasis shall also be placed on design considerations that address various


sensitivities related to gender and age i.e. the physical needs of end-users such as
women, young adults, children, babies and the elderly, particularly as the same relates
to ambulatory activities.

Landscape Architecture Guidance

One of the strongest features for institutional developments is the quality of the
outdoor environment. Successful developments carefully blend landscaping and
architecture to achieve a consistent, unified and unique Project character.
Considerations for institutional developments in particular, include:
Thematic design should be related to the planning and architectural elements of the
facility. For example, the use of boulders (introduced onsite) and local trees can
provide both a sense of enclosure and integration with the existing landscape while
lush courtyards can help extend interior spaces outward.

Each BUILDING development requires some form of appropriate open space which
should be dedicated for the use and enjoyment of all visitors/ end-users. These should
ideally be designed around existing vegetation and landforms. Even the smallest
planting pockets, if well-designed, can offer elements of form, texture, shadows,
fragrances and color. People will enjoy external spaces for passive recreation and
socializing in a sunny/ warm but humid climate if the space is well-shaded and
correctly orientated.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Aside from the foregoing elements, planting/ vegetation can be used for shelter/
shade and reduction of glare. The cost of running air-conditioning can be reduced by
using vegetation to shield roofs and walls from direct sunlight.
Planting can also be used to screen substations and garbage bins, as a barrier to
prevent people straying, to stop soil erosion and stabilize slopes and as a space
definer. The use of naturalized plant species can also reduce water usage.

Xeriscape landscaping is the selection and zoning of plants according to their water
requirements. This design strategy is very cost-effective, as maintenance and watering
are minimized. It is also aesthetically- and ecologically-sound in principle since plants
are selected to harmonize with their environment. Landscaping schemes should
therefore attempt to group plants according to water and maintenance requirements

The selection of material for hard landscapes depends on the purpose. The use of
materials also helps to define changes of use (vehicles/ pedestrians), level, ownership
and approaches to focal points. Attention should be given to color, pattern, noise,
sunlight, heat and maintenance. The appropriate use of water, its sight and sound, can
enrich the enjoyments of the environment and resort facility immensely and be
employed to cool the environment.

Other Landscape Architectural Considerations

Other landscape architecture considerations for the envisioned BUILDING


developments are as described in the following sections.

General Landscaping Design

Generous and suitable landscaping is an essential element in creating an attractive


and interesting public service-related environment and also serves important
functional purposes. Even in urban environments, exterior and interior landscaping
can help create a desired character of the facility. Landscape architecture is concerned
with the relationship and appearance of the total environment, with particular
reference to plants and landscaping features such as water bodies, footpaths, and
outdoor furniture and lighting. Good landscaping attempts to provide unity and
cohesion in the local environment and a sensitive balance between man-made
features and the natural elements.

More specifically, landscaping in public service-related developments involves the


effective use of plant materials and other features for such purposes, according to
certain principles as:

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Creating an attractive setting conducive to relaxation and recreation (even just for
short periods).
Screening objectionable views and providing privacy.

Providing vegetative buffers to absorb unpleasant sounds, smells, and dust.

Arranging plants to provide relief from intense sun glare and rain, as well as to
reduce surface/ ambient temperatures.
Minimizing the effects of high winds, yet still allowing for the flow of gentle
breezes.

Organizing the plant material to complement a landform, to enhance a building


line or facade, to gradually unfold an attractive vista or to frame a major entrance

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

area; in some cases, the plants themselves can be used to provide focal points and
major visual features.

Situating plants in strategic places where they can be best appreciated; many
plants are more attractive if planted in mass and seen from a distance whereas
others must be seen at close range to be fully appreciated.
Arranging and massing trees and shrubs, particularly native flowering species, to
provide dramatic color and textural variation.

Introducing visitors to new species and varieties of plants, especially from the
local area (as applicable).

Landscaping can also be used to screen and ameliorate poor building design or
inappropriate use of building materials, not an uncommon situation in public servicerelated developments.

Where available, local indigenous plant material should be utilized in landscaping


because local plants grow well in their own environment and reinforce the natural
vegetative character of the sites. However, certain imported exotic plants that do well
in the local environment may also be appropriate. Major plants and especially mature
trees endemic to the development site should be saved and incorporated into the final
landscaping plan as much as possible.

Plant material that is easy and inexpensive to maintain and conserves resources
should be used e.g. not using plant species which require large amounts of water, etc.
Water features such as ponds and small waterfalls can offer very interesting accents
and visual focal points in a landscaped area, but these should be carefully designed for
ease of maintenance and conservation of water such as re-circulating the water used
in ornamental fountains and waterfalls.

Footpaths are an important element of landscaping for institutional developments and


visitor facility sites. In addition to serving their pedestrian function, footpaths should
be attractive, safe and practical to use, as well as be designed to offer interesting
views. Outdoor furniture (benches, tables, etc), shelters, and kiosks are often
important to include when landscaping mixed-use facilities; these should be suitably
designed reflecting the building design, properly located, and well constructed.

Night lighting in landscaped areas is important for both functional reasons of safety
and security and for aesthetic appreciation of buildings and landscaping. Lighting is
used at entrances, access drives, and parking lots, along footpaths, in recreational
areas, to illuminate interesting building and landscape features, for information signs
and in service yards. Except in service and high security areas, the most suitable type
of lighting is typically indirect and not too bright e.g. use of low-shaded lights along a
footpath that light the pathway but do not shine in the walkers eyes.
A properly registered and licensed Landscape Architect (RLLA) must be
commissioned directly by the Building Owner/s or through/ with the separatelycommissioned registered and licensed Architect (RLA) or Environmental Planner
(RLEnP) to jointly collaborate on the landscape architectural design of the Project.
Design for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)

More emphasis is now being placed on designing for the persons with disabilities or
PWDs (in compliance with both B.P. Blg. 344 and R.A. No. 7277), including the
physically impaired, sensory-impaired, slower-moving elderly people, and the
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

mentally impaired. Barrier-free design should be applied particularly


transportation facilities and attractions, with techniques applied such as:

Developing hard, relatively smooth, wide walkway paving surfaces.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

to

curbs with ramped cuts at intersections.

E.5

Environmental Guidance

E.5.1

Environmental Awareness

ramped access with automatic door openings or through bars at entrances to


buildings/ structures.

restrooms, drinking fountains, and public telephones designed for use by persons
in wheelchairs.

Design for Gender and Age

E.5.1.1

Emphasis shall also be placed on design considerations that address various


sensitivities related to gender and age i.e. the physical needs of end-users such as
women, young adults, children, babies and the elderly, particularly as the same relates
to ambulatory activities.
E.5.1.2

Environmental awareness is growing throughout the world As such, the promotion of


sustainable development in the Philippines can only bring positive results as it can
provide a basis for achieving sustainability in the planning and design of public
facilities, encourage responsible decisions in energy and water conservation and
waste management, and emphasize the importance of bio-diversity.

Environmental Management

A proactive approach to environmental management may include a commitment to


continuous improvement in the area of general land and facility management. Possible
co-operative working agreements between government and the community at large,
particularly in urban or rapidly urbanizing settings should be established e.g.
sponsoring environmental management and/ or conservation education activities and
monitoring sensitive ecological sites.

Staff Training

Producing an environmental management plan (EMP) is an essential factor in


developing a pro-active approach. A clear environmental policy statement or Code of
Ethics to be adopted and endorsed by the Building Administrator shall ensure
compliance to environmental management standards (EMS). This policy would
guarantee responsibilities of key Building Administration site personnel towards the
natural and built environments, alongside training and communications procedures
instituted to continually and progressively inform/ educate BUILDING end-users and
visitors about such a policy.

An environmental policy statement from the Building Administrator could include


realistic environmental management objectives and targets. Procedures and targets
may be specified for environmental issues such as environmental protection, waste
management (including reuse/ recycling), energy and water conservation, education
and research, purchasing or cleaning policies, landscaping and visitor education.
Depending on the results of ongoing coordination and research work, additional
material on the immediately foregoing environmental considerations may be
subsequently supplied.

E.5.1.3

For large-scale institutional developments, it may be necessary to employ an


environmental officer to establish environmental procedures and supervise and
monitor their practice/ implementation/ enforcement. Consequently, the impact of an
institutional development upon the surrounding environment could be monitored.
Adequate staff training will also help ensure the mixed utilization of measures to
improve environmental performance. Fostering innovation within the development
and amongst the BUILDING staff/ end-users/ visitors will encourage improvements in
environmental management and performance.

End-User/ Visitor Education

In campus developments (such as PUDs or portions thereof) that are properly


planned, the environmental work often becomes part of the marketing package, as
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.5.1.4

environmental constraints such as landscape features, water elements, available or


introduced wildlife (such as birds), etc. all become blended into the development and
gradually become part of the attraction.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.5.2.2

The sewage treatment system (STS) of an institutional development must be


adequate, especially when sited at environmentally-sensitive locations (as applicable).

Maintenance Guidelines

A realistic maintenance program is crucial in the continuing promotion and success of


the Project's image. It must be remembered that even the best-designed developments
can be seriously compromised by poor maintenance.

E.5.2.3

Recognition of the close links between the environment and long term economic
viability will promote commitment towards improved environmental management of
the development.

Effective environmental management practices may involve recycling and waste


management programs, energy and water conservation, staff training and end-user/
visitor education and involvement.

E.5.1.5

Monitoring of the construction and operation phases of the intended development can
improve the effectiveness of environmental management practices and minimize
adverse environmental or social impacts.

An environmental monitoring program (EMoP) should record regulatory


requirements and set realistic management and performance targets or standards,
such as for example, a ten percent (10%) reduction in electricity use.

E.5.2
E.5.2.1

The EMoP should also establish environmental performance indicators (EPI) that are
easy to measure and that might indicate specific problems preventing the
achievement of specific targets. Regular data collection, record keeping and reporting
procedures to examine actual performance will need to be established.

E.5.2.5

Applicable Definitions
Sewage

refuse liquids or waste matter carried off by sewer pipes/ lines.

Sewerage

the removal and disposal of sewage and surface water through sewer
pipes/ lines.

a man-built subterranean conduit to carry sewage and sometimes


surface and rain/ storm water.

Sewage from mixed use facilities must be treated in accordance with the effluent
standards of DENR Administrative Order No. 35, series of 1990 or later issuances that
are valid and subsisting.

Awareness

The applicable provisions of Rule IX (Sanitation) of the 2004 Revised IRR (effective 01
May 2005) of P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 NBCP and the pertinent NBCP referral code/s
(RCs) covering the sewerage requirements of the Project must be fully satisfied. A
properly registered and licensed Sanitary Engineer (RLSnE) must be commissioned
directly by the DPWH (and/or the BUILDING project Proponent/s) or possibly
through/with the separately-commissioned registered and licensed Architect (RLA)
or Environmental Planner (RLEnP) to jointly collaborate on the planning and design
of the sewage handling and sewerage system.
Possible Arrangements

The use of treated/ processed sewage water for toilet flushing or for watering plants
should be encouraged to help reduce the amount of sewage.
On Sewage Disposal

In the absence of a sewer system, septic tanks may in the interim fully process sewage
before direct discharge to the wastewater drainage system.

E.5.2.6

Absorption pits are economical options but may inevitably and deleteriously affect
groundwater quality.

Checklists (Dos and Donts)

Is a responsible and sufficiently experienced/ trained person going to oversee the


operation of the STS for the proposed BUILDING?

Sewerage Guidance

Sewer

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E.5.2.4

Monitoring and Evaluation

Baseline environmental data should always be collected before any construction or


development work commences. An environmental audit, or an audit of some aspects
of performance (such as energy or water conservation and efficiency or waste
management practices) shall be useful in providing future baseline data and in
identifying specific areas where alternative practices can contribute towards
improved environmental performance.

General Requirements

Are the areas for sewage collection/ treatment and for sewerage conveyance secure
and amply buffered/ segregated from other activity areas?

E.5.3

Wastewater Guidance

E.5.3.1

Applicable Definitions
Drain

to draw off liquids gradually and/ or completely; a pipe or conduit


through which liquids are drained;

Wastewater

water that has been used, rejected for any other use and needing to be
disposed of or physically removed from a site; wastewater may
organic and/ or inorganic and may include natural surface run-off,
surface drainage water for paved/ artificially impervious surfaces,

Drainage

a device or system for draining liquids;

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Wastewater
Management

E.5.3.2

excess rainwater, storm water, kitchen water, bath/ shower water,


and similar types of water; the term also refers to sewage; and

a process of collecting, storage and disposal (through treatment,


recycling, creative re-use, etc.) of wastewater (including sewage) for
economic and social (including environmental) gain; management
entails planning, supervision and monitoring of wastewater resources
and facilities and the enforcement of guidelines for safe and
economical wastewater re-use or disposal.

Water

Water Management

Flooding by natural causes must be prevented as much as possible by the correct and
economical engineering interventions e.g. interceptor trenches, culverts, dikes,
retention or impounding structures and the like (as needed).
Awareness

the liquid that is a major constituent of most living organisms,


which descends from the clouds as rain, forms water bodies/
passages and subsequently collected naturally or artificially and
distributed for use.
a very limited and closed/ controlled commercial system
involving water generation/ collection and distribution for
domestic and other uses by consumers.

a managed system/ procedure of collecting, storage,


distribution, conservation (including limited recycling) of safe
domestic and potable water secured from commercial or other
sources; management entails planning, supervision and
monitoring of use and consumption of the resource and the
enforcement of guidelines for safe and economical water usage.

General Requirements
Water sources can be rainwater, freshwater, well-sourced water, other types of
harvested ground water (as applicable).
Design Considerations

Distances between source points and usage points must be minimized.

b. A three to four (3-4) day supply reserve may be ideal for most types of institutional
operations and should be considered in the designed water storage capacity.

Similarly, a RLSnE must be commissioned directly by the DPWH (and/or the


BUILDING Owner/s) or through/with the separately-commissioned RLA or RLEnP to
jointly collaborate on the planning and design of the wastewater system.

Design Considerations

Awareness

Wastewater must be processed by chemical means to limit its negative effect on living
organisms i.e. bio-oxygen demand (BOD) of 10 parts per million (ppm) or less or
better.

The Rule IX (Sanitation) of the 2004 Revised IRR (effective 01 May 2005) of P.D. No.
1096, the 1977 NBCP and the pertinent NBCP referral code/s covering the water
supply requirements of the proposed Project must be fully satisfied.

Checklists

Conservation

Shall a responsible and sufficiently experienced/ trained person be in charge of the


wastewater management program for the BUILDING?

Faucets within the BUILDING/ facilities. Together with faucets (with additional flow
controllers), there is also need to always supply a full large pail of water for use in
toilets and a drum of water on standby i.e. which double as an emergency water
supply in case of fire.

Wastewater may be mixed. However, sewage water and kitchen wastewater may be
mixed with other types of wastewater only after they have undergone the proper
treatment or processing.

Is the area for wastewater (including sewage) collection, storage, treatment, recycling,
etc. amply buffered/ segregated from other activity areas?

E-43

Applicable Definitions

Wastewater drainage is a mandatory requirement for all establishments.

The applicable Rule IX (Sanitation) of the 2004 Revised IRR (effective 01 May 2005) of
P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 NBCP and the pertinent NBCP referral code/s covering the
wastewater requirements of the proposed Project must be fully satisfied.

E.5.3.5

Water Supply Guidance

General Requirements

A sanitary inspection must be satisfied for the renewal of the annual LGU-issued
permit to operate the BUILDING.

E.5.3.4

E.5.4

Water Supply

Sanitary plans/ designs and an accomplished Sanitary Permit form, duly signed and
sealed by a RLSnE, is required before commencing any level of construction work
involving sanitary and outdoor plumbing work.

E.5.3.3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Use low-pressure distribution systems to minimize system leakages.

Similarly, a RLSnE must be commissioned directly by the Building Owner/s or


through/ with the separately-commissioned RLA or RLEnP to jointly collaborate on
the planning and design of the water supply system.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Checklists
Shall a responsible and sufficiently experienced/ trained person be in charge of the
water management program for the BUILDING?

E.5.5
E.5.5.1

Is the area for water collection, storage, etc. protected from contamination, secure and
amply buffered/ segregated from other activity areas?

Solid Waste
Management

Black garbage bags for non-biodegradable wastes e.g. materials that do not
decompose such as plastics, styropor, tetra-packaging, ceramics, glass, construction
debris (concrete, metals and the like);

Yellow garbage bags for pathological/ infectious wastes e.g. used cotton/ gauze/
bandages/ strips, used sanitary napkins/ tampons/ condoms, used tissue paper/ table
napkin, hospital/ medical./ dental wastes, body or animal parts, cadavers/ carcasses,
body fluids, blood, used dental or medical implements, syringes and the like; and

organic or inorganic waste matter that is solid i.e. three (3)dimensional in form, that results from any type of human/ artificial
activity or from natural occurrences/ processes and that must be
removed from a site for a valid reason; this includes garbage,
rubbish and also excreta; and

Transparent garbage bags for types of waste to be identified by the users.

a process of collecting, storage and disposal (through removal, fill,


composting, breakdown, treatment, recycling, creative re-use, etc.)
of solid waste matter for economic and social (including
environmental) gain; management entails planning, supervision
and monitoring of solid wastes and handling facilities and the
enforcement of guidelines for their safe and economical re-use or
disposal.

Sorting and storage facilities must be well away from activity or guest areas so that
foul odors do not permeate such areas.
Do not store organic solid wastes (particularly kitchen and leftover food or food
waste) on-site as these readily decompose, attract pests and unwanted insects/
animals and emit foul odor.
Hauling or removal off-site should be done either late at night or dawn when most
end-users are away.

The use of open dumpsites is absolutely discouraged as it is a major health hazard.

General Requirements

E.5.5.5

Solid waste incineration is an unlawful practice under the Clean Air Act.

Solid Waste Prevention Strategies

Any waste management system must be integrated with that of the rest of the host
community and the LGU.

Limit the use of paper products within the BUILDING as much as possible e.g. use of
electronic files instead of hardcopies (wherever applicable).

Awareness

Actively promote waste segregation and recycling practices on-site by giving endusers/ visitors and staff incentives to do so.

Solid waste handling or disposal sites must never be allowed in identified


preservation and conservation areas, particularly within watersheds (or portions
thereof, including downstream areas).

The applicable provisions of the Solid Waste Management Act (and its IRR) and the
pertinent referral code/s covering the waste handling/ management requirements of
the proposed Project must be fully satisfied.

A RLEnP, with specific expertise/ specialization and/or experience in environment


consulting, must be commissioned directly by the Buulding Owner/s or through/ with
E-45

Green garbage bags for biodegradable wastes e.g. materials that decompose or that
can be reduced to finer particles such as kitchen and garden wastes;

a damaged, defective or superfluous organic or inorganic material,


whether liquid, solid or gas, resulting from any type of human/
artificial activity or from natural occurrences/ processes, that is
rejected for use and necessitates physical removal from a site for
health, safety, environmental, social and other valid reasons;

A solid waste management program for the Project must be well coordinated by all
stakeholders (public and private sectors) as it is not the sole responsibility of the
public sector i.e. BUILDING end-users/ visitors.

E.5.5.3

Segregation of organic and inorganic solid wastes must be performed immediately


after collection. Ideally, separate waste bins must be supplied at the source so that
segregation is done earlier, but this may be difficult to implement/ maintain. The
following practice of color-coding solid wastes may be followed:

Applicable Definitions

Solid Waste

Collection and Handling

Solid waste collection must be performed routinely every 12 hours if possible.

Solid Waste Guidance

Waste

E.5.5.2

E.5.5.4

the separately-commissioned RLA, to collaborate on the planning and design for the
solid waste management system (SWMS).

If land is available, composting should be considered to realize zero organic waste.

E.5.5.6

Checklists

Shall a responsible and sufficiently experienced/ trained person be in charge of the


solid waste management program for the BUILDING?

Is the disposal area (including areas for collection, storage, fill, composting,
breakdown, treatment, recycling) provided with a separate access system?
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.5.5.7

E.5.5.8

Where is the removed/ hauled waste being deposited? It must be the solid waste
source points i.e. the waste generators business to find out exactly where the waste is
destined because it may just be deposited in a nearby area which could eventually
affect the source points operations/ safety.

The applicable provisions periodic issuances of the Department of Energy (DoE) shall
be used as the primary reference for energy conservation in the BUILDING and its
grounds.

Energy Management

usable sources of natural or artificially generated/ sourced


power such as heat, fuel, wind, moving water, wave/ tidal
action, geothermal, muscle, decomposition (biogas),
electricity, natural fuels (firewood), combinations thereof
and the like, that can be harnessed for use economically and
without much negative effect on the environs/ setting of the
energy source (to include considerations for human/
animal/ plant communities);

E.5.5.11

Design Considerations

The use of independently-supplied power is the most ideal source for light and
electricity i.e. generator (preferably diesel, silent-type). A backup generator should be
on board.

E.5.5.12

If a 24-hour generator is used, it may have to be installed along with a waterproduction unit that can also operate for 24 hours. Noise and fume abatement
measures must all be in place.

Conservation

To maximize cooling of structures/ buildings, the correct architectural orientation


with respect to sun and wind must be prioritized, sometimes over view orientation.

Passive cooling techniques, wide/ extended overhangs and other green architecture
(GA) solutions or tropical architecture devices should be widely employed in the
planning and design of the mixed use structures/ buildings.

a managed system/ procedure of acquiring, accessing,


storing, distributing, conserving (including possible
recycling) of safe sources of power secured from commercial
or other sources; management entails planning, supervision
and monitoring of use and consumption of the resource and
the enforcement of guidelines for safe and economical power
usage.

Positioning structures under/ behind/ beside exterior natural or artificial shading


devices should be practiced i.e. ornamental or shade trees, heat-reflecting or
absorbing (as applicable) walls or greenery, etc.
Use light exterior colors for the structures to reflect unwanted light and heat and
provide for a cooler interior.

Awareness

A properly registered and licensed Professional Electrical Engineer (RLPEE) must be


commissioned directly by the Building Owner/s or through/ with the RLA or RLEnP
to collaborate on the planning and design of the energy system (including all electrical
devices). The planning and design of systems for electronics and communications
devices are best handled by a properly registered and licensed Electronics Engineer
(RLEE) while the planning and design of the mechanical systems of the proposed
development shall be by a properly registered and licensed Professional Mechanical
Engineer (RLPME).

An electrical inspection must be satisfied for the renewal of the annual LGU-issued
permit to operate the mixed use facility.
A mix of power sources is recommended so that any system shall not be overly
dependent on one (1) power source.

a limited and closed/ controlled commercial system


involving power generation and distribution for domestic
and other uses by consumers; and

The applicable provisions of Rule XIII (Electrical and Mechanical Regulations) of the
2004 Revised IRR of the NBCP and the pertinent referral code/s covering the power/
mechanical (heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, refrigeration, etc.) requirements of
the proposed Project must be fully satisfied.

General Requirements
Electrical plans/ designs and an accomplished Electrical Permit application form, duly
signed/ sealed by a RLPEE, is required prior to commencement of the applicable level
of construction work involving electrical work.

Applicable Definitions

Energy Supply

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E.5.5.10

Energy Guidance

Energy

E.5.5.9

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.5.5.13

Electric fans are preferred over air-conditioners. However, the Project must always
offer end-users the option to avail of either means of artificial ventilation.

Efficiency

Use only low consumption - high output electrical devices.


E.5.5.14

Use only rated electrical devices to be able to monitor consumption properly.


Renewable Energy Resources

If the technology becomes fully accessible at a low acquisition/ operating/


maintenance cost, the use of devices that can economically harness solar, wind, tide/
wave and geothermal power in appropriate quantities for domestic use should be
promoted.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.5.5.15

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Checklists

The most efficient combination of luminaires, lamps and ballasts appropriate for the
lighting task and for the environment shall be selected so that lamp light output is
used effectively. The selected luminaire should meet the requirements with respect to
light distribution, uniformity and glare control. The use of highly polished or mirror
reflectors are recommended to reduce the number of lamps installed without
reducing the illumination level. Where ballasts are used, these should be of the
electronic type or low-loss type with a power factor of at least 85%.

Shall a responsible and sufficiently experienced/ trained person be in charge of the


energy management program for the BUILDING?

E.5.5.16

Is the area for energy generation, interface, storage, etc. safe, secure and amply
buffered/ segregated from other activity areas?

Energy Efficient Lighting Design

The highest practical room surface reflectance should be considered in the lighting
design. The use of light finishes will attain the best overall efficiency of the entire
lighting system. Dark surfaces should be avoided because these absorb light. (Table
3.3 of the DoE Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings lists the
recommended room surface reflectances.)

There are multiple sustainable design provisions under the 2007 Department of
Energy (DoE) Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of Buildings, particularly under
its Section 3.3 (General Requirements of Energy-Efficient Lighting Design). These all
form part of nationally-instituted energy efficiency guidelines that are all intended to
conserve power, a design and construction practice that has a positive effect on both
the natural and built environments.

E.5.6

Selective switching possibilities should be provided so that individual or specific


group of fixtures can be turned off when not needed and lighting levels can be adapted
to changing needs.

Hereafter is the list of key energy efficiency guidelines (particularly with reference to
the lighting of the building) to help make buildings of truly sustainable design i.e.
effectively making Green Buildings.

The lighting system shall be so designed (such) that day-lighting can be coordinated
with artificial lighting, taking into consideration the problems of glare, brightness
imbalance and heat buildup in the building interior.

General Requirements of Energy-Efficient Lighting Design

The lighting design shall utilize energy-efficient lighting equipment. The lighting
system shall be chosen (so) as to provide a flexible, effective and pleasing visual
environment in accordance with the intended use, but with the least possible energy
requirements.
The use of task-oriented lighting shall be used whenever practicable.

In the design of general lighting in buildings with centralized air-conditioning


equipment, consideration should be given to integrated lighting and air-conditioning
systems which use luminaires with heat removal capabilities.

The lighting system shall be designed for expected activity. The task shall be analyzed
in terms of difficulty, duration, criticalness and location in order to determine the
lighting needs throughout the space, always keeping in mind that higher illumination
levels than necessary are likely to waste energy while on the other hand, levels lower
than needed could impair visual effectiveness. (Table 3.1 2007 of the DoE Guidelines on
Energy Conserving Design of Buildings lists the recommended illuminance levels.)
The most efficient lamps appropriate to the type of lighting, color rendition and color
appearance shall be selected. The use of such types of lamps reduces power
requirements. (Refer to Table 3.2 of the DoE Guidelines on Energy Conserving Design of
Buildings re Efficacy Ranges and Color Rendering Indices of Various Lamps.)

E.5.7
E.5.7.1

In selecting lighting systems, the costs of operation and energy usage and not simply
the initial cost should be considered.

Sustainable Design for Buildings

Basic Sustainable Design Compliances with P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 National Building Code of
the Philippines (1977 NBCP)
There are several basic sustainable design provisions under P.D. No. 1096 (otherwise
known as the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP), particularly
under its 2004 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR), and partly under
some of its Referral Codes (RCs, covering certain building safety aspects and physical
planning/ building design sensitivities) and under some derivative regulations (RCs).
These all form part of nationally-instituted sustainable development controls that are
all intended to prevent over-building and over-paving, both nuisance practices by
some building designers and constructors that have a very negative effect on both the
natural and built environments.

Below is the matrix showing an example of the application of the basic sustainable
development controls under P.D. No. 1096 (NBCP) to help make buildings of truly
sustainable design i.e. effectively making Green Buildings.

In general, the normal artificial light source should be the fluorescent lamp. In downlight installation, high-pressure discharge lamps can be used. In large high bay areas,
high-pressure discharge lamps should be used. Where good color rendering is
required, the tubular fluorescent lamp and other high-pressure discharge lamps
except high-pressure sodium lamps should be used. However, if moderate color
rendering is of comparatively minor importance, high-pressure sodium lamps can be
used. If very good color rendering is required, the tubular fluorescent lamp should be
used.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

which do not provide transparency to the interior. Only exterior wall surfaces are
counted in the ratio, and not roof surfaces.
Table E-6

The WWR is often a factor in the energy efficiency of a building, with a low ratio
generally indicating better efficiency as windows usually perform less well than the
rest of the exterior walls as a thermal barrier. Note however that while windows may
not be thermally ideal due to the heat that is permitted to penetrate the building
interior i.e. which has to be balanced by artificially cooling the building interior, its
energy efficiency value lies in the amount of natural light that it draws inside the
building i.e. thereby helping reduce the artificial lighting load.

Example of the Application of the Basic Sustainable Development Controls


under P.D. No. 1096 (NBCP)

Applicable Basic Sustainable Development


Compliances with Basic Sustainable Development Control/s
Control/s Under P.D. No. 1096 (the 1977 NBCP)
as applied to a Public School Building Project Development Control to
be Satisfied
Compliances by the
Remarks
on a Corner-Through Lot (or a Corner Lot
for a Public School
Building Project
Abutting 3 or More Streets)
Building Project
Allowable maximum building footprint (AMBF) or
maximum percentage of site occupancy (PSO)

AMBF or Maximum PSO Building Footprint of


Fully compliant and is
set at 60.0% of the Total 3,198.12 sqm results in a LOWER than the maximum
Lot Area (TLA) of 5,464.64PSO of only 58.52% of thePSO by 1.48% of the TLA.
sqm
TLA

Building Height Limit (BHL)

BHL at 15.0 meters (or 5 BHL at only (approx.) 13.5 Fully compliant and is
regular storeys)
meters
LOWER than the set BHL
by 1.5 meters

Floor to Lot Area Ratio (FLAR)

Maximum FLAR at 2.5


times TLA

Gross Floor Area (GFA)

Maximum GFA at 2.5 timesGenerated GFA of approx.Fully compliant and is


TLA
4,302.08 sqm is at only LOWER than the maximum
(approx.) 0.79 of the TLA GFA by 1.71 times the TLA

Total Gross Floor Area (TGFA)

Maximum TGFA at
approx.1.25 times GFA

Total Window Surface Area (TWSA) to TGFA RatioTWSA at a minimum of


10% of TGFA
Unpaved Surface Area (USA) or Unpaved Open
Spaces

The entry of controlled amounts of natural light into the building interior is an
absolute necessity in helping prevent the sick building syndrome, engendered by the
unchecked growth of harmful microorganisms e.g. spores, etc. that may thrive within
dark and damp interior building spaces.

Applied FLAR at only


Fully compliant and is
(approx.) 0.78 times TLA LOWER than the maximum
FLAR by 1.71 times the
TLA

Generated TGFA of 5,377.6


Fully compliant
sqm is at 1.25 times GFA
TWSA at approx. 10.4% ofFully compliant and
TGFA
EXCEEDS the set minimum
by 0.4% of TGFA

Minimum USA at approx. Generated USA of 1,965.05


Fully compliant and
30% of the TLA
sqm is at approx. 35.96% of
EXCEEDS the set minimum
the TLA
by 5.96% of TLA

Minimum Required Parking Slot, Parking Area and One (1) car slot for every Off-RROW (street) open Fully compliant
Loading Space Requirements
five (5) classrooms: one (1)parking provisions include:
off- road right-of-way
Eight (8) slots facing the
(RROW/ street) (or offNEC Building;
street) passenger loading One (1) off- road right-ofspace that can
way (RROW/ street) (or offaccommodate two (2)
street) passenger loading
queued jeepney/ shuttle space that can
slots; and one (1) school accommodate two (2)
queued jeepney/ shuttle
bus slot for every two
hundred (200) students slots;
one (1) school bus slot for
every two hundred (200)
students; and
two (2) parking slots for
loading/ unloading trucks
(which can accommodate 4
regular cars when not in
use).

While not explicitly provided for in the 2004 Revised IRR of the 1977 NBCP, the
window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of a building is the percentage (%) of a building's facade
taken up by windows i.e. the percentage of the exterior building walls taken up by
light-transmitting (i.e. transparent or translucent glazing) surfaces, including
windows and translucent surfaces such as glass bricks, thereby implying that natural
ventilation via operable windows is not necessarily a factor in the determination of
the WWR. The WWR does not include glass surfaces used ornamentally or as cladding,
E-51

Based on certain trends, it may be reasonable to say that for a typical building, an
optimal 30% WWR for hot-humid tropical settings (like in the Philippines) may be
enough to exploit daylight (i.e. too much daylight inside the building interior is also
not a desirable situation), since there is no significant increase in daylight availability
for larger or taller window sizes and since there is need to balance the intensity of the
building interior-penetrating daylight via opaque surfaces.

E.5.7.2

As an example, a WWR of 29.0% is well within the desired WWR range, helping make
the building truly sustainably designed i.e. effectively making it a Green Building.

Carbon Reduction (and Embodied Energy) of Construction and Finishing Materials Specified/
Used for Buildings

Carbon reduction is a complex challenge for all organizations, not least those in the
construction industry i.e. taking a comprehensive view of the construction sector
value chain means considering all aspects of the design, construction, use (and
demolition) of buildings and infrastructure, beyond simple occupancy itself. Any
energy efficiency improvements in building occupancy mean that the carbon emitted
indirectly through the supply chain could form an even larger proportion of that
building's lifetime footprint.

This indirect, embodied carbon (or spent energy) arises from the extraction of various
raw materials, the energy intensive processes associated with the manufacture,
handling/ transportation/ delivery, installation, use, maintenance, etc. of the building
materials, and the activities of a multitude of constructors i.e. embodied energy of
construction and finishing materials as discussed in the previous section.

With the processes to be monitored and managed lying beyond direct control of the
industry's main developers and prime constructors, construction organizations must
reduce carbon throughout their extended supply chains. After all, this is a growing
priority because, in addition to the environmental benefits, where there's carbon
there's cost, and where there's cost there could be savings i.e. benefits to both the
building owner and the general public.
Hereafter are some concepts that were partially or substantially incorporated in the
physical planning and design of a building project:

Review the selection of raw materials: The extraction, production and


transportation of basic construction materials are both energy- and carbon-intensive,
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

so it is critical to select suppliers of building products and materials who are actively
working to manage their own carbon impacts.

Investigate the origin of the raw materials: Natural stone, for example, produces
minimal emissions during the production process but the transportation from the
source to manufacturing site can be the largest cause of emissions, e.g. in transporting
from quarry sites. In such cases, managing the transportation process is crucial to
managing supply chain emissions. This contrasts with concrete where typically the
carbon emissions during production are much higher than those released during
transportation.
Consider construction phase emissions: Key factors contributing to construction
process emissions include the multiple, temporary sites, transportation, waste arising,
and heavy machinery which are common for large building projects.

Consider how to influence the occupancy and use of buildings and


infrastructure: These downstream emissions are generated in the occupancy/ use
phase but are greatly influenced by specifications from architects, choices made by
developers and building owners, and from the way the buildings are used by the
people who ultimately work and live in them. The purpose and design of a building
also contributes to its embodied carbon. The people using it, the use of lighting,
heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and the proportions and differing insulating
properties of glass, metal, concrete, masonry (plaster, brick, etc.) and wood can all
have a tangible impact on the carbon footprint.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

does the device produce more energy or save more energy than it took to make it (or
make it usable/ beneficial)?

Embodied energy is an accounting method which aims to find the sum total of the
energy necessary for an entire product life-cycle. Determining what constitutes this
life-cycle includes assessing the relevance and extent of energy into raw material
extraction (sourcing), transport (and handling), manufacture, assembly, installation,
dis-assembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition (and disposal) as well as human
and secondary resources. Different methodologies produce different understandings
of the scale and scope of application and the type of energy embodied. Source :
Wikipedia (with some additions/ edits from PTCC Project Team)

A matrix showing the embodied energy levels of the construction and finishing
materials specified and used for a typical public building is provided in Table E-7.
Most of the construction and finishing materials specified/ used for the sample public
building are locally sourced and have only low to medium qualitative embodied
energy ratings, thereby helping make the building of truly sustainable design i.e.
effectively making it a Green Building.

Being mindful of these factors, good examples of design, coupled with good occupier
habits and behaviours, can generate a lower carbon impact during end use as well as
construction e.g. buildings using locally-sourced, sustainable timber, ground-source
heat pumps using natural energy to provide heating and cooling, rainwater harvesting
and grey water recycling facilities to provide 100% of toilet water use and thereby
help to reduce overall water consumption by as much as 20%.
Key concerns for the design and construction teams were:

Manage carbon throughout the construction supply chain/s;

Measure the footprint of individual products in order to identify carbon hot


spots (carbon intensive areas e.g. Areas with equipment that are heavy power
users) and focus efforts on carbon reduction;

Suggest the use of suppliers that offer low carbon products and those that can
demonstrate a consideration for both the direct and indirect impacts of their
products and services;
Conceptualize a carbon strategy and implementation plan; and

Understand the likely carbon footprint generated in the occupancy/ use phase,
and encourage the building owner/ end-users to plan for sustainability
throughout the useful life of the building. Source : carbon trust : building a lower
carbon construction Industry (with paraphrasing and additions/ edits from PTCC
Project Team)

Embodied Energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce goods (materials)
or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or embodied in the
product itself. The concept can be useful in determining the effectiveness of energyproducing or energy-saving devices, or the "real" replacement cost of a building, and,
because energy-inputs usually entail greenhouse gas emissions, in deciding whether a
product contributes to or mitigates global warming. One fundamental question is:
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table E-7

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Embodied Energy Levels of the Construction and Finishing Materials


Specified and Used for a Typical Public Building

Common Building Construction or Architectural Finishing


Materials for A Typical Public Building

Material Source
Local

Foreign

Qualitative
Embodied
Energy
Rating (EER) of Materials Used
Negligible to Low to
High to
Very Low
Medium Very High

Common Building Construction Materials Used

Premium termiticide concentrate

Pre-mixed concrete

Basic steel (hot-dipped galvanized)

Zinc-chromate corrosion resistant agent

Bituminous waterproofing paint

Extruded aluminum frames

Tanguile lumber (kiln-dried)

Medium density fiberboard (MDF)

Membrane waterproofing

Cementitious waterproofing, 90 mils thick

Pre-painted long span cold roll steel, coil coated (pre-painted)


aluminum zinc alloy roof panels

19 mm tempered glass sheets with film for UV protective layer

Tanguile marine plywood

Polyvinylchloride (PVC) conduit

Intermediate metal conduit (IMC)

Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)

Flexible steel conduit (FSC)

Thermoplastic insulated wire (TIW) and cables (TIC)

Thermoplastic cover plates for wiring devices

Diesel engine electric generating unit with accessories, auxiliary


equipment

Long fluorescent: T-8, 3000K, energy-savings type

Electronic digital ballasts (EDB)

Galvanized iron, (GI) main water lines, schedule 40

Common Architectural Finishing Materials Used

E-55

Negligible to Low to
High to
Very Low
Medium Very High

8. Epoxy paint

9. Gypsum wallboard and ceiling board

10. Metal spandrel ceiling for eaves


11. Acoustical boards, fine- fissured
12. Toilet fixtures, vitreous china
13. Toilet compartments, 12 mm thick phenolic board with laminate
finish

x
x

x
x

1. All paints (non-toxic and contain an effective amount of fungicide x


and mildew-proofing agent to prevent the paint from showing a mold
growth or shall be inherently fungistatic by the nature of their
constituents)

2. Flatwall & quick dry enamel, oil-based

3. Gloss varnish, lacquer solvent

4. Exterior wall masonry liquid water repellant, water-based alkyl


silane

5. Plain cement floor

6. Ceramic tiles, heavy traffic

Initially Calculated Carbon Footprint for a Typical Low-Rise Public Building

"A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)
emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant
sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the
population, system or activity of interest. Calculated as carbon dioxide
equivalent (CO2e)
using
the
relevant
100-year global
warming
potential (GWP100)."

High density polypropylene pipes to fixtures, type 3 (or high density


cross-linked polyethylene pipes), type PE-Xa with disinfectionresistant compression sleeve fittings

7. Vinyl floor tiles

Foreign

Qualitative
Embodied
Energy
Rating (EER) of Materials Used

A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as "the total sets
of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or
person." However, calculating the total carbon footprint is impossible due to the large
amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural
occurrences. It is for this reason that Wright, Kemp, and Williams, writing in the
journal Carbon Management, have suggested a more practicable definition:

x
x

Local

E.5.7.3

Receptacles, hospital grade, 220V, grounding type

Material Source

High pressure laminate (HPL)

Annealed copper wire for conductors

Common Building Construction or Architectural Finishing


Materials for A Typical Public Building

Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the
production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood,
roads, buildings, and services. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in
terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.

Most of the carbon footprint emissions come from "indirect" sources, i.e. fuel burned
to produce goods far away from the final consumer/ end-user. These are
distinguished from emissions which come from burning fuel directly in one's car or
stove, commonly referred to as "direct" sources of the consumer's/ end-users carbon
footprint, where the term end-user can refer to the building constructor, owner
and/or occupants.

The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from the concept of the ecological
footprint, discussion for which was developed by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s,
and which estimates the number of "earths" that would theoretically be required if
everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person
calculating their ecological footprint. However, carbon footprints are much more
specific than ecological footprints since they measure direct emissions of gases that
cause climate change into the atmosphere.
Measuring Carbon Footprints

An individual's, nation's, or organization's carbon footprint can be measured by


undertaking a GHG emissions assessment or other calculative activities denoted
as carbon accounting. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological developments, better process and product
management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), carbon capture,
consumption strategies, and others.

Several free online carbon footprint calculators exist, where the pertinent websites
ask you to answer more or less detailed questions about transportation choices,
building size, activities, usage of electricity, heating, and heavy appliances, etc. The
website then estimates the carbon footprint based on the answers to such questions.

The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects,


such as solar or wind energy (done onsite or offsite) or reforestation (done offsite),
represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as carbon
offsetting.
The main influences on carbon footprints include population, economic output, and
energy and carbon intensity of the economy. These factors are the main targets of
individuals and businesses in order to decrease carbon footprints. Scholars suggest
the most effective way to decrease a carbon footprint is to either decrease the amount
of energy needed for production (including construction) or to decrease the
dependence on carbon emitting fuels (during actual building use/ occupancy).

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Table E-8

Initially Calculated Carbon Footprint for a Typical Low-Rise Public Building

Non-Food Carbon-Consuming Components for a Typical


Low-Rise Public Building During Construction Onsite
and During Projected Use/ Occupancy of the Building
(Over a One Year Period)

B. Calculated Carbon Footprint

Quantity

Carbon Dioxide
Unit of Carbon equivalent (CO2e)
Consumption in metric tons (MT)

Initially Calculated Non-Food Carbon Consumption During Construction Onsite (Over an Aggregated One Year
Period)
Lighting and power consumption onsite

Say 36,000

KwH

20.03

LPG (cooking gas for worker meals)

Say 1,430

Liter

2.10

Three (3) service vehicles i.e. mainly cars and SUVs aged
Say 429
from six (6) to ten (10) years old

Vehicle Unit

76.44

Two (2) service vehicles i.e. mainly trucks aged from six (6)
Say 572
to ten (10) years old

Vehicle Unit

101.92

Fuel for Various Heavy Equipment onsite

Liter

4.20

Say 2,860

Subtotal for I.

204.69

Initially Calculated Non-Food Carbon Consumption During Projected Use/ Occupancy of the Building (Over the First
One Year Period)
Lighting and power consumption

Say 72,000

KwH

40.05

LPG (cooking gas for cafeteria)

Say 1,430

Liter

2.10

Other Ways to Reduce Carbon Footprint

Ten (10) service vehicles i.e. mainly cars and SUVs aged
Say 1,430
from six (6) to ten (10) years old

Vehicle Unit

254.80

The most common way to reduce the carbon footprint of humans is to Reduce, Reuse
and Recycle. The reduction of the carbon footprint is addressed in the previous
section on carbon reduction and embodied energy of construction and finishing
materials for the building. Nothing should be disposed off into the soil i.e. all the
ferrous (metal) materials which are prone to degrade or oxidize with time should be
sold as early as possible at reduced price. This can also be done by using reusable
items rather than disposable ones. If that option isn't available, it is best to properly
recycle the disposable items after use. When one recycles at least half of their waste,
they can potentially save a minimum of 1.2 tons of carbon dioxide annually.

Two (2) service vehicles i.e. mainly trucks aged from six (6)
Say 572
to ten (10) years old

Vehicle Unit

101.92

Subtotal for II.

398.87

Total for I. and II.

603.56

Yet another option for reducing the carbon footprint of humans is to use less airconditioning in the building i.e. introduce passive cooling techniques since the
Philippines is in a hot-humid tropical location. By adding insulation to the walls and
roof of a building, and installing weather-stripping around doors and windows, one
can also lower their artificial ventilation costs. Setting the thermostat just two (2)
degrees lower in summer could potentially save about 1 ton of carbon dioxide each
year (for possibly each cooling unit). Source: Wikipedia (with some additions/ edits
from PTCC Project Team)

Based on the use of the UK-based Carbon Footprint calculator (at


http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx), the matrix hereafter shows that
the approximated carbon footprint for a typical low-rise public building during its
construction (aggregated 1.0 year period) and initial use/ occupancy (over its first 1.0
year period), which altogether may total 603.56 metric tons (MT) in carbon dioxide
equivalent (CO2e) units, a relatively low building carbon footprint, thereby helping
make the building of sustainable design i.e. effectively making it a Green Building.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6

Non-Mobile Billboards (NMBs)/ Electronic Displays and


Signages
Policy: It is the declared policy of the State to ensure an improved quality of life for all
through continuing efforts to improve the natural/ built and physical/ non-physical
environments. It is also the policy of the State to preserve public spaces as public
domain and not to allow the use of such spaces for private enjoyment nor benefit.
Definition of Terms: As used in these DGDG, the following terms shall be as defined
hereafter:

ABO or Acting Building Official is the official designation of the DPWH for its LGU
appointees under Sec. 477 of the LGC, and who are tasked with the implementation
and enforcement of the NBCP and its derivative regulations.

Air Right means the right to physically develop and subsequently benefit or profit
from the continued use of the air space above the NATIONAL AND LOCAL road rightof-way (RROW) or other NATIONAL AND LOCAL rights-of-way (ROWs) or legal
easements or private/ public property outside or along such ROWs or easements
within the jurisdiction of the pertinent LGU, subject to the payment of lease to the
appropriate public party for availing of such rights. The upper limit of the air rights is
the airways navigational path such as the clearance limits of aerodrome and flight
patterns (particularly for helicopters using helipads within the LGU) and the partial
availment of such air rights shall require the official evaluation and permission of the
Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP).

Alignments are the surface areas/ spaces traversed by a NATIONAL RROW, similar
ROWs, legal easements or similar public spaces within the LGU, which form part of the
public domain and are therefore disallowed sites for non-mobile billboards.
barangay means the basic government unit distinct from the LGU.

Billboard and Electronic Display means an attention-getting device in the form of


notices/ signages/ graphics/ images visible to public view, that are designed to
promote, entice, sell, offer, for commercial purposes, a product or services, and
consisting of a support structure, a display or message area, a lighting system and
related components. The term also refers to all types of identification, description,
illustration, images, pictures, display or device which is affixed to or represented
directly or indirectly upon a portion of a building/ structure, support structure or land
and which directs attention to a product, place, activity, person, institution, business,
idea or belief. The term shall be generic and shall collectively refer to but not be
limited to multi-media or tri-vision billboards, neon, electronic displays or other
illuminated signs, painted signs and the like. The classifications of the key types of
billboards that may be erected at the defined regulated areas under these DGDG; nonmobile billboards (NMBs)/ electronic displays shall only be permitted in the zones
defined under these DGDG while the Permitted Construction shall only be within
private lots inasmuch as NMBs/ electronic displays are prohibited in all parts of and
types of ROWs i.e. streets, utilities, rivers/ water bodies, including mandated legal
easements (MLEs), unless specifically recommended under these DGDG;
Billboard or Electronic Display Unit or BEDU shall refer to one (1.0) independent
NMB or electronic display with a total display area of anywhere between seven point
five square meters (7.5 sqm) minimum to two hundred twenty five square meters
(225.0 sqm maximum, including border and trim but excluding supports) maximum
for existing/ proposed NATIONAL urban RROWs/ ROWs within the LGU. For NMBs/

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

electronic signs mounted on facades of buildings, the BEDU shall be sized in


accordance with the zoning classification and in proportion to the building height limit
(BHL), architectural projections and outermost face of buildings/ billboards (OFB),
the outermost limit of building projections (OLBP) and the permissible proportions of
openings/ fenestrations for mandated natural light and ventilation and related
provisions under the NBCP as well as the various safety provisions under the FCP,
duly determined by a RLA.
Building Height Limit or BHL means the maximum height to be allowed for a
building/ structure based on their proposed use/occupancy. As defined under the
NBCP, the BHL is generally measured from the established grade line to the topmost
portion of such a building/ structure, inclusive of a non-mobile billboard mounted on
top of such a building/ structure. Under this Ordinance, BHL shall also mean Billboard
Height Limit.

Cantilevered Support Structure means a support structure that is not directly


planted on the ground or any portion of the national RROW, similar ROWs or legal
easement within the LGU; such a structure may rest on a portion of a building or
another support structure not originally planned/ designed to support a billboard; a
cantilevered structure is necessary so that the effective width of the sidewalk or
similar components of the RROW are neither compromised nor lessened;

Carriageway or Roadway means the portion or component of a national RROW


within the LGU, on which land-based transportation conveyances such as motor
vehicles are allowed to pass or park. For national RRROWs within the LGU, the term
may be Railway and for national WROWs within the LGU, the applicable term may
be Waterway or Vessel-way.

Content means the message and image components of a billboard or electronic


display which may be advertising, commercial, directional or general public
information in intent.
DILG means the Department of Interior and Local Government.

DOTC means the Department of Transportation and Communication which


maintains exclusive control over certain types of national ROWs and RROWs. DPWH
means the Department of Public Works and Highways which maintains exclusive
control over national road rights-of-way (RROWs) within the LGU and which is the
primary implementing agency and enforcer of the NBCP, its 2004 or latest
implementing rules and regulations (IRR), its applicable referral codes (RCs such as
R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 FCP and its 2009 IRR, the National Structural Code of the
Philippines/ NSCP, 2010 or latest edition, the Philippine Electrical Code, latest edition,
the Electronics Code, if any in its latest edition, etc.) and its applicable derivative
regulations (DRs including National Executive Orders (EOs), National Administrative
Orders (AOs), DPWH Department Orders/ DOs, DPWH Department Administrative
Orders/ DAOs and DPWH Memoranda Circulars/ MCs).

Display or Electronic Display means the material or device mounted on the nonmobile billboard or electronic display support structure together with its content/
message. A display/ electronic display surface area in excess of one square meter (1.0
sqm), with a least dimension of one meter (1.0 m), shall be considered part of a NMB/
BEDU.
FCP means the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines, otherwise known as R.A. No. 9514
or its future iterations, duly supported by its 2009 and/ or latest IRR and/or related
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

executive issuances by the DILG, the agency tasked with its full implementation and
enforcement.

Firewall means a reinforced masonry or reinforced concrete separator with the


appropriate fire-resistive rating and which shall be positioned between buildings/
structures to maintain the fire integrity of each building/ structure. Firewalls that are
erected along and/or above property lines utilize a substantial portion of the
maximum development potential of a property and shall therefore have no openings
except for the permitted vent wells specified under P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 National
Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP) and its 2004 and/ or latest Implementing
Rules and Regulations (IRR). Firewalls are not envisioned as a mounting surface for
billboards and other types of display under the NBCP and its IRR as such billboards/
displays also constitute a fire and safety hazard to an adjoining property.
IRR means the Implementing Rules and Regulations of this Ordinance.

Intersections are common surface areas or spaces shared by two (2) or more
national RROWs, similar ROWs or legal easements within the LGU, or a mix of such
public spaces, which form part of the public domain and are therefore disallowed sites
for non-mobile billboards.

LGC - the 1990 Local Government Code, otherwise known as R.A. No. 7160 and its
derivative regulations as implemented and enforced by the DILG.
LGU The Local Government Unit of Makati City, as defined under the LGC.

Legal Easement means a public open space mandated under law that must be
absolutely free of all forms of physical obstructions that can negatively affect natural
light and ventilation within such a space or that can impede access to or the full
recreational use of such a space by the general public. Legal easements also refer to
the public area within the LGU that may lie between the legally usable portions of a
private/public property and natural or built bodies of water or waterways.
Lighting System means the luminaries/ complete lighting units, power source and
connections, controls and all support structures/ devices that ensure the continuous
illumination of a display/ electronic display.
MMDA means the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority.

Minimum BEDU shall refer to one (1.0) display with a total display area of seven
point five square meters (7.50 sqm), with a least dimension of one meter (1.0 m).

Maximum BEDU shall refer to one (1.0) display with a total display area of two
hundred and twenty five square meters (225.0 sqm), with a least dimension of seven
point five meters (7.5 m).
NBCP means the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines, otherwise known
as Presidential Decree or P.D. No. 1096 or its future iterations, duly supported by its
2004 and/or latest IRR and/or related executive issuances by the DPWH, the agency
tasked with its full implementation and enforcement, particularly in the case of the
DPWH NBCDO Memorandum Circular No. 1, series of 2008.

NBO or National Building Official is the official designation of the DPWH Secretary as
per the NBCP.

Non-Conforming Billboard/ Electronic Display Unit (BEDU) means any non-mobile


billboard or electronic display lawfully constructed prior to the enactment of this
Ordinance, but which thereafter fails to conform to its provisions.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Non-Mobile Billboard/ Electronic Display Unit (BEDU) means a billboard/ electronic


display positioned at a fixed location, usually along a NATIONAL road right-of-way
(RROW) within the LGU, where it can be readily and continuously viewed by the
passing public.
Official Signs mean directional or information-conveying signs, in whatever form
allowed under the IRR of this Ordinance, that are officially issued and erected by or
through the national government or by the LGU for the purpose of public service.
PCE - professional communications engineer.
PEE - professional electrical engineer.

Property Line means the imaginary or defined line or a set of such interconnected
lines and denoting the limits of a property.
RLAr - registered and licensed architect.

RLCE - registered and licensed civil engineer.

RLEnP - registered and licensed environmental planner.

ROW means a national Right-of-Way, including the airspace and the leasable air
rights above such a ROW within the LGU.

RROW or national Road-Right-of-Way or Street means a public open space


within the LGU, for the continuous flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, including
the air space above such RROW, that must be free of all forms of prohibited physical
obstructions. The national RROW or street within the LGU is the surface area lying
between two (2) or more parallel properties and its width is horizontally measured
from opposite property lines.

RRROW means a national Railroad-Right-of-Way within the LGU, consisting of the


railway/ tramway/ tracks on which the trains actually pass, the buffer areas on either
side of the railway for operational safety and fixed facilities for passenger exchanges,
inclusive of the airspace above such a RRROW.

Regulated Area means all areas inside the boundaries of the LGU which are adjacent to
and within fifty meters (50.0 m) of the edge of the national road right-of-way (RROW)
within the LGU (applicable to NMBs only).

Residual Areas are spaces that may fall outside the alignments or intersections of
two (2) or more national RROWs, similar ROWs or legal easements or a mix of such
public spaces within the LGU, which still form part of the public domain and are
therefore disallowed sites for NMBs.
Scenic Vista shall refer to a naturally occurring or a good combination of natural and
artificial/man-made features in the viewable landscape and which offers the viewer a
refreshing visual experience or respite.

Setback means a one (1)-dimensional quantity denoting the level horizontal distance
measured at a ninety degree angle (90) from the line formed by the outermost face of
a building/ structure or billboard/ electronic display support structure to a property
line, whereby both lines run parallel to each other.

Sidewalk means the portion on each side of the national road right-of-way (RROW)
within the LGU, for the exclusive use of pedestrians and the disabled who are in
transit.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Signages are devices limited to identifying location/ addresses and names of


establishments, as distinguished from NMBs/ electronic displays which offer goods/
services to consumers, but like non-mobile billboards/ electronic displays, these are
exposed to public view and therefore come under public safety, public welfare, and
public domain, and as per local/ national enabling laws (e.g., R.A. No. 7160, the 1991
Local Government Code of the Philippines/ LGCP and its latest IRR), are therefore
subject to the permitting processes, regulations, and the imposition of taxes, fees and
charges by the LGU, as provided for in this Ordinance.
Support Structure means the rigid framework on which the display/ electronic
display or attention-catching device of a non-mobile billboard/ electronic display shall
be mounted. The foundation and superstructure for part of the support structure.
Temporary Sign means a sign made of fabric/ cloth, vinyl/ plastic or similar light
and/or combustible material, with or without frame i.e., streamers, bills, posters and
the like that are installed within or outside a ROW within the LGU, for display/public
viewing for a limited period of time, subject to the issuance of the required permit/s.
Urban Design - refers to the physical and systematic design undertaken by a RLA on
a community and urban plane, more comprehensive than, and an extension of the
architecture of buildings, spaces between buildings, entourage, utilities and
movement systems, including the siting, sizing and placement of NMBs/ electronic
displays and signages.

UROW means the Utility Right-of-Way means the area within the LGU on which
public utility lines e.g. power, telecommunications, water supply, drainage, sewer, gas,
etc. are allowed to pass, including buffer/ safety zones, service/ maintenance areas
and the airspace above such a UROW.

View Corridor means the visually unobstructed width, depth and height of all
available sight lines running through and along national RROWs, legal easements and
similar ROWs, open spaces within lots including yards and courts or through and
along designated public spaces including recreational areas within the LGU. View
corridor also means specific ranges of sight lines from a building or structure to a
specific natural or man-built object and/ or development considered of beauty or
value.

WROW means a national Water Right-of-Way found in inland waterways such as


rivers, streams, canals and the like found within the LGU, and consisting of the
waterway/ vessel-way on which boats/ ships/ barges pass, the embankments and
portions of the shore areas used to access the waterway/ vessel-way, including the
airspace above such a WROW.

E.6.1

Yard means a two (2)-dimensional space consisting of the vacant land area between
the outermost portion of a NMB/ electronic display including its support structure
and the property lines.

Regulation of NMBs/ Electronic Displays within a LGU

Any NMB or electronic billboard erected, modified, retrofitted, rehabilitated or


otherwise altered and exhibited shall comply with the following requirements:

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6.1.1

Position Within/ Along National RROWs, ROWs and Legal Easements within the LGU
No NMB/ electronic display shall be located in a position that obstructs or obscures
the view of vehicular or pedestrian traffic in such a manner as to endanger their safe
movement thereof. NMBs shall not be erected in a manner that can confuse or
obstruct the view or interpretation of any official traffic sign, signal or device.
The outermost portion or projection of a NMB/ electronic display or its support
structure or its lighting system shall be located at least five meters (5.0m) from the
outermost line of the national street or RROW, RRROW, UROW, WROW, legal
easement and the like.

Non-mobile billboards/ electronic displays shall not be erected on any structure or


portion thereof found within the national RROW, RRROW, UROW, WROW, legal
easement and the like. The air rights over such ROWs and legal easements shall not be
availed of for the purpose of erecting NMBs. As such, no part of a NMB shall extend
over any part of the RROW at grade or above grade.

Temporary signs, regardless of material, intended use and size, including electionrelated signs or signs showing the names and/or likeness of elective/ appointed
officials, shall not be strung or installed over or across a national RROW, RRROW,
UROW, WROW, legal easement and the like, unless otherwise permitted by the
barangay concerned or by the LGU but in no case shall the period of display exceed
seven (7) calendar days. The barangay or LGU must thereafter remove said temporary
sign/s.
Reckoned from the edge of the national RROW within the LGU, all large NMB/
electronic billboard displays i.e. in excess of thirty square meters (30.0 sqm) in display
area shall have a minimum clear/ unobstructed viewing distance of twenty five
meters (25.0 m).

No NMB/ electronic display shall be located within more than two hundred meters
(200.0m) of the outermost portion of all interchanges or of the outermost portion of
the national right-of-way (ROW) of all underpasses, overpasses, bridges, tunnels,
station/ terminal/ inter-modal/ multi-modal structures and the like or from the
center of an intersection. For existing/ proposed national RROW widths of forty
meters (40.0m) wide or wider, a distance of from fifty to one hundred and fifty meters
(50.0m to 150.0m) shall apply.

No part of a NMB/ electronic display including its support structure shall be placed on,
in or over any public property/ domain, including national public/
transportation/utility ROWs or utility/drainage easements or upon telephone/utility
poles or upon natural features such as trees, rocks and the like. In particular, nonmobile billboards/ electronic displays shall not be erected or maintained or violate
the air rights above a carriageway/ roadway, railway or waterway/ vessel-way.
NMBs/ electronic displays shall not be erected at residual areas at or along
intersections of national RROWs, RRROWs, ROWs and legal easements or at or along
intersections of such public spaces.

NMBs/ electronic displays that may obscure or obstruct the view of vehicular or
pedestrian traffic or that may interfere, imitate, resemble or be confused with official
traffic signs, signals or devices shall not be permitted. No NMB/ electronic display that
prevents a clear and unobstructed view of official traffic signs in approaching or
merging traffic shall be permitted.
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

No NMB/ electronic display that may impair any scenic vista or view corridor from the
national RROW/ legal easement or from a building/ structure along such RROW/ legal
easement shall be permitted.

properties, unless a current and valid lease agreement for the use of such air rights
exists.

A NMB/ electronic display mounted on a fire-walled property shall not utilize the air
rights of a private/ public property adjoining such a fire-walled property without the
written consent of the property owner or lawful possessor of the affected property
and without the permit of the barangay concerned or the LGU. In case of the presence
of official consent by the affected propertys owner or lawful possessor for a firewallmounted NMB/ electronic display, the same may opt to share in the income that may
be derived from the NMB/ electronic display in exchange for the use of the air rights.
In case of the lack of consent or refusal by the affected propertys owner or lawful
possessor for a firewall-mounted NMB/ electronic display, only a painted display may
be placed on the firewall, still subject to the prior consent of the affected propertys
property owner or lawful possessor and to the prior permission of the barangay
concerned or the LGU. Neither a NMB/ electronic display mounted on the firewall nor
a display painted on the firewall shall be allowed if there is lack of consent or official
refusal/ objection by the affected propertys owner or lawful possessor.

NMBs/ electronic displays may only be single-faced or double-faced. In the case of


a double-faced NMBs/ electronic displays, the allowed display surface area/ BEDU on
each face shall not exceed one hundred twenty five square meters (125.0 sqm) per
BEDU/ display/ face, a maximum size that must be proportional to the RROW width
e.g. for RROWs that are 40.0 m or wider, provided that applicable setback, yard and
building height limit (BHL) requirements of the NBCP and its IRR are satisfied.
Triple, quadruple or higher multi-faced non-mobile billboards/ electronic displays
shall not be allowed as these are already configured as buildings or solid structures
that unnecessarily block natural light and ventilation and pose public safety problems.

E.6.1.2

NMBs/ electronic displays shall not be placed within or above any portion of a RROW
or ROW, particularly at the sides, below or on top of the exterior of public structures
such as elevated expressways and transit alignments/ stations/ terminals and the like
which occupy the RROW, including the airspace/ air rights above such RROWs/
ROWs, but may be allowed at the enclosed sides of loading platforms and pedestrian
access-ways at such public structures.

Position within Private Property or Public Property Outside RROWs/ ROWs/ Legal Easements
within the LGU (including those mounted on building facades and firewalls)

All NMBs/ electronic displays shall be erected in conformity with the front, side
and rear setback and yard requirements prescribed in the latest pertinent executive
issuance pertaining to and/or the latest IRR of the National Building Code of the
Philippines (NBCP), with the DPWH NBCDO Memorandum Circular No. 1, series of
2008 and in the applicable LGU zoning regulations. In case of conflict between such
laws/ regulations, the provisions of the NBCP shall generally prevail. However, if the
provisions under the pertinent LGU ordinance are more stringent than the NBCP, then
such LGU ordinance shall prevail.
NMBs/ electronic signs mounted on facades of buildings along a national RROW/
street shall be sized in accordance with the zoning classification and in proportion to
the applicable setbacks, building height limit (BHL), the permissible proportions of
openings/ fenestrations for mandated natural light and ventilation, outermost face of
buildings/ billboards (OFBs) and outermost limits of building projections (OLBP) and
related provisions under the NBCP as well as the various safety provisions under the
FCP, duly determined by a registered and licensed architect (RLA). NMBs/ electronic
signs mounted on facades of buildings and in between independent structures for
NMBs along a national RROW/ street/ other ROW shall be similarly restricted as
NMBs on independent structures, based on applicable development controls found in
the NBCP and/or specific executive issuances of the DPWH Secretary, such as but not
limited to NBCDO Memorandum Circular No. 1, Series of 2008, in his capacity as the
National Building Official (NBO).
No part of a NMB/ electronic display shall be placed on, in or over any private/ public
property without the written consent of the property owner or lawful possessor and
without the permit of the barangay concerned or the LGU. This particularly applies to
NMBs/ electronic displays and their outdoor lighting provisions, as applicable,
mounted on firewalls and deliberately intruding into the air rights of adjoining

E-65

No NMB/ electronic display shall be erected or maintained upon or above the roof of
any building/ structure if the same is in violation of the NBCP and its IRR, applicable
executive issuances or more stringent laws.

E.6.1.3

No NMB/ electronic display shall be constructed on a property where the same can
obscure or shade the prescribed openings, windows or doors of adjacent buildings/
structures. NMBs/ electronic display shall not be made of reflective material that can
redirect unwanted light towards adjacent buildings/ structures, particularly at
residential structures at night time.

NMB/ Electronic Display Spacing and Density

Independent structures for NMBs/ electronic displays located upon or oriented


towards traffic traveling upon the same side of a national RROW/ street at all its
development levels at grade and above grade, with maximum permitted BEDU shall be
spaced no less than five hundred meters (500.0 m) apart in the case of building
exterior wall-mounted BEDU and no less than two hundred and fifty meters (250.0 m)
apart in the case of freestanding or self-mounted BEDU. For narrower national
RROWs, the spacing may be between a minimum of two hundred and fifty meters to a
maximum of five hundred meters (min. 250.0 m max. 500.0 m) depending on the
allowed vehicle speeds on the RROW as determined by the DPWH. These foregoing
distances shall be measured along a straight line between the two (2.0) nearest points
of the NMBs/ electronic displays. The minimum spacing required shall not apply to
two (2.0) displays viewed from different directions but which share a common
support structure.
Regardless of national RROW/ other ROW widths, NMBs/ electronic displays shall not
be located within a one hundred meter (100.0 m) radius (radial distance) of another

NMB/ electronic display even if the two (2.0) NMB s/


different RROWs/ streets/ other ROWs.

electronic displays are on

Building-mounted NMBs/ electronic displays located upon or oriented towards


traffic traveling upon the same side of a national or LGU RROW/ street, with maximum
permitted BEDU shall be spaced on a case-to-case basis as determined through the
proper application of development controls mandated under the NBCP (minimum
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6.1.4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

standards) and/or under the pertinent LGU ordinance (with standards more stringent
than that of the NBCP), duly prepared by a registered and licensed architect (RLA).

satisfaction of the applicable setback, yard and building height limit (BHL), maximum
architectural projection/ OLBP and/or outermost face of building/ billboard (OFB)
requirements of the NBCP and its 2004 and/or latest IRR and the pertinent LGU
Zoning Ordinance (ZO).

Display Content and Lighting for NMBs/ Electronic Displays

For Zone 2 (Along Secondary RROWs/ ROWs)

All display content for NMBs/ electronic displays and temporary signs must conform
to the standards set by the Advertising Board of the Philippines (a self-regulatory
agency) and/or the government agency tasked or to be tasked with reviewing and
approving the display.

A NMB/ BEDU shall have a surface or display area of between seven point five (7.5)
sqm minimum and thirty (30.0) sqm maximum for existing/ proposed national urban
RROWs/ ROWs.
The maximum dimension of any one (1.0) side of a maximum BEDU shall be one point
five meters (1.5 m), subject to compliance with the applicable NMB height limitation
under these DGDG.

All display content exhibited in a foreign language shall similarly exhibit the
corresponding translation in either English or the local dialect/s.

No NMB/ electronic display with any commercial content shall be permitted within all
properties zoned as residential nor within residential subdivisions. In the case of a
new residential subdivision, only commercial NMBs/ electronic displays containing
information on the residential subdivision shall be allowed.

No NMB/ electronic display with any commercial content shall be erected within a
two hundred meter (200.0 m) distance of the nearest property line of declared
historic or cultural sites or of institutional sites such as schools, churches, hospitals,
government buildings, public parks/ playgrounds/ recreation areas, convention
centers, cemeteries or any other area which must be free of NMBs/ electronic displays
with commercial content.

E.6.1.5

E.6.1.6

Lighting: NMBs shall be illuminated only by luminaries exuding a fixed/ nonoscillating/ non-fluctuating amount of light that shall not produce glare or unwanted
reflectance when directed at a display.

All NMBs/ electronic displays shall be erected in conformity with the building
height limits (BHL, also applicable as Billboard Height Limits), the outermost limits on
building projections (OLBP) and the outermost face of buildings (OFB, also applicable
as outermost face of billboards), duly prescribed in the 2004 and/or latest IRR of the
NBCP and in the applicable LGU Zoning Ordinance (ZO) and related developmentoriented national and local laws and regulations.
Allowable variations from the standard measurements per Zone shall generally
conform with the following:

A NMB/ BEDU shall have a surface or display area of between thirty (30.0) sqm
minimum and two hundred twenty five (225.0) sqm maximum for existing/ proposed
national urban RROWs/ ROWs.
The maximum dimension of any one (1.0) side of a maximum BEDU shall be seven
point five meters (7.5 m), subject to compliance with the applicable NMB height
limitation under these DGDG.
No freestanding NMB/ electronic display shall exceed twenty five meters (25.0 m) in
height, measured from the average elevation of the surface of the natural ground or
existing sidewalk or carriageway level (whichever is higher) up to the highest point of
the NMB or any of its components. This maximum height is contingent on the prior

E-67

Placement of Billboards/ Electronic Displays with respect to Emergency Exits, Doors and
Windows.
No NMB/ electronic display shall be erected in such a manner that any portion of its
display or supports will interfere in any way with the free use or operation of any fire
escape, emergency exit, door, window, standpipe and the like. A NMB/ electronic
display shall not be erected, constructed and maintained so as to obstruct any
emergency exit or other openings or to prevent free passage from one part of a roof to
any part thereof. A NMB/ electronic display in any form or shape shall not in any
manner be attached to a fire escape or be so placed as to interfere with an opening
required for introducing natural light and ventilation into a building/ structure. This
provision shall particularly apply to all tall buildings.

Allowable Dimensions for Non-Mobile Billboard Displays/ Electronic Displays

For Zone 1 [Along Major RROWs/ ROWs, at Planned Units Developments (PUDs) and
at Special Development Zones/ SDZs]

No freestanding NMB/ electronic display shall exceed twenty five (25.0 m) in height,
measured from the average elevation of the surface of the natural ground or existing
sidewalk or carriageway level (whichever is higher) up to the highest point of the
NMB or any of its components. This maximum height is contingent on the prior
satisfaction of the applicable setback, yard and BHL, maximum architectural
projection/ OLBP and/or OFB requirements of the NBCP and its 2004 and/or latest
IRR and the LGU ZO.

E.6.1.7

NMBs/ electronic displays shall also not be used to wrap buildings to deprive
occupants natural light, ventilation and view. This particularly applies to all types of
residential and office buildings as well as above-grade parking buildings, where
exhaust venting shall be severely compromised by such non-mobile billboards/
electronic displays, even if perforations are introduced.

Responsible State-regulated Professionals for NMBs/ Electronic Displays

As of the effective date of this Ordinance, the permit documents for the erection and
maintenance of all NMBs/ Electronic Displays under these DGDG shall be as follows:

Registered and licensed Architect (RLAr) for the Architectural and Urban Design
Analyses;

Registered and licensed Environmental Planner (RLEnP) for the Environmental


Analyses;
Registered and licensed Civil Engineer (RLCE) with specialization in structural
design for the Structural Design and Analyses;
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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6.1.8

Registered and licensed Professional Electrical Engineer (PEE) for the Electrical
Design and Analyses for Non-Mobile Billboards; and
Registered and licensed Professional Communications Engineer (PCE) for the
Electronic Design and Analyses for Electronic Displays.

General Regulations for Signages

Temporary Signs: Temporary signs shall be limited to hangings such as buntings,


banners and posters mounted on existing posts, fences or buildings except in any
part of the RROWs, shall have a life of thirty (30) calendar days, renewable, with the
date of expiry printed on the sign, which shall be removed at owners expense or if
removed by the LGU, removal costs shall be charged accordingly to the signage owner;
signs on construction fences shall be allowed only for the duration of the construction
work, and should be maintained at original quality at all times; events signs are
considered temporary signs.
Dimensions of signage and illumination: Signage dimensions shall range from a
minimum of 0.045 sqm for address and occupant signs to a maximum of 6.0 sqm for
event signs as well as building directory signs. The most common sign, the wall sign,
shall range from 1.0 sqm to 3.0 sqm.

Other building signs: Certain uses shall be allowed special signs. Places that serve as
congregation areas for large crowds (e.g. places of worship; sports stadiums,
racetracks, etc.) shall be allowed event signs to announce details of the occasion.
Structures that have multiple tenants shall be allowed a building directory sign.
Projecting signs shall be allowed for fire/ security stations and general/ specialized
hospitals, medical centers. Petrol identification signs (pole signs) shall be specific to
petrol filling kiosks/ service stations.

For certain types of uses, signage regulations shall be consistent no matter the zone
these are located in. These allowed uses include fire/ security stations; general/
specialized hospitals, medical centers; hotels; multi-family dwellings; parking
structures; parks/ playgrounds/ gardens; petrol filling kiosks/ service centers;
residential inns, condominiums/ condotels/ apartments; single-detached dwellings;
supermarkets/ food stores; transit stations/ terminal; wet/ dry markets; and zoos,
other nature centers.
Detailed Signage Regulations

Address & occupant signs: for buildings or structures shall be allowed a maximum
area of 0.045 sqm (0.15 m x 0.3 m) and a height of between 1.2 - 1.6 m from sidewalk
level, except for fire stations. For fire/ security stations, there shall be no limit to the
dimensions for the maximum area. For signage locations and illumination, the allowed
use and/or specific regulations shall be as discussed hereafter.

Building identification signs and/or logo signs: Building identification sign and/or
logo sign (halo-lighted, internally lighted or externally lighted) and building
identification sign and/or logo sign (at top of building) shall be allowed a maximum
area of 3.0 sqm, a height of not more than 4.0 m or not more than 4% of building
height, whichever is smaller, and be located near the top of building.

Building identification sign and/or logo sign, address sign (illuminated) shall be
allowed a maximum area of 3.0 sqm, a minimum height of 2.2 m and a maximum
height of 4.0 m, and shall be located at the ground floor of building faade near the

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

wall entrance or at perimeter wall, gate or fence. The allowed maximum height of each
letter is 1.0 m.
Building identification sign and/or logo sign (canopy sign) shall be allowed at
entrance canopy. The allowed maximum height of each letter is 0.6 m.

Canopy signs: shall be allowed a minimum height from bottom of the sign to the
finished surface of the sidewalk at 2.2 m and a maximum height from top of wall sign
to sidewalk surface level of 4.0 m. For signage illumination, maximum areas, and
locations, refer to the allowed use and/or specific regulations by zone hereafter.
Events signs: shall be allowed a minimum height from the bottom of sign to sidewalk
level of 2.2 mts. and maximum height from top of sign to finished surface of the
sidewalk at 4.0 m, where the sign shall be located at the building faade near the
entrance. For signage illumination and maximum areas, refer to the allowed use
and/or specific regulations.

Free-standing ground signs (e.g. building directory): shall not be higher than 1.8
m, shall have a minimum letter height of 0.2 m, and shall be located within the
property line. If the 2nd floor finished floor line (FFLL) is less than 6.0 m from the
finished sidewalk level, the minimum height shall be set at 3.0 m from finished
sidewalk level to the bottom of sign while the maximum height shall be 6.0 m from
finished sidewalk level to the top of sign. If 2nd floor FFL is more than 6.0 m from
finished sidewalk level, the top of sign should not extend beyond 2 nd floor level. Signs
are allowed up to 75% of width of frontage of rented space but shall not exceed 1.0 m
high or 6.0 m wide, and the maximum projection allowed shall only be at 0.2 m from
property line.

Monument signs: shall be allowed a maximum area of 3.0 sqm including the base
material which is attached to the ground and shall be located at the entrance area,
except for petrol filling kiosks/ service stations. For monument signs located at petrol
filling kiosks/ service stations, the signs shall be allowed a maximum area of 2.0 sqm
and shall be mounted on the ground.
Petrol identification signs (pole signs): shall be illuminated, shall have a maximum
area of 2.0 sqm and shall have a minimum height of 3.0 m up to a maximum of 5.0 m
from the finished sidewalk level.
Projecting signs: shall be illuminated, shall have a maximum area of 1.0 sqm with a
minimum height from bottom of sign to finished sidewalk level of 2.2 m and a
maximum height from top of wall sign to finished sidewalk level of 4.0 m, and be
attached perpendicular to the building faade near the entrance. The projecting sign
shall not obstruct the sidewalk.

Wall signs: shall be allowed a minimum height from bottom of the sign to finished
sidewalk level of 2.2 m and a maximum height from top of wall sign to finished
sidewalk level of 4.0 m with the exception of parking structures, transit stations/
terminals and petrol filling kiosks/ service stations. For parking structures and transit
stations/ terminals, wall signs shall be allowed a minimum height of 2.4 m measured
from the bottom of sign to crown of RROW carriageway. For petrol filling kiosks/
service stations, the wall sign shall be at the edge of the roof/ parapet. For signage
illumination, maximum areas and similar locations, refer to the allowed use and/or
specific regulations by zone as shown hereafter.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6.1.9

Official Signs Exempted


The following official signs are exempt from the restrictions of this Ordinance that
may also apply to signs:

E.6.1.10

Official highway route number signs, street name signs, directional, or other
official government signs;
Directional, information or public service signs, such as those advertising
availability of restrooms, telephone or similar public conveniences;

Official traffic signs, signals, devices and the like; and


Official signs for memorial or historical places.

Possible Exemption for Non-Mobile Billboards/ Electronic Displays Only Above the Sidewalk
Portion of the RROW
Satisfaction of the following conditions, whereby the permitted non-mobile billboard/
electronic display is made to effectively contribute to positive urban design/
redevelopment, may allow the placement or erection of non-mobile billboards/
electronic displays but only above the sidewalk portion of the RROW:

E.6.1.11

If the NMB/ electronic display and its cantilevered support structure is used to
effectively hold in place and disguise/ conceal overhead electrical, telephone,
cable TV and similar utility lines that hover above the sidewalk and that may pose
possible danger to pedestrians; provided that such utility lines are also effectively
concealed from the view of persons within a property/ building or structure
without unduly compromising considerations of natural light and ventilation.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E.6.1.12

Sustainability of NMBs/ Electronic Displays


All of the construction and finishing materials, related to the erection, operation and
maintenance of NMBs/ BEDUs, particularly including the mode of disposal, reuse,
recycling, etc. of such materials such as used paints, stickers, tarpaulin, plastics,
metals, glass, expended luminaires, and the like, shall conform with the pertinent
environmental laws and regulations, including those related to professional practices
in the fields of environmental planning, environmental investigation and
environmental design (in which architecture and urban design are included), as well
as accepted and/or prescribed international sustainability practices such as
international agreements and protocols in which the Republic of the Philippines is a
signatory.
Of particular importance are the determination of embodied energy levels in such
materials, which is part of the carbon (footprint) reduction effort worldwide. The
embodied energy used in the sourcing, manufacture, transportation/ handling/
delivery, installation, use and operation/ maintenance of such materials must require
the least consumption and production of carbon and must thereby promote health and
general wellbeing (including nuisance avoidance) of all affected by the introduction of
the pertinent non-mobile billboard/ BEDU.

If the NMB/ electronic display and its cantilevered support structure is also used
to effectively provide a shelter from the elements for the pedestrians passing
underneath; as such, the non-mobile billboard serves as a component of a virtual
covered sidewalk system.
If the NMB/ electronic display to cover the utility lines is officially permitted by
the DPWH with the MMDA and/or the DILG.

If the allowed NMB/ electronic display does not exceed 1.2 meters in height and
provides a clear vertical distance of at least 4.0 meters for pedestrians passing
underneath.

State Regulation of NMB/ Electronic Display Content

Since the content of NMBs/ electronic displays have an undeniable effect on its
viewers, particularly the young, the State must perforce regulate such NMB/
electronic billboard content such that public morals are preserved in general and such
that undue attacks on beliefs, customs and traditions, lawful practices and on the
exploited and/or marginalized sectors of society are likewise prevented, with the
proper presentation of the content and of the displays context without directly
venturing into censorship.

Only limited self-regulation among industry players may be allowed, such that the
LGU shall continue to exercise overall supervision on all matters pertaining to
regulation of NMBs/ electronic displays within its jurisdiction. In such a manner,
liabilities and violations can be clearly established by the LGU and subsequently
addressed by the proper authorities.
E-71

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Current Interpretations of Rule XII of P.D. No. 1096 (1977 NBCP)

This Annex graphically illustrates interpretations of the prescribed compliances for buildings under
Rule XII of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096 (the 1977 National Building Code of the
Philippines/ NBCP) and is intended for ready reference by physical planners, architects, designers,
and the competent reviewing authorities authorized to review/ process and approve building plans
under P.D. No. 1096.

Annex F

Current Interpretations of Rule XII of


P.D. No. 1096 (1977 NBCP)

F-1

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F-4

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F-5

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F-6

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F-8

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F-11

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F-13

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F-14

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F-15

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F-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

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F-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

F-19

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Annex G

F-22

Generic Documents Guide for a Large


National Government Office Building
Project

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Generic DOCUMENTS GUIDE for a

A-16

(Approx. 1.7 hectares Total Lot Area/ TLA, approx. 60,000 sqm Total Gross Floor Area/ TGFA,
Large Footprint, Medium-rise with Deck Roof Level and No Basement Level)

A-18

LARGE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OFFICE Building Project

Generic Plan and Design Drawing Schedule


at Approximately 275 A0 (i.e. about 30 x 40) Size Sheets
Very Important Note: In the case of repair, renovation, rehabilitation, retrofit,
expansion, heritage conservation, fit-out, and similar works/ projects for buildings/
structures, the AS-BUILT PLANS AND DESIGNS of such buildings/ structures,
together with the respective SCOPE OF WORKS BRIEF i.e. an image map
showing the plans, sections, elevations, etc. with call-outs of the intended
construction works, MUST be provided by the Designer and/or Project Proponent
before the rest of the Plans/ Designs/ Documents listed hereafter.
A. Design
Discipline

1. ARCHITECTURAL (A)
Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
9266), only registered and
licensed architects/ RLAs
shall prepare, sign and seal
all professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Architectural
Documents

B. Sheet Code

(and Number)

1. Primary
Drawing/s

A-1

PERSPECTIVES

A-2

SITE DEVELOPMENT
PLAN

A-19
A-20

A-21

A-22

A0 Sheet Content
2. Secondary
Drawing/s and/or
Primary
Information

VICINITY MAP;
LOCATION PLAN

3. Secondary/
Other
Information
TABLE OF
CONTENTS

A-23
A-24
A-25
A-26
A-27
A-28
A-29

A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
A-10
A-11
A-12
A-13
A-14
A-15

G-1

C.

A-17

LOWER GROUND
FLOOR PLAN
UPPER GROUND
FLOOR PLAN
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
THIRD FLOOR PLAN
FOURTH FLOOR PLAN
FIFTH FLOOR PLAN
SIXTH FLOOR PLAN
SEVENTH FLOOR
PLAN
ROOF DECK PLAN
FRONT ELEVATION
LEFT-SIDE ELEVATION
REAR ELEVATION
RIGHT-SIDE

A-30
A-31
A-32
A-33
A-34
A-35
A-36
A-37

ELEVATION
LONGITUDINAL
SECTION
CROSS SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 2&3
CROSS SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 6&7
CROSS SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 8&9
PARTIAL SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 2&3
CURTAIN WALL
(FRONT)
PARTIAL SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 3&4
REAR WALL
PARTIAL SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 6&7
CURTAIN WALL
(FRONT)
PARTIAL SECTION
BETWEEN GRIDS 8&9
(FRONT)
PARTIAL PLAN:
SHOWING CONC.
LEDGES
PARTIAL PLAN:
CANOPY @7TH FLOOR
LEVEL
PARTIAL PLAN:
CONCRETE CANOPY
@7TH FLOOR LEVEL
CANOPY @ SEVENTH
FLOOR DETAILED
SECTION
CROWN & PORTHOLE
DETAILS
TOWER DETAILS
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN LOWER GROUND
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN UPPER GROUND
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN SECOND FLOOR
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN THIRD FLOOR
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN FOURTH FLOOR
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN FIFTH FLOOR
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN SIXTH FLOOR
REFLECTED CEILING
PLAN SEVENTH
FLOOR
LIGHTING PLAN-DECK
AND MACH. ROOM
SCHEDULE OF DOORS

DETAIL SECTION
CONCRETE LEDGE
(REAR)
DETAIL SECTION:
CONCRETE LEDGE
(LEFT & RIGHT SIDE)
SPOT DETAIL

PARAPET DETAILS
ISOMETRIC DRAWING
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
LEGEND
LIGHTING FIXTURE
DOOR FIN. &
ACCESSORIES

CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.
CALLOUTS
CEILING FIN.

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

A-38
A-39
A-40
A-41
A-42
A-43
A-44

A-45

A-46
A-47

A-48
A-48
AI-49
AI-50

AI-51

AI-52
AI-53

2. ARCHITECTURAL
G-3

AI-1

SCHEDULE OF
WINDOWS, TAGS AND
COUNT
FIXED/SLIDING
WINDOW DETAIL
FIXED/SLIDING
WINDOW DETAILS
CURTAIN WALL
DETAILS
DOOR TAGS AND
COUNT
FLOOR PATTERNROOF DECK
PLAN MAINSTAIRS: LGUG
PLAN MAINSTAIRS:
UG-7TH FLOOR
PLAN MAINSTAIRS: 7TH
FLOOR-DECK LEVEL
MAIN STAIRS SECTION
PARTIAL SECTION: 5THROOD DECK LEVEL
PARTIAL SECTION:
TYP. FLOORS
FIRE EXIT DETAILS
ENTRANCE STAIR
DETAIL
DISABLED RAMP
DETAILS
CANOPY DETAILS
ENTRANCE STAIR
DETAILS
KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
DETAILS
SCHEDULE OF
EXTERIOR PAINTING
WORKS
SCHEDULE OF
EXTERIOR
ARCHITECTURAL
METALWORK
SCHEDULE OF
MURALS AND PUBLIC
ART/ EXTERIOR
SCULPTURE
SCHEDULE OF
OUTDOOR TILEWORK,
TAGS AND COUNT
PLANS, DRAWINGS,
DETAILS AND
SCHEDULE OF
ARCHITECTURAL
COMPLIANCES WITH
THE ACCESSIBILITY
LAW

WINDOW FIN. &


ACCESSORIES

PARTITION PLAN-

LEGEND

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

INTERIORS (AI)*
Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
9266), only registered and
licensed architects/ RLAs
shall prepare, sign and seal
all professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Architectural
Interior (AI) Documents

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
DOOR FIN. &
ACCESSORIES
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
ISOMETRIC VIEW

LOWER GROUND

WALL FIN.

AI-2

PARTITION PLANUPPER GROUND

LEGEND
WALL FIN.

AI-3

PARTITION PLANSECOND FLOOR


PARTITION PLAN
THIRD FLOOR
PARTITION PLAN
FOURTH FLOOR
PARTITION PLAN
FIFTH FLOOR
PARTITION PLAN
SIXTH FLOOR
PARTITION PLAN
SEVENTH FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNLOWER GROUND
FLOOR PATTERNUPPER GROUND
FLOOR PATTERNSECOND FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNTHIRD FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNFOURTH FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNFIFTH FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNSIXTH FLOOR
FLOOR PATTERNSEVENTH FLOOR
SCHEDULE OF
FINISHES FOR
ARCHITECTURAL
INTERIOR WORKS
SCHEDULE OF
FINISHES FOR
ARCHITECTURAL
INTERIOR WORKS
SCHEDULE OF
FINISHES FOR
ARCHITECTURAL
INTERIOR WORKS
SCHEDULE OF FINISH
FOR ARCHITECTURAL
INTERIOR WORKS
TYPICAL HALLWAY
DETAILS
SIXTH FLOOR
HALLWAY DETAIL
PARTIAL PLAN: MAIN

LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
WALL FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
LEGEND
FLOOR FIN.
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

AI-4
AI-5
AI-6
AI-7

DETAIL SECTION
SPOT DETAIL
NOSING DETAIL

AI-8
AI-9

SPOT DETAILS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

AI-10
AI-11
AI-12
NOTES
NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

AI-13
AI-14
AI-15
AI-16
AI-17

AI-18

AI-19

AI-20
AI-21

AI-22

CALLOUTS
OTHER FIN.

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

CALLOUTS
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
G-4

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

AI-23

AI-24

AI-25
AI-26
AI-27

A-28
AI-29
AI-30
AI-31
A1-32
AI-33

G-5

LOBBY DETAILED
ELEVATION
DETAILED ELEVATION:
MAIN LOBBY
PLAN: COLUMN
CLADDING
SECTION: COLUMN
CLADDING
SECTION: ACCENT
WALL
DETAIL SECTION:
RAILING
DETAIL ELEVATION:
RAILING
PARTIAL ELEVATION:
RAILING @ MAIN
LOBBY
WALL DETAIL
SECTIONS
CEILING DETAILS
TOILET DETAILS
-LOWER GROUND
FLOOR
-UPPER GROUND
FLOOR
-SECOND FLOOR
TOILET DETAILS
-THIRD FLOOR
-FOURTH FLOOR
TOILET DETAILS
-FIFTH FLOOR
-SIXTH FLOOR
PANTRY DETAILS
-UPPER GROUND
FLOOR
PANTRY DETAILS
-SECOND FLOOR
PANTRY DETAILS
-THIRD FLOOR &
FOURTH FLOOR
PANTRY DETAILS
-FIFTH FLOOR

AI-34

PANTRY DETAILS
-SIXTH FLOOR

AI-35

PANTRY DETAILS
-SEVENTH FLOOR

AI-36

PLAN: GM BACKWALL
& BACK CABINET
ELEVATIONS,
SECTIONS & DETAILS
PARTIAL PLAN:
GM/CONF. RM,
DIVIDER CAB.
ELEVATION, SECTIONS

FINISHES &
SPECIFICATIONS
SPOT DETAIL: COLUMN
CLADDING
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

SPOT DETAIL:
HANDRAIL
SECTION: ALUMINUM
SHEET

MOULDING DETAILS
SPOT DETAILS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

AI-37

AI-38
AI-39

AI-40
AI-41
AI-42
AI-43
AI-44
AI-45
AI-46
AI-47

AI-48
AI-49
AI-50
AI-51
AI-52
AI-53

AI-54

& DETAILS
KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
LAYOUT

LOWER GROUND
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
UPPER GROUND
FLOOR FURNITURE
LAYOUT, TAGS &
COUNT
SECOND FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
THIRD FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
FOURTH FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
FIFTH FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
SIXTH FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
SEVENTH FLOOR
FURNITURE LAYOUT,
TAGS & COUNT
-SIGNAGE AND
GRAPHICS DESIGN
DETAIL
-SIGNAGE AND
GRAPHICS DESIGN
PLANS, TAG AND
COUNT
SCHEDULE OF
HARDWARE AND
COUNT
SCHEDULE OF
FIXTURES, TAG AND
COUNT
SCHEDULE OF
FURNISHINGS, TAG
AND COUNT
SCHEDULE OF STAIRS,
ESCALATORS AND
ELEVATORS
SCHEDULE OF SMALL
OFFICE EQUIPMENT,
TAG AND COUNT
SCHEDULE OF
GRAPHICS, SIGNAGES
AND WAYFINDING
DEVICES
SCHEDULE OF
FURNITURE AND

CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
LIST

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

G-6

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

AI-55
AI-56
AI-57
AI-58
AI-59
AI-60

AI-61
AI-62
AI-63

AI-64
AI-65
AI-66

3. INTERIOR DESIGN
(ID)** Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
8534), only registered and
licensed
interior
designers/ RLIDs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Interior
Design (ID) Documents

G-7

ID - 1
ID - 2

ID - 3

MOVABLE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
FURNITURE AND
MOVABLE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
FURNITURE AND
MOVABLE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
FURNITURE AND
MOVABLE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
MILLWORK ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
INTERIOR PAINTING
WORKS
SCHEDULE OF
INTERIOR
ARCHITECTURAL
METALWORK
SCHEDULE OF
INDOOR TILEWORK,
TAGS AND COUNT
SCHEDULE OF TOILET
FIXTURES AND
ACCESSORIES
SCHEDULE OF
ARCHITECTURAL
LIGHTING FIXTURES
(INCLUDING
MONUMENTAL
LIGHTING) AND
ACCESSOTIES
SCHEDULE OF
INDOOR PLANTS AND
HOLDERS
PARKING AND
TRAFFIC PLAN
PLANS, DRAWINGS,
DETAILS AND
SCHEDULE OF
ARCHITECTURAL
INTERIOR
COMPLIANCES WITH
THE ACCESSIBILITY
LAW

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

DESIGN & DETAILS


- CUSTOM FURNITURE
DESIGN & DETAILS
- CUSTOM FURNITURE
DESIGN & DETAILS
- CUSTOM FURNITURE
DESIGN & DETAILS
SCHEDULE OF
FURNITURE AND
MOVABLE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF
DRAPES, CURTAINS,
CUSHIONS, WINDOW
ACCESSORIES, ETC.
AND ATTENDANT
HARDWARE ITEMS
SCHEDULE OF DCOR
ITEMS, PAINTINGS
AND INTERIOR
SCULPTURE

SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

LA - 1

ID - 4

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

ID - 7

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

ID - 8

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

ID - 5
ID - 6

-SYSTEMS FURNITURE
DESIGN & DETAILS
-SYSTEMS FURNITURE
DESIGN & DETAILS

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

-SYSTEMS FURNITURE

OUTLINE

NOTES

NOTES

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

-PLANTING PLAN &


GENERAL NOTES

CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

GENERAL NOTES

LA - 2

-PLANT LIST &


DETAILS

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS AND
CALLOUTS

CONSOLIDATED
PLANT LIST

LA - 3

SOFTSCAPING PLAN,
DESIGN AND DETAILS
HARDSCAPING PLAN,
DESIGN AND DETAILS

CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS AND
CALLOUTS
OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS AND
CALLOUTS

LA - 4

5. SITE DEVELOPMENT
PLAN (SDP) Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
9266), only registered and
licensed architects/ RLAs
shall prepare, sign and seal
all professional outputs for
buildings and their grounds
i.e. those that are classified
as Site Development Plan
(SDP) Documents

NOTES

NOTES

ID - 9

NOTES

NOTES

OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

4. LANDSCAPE***
ARCHITECTURAL (LA)
Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
9053), only registered and
licensed
landscape
architects/ RLLAs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Landscape
Architectural
(LA)
Documents

NOTES

LA - 5

LANDSCAPING
LIGHTING AND
SIGNAGE PLAN,
DESIGN AND DETAILS

SDP-1

SITE DEVELOMENT
PLAN
MAIN FENCE DETAILS

ISOMETRIC DETAILS

PLAN: GUARDS
OUTPOST

GUARDS OUTPOST
-WINDOW SCHEDULE

SDP-2

SDP-3

G-8

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

SDP-4

6. CIVIL WORKS (CW)


Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
544, as amended by R.A.
No. 1582), only registered
and
licensed
civil
engineers/ RLCEs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Civil Works
(CW) Documents

SDP-5

GATE PLAN AND


DETAILS

SDP-6

PEDESTRIAN GATE
PLAN AND DETAILS

CW 1

GRADING PLAN AND


DETAILS
SITE DRAINAGE PLAN,
DESIGN AND DETAILS

CW 2

G-9

-PARAPET DETAIL
SECTION
SECURITY BOOTH
-WINDOW SCHEDULE
-PARAPET DETAIL

CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS
FINISHES & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
ISOMETRIC DETAILS

Note: By law (R.A. No.


544, as amended by R.A.
No. 1582), only registered
and
licensed
civil
engineers/ RLCEs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Structural (S)
Engineering
Design
Documents

S-2

FOUNDATION/
COLUMN KEY PLAN

S-3

FOUNDATION DETAILS

S-4
S-5

COLUMN SCHEDULE
COLUMN SCHEDULE

S-6

SHEAR WALL
SCHEDULE
SHEAR WALL
SCHEDULE
LOWER GROUND
FLOOR FRAMING PLAN
UPPER GROUND
FLOOR FRAMING PLAN
SECOND FLOOR
FRAMING PLAN
THIRD FLOOR
FRAMING PLAN
FOURTH-SIXTH FLOOR
FRAMING PLAN
SEVENTH FLOOR
FRAMING PLAN
LOWER ROOF DECK
FRAMING PLAN
UPPER ROOF
FRAMING PLAN AND
DETAILS

S-7
S-8
S-9
S-10
S-11
S-12
S-13

CW 3
CW 4

7. STRUCTURAL (S)
Engineering Design
Sheets

-ROOF DECK PLAN


-FRONT ELEVATION
-LEFT ELEVATION
-REAR ELEVATION
-RIGHT ELEVATION
-CROSS SECTION
-LONGITUDINAL
SECTION
PLAN: SECURITY
BOOTH
-FRONT ELEVATION
-LEFT ELEVATION
-REAR ELEVATION
-RIGHT ELEVATION
-CROSS SECTION
-LONGITUDINAL
SECTION
FLAGPOLE PALN AND
DETAILS

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

S-1

S-14

PERIMETER WALL AND


FENCE DESIGN AND
DETAILS
DRIVEWAY, ROAD AND
SIDEWALK PLAN,
DESIGN AND
DDETAILS
CONSTRUCTION
NOTES

S-15

S-16
GENERAL NOTES,
NOTES ON CONCRETE
MIXES AND PLACING,
NOTES ON
REINFORCING STEEL
BARS, NOTES ON
FOUNDATION, NOTES
ON CONCRETE WALLS,
NOTES ON MASONRY
WALLS, NOTES ON
BEAMS AND GIRDERS,
NOTES ON CONCRETE

S-19

SCHEDULE OF
MOMENT RESISTING
GIRDERS
SCHEDULE OF
GIRDERS
SCHEDULE OF
GIRDERS
SCHEDULE OF BEAMS

S-20
S-21

SCHEDULE OF BEAMS
SCEDULES OF SLABS

S-17
S-18

SLABS, NOTES ON
STRUCTURAL STEEL,
NOTES ON COLUMNS &
DESIGN CRITERIA
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

PILE CAP SCHEDULE


CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

NOTES

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS,
TYPICAL CORBEL
DETAIL

TYPICAL BAR DETAILS


FOR BEAMS
TYPICAL SLAB
DETAILS, DROP SLAB,
CORNER SLAB &
TYPICAL DETAIL OF
SLAB OPENINGS
G-10

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

S-22

TRUSS DETAILS

S-23

MAIN STAIR DETAILS

S-24

LEFT / RIGHT WING


FIRE EXIT DETAILS

S-25
S-26
S-27
S-28
S-29

8. ELECTRICAL (E)
Engineering Design
Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
7920), only registered and
licensed
professional
electrical
engineers/
PEEs shall prepare, sign
and seal all professional
outputs for buildings i.e.
those that are classified as
Electrical (E) Engineering
Design Documents

E-1
E-2

E-3
E-4
E-5

E-6
E-7
E-8
E-9
E-10
E-11

G-11

MACH. RM DETAILS /
BEAM SCHEDULE OF
MACHINE ROOM
TOWER / MAST
DETAILS
PARAPET WALL
SUPPORT AND WALL
DETAILS
OVERHEAD / GROUND
WATER TANK DETAILS
UPPER ROOF
FRAMING PLAN AND
DETAILS
LOAD SCHEDULE

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

E-12

E-26

FIFTH FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SIXTH FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SEVENTH FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT
ROOF DECK LIGHTING
LAYOUT
GROUNDS POWER
LAYOUT
LOWER POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
UPPER POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SECOND POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
THIRD POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
FOURTH POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
FIFTH POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SIXTH POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SEVENTH POWER
LIGHTING LAYOUT
ROOF DECK POWER
LAYOUT
ROOF DECK POWER
LAYOUT
DETAILS

E-27

DETAILS

E-28

DETAILS

9. MECHANICAL (M)
Engineering Design
Sheets

M-1

Note: By law (R.A. No.


8495), only registered and
licensed
professional
mechanical engineers/
PMEs shall prepare, sign
and seal all professional
outputs for buildings i.e.
those that are classified as
Mechanical
(M)
Engineering
Design
Documents

M-2

-DRAWING INDEX,
LEGENDS AND
ABBREVIATIONS &
GENERAL NOTES
-SCHEDULE OF
EQUIPMENT

HVAC PIPE SYMBOLS,


HVAC DUCT
SYMBOLS& SITE
DEVELOPMENT PLAN

-LOWER GROUND A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT
-UPPER GROUND
FLOOR A/C AND
VENTILATION LAYOUT

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFATIONS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CONNECTION DETAILS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
BEAM DETAILS &
SPOT DETAILS
SCHEDULE OF BEAMS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

E-13
E-14
E-15
E-16
E-17
E-18
E-19
E-20

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

E-21

GENERAL NOTES

E-24

E-22
E-23

E-25

LOAD SCHEDULE

LOAD SCHEDULE AND


EMERGENCY LOAD
SCHEDULE
EMERGENCY LOAD
SCHEDULE
LIGHTING FIXTURE
SCHEDULE
PANELBOARD
SCHEDULE
GROUNDS LIGHTING
LAYOUT
LOWER GROUND
LIGHTING LAYOUT
UPPER GROUND
LIGHTING LAYOUT
SECOND FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT
THIRD FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT
FOURTH FLOOR
LIGHTING LAYOUT

E-25

M-3
M-4

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,

NOTES
NOTES
NOTES

NOTES

G-12

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

M-5

-SECOND FLOOR A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT

M-6

-THIRD FLOOR A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT

M-7

-FOURTH FLOOR A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT

M-8

-FIFTH FLOOR A/C AND


VENTILATION LAYOUT

M-9

-SIXTH FLOOR A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT

M - 10

-SEVENTH FLOOR A/C


AND VENTILATION
LAYOUT

M - 11

M - 12

M - 13

G-13

-ROOFDECK A/C AND


VENTILATION LAYOUT

-GENSET DETAILED
PLAN & SECTION,
ACCU BALCONY
DETAILED PLAN AND
SECTION *
MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS
-SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

M - 14

-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS 1

M - 15

-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS 2

UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
LEGEND,
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
UNIT DESIGNATION
AND QUANTITY
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

NOTES

10. FIRE PROTECTION


(FP)**** Design
Sheets

FP - 1

Note: By law (R.A. No.


8495), only registered and
licensed
professional
mechanical engineers/
PMEs shall prepare, sign
and seal all professional
outputs for buildings i.e.
those that are classified as
Mechanical
(M)
Engineering
Design
Documents

FP - 2

NOTES

NOTES

NOTES

NOTES

FP - 3
FP - 4
FP - 5
FP - 6

NOTES

FP - 7
FP - 8
FP - 9

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
DETAILS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
ELEVATIONS &
DETAILS

NOTES
STAIRWELL
PRESSURIZATION
FAN SEQUENCE
OF OPERATION
SMOKE
EVACUATION FAN
SEQUENCE OF
OPERATION
NOTES
DUCT SCHEDULE
NOTES,
DIMENSIONS &
PIPE SIZE

FP - 10
FP - 11

FP - 12
FP - 13

-FIRE PROTECTION
DRAWING INDEX, FIRE
PROTECTION
LEGENDS,
ABBREVIATIONS &
SYMBOLS, FIRE
PROTECTION
GENERAL NOTES, SITE
DEVT PLAN,
SCHEDULE OF
PUMPS,SCHEDULE OF
CONTROLLERS,
SCHEDULE OF PIPE
SLEEVES & PIPE SIZE
CONVERSION TABLE
-LOWER GROUND
FLOOR FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT

-UPPER GROUND
FLOOR FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-SECOND FLOOR FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-THIRD FLOOR FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-FOURTH FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-FIFTH FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-SIXTH FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-SEVENTH FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-ROOF DECK FIRE
PROTECTION LAYOUT
-FIRE PUMP ROOM
AND EQUIPMENT
LAYOUT
--DETAILED SECTION
DETAIL OF AIR VENT

-SCHEMATIC FLOW
DIAGRAM OF
STANDPIPE SYSTEM
-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS 1

CALL OUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS

CALL OUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALL OUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
BLOW UP DETAIL
DETAIL OF LADDER
RUNGS
DETAILED SECTION
DETAIL OF AIR VENT
LEGENDS AND
SYMBOLS
ISOMETRY
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

LEGEND
NOTES

NOTES
NOTES
MATERIAL:
Carbon Steel
BOLT DIAMETER
G-14

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

FP - 14

-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS 2

FP - 15

-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS 3

11. ELECTRONIC (EC)*****


Engineering Design
Sheets

EC 1

Note: By law (R.A. No.


9292), only registered and
licensed
professional
electronic
engineers/
PECEs shall prepare, sign
and seal all professional
outputs for buildings i.e.
those that are classified as
Electronic
(EC)
Engineering
Design
Documents

EC 2

-DRAWING INDEX,
LEGENDS AND
ABBREVIATIONS,
GENERAL NOTES,
PIPE SYSMBOLS, SITE
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
- GROUNDS AUXILIARY
SYSTEM LAYOUT

EC 3

EC 4
EC 5
EC 6
EC 7
EC 8
EC 9

EC 10

-SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

EC 11

-LOWER AND UPPER


GROUND FLOOR BMS
-SECOND AND THIRD
FLOOR BMS
-FOURTH AND FIFTH
FLOOR BMS
-SIXTH AND SEVENTH
FLOOR BMS
-ROOF DECK BMS
DETAILS

EC 12
EC 13
EC 14
EC 15
EC 16
G-15

-LOWER AND UPPER


GROUND FLOOR
AUXILIARY SYSTEM
LAYOUT
-SECOND AND THIRD
FLOOR AUXILIARY
SYSTEM LAYOUT
-FOURTH AND FIFTH
FLOOR AUXILIARY
SYSTEM LAYOUT
-SIXTH AND SEVENTH
FLOOR AUXILIARY
SYSTEM LAYOUT
-ROOF DECK
AUXILIARY SYSTEM
LAYOUT
-BMS POINTS LIST
-SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

MATERIAL: Carbon Steel


CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
ISOMETRIC VIEW
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
PLANS

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

NOTES

NOTES
TABLES

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

12. PLUMBING (P)


Design Sheets
Note: By law (R.A. No.
1378), only registered and
licensed
master
plumbers/ MPs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are
classified as Plumbing (P)
Design Documents
Note: Depending on the
Lower
Courts
interpretation (for final
adjudication
by
the
Supreme Court), registered
and licensed sanitary
engineers/ SEs may
apparently prepare, sign
and seal all professional
outputs for buildings i.e.
those that are classified as
Plumbing (P) Design
Documents.
The
concerned entities must
make
the
necessary
representations with the
Client.

EC 17

DETAILS

EC 18

DETAILS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS

P-2

UPPER GROUND
FLOOR PLUMBING
LAYOUT

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

P-3

- SECOND FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT
THIRD FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT
FOURTH FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS,
TYPICAL CONNECTION
OF WS TO DS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

NOTES

P-6
P-7
P-8
P-9
P-10
P-11

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE

NOTES

NOTES

LOWER GROUND
PLUMBING LAYOUT

P-5
NOTES
STAIRWELL
PRESSURIZATION
FAN SEQUENCE
OF OPERATION

NOTES

P-1

P-4

LEGEND

SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

P-12

FIFTH FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT
SIXTH FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT
SEVENTH FLOOR
PLUMBING LAYOUT
ROOF DECK
PLUMBING LAYOUT
RISER DIAGRAM OF
COLD WATER
RISER DIAGRAM OF
DOWNSPOUT ALONG
GRID LINE-B
RISER DIAGRAM OF
SANITARY DRAINAGE

NOTES
NOTES

NOTES
NOTES

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECIFICATIONS
G-16

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

P-13

P-14
P-15

DETAIL OF ELEVATED
WATER TANK
-ROUGHING-IN OF
TOILETS

P-16

-ROUGHING-IN OF
TOILETS

P-17

-ROUGHING-IN OF
TOILETS

P-18

-ROUGHING-IN OF
TOILETS

P-19

-DETAIL OF PUMP
INSTALLATION, PUMP
DISCHARGE RISER
PIPING DETAIL,
SCHEDULE OF
EQUIPMENT
-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS

P-20

P-21

13. SANITARY (SE)


Engineering Design
Sheets

SE - 1

Note: By law (R.A. No.


1364), only registered and
licensed
sanitary
engineers/ SEs shall
prepare, sign and seal all
professional outputs for
buildings i.e. those that are

SE-2

G-17

DETAIL OF GROUND
WATER TANK

DETAIL OF
WATERTIGHT
MANHOLE, DETAIL OF
AIR VENT, DETAIL OF
LADDER RUNGS,
DETAIL OF PIPE
SLEEVE, DETAIL OF
OVERFLOW
PIPE/DRAIN BOX
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
ISOMETRIC
CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
ISOMETRIC
CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
ISOMETRIC
CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
ISOMETRIC
CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS
CALLOUTS & OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

CALLOUTS & OUTLINE


SPECICATIONS,
DETAIL OF LADDER
RUNG

-MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS

CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

SITE PLAN SHOWING


OUTSIDE SANITARY
UTILITIES, TABLE OF
CONTENTS AND
LEGEND/ SYMBOLS
SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT (STP)

CALLOUTS

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

classified as Sanitary (S)


Engineering
Design
Documents

NOTES

SE-3
SE-4

STP DETAILS
MISCELLANEOUS
DETAILS

CALLOUTS, OUTLINE
SPECIFICATIONS

TABLE OF
DIMENSIONS,
NOTES

Notes:
*includes Fixtures, Furnishings and Equipment (Non-capital) i.e. FFE and Graphic Design, including all forms of
Way-finding Systems (such as those for office and parking spaces);
**includes Furniture and Movables Design (FMD) and Dcor Items; and
***includes all hard and soft landscaping components.
****oftentimes included as part of the Mechanical (M) Design sheets; and
*****includes Building Management System (BMS) and other automation features.

TABLE OF RISER
CLAMPS, TABLE
OF CLEVIS
HANGERS, TABLE
OF TRAPEZE
HANGERS, TABLE
OF BRACKET
DIMESIONS
TABLE OF
DIMENSIONS,
NOTES, TABLE
OF MINIMUM
THRUST BLOCK
BEARING AREAS
IN SQUARES
METRES FOR
PIPE SIZES 75mm
- to 600mm

G-18

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

SECTION 03410 PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS ............................................................................................................. 92

Generic Table of Contents for the Technical Specifications for a

DIVISION 04 - MASONRY ........................................................................................................................................... 96

(Approx. 1.7 hectares Total Lot Area/ TLA, approx. 60,000 sqm Total Gross Floor Area/ TGFA,
Large Footprint, Medium-rise with Deck Roof Level and No Basement Level)

SECTION 04220 CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT WORK ................................................................................................ 101

LARGE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OFFICE Building Project

at Approximately 480 A4 Size Pages

Very Important Note: In the case of repair, renovation, rehabilitation, retrofit,


expansion, heritage conservation, fit-out, and similar works/ projects for buildings/
structures, the SCOPE OF WORKS BRIEF for such buildings/ structures i.e. a
general description of the intended construction works, MUST be provided by the
Designer and/or Project Proponent before the rest of the Plans/ Designs/
Documents listed hereafter. The provisions that DO NOT apply to the types of
work listed above shall be deleted on an need/ applicability basis.
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................................... 1
DIVISION 01 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 6
SECTION 01010 SUMMARY OF WORKS ....................................................................................................................... 6
SECTION 01011 - CONTRACT DOCUMENTS .................................................................................................................... 6
SECTION 01040 - COORDINATION.................................................................................................................................. 7
SECTION 01060 - REGULATORY AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................... 7
SECTION 01090 - REFERENCE STANDARDS .................................................................................................................... 8
SECTION 01300 - SUBMITTALS ..................................................................................................................................... 10

SECTION 04810 UNIT MASONRY ASSEMBLES .......................................................................................................... 103


DIVISION 05 - METAL .............................................................................................................................................. 113
SECTION 05120 STRUCTURAL STEEL........................................................................................................................ 113
SECTION 05500 METAL FABRICATIONS ................................................................................................................... 119
SECTION 05510 MISCELLANEOUS METALS .............................................................................................................. 126
SECTION 05520 HANDRAILS AND RAILINGS (STAINLESS STEEL) .............................................................................. 127
SECTION 05540 LIGHT STEEL FRAMING SYSTEM ..................................................................................................... 134
DIVISION 06 WOOD AND PLASTICS ...................................................................................................................... 135
SECTION 06200 CARPENTRY AND JOINERY ............................................................................................................. 135
DIVISION 07- THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION ............................................................................................ 138
SECTION 07100 WATERPROOFING.......................................................................................................................... 138
SECTION 07145 MEMBRANE-TYPE ELASTOMERIC WATERPROOFING .................................................................... 142
SECTION 07260 BATT INSULATION .......................................................................................................................... 145
SECTION 07431 INSULATED METAL ROOF PANELS .................................................................................................. 146
SECTION 07610 SHEET METAL ROOFING AND CLADDING ....................................................................................... 150
SECTION 07800 ROOF ACCESSORIES ....................................................................................................................... 160
SECTION 07920 CAULKING AND SEALING ............................................................................................................... 161

SECTION 01312 - PROJECT MEETINGS .......................................................................................................................... 14

DIVISION 08 - DOORS AND WINDOWS .................................................................................................................... 162

SECTION 01352 - PROJECT HEALTH AND SAFETY ......................................................................................................... 17

SECTION 08110 STEEL DOORS AND FRAMES ........................................................................................................... 162

SECTION 01400 - QUALITY CONTROL ........................................................................................................................... 20

SECTION 08120 ALUMINUM DOORS ....................................................................................................................... 166

SECTION 01500 - TEMPORARY FACILITIES (TEMFACIL) ................................................................................................ 22

SECTION 08130 AUTOMATIC ENTRANCE SYSTEM ................................................................................................... 168

SECTION 01600 - MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................ 24

SECTION 08210 WOOD PANEL AND FLUSH DOORS ................................................................................................. 172

SECTION 01700 - CONTRACT CLOSEOUT ...................................................................................................................... 26

SECTION 08331 OVERHEAD COILING DOORS .......................................................................................................... 176

SECTION 01710 - CLEANING ......................................................................................................................................... 28

SECTION 08520 ALUMINUM WINDOWS ................................................................................................................. 180

DIVISION 02 - SITE CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 29


SECTION 02250 SOIL TREATMENT FOR SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE CONTROL ......................................................... 29

SECTION 08700 HARDWARE ................................................................................................................................... 184


SECTION 08800 GLASS AND GLAZING...................................................................................................................... 189

SECTION 02300 - EARTHWORK .................................................................................................................................... 31

DIVISION 09 FINISHES........................................................................................................................................... 192

SECTION 02444 - PERIMETER FENCES AND GATES ....................................................................................................... 38

SECTION 09220 PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER ........................................................................................................ 192

DIVISION 03 - CONCRETE........................................................................................................................................... 41
SECTION 03100 - PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT .................................................................................... 41
SECTION 03210 REINFORCED CONCRETE .................................................................................................................. 63
SECTION 03300 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE .............................................................................................................. 74
G-19

SECTION 04050 BASIC MASONRY MATERIALS ........................................................................................................... 96

SECTION 09290 GYPSUM CEILING BOARDS ............................................................................................................. 195


SECTION 09295 GYPSUM WALLBOARD (DRY WALL) ............................................................................................... 198
SECTION 09310 CERAMIC TILE WORK ..................................................................................................................... 201
SECTION 09510 ACOUSTICAL CEILING SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 204
G-20

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

SECTION 09575 SPANDREL CEILING ........................................................................................................................ 205

SECTION 16425 LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHBOARD ...................................................................................................... 404

SECTION 09650 HOMOGENOUS TILES..................................................................................................................... 206

SECTION 16460 AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCH .................................................................................................... 413

SECTION 09660 PLAIN CEMENT FLOOR FINISH........................................................................................................ 209

SECTION 16470 PANELBOARDS ............................................................................................................................... 420

SECTION 09666 VINYL FLOOR TILES ......................................................................................................................... 211

SECTION 16500 LUMINARIES AND ACCESSORIES .................................................................................................... 425

SECTION 09678 CONCRETE FLOOR ADDITIVES/ SEALER .......................................................................................... 212

SECTION 16510 RROW LIGHTING ............................................................................................................................ 431

SECTION 09750 NATURAL STONE ............................................................................................................................ 213

SECTION 16550 LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEMS................................................................................................ 438

SECTION 09910 PAINTING ....................................................................................................................................... 214

SECTION 16680 GROUNDING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 441

SECTION 09965 EPOXY PAINT.................................................................................................................................. 217

SECTION 16720 FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM........................................................................................... 445

DIVISION 10 SPECIALTIES ..................................................................................................................................... 218


SECTION 10280 TOILET PARTITION SYSTEM ............................................................................................................ 218
SECTION 10800 TOILET AND BATH ACCESSORIES .................................................................................................... 224
SECTION 10810 PANTRY ACCESSORIES ................................................................................................................... 226
SECTION 10890 WALK-THROUGH METAL DETECTOR.............................................................................................. 227
DIVISION 11 EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................................................... 235

SECTION 16740 STRUCTURAL CABLING SYSTEM ..................................................................................................... 451


SECTION 16755 PABX SYSTEM SPECIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 452
SECTION 16770 BACKGROUND MUSIC AND PAGING SYSTEM (BGM/PA) ............................................................... 460
SECTION 16780 CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM (CCTV) ................................................................................ 464
SECTION 16900 INSTRUMENTATION, ATC & BMS SYSTEM ..................................................................................... 467
SECTION 16950 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF ELECTRICAL SERVICES ........................................................... 477

SECTION 11130 LOADING DOCK EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................................... 235


SECTION 11260 KITCHEN EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................... 245
DIVISION 12 - FURNISHINGS.................................................................................................................................... 259
SECTION 12210 BLINDS ........................................................................................................................................... 259
SECTION 12482 ENTRANCE FLOOR MATS AND FRAMES ......................................................................................... 261
DIVISION 14 CONVEYING SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................ 265
SECTION 14210 ELEVATORS .................................................................................................................................... 265
DIVISION 15 - MECHANICAL .................................................................................................................................... 270
SECTION 15300 FIRE PROTECTION WORKS ............................................................................................................. 270
SECTION 15320 FIRE PUMPS ................................................................................................................................... 287
SECTION 15400 PLUMBING ..................................................................................................................................... 292
SECTION 15780 MECHANICAL (HVAC) ..................................................................................................................... 309
SECTION 15910 DUCTWORK ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................................. 354
DIVISION 16 - ELECTRICAL ....................................................................................................................................... 357
SECTION 16000 ELECTRICAL GENERAL PROVISIONS................................................................................................ 357
SECTION 16010 ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION GENERAL PROVISIONS .......................................................... 372
SECTION 16110 RACEWAYS AND BOXES ................................................................................................................. 375
SECTION 16122 HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE AND ACCESSORIES ..................................................................................... 382
SECTION 16200 ENGINE GENERATOR SETS ............................................................................................................. 385
SECTION 16266 PARALLELING SWITCHGEAR .......................................................................................................... 396
SECTION 16271 POWER TRANSFORMER ................................................................................................................. 400
SECTION 16272 DRY TYPE TRANSFORMER .............................................................................................................. 402
G-21

G-22

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

CHECKLIST FOR USE BY THE DPWH FOR ASSESSING DOCUMENTS SUBMITTED


FOR DESIGN REVIEW
(based on Sec. 302 of the 2004 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations/ IRR of P.D. No. 1096, the
1977 National Building Code of the Philippines/ NBCP)
1. Duly accomplished prescribed request form/s for design review, with the following support documents:
a. In case the design review applicant is the registered owner of the lot:
i.
Certified true copy of OCT/ TCT, on file with the Registry of Deeds,
ii.
Tax Declaration, and
iii. Current Real Property Tax Receipt.
b. In case the design review applicant is not the registered owner of the lot, in addition to the above;
duly notarized copy of the Contract of Lease, or the Deed of Absolute Sale.
2.

Annex H

Check List for Use by the DPWH for


Assessing Documents Submitted for
Design Review

3.

4.

Five (5) sets of survey plans, design plans, specifications and other documents duly prepared, signed
and sealed over the printed names of the duly registered and licensed professionals (RLPs), as
follows:
a. Geodetic Engineer (GE), in case of lot survey plans e.g. relocation, topographic, etc.;
b. Architect (Ar), in case of architectural documents, including architectural interior (AI) documents
and related physical planning documents for a Project site of less than five hectares (-5.0 has.) in
total land area/ TLA (reference Sec. 20.5 of R.A. No. 9266, the Architecture Act of 2004); in case
of interior design (ID) documents, including furniture design, an interior designer (IDr) must sign
and seal;
c. Civil Engineer (CE), in case of civil/ structural documents;
d. Professional Electrical Engineer (PECE), in case of electrical documents;
e. Professional Mechanical Engineer (PME), in case of mechanical documents;
f. Sanitary Engineer (SnE), in case of sanitary documents;
g. Master Plumber (MP), in case of plumbing documents;
h. Professional Electronics Engineer (PEE), in case of electronics documents;
i. Landscape Architect (LAr), in case of landscape architectural documents for building grounds
(hard scape and soft scape); and
j. Environmental Planner (EnP), in case of master development plans (MDPs) and related physical
planning documents for a Project site of more than five hectares (5.0 has.) in total land area
(TLA).
Five (5) sets of special studies duly prepared, signed and sealed over the printed names of the duly
accredited professionals, as follows:
a. Civil Engineer (CE), Environmental Planner (EnP) or Architect (Ar), with duly-qualified
specialization in transportation planning, in case of the traffic impact analysis (TIA); and
b. Civil Engineer (CE), Environmental Planner (EnP) or Architect (Ar), or an Environment Specialist,
with duly-qualified specialization in environmental investigation, in case of the environmental
impact analysis (EIA), required to secure the Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC).
Architectural Documents
a. Architectural Plans/ Drawings
i.
Vicinity Map/ Location Plan within a two kilometer (2.0 km) radius for commercial,
industrial, and institutional complex and within a 0.5 km radius for residential buildings, at
any convenient scale showing prominent landmarks or major thoroughfares for easy
reference.
ii.
Site Development Plan (SDP) showing technical description, boundaries, orientation and
position of proposed building/structure in relation to the lot, existing or proposed access road
and driveways and existing public utilities/ services. Existing buildings within and adjoining

H-1

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

the lot shall be hatched and distances between the proposed and existing buildings shall be
indicated.
iii. Perspective drawn at a convenient scale and taken from a vantage point (birds eye view or
eye level).
iv. Architectural Program (including Space Program), with Space Plans cum Stacking Diagrams
(only for multi-storey buildings) drawn to scale of not less than 1:100 meters (m).
v.
Floor Plans drawn to scale of not less than 1:100 meters (m) showing: gridlines, complete
identification of rooms or functional spaces.
vi. Elevations, at least four (4), same scale as floor plans showing: gridlines; natural ground to
finish grade elevations; floor to floor heights; door and window marks, type of material and
exterior finishes; adjoining existing structure/s, if any, shown in single hatched lines.
vii. Sections, at least two (2), showing: gridlines; natural ground and finish levels; outline of cut
and visible structural parts; doors and windows properly labeled reflecting the direction of
opening; partitions; built-in cabinets, etc.; identification of rooms and functional spaces cut by
section lines.
viii. Reflected ceiling plan (RCP) showing: design, location, finishes and specifications of
materials, lighting fixtures, diffusers, decorations, air conditioning exhaust and return grills,
sprinkler nozzles, if any, at scale of at least 1:100 m.
ix. Details, in the form of plans, elevations/sections:
(a) Accessible ramps
(b) Accessible stairs
(c) Accessible lifts/ elevators
(d) Accessible entrances, corridors and walkways
(e) Accessible functional areas/ comfort rooms
(f) Accessible switches, controls
(g) Accessible drinking fountains
(h) Accessible public telephone booths
(i)
Accessible audio visual and automatic alarm system
(j)
Accessible access symbols and directional signs
(k) Reserved parking for persons with disabilities (PWDs)
(l)
Typical wall/ bay sections from ground to roof
(m) Stairs, interior and exterior
(n) Fire escapes/ exits
(o) Built-in cabinets, counters and fixed furniture
(p) All types of partitions
(q) Provisions for PWDs, the elderly, gender and development (GAD), and the like;
(r) Provisions to address concerns of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk
reduction (DRR)
x.
Schedule of Doors and Windows showing their types, designations/ marks, dimensions,
materials, hardware provisions, and number of sets.
xi. Schedules of Finishes, showing in graphic form: surface finishes specified for floors, ceilings,
walls and baseboard trims for all building spaces per floor level.
xii. Details of other major Architectural Elements; and
xiii. Technical Specifications (including operation/ use and maintenance) for all architectural
works.
b. Architectural Interiors (AI)
i.
General Space Plan/s or general layout/s of architectural interiors.
ii.
Architectural interior perspective/s.
iii.
Furniture/ furnishing/ equipment (FFE) layouts and process layout/s.
iv.
Access plan/s, parking plan/s and the like.

H-2

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

v.

Detailed design of major architectural interior elements i.e. floors, walls, ceiling, doors and
related fenestrations, fixed counters and cabinetry, hardware, etc.
vi.
General plan, layout and design of the architectural interiors, including walls/ partitions,
furnishing/ furniture/ equipment (FFE)/ appliances at a scale of at least 1:100 m, including
ceiling cavity and roof cavity plans, as needed.
vii.
Interior wall elevations showing: finishes, switches, doors and convenience outlets, cross
window sections with architectural interior perspective as viewed from the main entrance at
scale of at least 1:100 m.
viii.
General floor/ ceiling/ wall patterns and general finishing details.
ix.
Technical Specifications (including operation/ use and maintenance), Schedules and related
list/s of materials to be used for architectural interior finishing works.
x.
Cost Estimates.
c. Plans and specific locations of all accessibility facilities of scale of at least 1:100 m., including the
detailed design of all such accessibility facilities outside and around buildings/structures including
parking areas, and their safety requirements all at scale of 1:50 m or any convenient scale.
d. Fire Safety Documents
i.
Layout plan of each floor indicating the fire evacuation route to safe dispersal areas,
standpipes with fire hose, fire extinguishers, first aid kits/ cabinets, fire alarm, fire operations
room, emergency lights, signs, etc.s
ii.
Details of windows, fire exits with grilled windows and ladders.
iii.
Details of fire-resistive construction of enclosures for vertical openings.
iv.
Details of fire-resistive construction materials and interior decorative materials with fireresistive/ fire-retardant/ fire-spread ratings
v.
Other Related Documents
f. Physical Planning documents (for Project Sites at less than 5.0 hectares in Total Land Area/ TLA)
i.
Vicinity Map/ Location Plan at a scale of at least 1:10,000 m.
ii.
Framework Plan at a scale of at least 1:2,500 m showing existing and proposed access
systems, connectivities, identified hazards, orientations (wind, sun, odor, noise, etc.), view
corridors, and like information.
iii.
Master Development Plan (MDP) at a scale of at least 1:1,250 m showing all setbacks and
mandated legal easements (as applicable), proposed road rights-of-way (RROW, clearly
delineating the carriageway and sidewalks), proposed building footprints at grade level,
proposed outermost faces of buildings (OFB) at the second levels/ floors, floor to lot area
(FLAR) used, gross floor area (GFA) to be generated, total GFA (TGFA) to be generated,
building heights, and like information, to fully comply with Rules VII and VIII of the 2004
Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096, the 1977 NBCP.
iv.
Proposed Land Use Distribution (breakdown).
g. Other related documents
5.

Interior Design
i.
Detailed space plan/ layout and design of all interior design elements, including furniture and
furnishings at all fully enclosed areas/ spaces, at a scale of at least 1:50 m.
ii.
Interior design perspective/s showing details of special finishing and furnishing items.
iii.
Special floor/ ceiling/ wall patterns and finishing details.
iv.
Technical Specifications (including operation/ use and maintenance), Schedules and related
list/s of materials to be used for interior design finishing works.
v.
Cost Estimates.

6. Civil/ Structural Documents


a. Site Development Plan (SDP)

H-3

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

Site Development Plan showing technical description, boundaries, orientation and position of
proposed non-architectural horizontal structure such as: sewerage treatment plan (STP), silos,
elevated tanks, towers, fences, etc. building/ structure in relation to the lot, existing or proposed
access road and driveways and existing public utilities/ services. Existing buildings within and
adjoining the lot shall be hatched and distances between the proposed and existing buildings shall
be indicated.
b. Structural Plans
i.
Foundation Plans and Details at scale of not less than 1:100 m.
ii.
Floor/ Roof Framing Plans and Details at scale of not less than 1:100 m.
iii.
Details and Schedules of structural and civil works elements including those for deep wells,
water reservoir, pipe lines and sewer system.
c. Structural Analysis and Design for all buildings/structures except for one storey and single
detached building/structure with a total floor area of 20.0 square meters (sqm) or less.
d. Boring and Load Tests
Buildings or structures of three (3) storeys and higher, boring tests and, if necessary, load tests
shall be required in accordance with the applicable latest approved provisions of the National
Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP). However, adequate soil exploration (including boring
and load tests) shall also be required for lower buildings/ structures at areas with potential
geological/geotechnical hazards. The written report of the civil/ geo-technical engineer including
but not limited to the design bearing capacity as well as the result of tests shall be submitted
together with the other requirements in the application for a building permit. Boring test or load test
shall also be done according to the applicable provisions of the NSCP which set forth requirements
governing excavation, grading and earthwork construction, including fills and embankments for any
building/structure and for foundation and retaining structures.
e. Seismic and Wind Load Analyses
a. Other related documents
7. Electrical Documents
Electrical plans and technical specifications containing the following:
a. Location and Site Plans
b. Legend or Symbols
c. General Notes and/or Specifications
d. Electrical Layout
e. Schedule of Loads, Transformers, Generating/ UPS Units (Total kVA for each of the preceding
items shall be indicated in the schedule)
f. Design Analysis
g. One Line Diagram
8.

H-4

Mechanical Documents
a. Location Plan and Key Plan
b. General Layout Plan for each floor, drawn to a scale of not less than 1:100 m, indicating the
equipment in heavier lines than the building outline with names of machinery and corresponding
brake horsepower shall be indicated.
c. Longitudinal and Transverse Sections of building and equipment base on the section lines drawn to
scale of at least 1:100 m showing inter-floor relations and defining the manner of support of
machines/equipment. Sections shall run longitudinally and transversely through the building length
or width other than particularly detailed section for each machinery/equipment (fired and unfired
pressure vessel, elevator, escalator, dumbwaiter, etc.).
d. Isometric drawing of gas, fuel, oil system showing: Assembly of pipes on racks and supports,
Legend and General Notes, capacity per outlet and complete individual piping system.

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

e. Plans drawn to scale of 1:100 m indicating location of store rooms, fuel tanks, fire extinguishing
systems, fire doors, fire escape ladders and other protective facilities.
f. Detailed drawings of all duct work installations, indicating dampers, controls, filters, fireproofing,
acoustical and thermal insulation.
g. Detailed Plans of machinery foundations and supports drawn to scale of at least 1:50 m.
h. Detailed Plans of boilers and pressure vessels with a working pressure of above 70 kPa regardless
of kilowatt rating.
i. Design Computations and Detailed Plans of elevators, escalators, and the like drawn to scale of
1:50 m.
j. For all installations, additions or alterations involving machinery of at most 14.9 kW, the signature
of a duly licensed Mechanical Engineer shall be sufficient except fired and unfired pressure
vessels, elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, central/split/packaged type air conditioners and piping
systems of steam, gas or fuels.
k. Detailed plans of fire suppression systems, location of automatic and smoke detectors and alarm
and initiating devices use to monitor the conditions that are essential for the proper operation
including switches for the position of gate valves as well as alert and evacuation signals; the
detailed layout of the entire safe area to be protected and the heat/smoke ventilation system.
9. Sanitary Documents
a. For deep well, water purification plants, water collection and distribution systems, reservoirs,
drainage and sewer systems, sewage treatment plants, malaria control structures, and sewage
disposal systems:
i.
Location Plan and Site Plan
ii.
Detailed Plan and layout drawings of minimum scale 1:100 m.
iii.
Design Analysis and Technical Specifications
iv.
Cost Estimates
b. For pest and vermin control, sanitation and pollution control facilities:
i.
Detailed plan, layout & drawing of abatement and control device of minimum scale 1:100 m.
ii.
Design analysis and technical specification
iii.
Cost Estimates
10. Plumbing Documents
For all plumbing installations, additions and/or alterations involving hot and cold water supply, fixtures,
sewage drainage and vent system, storm drainage and sewerage system within or adjacent to the
building:
a. Location Plan and Site Plan of minimum scale 1: 2000 m
b. Plumbing Plans, Layouts and Details, of minimum scale 1: 50 m
c. Legend and General Notes
d. Isometric drawings of the systems
e. Design analysis and technical specifications
f. Cost Estimates
11.

Electronics Documents
Electronic plans and technical specifications for wired or wireless telecommunications systems,
broadcasting systems, including radio and TV broadcast equipment for commercial and training
purposes, cable or wireless television systems, information technology (IT) systems, security and alarm
systems, electronic fire alarm systems, sound-reinforcement systems, navigational aids and controls,
indoor and outdoor signages, electronically-controlled conveyance systems, electronic/computerized
process controls and automation systems, building automation, management and control systems,
including, but not limited to the following:
a. General layout plans with legends

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Single line diagram


Riser diagram
Isometry of the system
Equipment specifications
Design analysis, as applicable
Cost estimates

b. Geodetic Documents
Lot Survey Plans, including but not limited to:
a. Vicinity Map/ Location Plan
b. Lot Plan
c. Relocation Survey Plan and Report
d. Line and Grade
e. Detailed Topographic Plan of the site and immediate vicinity

Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
xxi.
xxii.
xxiii.

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)


Department of Agriculture (DA)
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)
National Housing Authority (NHA)
National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons (NCWDP)
Philippine Reclamation Authority (PRA)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)
National Commission on Culture and the Arts (NCCA)

c. Environmental Planning documents (for Project Sites at 5.0 hectares or larger in Total Land Area/ TLA)
a. Vicinity Map/ Location Plan at a scale of at least 1:10,000 m.
b. Framework Plan at a scale of at least 1:2,500 m showing existing and proposed access systems,
connectivities, identified hazards, orientations (wind, sun, odor, noise, etc.), view corridors, and like
information.
c. Master Development Plan (MDP) at a scale of at least 1:1,250 m showing all setbacks and
mandated legal easements (as applicable), proposed road rights-of-way (RROW, clearly
delineating the carriageway and sidewalks), proposed building footprints at grade level, proposed
outermost faces of buildings (OFB) at the second levels/ floors, floor to lot area (FLAR) used, gross
floor area (GFA) to be generated, total GFA (TGFA) to be generated, building heights, and like
information, to fully comply with Rules VII and VIII of the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096, the
1977 NBCP.
d. Land Use Distribution (breakdown).
12. Clearances from Other Agencies
a. A locational clearance shall be obtained by the design review applicant from the Office of the City/
Municipal Zoning Administrator.
b. Whenever necessary, written clearances shall be obtained from the various authorities exercising
and enforcing regulatory functions affecting buildings/ structures by the design review applicant.
Application for said clearances shall be requested by the design review applicant. Such authorities
which are expected to enforce their own regulations are:
i. Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
ii. Air Transportation Office (ATO, now the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines or CAAP)
iii. Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)
iv. Local Government Unit (LGU)
v. Department of Tourism (DOT)
vi. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
vii. Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)
viii. Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)
ix. Philippine Ports Authority (PPA)
x. Department of Education (DepEd)
xi. Department of Health (DOH)
xii. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
xiii. Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA)
xiv. Manila Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS)
xv. National Water Resources Board (NWRB)

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

2014 DPWH-BoD SPACE ALLOCATION STANDARDS BY OFFICE TYPE (Gross Floor Area/ GFA)*
*The GFA excludes the main common areas such as common areas e.g. lobbies, building cores, stairs and fire exits, service or
utility balconies and decks, parking spaces and access-ways (within the building footprint) and similar spaces.

PARTICULARS
MAXIMUM SPACE REQUIREMENTS (in Sq.M.)
SPACE REQUIREMENT/S OF KEY OFFICIALS
A. OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OR ITS EQUIVALENT SG-31 POSITION
1. Secretary
72.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Conference Room
60.00
4. Reception Room
30.00
5. Toilet/ Bathroom
6.00
6. Pantry
10.00
7. Storage Area
10.00
B. OFFICE OF THE UNDERSECRETARY OR ITS EQUIVALENT SG-30 POSITION
1. Undersecretary
63.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Conference Room
40.00
4. Reception Room
20.00
5. Toilet/ Bathroom
6.00
6. Pantry
10.00
7. Storage Area
10.00
C. OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OR ITS EQUIVALENT SG-29 POSITION
1. Assistant Secretary
56.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Conference Room
30.00
4. Reception Room
20.00
5. Toilet/ Bathroom
6.00
6. Pantry
10.00
7. Storage Area
10.00
D. OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR IV OR ITS EQUIVALENT SG-28 POSITION
1. Director IV
36.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Reception Room
10.00
4. Toilet/ Bathroom
4.00
5. Pantry
5.00
6. Storage Area
6.00
E. OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR III OR ITS EQUIVALENT SG-27 POSITION
1. Director III
24.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Toilet/ Bathroom
4.00
F. DIVISION-LEVEL UNIT
1. Division Chief
12.00
2. Staff
4.00 - 6.00/ pax
3. Lobby/ Lounge
0.25/ pax
includes circulation area
for storage of supplies, equipment, records/ files and other materials

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Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards: Volume 6 Public Buildings and Other Related Structures

2014 DPWH-BoD SPACE ALLOCATION STANDARDS BY TYPE OF USAGE (Gross Floor Area/ GFA)*
*The GFA excludes the main common areas such as common areas e.g. lobbies, building cores, stairs and fire exits, service or

utility balconies and decks, parking spaces and access-ways (within the building footprint) and similar spaces.

PARTICULARS
A. MAIN LOBBY
B. BUREAU-LEVEL FACILITIES
1. Conference Room
2. Pantry
3. Storage Area
C. TRAINING ROOM

MAXIMUM SPACE REQUIREMENTS (in Sq.M.)


SPACE REQUIREMENT/S
0.25/ pax; minimum for lobby as waiting/
standing room is 0.28/ pax

D. QUARTERS
1. Single Bedroom
2. Twin-Sharing Bedroom
3. Toilet/ Bathroom
4. Pantry
E. TOILET FACILITIES
1. For Agencies providing frontline services (for
Public use)

30.00
10.00
15.00
2.40/ pax including aisles and services such as
storage, production room and toilet for the staff

4.00
8.00
4.00
10.00
1.50 per one water closet (WC) enclosure
1 WC/ 1-100 for female
1 WC/ 1-200 for male
1 urinal/ 1-100 for male
1 lavatory/ 2 WC
2. For Agencies with no clientele (for Employee
1 WC/ 1-15, 2WC/ 16-35, 3WC/ 36-55 for
use)
male and female
1 lavatory/ 40 for male and female; or 1
lavatory/ 2 WC
for storage of supplies, equipment, records/ files and other materials
based on the Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines (R.A. No. 1378)

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