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F|C7.<? I

CRMATIOHM. INSTITUTE OF
\N LANGUAGES & CULTURES

:'.:'

cja.^

"V

AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION
TO THE

TAITA LANGUAGE,
EASTERN EQUATORIAL AFRICA.

COMPILED BY

J. ALFRED WRAY
OF THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE,


LONDON': NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE.

1894.

PL S 7,7
W7f
PREFACE.
T

The locality in which this language is spoken is a


mountainous district called Taita, about one hundred
and twenty miles W.N. W. from Mombasa, East Africa.
It consists of three mountains, which rise abruptly
out of the plain to a height of 5000 to 7000 feet above
the sea, viz. Teta or Dabida, Sagalla, and Kasigau, and
is inhabited by a wild robber tribe numbering about
40,000, who speak a number of different dialects.
The origin of this tribe is rather interesting, and
may go a good way to account for these different
forms of speech. Tradition says they came from the
surrounding countries, Mangea, Usanibara, Pare,
Ugweno, and Chaga ; and I would suggest that the
emigrants were a few turbulent families, who were
dissatisfied with their own country, and that their
love for plunder led them to seek new homes where
they could carry out their pernicious inclinations
without let or hindrance. This theory will help to
account for the fact of their having neither chief nor
head, the only form of government being that of
elders, who really have no authority whatever, each
village having its own set of elders.
That these dialects have existed side by side for
many years is very apparent, and it seems likely they
will continue to do so, as long as the respective peoples
exist, if one may judge from their great antipathy
against using each other's dialects.

For convenience I have divided these dialects into


two heads, viz. Kiteta or Kidabida, and Kisagalla,
the former being much more extensively spoken than
the latter.
The Sagalla dialect, which forms the subject of
this little work, is spoken by most of the people in
habiting the mountain of that name, and was col
lected by me during my seven years' residence in
that country as one of the Church Missionary Society's
missionaries.
This language, like the Swahili, comes from the
great Bantu stock, but it is so much unlike the
Swahili as to prevent the two people from understand
ing each other at first ; yet any one having a know
ledge of the Swahili language possesses a golden key
to the Taita language.
The Compiler.
*Momhcfia,
1894.

/.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
ALPHABET
ACCENT ...
l'ABTS OF SPEEIH, ETC.
CONTRACTIONS
' ...
SUBSTANTIVES
ADJECTIVES
IRREGULAR ADJKCTIVES ...
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
NUMERALS
PRONOUNS
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS ...
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ...
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
INTERROGATIVE*, ETC. ...
VERBS
INDICATIVE MOOD
-Knarrative TENSE
^. CONDITIONAL TENSES
IMPERATIVE MOOD
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
INFINITIVE MOOD
NEGATIVE CONJUGATION
PASSIVE VOICE
DERIVATIVE VERBS
IRREGULAR VERBS
AUXILIARY VERBS
VERB "TO BE"
VERB "TO HAVE"
. .
ADVERBS
P REPOSITIONS ...
CONJUNCTIONS ...
INTERJECTIONS
ENCLITICS, ETC.

PART II
ENGLISH-SAGALLA VOGA. BULARY

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PART I.
AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION
TO THE

TAITA LANGUAGE.
SAG ALL A DIALECT.
THE ALPHABET.

The vocal sounds contained in the Sagalla dialect


may be represented by letters which may be divided
into four groups (1) simple vowels, (2) blended
vowels, (3) simple consonants, (4) blended consonants.
These groups are shown in the following tables :
SIMPLE
VOWELS.

A
E
J
0
U

BLENDED
VOWRLS.

SIMPLE CONS.

BLENDED CONS.

Ai

B, D, 'D, F, G,

Ch, Ly,
Ng', Sh

Au

Ei
Oi

Gf> XX, J, XV, Xj,

M, N, P, R, S,
T, V, W, Y,
Z.

These letters are pronounced as follows :


A is pronounced as a in father, Aba, father.
B
,,
b ,, bore,
Bigati, blood.
Ch
,,
ch chisel, Chuc.hu, a dog.
D

d ,, dance, Ku-dea, to do.


'D
'Bali, wilful.
E

ea swear, Kugema, to swear.

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

F is pronounced as,/ in ./mi,


Fisi, a hyena.
9' ,, gold,
G
Ku-gala, to go.
JJ
I'gana, a hundred.
'G
>>
h harp,
Ku-hawa, to give.
H
JJ
(always aspirated.)
I
i in machine., Ku-ita, to pass.
>J
3 ,JumP>
Ku-jika, to descend.
J
'*
K
k kind,
Hindu, a thing.

Ku-lega, to refuse.
L
I life,

Ly
Ku-lya, to eat.
u
Mali, riches.
m magic,

n name,
Ku-nasa, to join.
N
JJ
Ng'ombe, an ox.
Ng
'ng sing,
J J
0
o ,, cornet,
Ku-oga, to wash.
,
P
V pin>
Ku-kujmla, to
J'
empty.
li
Ku-rasha, to scold.
r ., run,
.,
Ku-sela, to walk.
s
s sea,
>>
Ku-shaia, to love.
Sh
sh' shin,

Ku-tima, to
T
t tree,
M
measure.
J
Fulo, truth.
oo /ool,
U
V
v virgin,
Viudu, things.

Wandu, men.
\v
w way,
<>
y ye,
Yetu, ours.
Y
M
z zebra,
Zika, bury.
Z
JJ
I/ai, negative in
M
answer to a ques
tion.
Nau, inch'
Au
Ku-Leila, to dun.
Ei
Woi, interjection
Oi
of surprise !
The proper sounds of ' D, 'G, and Ly can only be
got from the natives. The two latter are peculiar to
the Sagnlla dialect.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

There are also compound consonants which require


notice. M may precede any consonant, in which case
its vowel is suppressed ; it is sounded as m in
whimper, if the syllables may be divided thus,
whi-mper
Mbula,
a nose.
N may precede the consonants Ch, D, G, J, K, Y,
and Z ; its vowel is then suppressed, as n in linger, if
the syllable may be thus divided, li-nyer
Njcda,
hunger.
No consonant can end a word except M, Ng\ S.
In Swahili many words end with two vowels. In
many instances a consonant has been dropped ; in
such words iu the Sagalla dialect these consonants
are restored.
SWAHILI.

Hear
Nose
Open
Run
Bring up
To-day

sikia
pua
fungua
kimbia
lea
leo

SAGALLA.

sikila.
mbula.
fungula.
kimbila.
Ma.
lelo.

THE ACCENT.

The accent is invariably on the last syllable but


one.
When two vowels come together they are usually
pronounced as close vowels, in which case the accent
is thrown back to the first of these vowels, as ku-leila,
to dun.
When a suffix is used the accent is moved so as to
be on the last syllable but one.
There are but few monosyllabic words in the Sagalla
dialect.
PARTS OF SPEECH, ETC.

Thsre are eight parts of speech in the Sagalla


dialect :

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

I. The Noun or Substantive. These are generally


simple roots to which prefixes are added to denote
the number and class to which they belong, as mundu, a man ; wa-ndu, men.
II. Tiie Adjective. Regular adjectives are gener
ally simple roots made to agree with their nouns
by prefixing the appropriate initials, which denote
number and class, as wa-ndu wa-bwua, great men.
III. The Pronoun. Pronouns are generally ex
pressedfirst, by use of particles prefixed to the verb,
as, na-gala, I go ; second, by use of particles having
their appropriate prefixes, as wa-ndu wa-ngu, my men ;
third. by a special form which can take no prefix,
as imi, I.
IV. The Verb. The infinitive, from which all
the other parts of the verb are formed, contains the
root and -a suffixed, and the syllable ku- prefixed, as
ku-gal-a. Ku- is the sign of the infinitive, gal- root of
the verb, -a the stemto go.
V. The Adverb. There are not many pure adverbs
in the Sagalla dialect. They are formed chiefly by
the aid of substantives, adjectives, and verbs.
VI. Prepositions. These are few in number.
They are generally expressed by the applied form of
the verb, as, ku-hadila, to seek for ; ku-ruyira, to
cook for.
VII. Conjunctions. These also are few in
number. They are often expressed by ka prefixed to
the verbni-ka-m-uza, and I told him.
VIII. Interjections. These are many, but, as in
all languages, they can be pronounced much more
easily than written, they are therefore better learnt
by ear than by eye.
contractions.
When two vowels come together one is often
absorbed by the other u before o becomes wo, u before

SAGALLA DIALECT.

tt becomes wa, u before i becomes wi, a before o


becomes o.
SUBSTANTIVES.

The substantives of the Sagalla dialect may be


divided into nine clashes.
There is no special form of the substantive to ex
press gender ; but when it is required, the adjectives
-fume, male, -ke, female, are used in connection with
the substantive.
There are two numbers, singular and plural. These
are generally distinguished by their initial prefix, as
ki-tuli, a mortar ; vi-tuli, mortars.
These initial forms govern all the prefixes of
adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, as
Ki-tuli ki-bwaa,
Vi-tuli va-ngu,
Ki-tuli cha-wasa,

a large mortar.
my mortars.
the mortar is bad.

The class to which a substantive belongs is deter


mined (a) by its initial prefix, (b) by whether it
denotes an animate being or not, (c) by whether it
takes a prefix to form the plural or not.
The nominative case and the accusative case of
substantives are always the same, but they can
generally be determined by the context.
The possessive case is expressed by the use of the
possessive pronoun or of the preposition -a, of, as
nyumba zangu, my houses ; nyumba ya mgeni, the
house of the stranger.
Other relations between nouns are sometimes
expressed by what is called the applied form of the
verb and by the use of prepositions, as, ku-mnlimi-la
mbua yoke, to cultivate his garden for him ; ku-mtwali-la, to take to him.
The number of those nouns (Class III.) which do
not change to form their plural is distinguished by

10

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

the prefix of the pronouns, adjectives, or verbs


used in connection with them, as, ni/'ombe zangu,
my cattle. The za here denotes that the word
ng'omle is plural.
Class I. Those nouns beginning with m-, mu-, or
mw-, and denote living beings, make their plural by
changing m-, etc. into wa-. The different forms of the
prefix represent the syllable mu-, which is the pretix
most generally used.
Mundu, a man ;
Wandu, men.
Msunye, a slave ;
Wasunye, slaves.
Mchana,-a, young woman; Wachana, young women.
Mtawana, a young man ; Watawana, young men.
The singular prefix mu- before a vowel changes the
-it- into w-, as inuiti, a tree, becomes mwiti.
When -a- of the plural wa- comes before another --.
they almost coalesce and are hardly distinguishable,
as
Mivanake, a child ;
Waanalce, children.
When -a- comes before e- or i- it is clianged into
long e, as
Mwen, self ;
Wen, selves.
Class II. Nouns beginning with m-, mu-, mw-,
which do not denote animate beings. These make
their plural by changing m-, etc. into mi-. When .i- of
mi- comes before e- or i- it changes into long e- or %-.
Mlomo, a mouth ;
Milomo, mouths.
Mgunda, a garden ;
Migunda, gardens.
Mwiti, a tree ;
Mlti, trees.
Mwezi, the moon ;
Mozi, moons.
Mwia, a thorn ;
Mia, thorns.
Mweta, a river ;
Meta rivers.
Class III. Those which do not change to form
their plural. The characteristic letter of this class is

SAGALLA DIALECT.

11

n-. It is the cause of many apparent irregularities ;


it is always followed by another consonant : n- before
r, I, becomes nd- ; before cha, n- becomes nj- ; before
b-, n- becomes m-.
Nyumba, a house ;
Mbuzi, a goat ;
Ngila, a path ;
Mbeyu, a seed ;
Nguku, a fowl ;
Nyunde, a bean ;

Nyumba, houses.
Mbuzi, goats.
Ngila, paths.
Mbeyu, seeds.
Nyuku, fowls.
Ngunde, beans.

Class IV. Those which take the prefixes ki-, cha-,


cJto-, chu- in the singular. They make their plural by
changing the singular prefix into vi-, va-, vo-, and vu-,
as
Kituli, a mortar ;
Vitidi, mortal's.
Kitusi, a bag ;
Vitasi, bags.
Chala, a finger ;
Vala, fingers.
Varo, caravans.
Charo, a caravan ;
C.'wngo, a head ;
Vongo, heads.
Vuma, irons.
Chuma, iron ;
Note. Kisikilo, an ear, makes Masikilo, ears.
Class V. All nouns which make their plurals by
prefixing the syllable ma- may be placed in this
class. These are numerous, (a) Nouns in I- make
their plural by dropping the /- and prefixing the
syllable ma-.
Iwano, an arrow ;
Mawano, arrows.
Ijua, the sun ;
Majua, suns.
Ijilo, a bundle ;
Majilo, bundles.
Ifufu, a hump ;
Mafufu, humps.
Ije'go, a tooth ;
Maje'go, teeth.
I'gembe, a hoe ;
Ma'yembe, hoes.
Iziso, an eye ;
Meso, eyes.
(b) Those which form their plural by prefixing
ma- to the singular, as

12

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

I)au, a bag ;
Oafa, a beard ;
Hadi, a desire ;
Nyaai, grass ;
Leu, food ;
(c) Nouns in u, which
changing u- into ma-, as.
Ufwa, an inheritance ;
Ukongo, sickness ;
Uyanga, medicine ;
Uengu, a cloud ;
Ulume, courage;

Madau, bags.
Magafa, beards.
MaJiadi, desires.
Manyasi, grasses.
Maleu, foods.
make their plurals by
Mafiva, inheritances.
Makongo, sicknesses.
Maganga, medicines.
Maengu, clouds.
Malume, courage.

(d) Nouns which prefix ma-, and retain the u-, as


Ulili, a bed ;
Ushu, a face ;
Uta, a bow ;
Uki, honey ;
(e) Those nouns which
singular and plural, as
Mazia, milk ; Mavuta,

Maulili, beds.
Maushu, faces.
Mauta, bows.
Mauki, honeys.
use ma- or me- for both
butter ;

Meji, water.

Class VI. All nouns in hi-. These form their


plurals by changing hi- into nyu-, as
Luiubo, a song ;
Nyumbo, songs.
Livaio, sole (of foot) ;
Nyivaio, feet.
Licaka, a voice ;
Kywaka, voices.
Luzi, thread ;
Nyuzl, threads.
Class VII. Nouns which (a) take ka- in the sin
gular, and make their plural by changing ka- into vi-.
(b) Those which take tu- in the singular, and make
their plural by changing tu- into vi-.
Kanyumba, a little house ; Vinyumba, little houses.
Tunyuku, a little fowl ;
Vinyuku, little fowls.
Twmwana, a little child ;
Viwana, little children.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

13

These are all diminutives. Any noun may be


brought into this class.
Class VIII.The word andu. This word requires
kvr prefixing to all pronouns, adjectives, and verb*
used in connection with it.
Andu kwangu,
my place.
Andu kvxiloli,
a nice place.
A ndu kuzima,
another place.
Glass IX. The infinitive of verbs used as substan
tives. These when so used answer to the English
participle in ing.
It requires the syllable kuprefixing to all words used in connection with it.
The plural is the same as the singular.
Kuvala kwake,
Kugora kwako,
Kulwana kivao,

his bearing.
your talking.
their fighting.

LOCATION.

All nouns may be put into what is called the


locative case, by changing the final vowel -a into eand aiding -ni, as
xVilumba, a house ;
Nyumbeni, in the house.
Albua, a garden ;
Mbueni, in the garden.
Boro, a cattle-fold ; Boroni, in the cattle-fold.
Pronouns used in connection with the locative case
take the prefix kvoa-, as
Nyumbeni kwangu,
Ngileni kwake,
Chongoni kwetu,

in my house.
in his way.
in our heads.

ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives follow the substantive they agree with.


Regular adjectives are made to agree with their
substantives by prefixing to them the initial syllable

14

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

peculiar to the class of noun they are required to


agree with, as
Miviti mlele,
a tall tree.
Miti milele,
tall trees.
There are two kinds of regular adjectives
(a) Those which take their prefixes like the noun ;
(b) those which have a peculiar prefix of their own,
asMdu rnchache,
a little man.
Wandu wac/tache,
little men.
Mdu waloli,
. a nice man.
Wandu waloli,
nice men.
Kituli kibwaa,
a large mortar.
Kiixdi chaloli,
a nice mortar.
Adjectives of any class, when used in connection
with substantives denoting living beings, may take
the prefix propel- to the first class of substantives.
Mbuzi mchache,
a little goat.
Mbuzi wachache,
little goats.
Ng'ombe mrifu,
a fat cow.
It is most common to use prefixes of the class to
which the substantive belongs, though it denotes a
living being.
Kamwana kaloli,
a beautiful little child.
Mbuzi yaloli,
a fine goat.
The following is a table of prefixes required by
adjectives when used in connection with the different
classes and numbers of substantives.
Glass

I. Sing. m- and mu- Plur. waII.


>>
II.
"

>>

wa
nt- and mu'givam- and nlla-

>>

icainiyain- and n-

>i

ZOn

>>

^
15

SAGALLA DIALECT.

Class IV.

Sing. Id-

Plur.

'>

c/(C6-

V.

'J

?-

>>

lya-

>J

VI.

JJ

\Vn

J'

>>

>J

VII.
>>
rai.
IX.

>>

>>
>J
M

Iwaka- and wka- and to^wa&?*- and kwa-

J>
M

>>
J'

"

vama'ga.
nytir
iiywan

vi
va-

J>
>>

The following table shows how the regular adjectives


are used :
Class I. Sing. Mdu mbwaa,
a great man.
Plur. Wandu wabwaa, great men.
Sing. Mdu waloli,
a good man.
good men.
Plur. Wandu waloli,
II. Sing. Mwiti mbwaa,
a great tree,
great trees.
Plur. Miti niibwaa,
Sing. Mwiti 'gwaloli,
a good tree.
Plur. Miti yaloli,
good trees.
III. Sing. Nyumba mbwaa, a great house,
Plur. Nyumba mbwaa. great houses.
Sing. Nyumba yaloli,
a good house,
Plur. Nyumba zaloli,
good houses.
a small house,
Sing. Nyumba njache,
Plur. Nyumba njache,
small houses.
IV Sing. Kituli kibwaa,
a great mortar.
Plur. Vituli vibwaa,
great mortars,
Sing. Kituli chaloli,
a good mortar.
Plur. Vituli valoli,
good mortars.
V. Sing. Iwano ibwaa,
a great arrow.
Plur. Mawano mabwaa, great arrows,
Sing. Iivano lyaloli,
a good arrow. ]
good arrows.
Plur. Mawano 'galoli,
VI. Sing. Lwaka lubwaa,
a great voice.
Plur. Nywalca nyubwaa, great voices.

It)

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class VI. Sing.


Plur.
>>
>>
VII. Sing.
Plur.
>>
>>
Sing.
>>
>>
Plur.
>>
>>
>>
>J Sing.

Lumbo Iwaloli,
Nyumbo nywaloli,
Kanyumba kachache
Vinyumba vichache,
Tunyumba tuchache,
Vinyumba vichache,
Kanyumba kaloli,

a good song.
good songs.
a little house.
little houses.
a little house.
little houses.
a good little
house.
Tunyumlia tuloli,
a good little
>>
>>
M
house.
VIII.
Andu kubwaa,
a great place.
J>
Plur. Andu kubicaa,
great places.
>J
>>
Sing. Andu kumloli,
a good place.
Ji
>>
good places.
Plur. Andu kwa/oli,
>J
>>
great singing.
IX. Sing. Kuimba kubwaa,
Plur. Kuimba kubwaa,
great singings.
JJ
>>
good singing.
Sing. Kuimba kwaloli,
>>
>>
good singings.
Plur. Kuimba kwaloli,
>>
it
Adjectives used in connection with nouns of C4ass
V. (b) require the same initial prefix in the singular
as that used with nouns of Class III. singular
Dau mbwaa, a great bag ; Dau yaloli, a good bag.
Adjectives ued in connection with nouns of Class
V. (c) and (d) require the same initial prefix in the
singular as that used with nouns of Class II. singular
Ulili mbwaa, a great bed ; Ulili 'ywaloli, a good bed.
The word -ose, all, or the whole, take the same
prefix as -loli, as
the whole man.
Class
I. Sing. Mdu wose,
all men.

,, Plur. Wandu wose,


the whole tree.

II. Sing. Mwiti 'gwose,


all trees.
Plur. Mill yose,
III. Sing. Nyumba yose, the whole house.
Plur. Nyumba zose, all houses.
the whole mortar.
IY Sing. Kituli chose,
all mortars.
Plur. Vituli vose,

17

8AGALLA DIALECT.

I Class
V.

,,
VI.
,,

VII.
,,
,,
,,

,,
,,

Sing.
Plur.
Sing.
Plur.
Sing.

Iwano lyase,
Mawano 'goge,
Lwaka Iwose,
Nywaka nywose,
Kanyumba kose,

the whole arrow.


all arrows.
the whole voice.
all voices.
the whole little
house.

Tunyumba tose, the whole little


house.
Plur. Vinyumba rose, all little houses,
the whole place,
VIII. Sing. Andu kose,
all places,
,, Plur. Andu kose,
the whole singing,
IX. Sing. Kuimba kose,
all singinjr.
Plur. Kuimba kose,

The word wesi, having, or with, may take the same


prefixes as -ose. But it is often used without any
prefix whatever, asMdu wesi ng'ombe,

a man having cattle

The following table shows the forms taken by


-moju, one, and -ingi, many, as
Glass

I. Sing. Mdu mmqju,


one man.
Plur. Wandu wengi,
many men.
one tree.
II. Sing. Mwiti 'gumoju,
Plur. Miti minyi,
many trees.
III. Sing. Nyumba moju,
one house.
Plur. Nyumba ny'uigi, many houses.
9>
IV. Sing. Kituli kimoju,
one mortar.
Plur. Vituli vingi,
many mortars.
V. Sing. Iwano imoju,
one arrow.
Plur. Mawano mengi,
many arrows.
one voice.
VI. Sing. Lwaka lumoju,
,, Plur. Nivaka nywingi, many voices.
VII. Sing. Kanyumba kamoju, one little house.
,,

Tunyumba tumoju, one little house.


Plur. Vinyumba vingi,
many little
houses.
J!

18

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TA1TA LANGUAGE.

Class VIII. Sing.


Plur.

IX. Sing.
>>
>> Plur.

Andu kumoju,
Andu kwingi,
Kuimba kumoju,
Kuimba kwinyi,

one place,
many places.
one singing-,
manysingings.

The word other is expressed by the word


preceded by the appropriate pronominal prefix.
Class

I.

II.

III.

IV.

Sing.
Plur.
Sing.
Plur.
Sing.
Plur.
Sing.

V.

VI.
,,
VII.

Plur.
Sing.
Plur.
Sing.
Plur.
Sing.

iJ

>>

>,

Plur.

>>

VIII. Sing,
ii Plur.
IX. Sing.
Plur.

Mdumzima,
Wandu wazima,
Mwiti mzima,
Miti mizima,
Nyumba nzima,
Nyumba nzima,
Kituli kizima,

another man.
other men.
another tree,
other trees,
another house,
other houses,
another
mortar,
Vituli vizima,
other mortars.
Iwano izima,
another arrow.
Mawano mazima, other arrows,
Lwaka luzima,
another voice.
Nywaka nyuzima, other voices,
Kanyumba kazima, another little
house.
Tunyumba tuzima, another little
house,
Vinyumba vizima other little
houses,
.4w<2w kuzima,
another place,
Andu kuzima,
other places.
Kuimba kuzima,
another sing
ing,
Kuimba kuzima,
other singings.

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.

The Sagalla dialect is not rich in regular adjec


tives. This deficiency is made up by other words
which can be used as adjectives.

SAGALL A DIALECT.

19

I. The place of the adjective is supplied by the use


of the verb in the subjunctive mood, as
Msenge 'gugoloke,
the straight stick.
Msenge 'gugomeke, the bent stick.
Sangu ijule,
the full water jar.
II. By the verb in the past tense, as
Mundu wafwile,
the dead man.
JYguo ielile,
the clean cloth.
III. By a substantive connectsd with the noun,
qualified by the preposition -a, of, as
Mundu wa iziso,
a covetous man.
Mundu wa mutu,
a mad man.
Meji 'ga munyu,
salt water.
Mundu wafulo,
a true man.
IV. By the use of the word -wesi, as
Awesi ukongo,
a sick man.
Awesi ndigi,
a strong man.
Chiwed iktvi,
a dirty (thing).
V. By a simple assertion.
(a) The verb "to be" followed by na and the
substantive, as
Uo na ulachu,
you are wise.
Weo na ukongo,
they are sick.
(b) The appropriate particle prefixed to the adjective,
as
Mabemba 'gaivasa, the Indian corn is bad.
hvano lyawasa,
the arrow is bad.
(c) The appropriate particle prefixed to na, and
followed by the adjective. In this case the final vowel
changes into e or i, as
Mwiti 'gwanawasi,
Chala chanawasi,

the tree is bad.


the finger is bad.

20

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

(d) The appropriate particle prefixed to kalla net,


as
Wakalla na ukongo,
they are sick.
Takalla na ulachu,
we are wise.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

The comparison of adjectives is expressed 1. By


a simple statement, asmundu uyu waloli ela ulya
wanawasi, this man is good, but that (man) is bad.
2. By the use of the present tense of the verbs kuisa
and kuchwrriba, to surpass, as Mdu uyu waloli ela
nlya waisa, this man is good, but that (man) is
better ; Mdu uyu mlele ela ulya wachumba, this man
is tall, but that (man) is taller.
3. By the words baha and bora, asBaha uyu, this
(man) is better ; Bora ulya, that (man) is better.
4. By the word ndigi, as Awa wadea kirani ela
walya wadea kirani na ndigi, these (men) do well, but
those do better.
The superlative degree is expressed by -ose and
kuisile, asiVct ndigi zose, with all strength.
Waisile wandu icose, he surpasses all men.
Mundu waisifo ni uyu, this is the best man.
Ng'ombe zake zaisile kuvala, his cattle bear the
best.
NUMERALS.

The following are the cardinal numbers :


1. Mosi.
2. Pili.
3. Tatu.
4. Ine.
5. Sana.
6. Tandalu.
7. MfuMjate.
8. Nane.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
31.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.

Ikenda.
Ikumi.
Ikumi na moju.
, mbili.
>>

>>
>>

, tat it.

, ine.
, sano.
, wlandatu.
>>
, mfungate.
>J
, nane.
>>
, ikenda.
>>
Mirongt.> miili.
na moju.

mbili.
>J

tatu.
>>

,, ine.
>J

sano.
JJ

ndandatu.
JJ
,,
mfungate.
>'

nane.
JJ

ikenda.
>J
Mirongi.> mitatu.
na moju.
JJ
,,
mbili.
>'

tatu.
JJ
,,
,, ine.
J>

sano.
J>

ndandatu.
>>

mfungate.
7>

nane.
>>
,,
ikenda.
>>
JffzVongff) mine.
misano.
JJ
mitandatu.
>>
mj'ungate.
Jl
minane.
>>
Jcenda.

21

22

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

100. Tgana.
101. I'yana na imoju.
,,
,, ikumi.
110.
120.

,, miron^
130.
mitatu.
Jl
>J
If
mine.
140.
J>

>>
misano.
150.
V
>>

200. Ma'gana ?; die.


250.

na mironyi misano.
555.
masano na

,,
na sano.
1000.
,, ikumi.
All numerals except infungate ikenda and ikumi,
may take the appropriate prefix agreeing wit la the
noun with which they are used.
Miti ikumi na misano,
fifteen trees.
Numbers beyond a hundred are seldom used by the
natives.
,
The number always follows the substantive with
which it is connected.
Mdu mmoju,
one man.
Wandu wasano, five men.
Vituli vinane,
eight mortars.
10 is generally expressed by the word afwa, as
Mbuzi afwa, ten goats.
1 and 2 ate generally
expressed by the third set of demonstrative pronouns,
as Mdu uyo, one man; Mbuzi izo, two goats. (See
p. 34.)
When a noun qualified by a number takes an
adjective, the number comes last, as
Vituli valo'i visano,
five fine mortars.
Wandu wabwaa wanane, eight fine men.
The ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of
the variable particle -a
Mundu wa hambiri,
the first man.
Mwiti gwa kasano,
the fifth tree.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

23

The ordinal numbers are as follows :


First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Last

-a hambiri.
-a kaili.
-a katatu.
-a kane.
-a kasano.
-a kutandatu
-a mfungate.
-a kanane.
-a ikenda.
-a ikumi.
-a mbale, etc.

The table on following page will show the forms


numbers take when used in connection with sub
stantives.

ADVERBIAL NUMBERS.

These are chiefly expressed by prefixing ka- to the


cardinals.
The following table will show how they are formed :
Once
Twice
Three times
Four ,,
Five
,,
Six
,
Seven , ,
Eight , ,
Nine , ,
Ten
,
How ma ny times ?
Often

kamoju.
kaili.
katatu.
kane.
kasano.
katandatu
m/ungate.
kanane.
ikenda.
ikumi.
kalinga ?
kingi.

><

8
1

3 1

1
>

.-> *
|

8 ,8

j -
^

11

.
rli
W

&

Lumbo

.s>

.? "- ~
L S

MS

8
.Si ~5

>
i>

>

>*! >

<

|e

<)
H

35
u

.^

b| ^

"5

r*
03

00

g g g

llt'l
-*c<i

>

1 l

t>

2 3

H
M

03

to
03

-0

s
1

11

1 1- 1
8

t'

1 1
11 1 1
W

3 -S,

=5

3
2

11

w
c ^s

8
11
l-H

.8

fe; i^

5 ,.
> >.
< *! >,
.5. -5

""H

1 1

..s

1 1
II

SI

'1
>,

=5 E;

2>
>5

1 1

.1

>~i

a
8
3

0
Eh

i >

.7.

s>
-f-

'.?. ^s

SAGALLA DIALECT.

25

PRONOUNS.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

The full forms of the personal pronoun are as


follows :
I,
Imi ;
We,
Isi.
Thou,
Uwe ; You, Inyu.
He or she, lye ;
They Wao or waoe.
It or they, when referring to inanimate objects, are
expressed by special prefixes.
The objective case of the personal pronoun is the
same as the subjective case.
The possessive case is expressed
() By use of possessive pronouns, as
Iwano lyangu,
my arrow.
Ncfombe zake,
his cattle.
Kituli chao,
their mortar.
(b) By the use of the preposition -a, of, as
Mbuzi za wandu,
the people's goats.
Ada za mzao,
their customs.
The possessive pronoun is formed by prefixing the
preposition -a to a special form of the personal
pronoun, as
-a-rtf/u, mine.
-e-lu, ours.
-a-ko,
thine.
-e-nu, yours.
-a-ke,
his, her, or its. -a-, or -oe, theirs.
The preposition na, "and" or "with," is often
prefixed to a shortened form of the personal pronoun
to express " and " or " with " me, you, him, etc.
Na-mi, and or with me ; JYasi, and or with us.
Na-we, ,,
thee ; Nainyu,
you.
Na-ye, or iye,
him ; Nao,

them.
Another form is also used to express the pronoun in
the subjective case, as1

26

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Xa-mose, and I ;
Xa-tose or na-sose, and we.
Xa-ose, thou ;
Na-mwose,
you.
Xa-ese,
he, she or it, Xa-wose,
they.
The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark
the subjective case of the personal pronoun are as
follows :
Ni-, no-, I ;
Ti-, to-,
we.
U-, w-,
thou ;
Mu-, mwa-, you.
U-, w-, a-, he, she ;
We-, war,
they.
These denote animate beings only.
The objective forms of the personal pronoun
denoting animate beings are as follows :
-ni-, -11-, me ;
-ti-, us.
-leu-,
thee ;
-mu-, you.
-?-,
him, her ; -tea-, them.
The following prefixes are used in connection with
words expressing inanimate things to denote the
personal pronoun :
Objective Case.
Subjective Case.
Class, tfing.
Plur.
Sing. Plur.
II. 'Gu-, 'gwa-. I-, ya-.
'Gu-. I,
III. I-, ya-.
Zi-, za-.
I-.
Zi-.
IV. Chi-, cha-.
Vi-, va-.
Chi-. Vi,
V. Lyi-, lya-.
'Ge-, 'ga-.
Lyi, 'Ga-.
VI. Lu-, Iwa-.
Zi-, za-.
Lu-. Zi,
VII. Ke-, ka-.
Ve-, va-.
Ka, Vi-.
Te-, tu-.
Ve-, va-.
Ka-. Vi-.
VIII. Ku-, kwa-. Ku-, kwa-.
Ku, Ku,
IX. Ku-.
Ku.
Ku-. Ku,
The subjective and objective cases of Class V. (b)
take the same form for their singular as those of Class
III. singular.
The subjective and objective cases of Class V. (c)
and (d) take the same form for their singular as those
of Class II. singular.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

27

The following table shows the use of the objective


prefixes :
Class
I. Wa-ni-ona, he sees me.
Wa-ninsJiaia, he loves me.
Wa ku-ona, he sees you.
Wa-kusJiaia, he loves you.
Wa-mw-ona, he sees him.
Wa-m shaia, he loves him.
Wa-ti-ona, he sees us.
Wa-ti-shaia, he loves us.
Wa-mu-ona, he sees you.
Wa-mu-shaia, he loves you.
Wa-wa-ona, he sees them.
Wa-wcirshaia, he loves them.
,,
II. Wa-'guona, he sees it (iwjunda,& garden).
Wa-'gu-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-i-ona, he sees them (migunda,
gardens.)
Wa-i-shaia, he loves them.
,,
III. Wa-i-ona, he sees it (nyumba, a house).
Wa-i-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-zi-ona, he sees them (nyumba,
houses).
Wa-zi-shaia, he loves them.
,,
IV. Wa-chi-ona, he sees it (kitali, a mortar).
Wa-chi-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-vi-ona, he sees them (vituli, mortars).
Wa-vi-shaia, he loves them.

V. Wa-lyi-ona, he sees it (igembe, a hoe).


Wa-lyi-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-'ga-ona, he sees them (niagembe, hoes).
Wa-'ga-shaia, he loves them.
,,
VI. Wa-lu-ona, he sees it (lumbo, a song).
Wa-lu-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-nyu-ona, he sees them (nyumbo,
songs).
Wa-nyushaia, he loves them.

28

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION T.0 TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class

,,

,,

VII. Wa-ka-ona, he sees it (kanyumba, a little


house).
Wa-ka-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-vi-ona, he sees them (yinyumba, little
houses).
Wa-vi-shaia, he loves them.
VIII. Wa-ku-ona, he sees it (andu, a place).
Wa-ku-shaia, he loves it.
Wa-ku-ona, he sees them (andu, places).
Wa-ku-shaia, he loves them.
IX. Wa-ku-ona, he sees it (kuimba, a sing
ing-)
Wa-ku-shaia, he loves it.
Wa ku-ona, he sees them {kuimba, sing
ing).
Wa-ku-shaia, he loves them.

In all cases the first syllable is the subject of the


vei-b. The syllable representing the object always
immediately precedes the verb, as
Wa-, he ; ni-, me ; ona, sees. He me sees.
Ta-, we ; 'gu-, it (m'gunda, a garden) ; gula, buy.
We it buy.
When emphasis is required the full form of the
personal pronoun may be used together with the
pi'oper subjective and objective prefixes, as
Imi na-shaia,
Uwe wa-nishaia,

I do love.
You do love me.

The objective prefix is always used where in


English the objective is expressed by a pronoun,
as
Na-m-uza,
I tell him.
Na-chi-boesa,
I repair it.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

29

The objective prefix is used where in English the


definite article is used, as
Na-'gu-tema niwiti,
Ni-zilisa ng'ombe,
Na-'ga-teka meji,

I cut the tree.


I will tend the cattle.
I have drawn the water.

The indefinite article is denoted by the omission of


the objective prefix, as
Na-lasa nyamandu,
Ta-gula mbuzi,
Na-una mundu,

I shot an animal.
We buy a goat.
I see a man.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

The possessive pronoun always follows immediately


after the thing possessed, it varies according to the
number and class
Mdu wangu,
Kiluli chenti,

my man.
your mortar.

The unvarying parts of the possessive pronoun aro


as follows :
-angu, my ;
-etu, our.
.ako, thy ;
-euu, your.
-ake, his, her, or its ; -ao, or -aoe, their.
The words -ake and -ao are used for all classes of
substantives.
The above forms may be used as enclitics with such
words as
Mwanangu,
my child.
Wokwetu,
our brothers or sisters.
Mkwako,
your wife.
The initial letters of the possessive pronoun
proper to each class and number of substantives are
as follows ;

30

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class

Sing. W-,
Plur., W-.
'Gw-,
Y-.
Jl
J'
Z-.
Y-,
Jl
Jl
V-.
JJ
Ch-,
Ly-,
>> 'G>i
Z-.
>> Lu-,
1J
V.
>> K-,
J>
T-,
>>
V-.
Kw-.
nil.
J>
>> Kw-,
IX.
>> Kw-.
>> Kw-,
When the substantive is put into the locative case,
its pronoun requires a special form, as
Kitunduni kwangu,
in my store.
Ngoloni kwangu,
in my heart.
Chongoni kwake,
in his head.
The following table will show how the various
forms of the possessive pronoun are used :
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.

I'LASS.

I. Mundu"," wangu, wako, wake, wetu,


wao.
Wanda "," wangu, wako, wake, wetu,
wao.
II. Mwiti " ,"
'givangu, 'gwako,
gwako, 'gwake,
'gwenu, 'gwao.
yako,
yoke,
Mitt ","
yangu,
yenu, yao.
III. Nyumba "," yangu,
yoke,
yako,
yenu, yao.
zake,
Nyumba "," zangu,
zako,
zenu, zao.
IV. Kituli","
changu,
chako, chake,
chenu, chao.
vako,
vake,
Vituli","
vangu,
venu, vao.
V. Iwano"," lyangu,
lyako, lyake,
lyenu, lyao.

wenu,
wenu,
'gwetu,
yetu,
yetu,
zetu,
chetu,
ret a,
lyetu,

SAGALLA DIALECT.

31

CLASS.

V. Mawano"," 'gangu,
'gako, 'gake,
'getu,
'genu, 'gao.
"VI. Lumbo ","
Iwangu, Iwako, Iwake, Iwetu,
Iwenu, Iwao.
Nyumbo "," nywangu, nywako, nywake; nywetn,
nywenu, nywao.
VII. Kanyumba "," kangu, kako,
kake,
ketu,
kenu, kao.
Vinyumba "," vangu, vako,
vake,
vetu,
venu, vao.
VIII. Andu","
kwangu, kwako, kwake, kwetu,
kwenu, kwao.
IX. Kuimba","
kwangu, kwako, kwake, kwetu,
kwenu, kwao.
Locative formN'yumbeni"," kwangu, kwako, kwake,
kir.etu, kwenu, kwao.
When emphasis is required the word -en, self, or
own, is used, as
Iwano lyangu lyen,
my own arrow.
M'gunda 'gwangu gwen, my own garden.
Nywniba zetu zen,
our own houses.
The owner of a thing is denoted by use of the
preposition -a, of, which takes the initial letter proper
to the class and number of the substantives with
which it is connected.
Ngome ya Mzungu,
the European's house.
Tgembe lya mkwangu,
my wife's hoe.
Mvori 'gwa Masai,
the Masai's path.
Ng'ombe za mzuri,
the chief's cattle.
The personal pronoun is often used where in Eng
lish the possessive pronoun is implied
Wam-vunja magulu,
Wa-ku-pasa chala,
Ti-m-funga mlkono,

they broke his legs.


they cut off your finger.
we will tie his hands.

32

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The initial prefix to the preposition -a is the same


as that of the possessive pronoun, thus :
lass
I.
Sing Wa,
Plur. Wa.
II.
'Gwa,
Ya.
JJ
III.
Ya,
Za.
J>
>>
IV.
Cua,
Va.
j>
JJ
Lya,
'Ga.
>>
>>
Lwa,
Nwa.
VI.
>>
>>
Ka,
Va.

VII.
>>
JJ
VIII.
Kwa,
Kwa
JJ
Kwa,
Kwa
IX.
i>
JJ
When speaking of home, the singular kwangu, my
home, is used, and mzetu, plural, our home.
>>

v.

J>

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

The reflexive pronoun is expressed by the use of the


following forms :.
1 . By the use of the syllable -ku-. This syllable
takes the place of the objective prefix, and imme
diately precedes the verb, as
Wa-ku Vila mavuta,
they oil themselves.
The words mwen, self, and wen, selves, are often
added after the verb to denote a more definite
reflexive, as
Na-kulasa mwen,
I hit myself.
Wa-ku-tema mwen,
he cuts himself.
Wa-ku emba wen,
they deceive themselves.
2. By the use of the word cltongo, head, ind ngolo,
heart, as
Chongo changu,
myself.
- ATgolo yetu,
ourselves.
Namanya ngolo yangu, I know myself.
3. By the use of the word -en, self. This takes the
following forms to agree with the several classes and
numbers of substantives :

SAGALLA DIALECT.

Class

:s;i

I. Muiulu mwen,
Wandu wen,
II. Mwiti 'gwen,
Miti yen,
III. Nyumba yen,
Nyumba zen,
IV. Kituli chen,
Vittdi ven,
V. Iwano lyen,
Mawano 'gen,
VI. Lumbo Iwen,
Xyumbo nywen,
VII. Kanyumba ken,
Vinyumba ven,

the man himself.


the men themselves.
the tree itself.
the trees themselves.
the house itself.
the houses themselves.
the mortar itself.
the mortars themselves.
the arrow itself.
the arrows themselves.
the song itself.
the songs themselves.
the little house itself.
the little houses them
selves.
VIII. Andu kwen,
the place itself.
Andu kwen,
the places themselves.
IX. Kuimba kwen, the singing itself.
Kuimba kwen, the singings themselves.
By myself, by yourself, etc., is expressed by kingue
ri and weke.
Imi kingweri,
I by myself.
Uwe kingweri,
you by yourself.
Isi weke,
we by ourselves.
Inyu weke,
you by yourselves.
When used in connection with substantives, -eke
takes the same prefix as the possessive pronouns, as
Mwiti 'gweke,
the tree by itself.
Miti yeke,
trees by themselves.
Kituli clieke,
the mortar by itself.
Vituli veke,
mortars by themselves.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

There are three sets of demonstrative pronouns.


The first refer to objects near at hand
ifundu uyu,
this man.
Mwiti u'gu,
this tree.

34-

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The second set of demonstrative pronouns refer to


objects at a distance, as
Mundu ulya,
that man.
Mwiti 'gulya,
that tree.
The third set of demonstrative pronouns refer to
objects previously mentioned, as
Mundu uyo, this man, or that, mentioned before.
Mwiti u'go, this tree, or that, mentioned before.
The table on opposite page will show how the demon
strative pronouns are used.
Distance is denoted by the stress laid on the pen
ultimate, as Ulya, uiilya, uuulya, that {man).
All the above demonstrative pronouns may be
made to express there he, she, or it is, and there
they are, by prefixing s, as
Suyu, there he is ;
Sawa, there they are.
Su'gu, there it (tree) is ; Sit, there they (trees) are.
When the demonstrative pronoun begins with a
consonant, the letter s requires the same vowel as
that which follows the consonant, as
Si-chilya, there it is ; Si-vilya, there they are.
Si-lyilya, there it is ; Sa-'galya, there they are.
There is a set of demonstrative pronouns denoting
/ am he, this is it, these are they, etc., as.
Class
I. Jmi mwen, it is I ; isi wen,
it is we.
Uivemwen, it is thou ; inyu wen, it is you.
lye mwen, it is he ; Wo wen, it is they.
,,
II. U'go 'given, this is it; Io en, these are they.
,,
III. Io en,

Izo zen,
,,
Ivo ven,
IV. Icho chen,
A'go 'gen,
V. Ilyo lyen,
Izo zen,
VI. Ulo liven,
Ivo ven,
VII. Ako ken,
Ko Kwen,
VIII. Ko kwen,
Ko Kwen,
IX. Ko kwen,

befone.
Thone
Izo

Ivo

Io

Zilya

Vilya

Ilya

Ivi

Ii

Izi

Walya

Thone.

Thene.

Kuko

A'go

Awo

'Galya

Ivo

Abo

Izo

Zilya

Vilya

Alya

Izi

Ivi

Aba

Kuku

A'ga

Awa
tnnnn

nnn

Mawanoi

ningingn

plncnn

nongn Vinyumba littln


hounnn

nrnon

nontn n

housnn
Nyuinba,

Waiidui

Kulya

Kuimbai

Nyumbo,

Vitulii

Andui

--ii

befone
Thin

Kuko

U'go

Uyo

Icho

Ilyo

Chilya

Lyilya

Ulo

Ako

Abo

Io

'Gulya
That.

Ulya

Kulya

Kalya
Ulya

Ilya

Alya

Uuoruyu
Kuku

U'gn

Tliin.

Icbi

-yi

Ulu

Aka

Aha

Ii
housnn

tnnn
n

mnn

nontnnn

Nyumba,
Hwitii

nnong Kanyumba nlit lnJnun

nnnnow

Kitillii

Iwanoi

Lumboi

IV.

V.

VI.

ninning

plncn
n
Kuimbai
Andui

Mdni

Clasn.

I.

n.

In.

Vn.

VIn.

IX.

36

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

A negative is formed by prefixing si- and substi


tuting -ngi for -en, as
I. Simi ungi, it is not I ; Sisi wangi, it is not we.
Suive ungi, it is not you ; Sinyu wangi, it is not
you.
Siye ungi, it is not he ; Siwo wangi, it is not
they.
II. Si'go 'gungi, it is not it ; Sio ingi, it is not they.
III. Sio ingi, it is not it ;
Sizo zingi, it is not
they.
IV. Sicho chingi, it is not it ; Sivo vingi, it is not
they.
V. Silyo lyingi, it is not it ; Si'go 'gangi, it is not
they.
VI. Silo lungi, it is not it ; Sizo zingi, it is not
they.
VII. Siko kangi, it is not it ; Sivo lingi, it is not
they.
VIII. Siko kungi, it is not it ; Siko kungi, it is not
_ they.
IX. Siko kungi, it is not it ; Siko kungi, it is not
they.
The unchangeable word anduangi may be used
instead of -ngi to express a negative, as
Simi anduangi, it is not I ;
Si'go anduangi, it is not it ;
etc., etc.

Sisi anduangi, it is
not we.
Sio anduangi, it is not
they.

Ainya means, in or at this place.


Alyen means, in or at that place.
Aoenyao means, in or at that very place.
Andu hung' means, that is it, or that is how it is,
Kisiku na kisiku, this thing or that thing.
- Usiku na usiku means, something or other.

SAGALLA DIALECT.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

The relative pronoun is expressed in many different


ways :
I. By the first set of demonstrative pronouns,
as
Ichi kibwaa,
Ivi va'oli,

this which is great.


these which are good.

II. By ni- prefixed to the third set of demonstrative


pronouns and followed by the same pronoun in its
simple form, as
Ni-cho icho,
Nilyo ilyo nahada,

that is it which.
that is it which I want.

III. By ni- prefixed to the third set of demonstrative


pronouns and followed by -en, with its appropriate
prefix, as
Ni-lyo ly-en,
that is it which.
Ni-'go 'gw-en nahada, that is it which I want.
IV. By ni- prefixed to the third set of demonstra
tive pronouns, as
Nilyo lyilima,
Ni-'go 'geona,

that is it which hoes.


these are they which see.

V. By the word andu. This word may be used


with all verbs and with all tenses, as
Andu na'gamba,
Andu neluo,
Andu nakalla,

that is what I say.


that is where I was.
that is where I am.

Niko is often added to give emphasis, as


Niko andu neluo, that is tho very place where I
was.
Kwen answers the same purpose, as
Andu kwen nagamha, that is exactly what I said.

38

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

VI. By the parts of the verb " to be " with naprefixed to the last syllable of the third set of demon
strative pronouns, as
Neluo na-cho,
I was with it, I had it.
lhji neluo nalyo,
that which I had.
VII. By the word wesi, have, as
Mdu wesi iziso,
a man who is greedy.
Uu wesi kilya,
he who has food.
VIII. By the demonstrative pronouns of all classes.
These may be used in connection with all verbs and in
all tenses, as
Uu washaia, he who loves.
Uu wendeshaia, he who is loving.
Uu washaile, he who loved.
Uu ushaia, he who will love.
Uu namkwita, he whom I beat.
Uu wakwiio, he who is beaten.
Ichi (kituli) uchihada, it (mortar) which you want.
Ield (kituli) chihada, it (mortar) which wants.
Ichi (kituli) ehihado, it (mortar) which is wanted.
U'gu (mwiti) u'yuhada, it (tree) which you will
want.
U'gu (mwiti) 'guhada, it (tree) which wants.
U'gu (mwiti) 'guhado, it (tree) which is wanted, etc.
The negative relative is formed by the use of the
usual negative prefix, si-, as
Si-cho icho naJiada, that is not it which I want.
Uu sa-wesi, he who has not.
Uu sa-gendile, he who did not go.
Ichi si-chiwesi, it which has not.
The word niko is used in connection with personal
pronouns to express that is what, why, where, and
when, as^
Niko na'gamba,
that is what I say.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

39

, Niko nakimbila,
that is why I ran.
Niko na'yendu,
that is where I go.
Niko nishaia,
that is when I will love.
Niko may be used with all tenses of the verb.
INTERROGATIVE AND OTHER PRONOUNS.

There are four interrogatives which do not vary in


form :.
Ini ?
what 1
Kudani ?
why 1
Nini ?
when 1
Muni ?
what kind i
Muni always follows the substantive with which
it is connected, as
Mundu muni ?
what kind of a man 1
Wandu muni ?
what kind of men 1
Kiadu muni ?
what kind of a thing 1
What is it 1 is expressed by Kimuni ?
The following will show how the interrogatives are
used :
Iclii n'ini ?
what is this ?
Ukuja nini ?
when will you come \
Wayora kudani ?
why do you speak 1
What? is often expressed by the syllable -ni, suffixed
to the verb, as
Uhada-ni ?
what do you want 1
Kwanawesi-ni ?
what does it matter 1
-ni is often used with the appropriate prefix to
express nothing and no : .
Wadeani ? what do they 1 Wa-ni = nothing.
Wahadani ? what (thing) do you want \ Cha-ni =
nothing.
Lyalasa ? has it (the arrow) hit? Lya-ni = uo.
-ni suffixed to the particle na-, with or and, pre
ceded by the verb " to be," is used to express what is
there, as

40

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Uo na-ni ? what is there with you ] = what is the


matter with you ?
Chuo na-ni ? what is there with it 1 = what is the
matter with it 1
The same form following a negative verb may
express why not ? as
Sishaia nuo na-ni ? why shall I not love ?
Sedea uo na-ni ? why will he not do (it) ?
"Who 1 when 1 and whose ? are expressed by -ani ?
(a) Ani is used alone when asking the question
who ? as
Jfu ani ?
who art thou ?
Mu ani f
who are you ]
IP ani f
who is he ?
(b) Ani is often suffixed to ku-, which then becomes
kwani, to express to, or from whom ? as
Wafuma kwani ?
from whom do you come ?
Weja kwani ?
to whom do you come ?
(c) Ani is used with the appropriate prefix to express
whose
Mdu wani ?
whose man t
Wandu wani ?
whose men ?
Mwiti 'gicani ?
whose tree i
Iwano lyani ?
whose arrow ?
How ? is expressed by ije f This may either be used
alone, or suffixed to the verb
Ije ?
how is it ?
Kwakallaije ?
how does the matter stand 1
Wa'gambaije ?
how, or what do you say 1
Where ? is expressed by hiyo ? or ii/o ? It may be
suffixed to verbs, thus
Wagenda-hiyo f where are you going ?
Uo iyo ?
where are you ?
Chio iyo ?
where is it ?

SAGALLA DIALECT.

41

The following will show how iyo ? is used with the


verb " to be " :
where is he (man) ?
I. Uo iyo ?
where are they (men) ?
Weo iyo ?
ii. 'Guo iyo ?
where is it (tree) 1
where are they (trees) ?
lo iyo ?
where is it (house) 1
in. lo iyo ?
where are they (houses) J
Zio iyo ?
where is it (mortar) 1
IV. Ohio iyo ?
where are they (mortars) ?
Vio iyo ?
V. Lyio iyo ?
where is it (arrow) ?
where are they (arrows) 1
'Geo iyo ?
where is it (song) 1
VI. Luo iyo ?
where are they (songs) 1
Nyuo iyo ?
where is it (little house) 1
VII. Keo iyo ?
Veo iyo ?
where are they (little houses) 1
where is it (place) ?
VIII. Kuo iyo ?
where is it (singing) ?
IX. Kuo iyo ?
The above are also used to express Which ? in
which case the twoi words are contracted into one,
as
which (man) ?
Uoiyo f
Waiyo ?
which (men) 1
'Gwoiyo ?
which (tree) ?
loiyo ?
which (trees) 1
To pronounce these words properly, a quick ear and
much practice are very necessary.
How many 1 is expressed by -linga ? This takes the
appropriate prefix
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Waivdu walinga ?
Miii milinga ?
Nyumba ndinga ?
Vituli vilinga I
Mawano malinga ?

how
how
how
how
how

many
many
many
many
many

men 1
trees?
houses 1
mortars ?
arrows ?

42

ELEMEXTAUY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

CLASS.

VI. Nyumbo ndinga ?


VII. Vinyimiba vilinga ?
VIII. Andu kivalinga ?
IX. Kuimba kwalinga ?
How often 1 is expressed

how many songs 1


how many little houses 1
how many places?
how many singings ?
by kalinga ?

The infinitive mood of most verbs


dialect ends in -a, as
Ku-genda, to go. Ku-fwa, to die.
travel.
The simplest form of the verb, as
found in the second person singular of
mood, as
Seka, laugh !
Kwita, beat !

in the Sagalla
Kutaniba, to
in English, is
the imperative

Lima, cultivate !
Lisa, feed !

The second person plural is formed by changing the


final -a of the singular into -e, and adding -ni, as
Seke-ni, laugh ye !
Kwite-ni, beat ye !

Lime-ni, cultivate ye !
Lise-ni. feed ye !

The subjunctive is often used as an imperative both


in the singular and plural, as
[f-mkote !
U-mkwite !
Mu-mfunge I
Mu-'gu-teme 1

you ask him !


you beat him !
bind ye him !
cut it (tree) down !

All other tenses and moods are made by prefixing


and suffixing appropriate syllables to the simple form
of the verb.
There are two conjugations, the affirmative and
the negative, in which the voice, mood, tense, person,
number, subject, and object are denoted by prefixes

SAGALLA DIALECT.

43

and suffixes. These when pronounced together form


one word, as
Ni-je-m-kwita,
I will heat him.
Wa-m-tag-Ue,
they have sold him.
THE TENSES.

The common order of the particles denoting person,


tense, etc., is as follows :
I. The subjective personal prefix, which denotes
subject, person, and number.
II. The tense prefix.
III. The objective prefix, which denotes object,
person, and number, as
Ni-je-chi-gula,
I will buy it.
This word when taken to pieces will be found to
contain
I. Ni-, prefix denoting personal pronoun, subjective
case, first person singular.
II. -je-, tense prefix denoting future time.
III. -chi-, prefix agreeing with the fourth class of
substantives, denoting objective case, the third person
singular.
IV. -gula, verb (minus the sign of the infinitive ku-)
meaning buy.
The past perfect is denoted by a change in the
termination of the verb, as
Na-chi-gul-ile,
I bought it.
I. Na-, prefix denoting subject, first person singular.
II. -chi-, prefix denoting object agreeing with nouns
of the fourth class, third person singular.
III. -gid-, verb (minus the sign of the infinitive ku-,
and the stem -a), meaning buy.
IV. -ile, tense prefix, denoting past time.
The noun denoting the object of the sentence
follows the verb, thus :
Nachigulile kituli,
I bought the mortar.

44

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The sign of the present imperfect tense appears to


be a relic of the verb ku-genda, to go, deprived of its
root consonant -g- thus, na-enda-lima : this would be
its full form ; but the -a- of the pronominal prefix is
absorbed by the -e- of the tense prefix and beconn s
long -e-, asn-ende-lima, I am hoeing.
Na-, prefix denoting subject, first person singular.
-ende-, tense prefix denoting a continuous state.
-lima, verb (minus the infinitive ku-), which denotes
hoe.
The immediate future has no tense prefix, but
the pronominal prefixes which it take at the
beginning denote both subject and state, as
Ni-'gu-lima (m'gunda), I will hoe it (the garden).
Here we get ni-, subjective prefix and tense sign
combined, followed directly by the objective sign
agreeing with a noun of the second class.
INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
This is formed by preBxing the syllable denoting
the personal pronoun in the subjective case (see p.
26). This answers to our common Euglish present,
/ come, I love, etc.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Na-shaia, I love.
Ta-sliaia, we love.
Wa shaia, thou lovest.
Miva-shaia, you love.
Wa- or a-s/iaia, he or she Wa shaia, they love,
loves.
II. 'Gwa-shaia, it loves Ya-shaia, they love or
like.
or likes.
III. Ya-shaia,
Za-shaia,

?>
Va-shaia,

IV. Cha-shaia,
"
V. Lya-shaia,
'Ga-shaia,

i>
VI. Lwa-shaia,
Nwu-shaia,

>?

SAGALLA DIALECT.

4.->

Plur.
Cluss
Sing.
VII. Ka-shaia, it loves or Va-sliaia, they love m
likes.
like.
Tu-shaia,
Va-shaia,
>>
>>
VIII. Kwa-shaia,
Kwa-sliaia,
J>
>>
IX. Kwa-sliaia,
Kwa skaia,
J)
i>
This tense is also used as a perfect tense denoting
a complete action at the present time, thus na m-kota
may mean, I ask him, or I have asked him ; nahada
may mean, I seek, or I have sought.
Imperfect Tense.
The characteristic mark of this tense is -ende-, and
it is formed by prefixing the sign of the personal
pronoun, followed by the word -ende-, thus na-endegenda, I am going. This full form, however, is never
used, but it is contracted into ne-nde-genda. This
denotes an action going on at the time of speaking,
as
Ne-nde-lima, I am hoeing, that is, I am in the act of
hoeing.
Class,
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ne-nde-shaia, I am
Te-nde-shaia, we are
loving.
loving.
We-ndeshaia, thou art Mwe-nde-shaia, you are
loving.
loving.
We-nde-shaia, he or she We-nde-shaia, they are
loving.
is loving.
Ye-nde-shaia, they are
II. 'Gwe-nde shaia, it is
loving.
loving.
Ze-nde-shaia,

III. Ye-ndeshaia,

Ve-nde shaia,

IV Che-nde-shaia,

' Ge-nde-shaia,
V. Lye-nde-shaia,

Nywe-nde shaia,
VI. Lwe^nde-shaia,

Ve-nde-shaia,

,,
ra. Ke-nde-shaia,
Ve-nde-shaia,

Te-nde-shaia,

46

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class.
Sing.
Plur.
VIII. Kwe-nde-shaia, it is loving. Kwe-nde-shaia, we
are loving.
IX. Kwe-nde-shaia,

Kwe-nde-shaia,
This form is sometimes used to express a future.
Perfect Tense.
There are two perfects denoting a fini.-hed action
1. A present perfect answering to the English with
have, as na-genda, I have gone.
2. A past perfect denoting an act finished some
time ago, as na-gend-ile, I went.
There are two forms of the present perfectthe first
is the same as the present tense, as, na-ge^nda, I have
gone.
The second preterite is formed by prefixing the
sign of the personal pronoun followed by the word
-eja-, asn-eja-lima, I have hoed.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. N-eja-shaia, I have
T-eja-shaia, we have
loved.
loved.
W-eja-shaia, thou hast Mw-eja-shaia, you have
loved.
loved.
W-eja-shaia, he or she W-eja-shaia, they have
has loved.
loved.
II. 'Gw-eja-shaia, it has
Y-eja-shaia, they have
loved.
loved.
III. Y-eja shaia,

Z-eja-shaia,

IV. Ch-eja-shaia,

V-eja shaia,

V. Ly-eja-shaia,

' G-eja-shaia,

VI. Lw-eja-shaia,

Nw-eja-shaia,

VII. K-eja-shaia,

V-eja-shaia,

T-eja-shaia,

V-eja-shaia,

VIII. Kw-eja-shaia,

Kw eja-shaia,

IX. Kw-ejashaia,

Kweja-shaia,
,,
The full form of the above would be na eja-shaia,

SAG ALL A DIALECT.

but the -a- is absorbed into the -e-.


ever, is rarely used.

47

This tense, how

JPast Perfect Tense.


There are two forms of the past perfect. The first
is formed by changing the final letter -a of the verb
into -He, as na-gend-ile, I went. Verbs ending in -ra
make their past perfect by changing the final letter -a
into -ere, asna-m-gorer-ere, I told him.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Na sha-ile, I loved.
Ta sha-ile, we loved.
Wa-sha-ile, thou loved. Mwa-sha-ile, you loved.
Wa- or a-sha-ile, he or Wa-sJia-ile, they loved,
she loved.
II. 'Gwasha ile, it loved. Ya-sha-ile, they loved.
III. Ya-sha-ile,

Za sha-ile,
,,
IV. Oha-shaile,

Va-sha-ile,

V. Lya-sha-ile,

' Ga-slta-ile,

VI. Lwa ska-ile,

Nywa sha-ile,

VII. KasJia-ile,
,,
Va-sha-ile,

Tu-sha ile,

Vas'a-ile,
,,
VIII. Kwasha-ile,

Kwa-sha-ile,

IX. Kwa-sha-ile,

Kwa sha-ile,

The second past perfect is formed by prefixing the


sign of the personal pronoun followed by the word
-ejile, aswa-ejile-lima, contracted into we-jile-lima,
they cultivated.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. N-ejile-shaia, I loved.
T-ejile-shaia, we loved.
W-ejile-shaia, thou
Mw-ejile-shaia, you
loved.
ioved.
W-ejiU-slmia, he or she W-ejile-shaia, they
loved.
loved.
II. 'Gw-ejile-shaia, it loved. Y-ejile-shaia, they
loved.
III. Y-ejile-shaia,

Z-ejile-shaia,

48

ELEMEXTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class.
Sing.
IV. Ch ejile-shaia, it loved.

Plur.
V-ejile-shaia, they
loved.
V. Ly ejile-shaia,

'G-ejile-shaia,

VI. Lw-ejile shaia,


Nyw-ejile-shaia,
VII. K- ejile-shaia,

V-ejile-shaia,
,,
T-ejile-shaia,

V-ejile-shaia,

VIII. Kw-ejile-shaia,
Kw-ejile-shaia,
IX. Kw-ejile shaia,
Kw-ejile-shaia,
The full form of this tense would be na ejile-ge-iula,
but the -a of na- is absorbed by -e,-ejile-, n-ejile-genda,
I went, or I had gone.
Future Tense.
There are two future tensesthe mediate and
the immediate. The mediate signifies an action that
will take place at some future time ; the immediate
signifies an action that will take place without delay.
The mediate future is formed by prefixing the
personal pronoun followed by the syllable -je- to the
verb, as ni-je-lima, I will cultivate.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ni-je-shaia, I will love. Ti-je-shaia, we will
love.
U-je-shaia, thou wilt love. Mu-je-shaia, you will
love.
U- or we-je-shaia, he or We-je-shaia, they will
she will love.
love.
II. ' Gu-je-slmia, it will love. I-je-shaia, they will
love.
III. I-je-shaia,

Zi-je-shaia,
IV. Chi-je-shaia,

Vi-je-shaia,
V. Lyi-je-shaia,
,,
'Ge-je-shaia,
VI. Lwe-je-shaia,

Nywe-je-shaia,
VII. Keje-shaia,
,,
Ve-je-sltaia,
Te-jeshaia,

Ve-je-shaia,

SAGALLA DIALECT.

49

Class.
Sing.
Plur.
VIII. Kwe-je-shaia, it will love. Kwe-je-sliaia, they
will love.
IX. Kwe-je-shaia,

Kwe-je-shaia,
The immediate future is formed by the use of the
same pronominal prefixes as in the mediate future, but
without the syllable je-, and slightly throwing the
accent on the final syllable of the verb, as ni-lima, I
will cultivate.
The final -a of this tense is often changed into
-a'ga, as ni-lim-a'ga, I will cultivate.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ni-shaia, I will love.
Ti-shaia, we will love.
U-shaia, thou wilt love. Mu-sliaia, you will
love.

U-shaia, he or she will - We-shaia, they will


love.
love.
II. 'Gu shaia, it will love. I-sliaia, they will love
III. I-shaia,
Zi shaia,

IV. Chi-shaia,
Vi-shaia,

u
V Lyi-shaia,
'Ge-shaia,

>>
VI. Lwe-shaia,
Nywe-shaia,
,,

VII. Ke-shaia,
Ve-shaia,
,,
J>
Te-shaia,
Veshaia,

J>
nil. Kwe-shaia, >>
Kwe-shaia,

IX. Kwe-shaia,
Kwe-shaia,
,,
>>
Narrative Tense.
In relating a narrative, or making any communica
tion, a verb in the perfect tense is used to begin
with, and the remaining verbs are put into what is
called the narrative tense. This is formed by inserting
-ka- after the pronominal prefix. This -ka- has the
power of the English and, asni-ka-genda, and I went.
This tense takes the same prefix as the future tense,
except in the third persons singular and plural.
D

50

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class.
Sing.
I. Ni-ka-shaia, and I loved.

Plur.
Ti-ka-shaia, and we
loved.
U-kashaia, and thou loved. Mu-ka-shaia, and
you loVed.
A-ka-shaia, and he or she Wa-ka-shaia, and
they loved.
loved.
II. 'Gu-ka-ehaia, and it loved. I-ka-shaia, and they
loved.
III. I-ka-shaia,

Zi-ka-shaia,
IV. Chi-ka-shaia,

Vi-ka-shaia,
V. Lyi-ka-shaia,

'Ge-ka-shaia,
VI. Lwe-ka-shaia,

Nywe . ka-shaia,
VII. Ke-ka-shaia,

Ve-ka-shaia,
Ve-ka-sliaia,
Te-ka-shaia,

VIII. Kwe-ka-sliaia,

Kwe-ka-shaia,
Kwe ka-shaia,
IX. Kwe-ka-shaia,

Conditional Tenses.
There are seventeen words and phrases which may
be called conditional tenses. Nine of these may be
said to express a state of things supposed to be
existingthe actual conditional tenses. Six may be
said to express the case as an unlikely one the
possible conditional tenses. The remaining two are
contingents.
Actual Conditional Tenses.
1. The imperfect conditional is formed by inserting
-he- immediately after the subjective personal pronoun,
as.
Ni-ke-,
as T was.
This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as
the future indicative.
Ni-ke-yenda,
as I was going.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

51

2. The Present Conditional is formed by inserting


.je- immediately after the subjective personal pronoun,
as
Ni-je-lola,
as I looked.
This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as
the future indicative.
3. There are four perfects.
(a) This h formed by the word ijua, placed before
the full form of the present indicative, as
Ijua nafika,

as I arrived.

4. (b) This is formed by the word ere placed before


the full form of the future indicative, as,
Ere nigpenda,

having gone, or while I went.

5. (c) This is formed. by the word ilyi placed before


the full form of the future indicative, as
Ilyi nigenda,

while I went, or having gone.

6. (d) This is formed by the word macha placed


before the full form of the present indicative, as-Macha namwona,

having now seen him.

7. Past. There are two pasts.


(a) This is made by changing the final -a of the
mediate future into -e, as
Nigendt,

since I went.

8. (6) This is made by combining the future tenses


of the verb kugenda, with the infinitive mood of the
verb that expresses the action, as
iVigenda kufika,

when I had arrived.

9. The future conditional is formed by placing the


word ijua before the subjunctive, asIjua nigende,

when I shall go.

52

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Possible Conditional Tenses.


1. There are two present conditional tenses :
(.) This is made by inserting the syllable -kaimmediately after the subjective personal pronoun.
This takes the same subjective personal pronoun as
the future indicative, as
Ni-ka-genda,
if I go.
2. (6) This is formed by repeating the verb twice,
first in the mediate future, and then in the subjunc
tive, asKwamba nigenda nigende, if I go, then let
me go.
3. Future. There are three future conditional tenses.
(a) This is formed by placing the word kadoka
before the present indicative, as
Kadoka nagenda,
if I shall go.
4. (6) This is formed by placing the word kasikila
before the present indicative, as
Kasikila nagenda,
if I shall go.
5. (c) This is formed by placing the word hatla
before the narrative tense, as
Ilatta ukagenda,
even if you do go.
6. (d) This is formed by placing the word kivena
before the subjunctive mood, as
Kwena adee,
even if he should do.
Contingent Tenses.
The present is formed by placing the word ngera
before the present indicative, as
Ngera nas/iaia,
did I, or if I did love.
The past is formed by placing the word ndaa before
the present indicative, as
Ndaa namanya,
had I, or if I had known.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

53

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

The simplest foi-m of the verb may be used as an


imperative, as
Kwita ! beat !
Seka 1 laugh !

Genda 1 go !
Lisa 1 feed !

In the presence of an objective prefix, the final


letter -a is changed into -e, as M-kwit-e, beat him.
M-seke, laugh at him.

Ku-kwit-e, beat thyself.


Ni-lia-e, feed me.

The second person plural is made by changing the


final -a into -e, and adding -ni, as
Seke-ni ! laugh ye !
Kwite-ni 1 beat ye !

Gende-ni 1 go ye !
Lise-ni ! feed ye !

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

The subjunctive is formed by prefixing the same sst


of personal pronouns as those used in the future
indicative, and changing the final letter -a of the verb
into -, as
Nishaie,
that I may love.
It may be made to express a variety of meanings.
1. As an imperative, thus
Nigende,
let me go.
This is the only form in which it can be used in the
first and third persons.
2. As a subjunctive, thus
Nigend-e
that I may go.
3. Interrogatively by adding -ba, thus
Nigende-ba ?
may I go ?
4. As an interrogative by adding on -ije, thus
Nigende ije ?
how may I go ?

54

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

5. As an interrogative by adding the word -ani.


This word requires the appropriate pronominal prefix,
thus
Nigende wa-ni ?
why may I go 1
INFINITIVE MOOD.

The infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing kn


to the simple root of the verb, as
Ku-seka, to laugh ;
Ku-genda, to go.
Ku-kwita, to beat ;
Kulisa, to feed.
The infinitive is frequently used as a verbal noun,
as
Kuseka, laughing ;
Kukwita, beating.
Kuseka kwako, your laughing ; Kukwit i kwako,
your beating.
THE NEGATIVE CONJUGATION.

Verbs by use of proper prefixes may be made


negative.
The characteristic letter of the negative conjugation
is S, which always stands first.
Present Tense.
This tense is formed by prefixing the negative sign
si- to the future form of the affirmative, except in the
1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons singular, and the 2nd and
3rd persons plural, of the first class of substantives,
which are irregular, as
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Si-shaia, I do not love. Si-li-shaia, we do not
love.
Su-shaia, thou dost not Su-mu-shaia, yon do. not
love.
love.
Sa- or se-shaia, he or Sawa-shaia, they do not
she does not love.
love.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

55

Class.
Sing.
Plur.
II. Si-'gu-shaia, it does not Si-isJiaia, they do not
love.
love.
III. Si-i-shaia,
,,
Si-zi-shaia,
IV. Si chi-shaia,
,,
Si-vi-shaia,
V. Si-lyi-shaia,

Si-'ye-shaia,
VI. Si-lu-shaia,
.
Si-nyu-shaia,
VII. Si-ke-shaia,

Si-ve-shaia,
Si-te-shaia,
,,
Si-ve-shaia,
VIII. Si-kwe-shaia,

Si-kwe-shaia,
IX. Si-kwe shaia,

Si-kwe-shaia,
The negative imperfect is not used.
Negative Past.
There is but one negative past tense. This is
formed from the past affirmative by prefixing the
proper negative prefix, as in the present negative,
thus
Sin,3'r
Class.
I did iiftt love.
I. Si-shaile,
Su-shaile,
thou, etc.
Sa- or se-shaile, he or she, etc.
II. Si-'gu-shaile,
it did not love.
III. Si-i-shaile,

IV. Si-chi-shaile,
ii
V. Si-lyi-shaile,

VI. Si-lu-shaile,
JJ
VII. Si-ke-shaile,
>J
Si-te-shaile,
J'
/HI. Si-kwe-shaile,
>>
IX. Si-kwe-shaile,
"
Plur.
Class.
we did not love.
I. Si-li-shaile,
yo u did not love.
Su-mu-shaile,
Sa-wa- or we-shaile, they did not love.

56

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Class.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Si-i-shaile,
Si-zi-sliaile,
Si-vi-shaile,
Si-ge-shaile,
Si-nyu-shaile,
Si-keshaile,
Si-te-shaile,
Si-kwe-shaile,
Si-kwe-shaile,

Plur.
they did not love,

>>
>>

JJ
>J

>>
r
J>

>>

Negative Future Mediate.


The negative mediate future is formed from the
affirmative by prefixing the proper negative signs as
in the present.
Class.
Sing.
I. Si-je-shaia,
I will not love.
Su-je-shaia,
thou wilt not love.
Se-je-sliaia,
he or she will not love.
II. Si- gu-je-shaia, it will not love.
III. Si-i-je-sliaia, *
,,
IV. Si-ehi-je-shaia,

etc., etc.
Class.
Plur.
I. Si-ti-je-shaia, ' we will not love.
/Su-murje-sliaia, you will not love.
Si-we-je-shaia, they will not love.
II. Si-ije-shaia,
they will not love.
III. Si-zi-je-shaia,

IV. Si-vi-je-shaia,

etc., etc.
This tense is rarely used.
Negative Future Immediate.
The negative immediate future is the same as the
present negative.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

57

" Not yet " Tense Present.


This tense denotes that the action has not taken
place up to the time of speaking, implying that it may
some day come to pass. It is foimed by prefixing the
proper personal pronoun followed by -no- to the word
-kaile, the verb expressing the action taking the
infinitive mood, as
Na-na-kaite kugenda,
Cha^na-kaile kud,ua,
Wa-na-kaile kuja,

I have not yet gone.


it is not yet finished.
they have not yet come.

" Not yet " Tense Past.


This tense is intended to denote that the action had
not taken place at the time that another happened.
It is formed by prefixing the appropriate personal
pronoun to the word -kaile, the verb expressing the
action taking the infinitive mood, as
Ne-kaile kwlea,
'Ghxrkaile kugwa,
Kwa-kaile kuswa,

I had not yet done (it).


it (tree) had not yet fallen.
it had not yet become dark.

It is not often that the difference is a marked one


between these tenses.
Negative Conditional Tenses.
Most of the affirmative conditional tenses may
be made negative by prefixing the usual negative
sign
Ngera sagenda simhawe, if he had not gone, I would
not have given (it) him.
Kadoka simwona simkimbila, if I shall not see him
I will not run away.
Macha samwona, having now not seen him.

58

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Negative Imperative.
There are three ways of expressing the negative
imperative.
1. By the word sic/a, followed by the verb in the
infinitive mood, as
Siga kumkicita !
do not beat him !
2. By the verb in the infinitive mood followed by
the word mbai, as
Kuseica mbai !
do not laugh !
3. By the negative subjunctive, as
Suadee!
do not do (it) !
Sumwagende!
do not ye go !
Negative Subjunctive.
The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma
tive by using the usual negative signs, except in the
first class of substantives, which are irregular in this
respect.
Class
I. Sa-shaie,
Sua-shaie,
Sa-shaie,
II. Si-'gu-shaie,
etc., etc.

may
may
may
may

Sing.
I not love.
you not love.
he or she not love.
it not love.

Class,
Plur.
I. Si-ta-shaie,
may we not love.
Su-mwa-shaie,
may you not love.
Sa-wa-shaie,
may they not love.
II. Si-i-shaie,
may they not love.
etc., etc.
All negatives may become strong affirmatives

SAGALLA DIALECT.

59

by the addition of an -e to the final letter of the


verb
Si genda-e,
I do go.
Si-shaia-e,
I do love.
Sa-uanda-e,
he has sown.
This form often means a very strong affirmative.
PASSIVE VOICE.

The passive voice is formed from the active by


simply changing the final vowel of the verb into -o
Nakwiia, I be.it ;
Taonile, we saw ;
Nigora, I will tell ;

Nakwit-o, I am beaten.
Taonil-o, we were seen.
Nigor o, I will be told.

The -o in the future is often changed into -o'go


Ukwil-o'go,

you will be beaten.

There are two peculiar phrases used in speaking,


not hitherto mentioned.
1. In telling a story the negative is often expressed
by a phrase : e. g. instead of using the ordinary nega
tive, they say
Nikamuza nikuhawa mikono misano, ela iye, ando
kungi washaia, nikotu 1 said to him, I will give you
five hands; but he, do you suppose he agreed, not
at all.
2. When the speaker, in telling a story, reaches
the climax of any part of his speech, instead of carry
ing on the assertion, he turns it into a question shall
I not 1 to which the second party replies, angoije ? or
" what else 1 " " quite so ! " " of course ! " etc., etc.
Wanuza nikuonye kwa Mzungu, masena kalla aenya,
liafuka sikuiwala ? angoije ? You ask me to show you
the European's ; well, wait here, in the evening shall I
not take you 1 eh !

60

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

DERIVATIVE VERBS.

There are seven derivative forms which may be


constructed out of most Sagalla verbs.
1. live Frequentative Form.
This form is used to express an action that is being
done continually. It is formed by inserting -na
after the personal pronoun of the present indicative,
and changing the final letter of the verb into -a'ga,
as
Ta na-dea'ga, we do (it) continually.
Wa-na-lima'ga, they do cultivate, or they are in the
habit of cultivating.
'Gwa-na-vala'ga, it bears from time to time.
JVa-na-'ga-lyi'ga'ga, I am in the habit of eating
them.
2. The Applied Form.
This form is used where in English a preposition
would be employed to connect the verb with the
object. It is formed by changing the final letter of
the verb into -ila or -ela
Kude-ila, to do for.
Kulis-ila, to feed for.
Kulim-ila, to hoe for.
Kuoch-ela, to roast for.
Kulet-ela, to bring for. Kugens-ela, to take to,
or for.
3. The Causative Form.
This form is made by changing the final letter of the
verb into -isa, or -islia.
Kududuga, to run ;
Kvdudugisha, to cause to run.
Kugitla, to go ;
Kugalisha, to cause to go.
h'lmjn, to return ;
Kuujisa, to cause to return.
Kinolm, to climb ;
A'vjosa, to cause to climb.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

61

When the last syllable ends in -ka, the -sa^ is


substituted for the -ka, as in kujoka, to climb.
4. The Neuter, or Quasi-passive form.
This is formed by changing the final letter of the
verb into -ka, or -ika, or -oka.
Kuvunja, to break ;
Kuvunjika, to be broken.
Kunona, to spoil ;
Kunoneka, to be spoiled.
Kugolola, to straighten ; Kugoloka, to be straightened.
Kugahda, to turn ;
Kugaluka, to be turned.
When the last syllable ends in -la, the -ka is
substituted for the -la, as in kugalula, to turn.
This -ka form is often used to represent a thing as
feasible
Kiidea, to do ;
Kudeika, to be do-able.
Kukama, to milk ; Kukamika, to be milk-able.
Kulima, to hoe ;
Kulimika, to be hoe-able.
Kukota, to dig ;
Kukoteka, to be dig-able.
5. The Reflexive Form.
This is formed by inserting -ku- between the
pronominal prefix and the verb, after which, the word
-en with the appropriate prefix is added
Na-ku-kwita mw-en,
I beat myself.
Kunona, to spoil ; Kukunona -en, to spoil oneself.
Ku-shaia, to love ; Kukushaia -en, to love oneself.
Kutlyaia, to stab ; Kukutlyaia -en, to stab oneself.
6. The Reciprocal Form.
This is made by changing the final -a into -ana, or
-anya
Kushaia, to love ; Kushaiana, to love one another.
Kuhvana, to fight ; Kulwanana, to fight one another.

G2

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Kugenda, to go ;
Kusesa, to make
peace ;

. Kugendanya, to go together.
Kusesanya, to make peace with
one another.

7. The Strengthened Form.


This form gives the idea of thoroughness, by
doubling the verb.
Kupasa, to cut ;
Kupasa-pasa, to cut to pieces.
Kupaia, to split ;
Kupaia-paia, to split in pieces.
Kuhada, to seek ;
Kuhada-hada, to seek well.
Kuemba, to deceive ; Kuemba-emla, to deceive much.
IRREGULAR VERBS.

All monosyllabic verbs are irregular in forming


their present and future tenses. They change their
final letter into -iga, or -ega, askulya, to eat.
INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present
Sing,
Nalyi'ga, I eat.
Walyi'ga, thou eatest.
Walyi'ga, he or she eats.

Tense.
Plur.
Talyi'ga, we eat.
Mwalyi'ga, you eat.
Walyi'ga, they eat, etc.

Future Tense.
Sing.
Plur.
Nilyi'ga, I will eat.
Tilyi'ga, we will eat.
Ulyi'ga, thou wilt eat.
Mulyi'ga, you will eat.
Ulyi'ga, he or she will
Walyi'ga, they will eat,
eat.
etc.
The final -a of this tense may be changed into -a'ya,
etc , as nilyi'ga'ga, I will eat.
Perfect Tense.
The perfect in these verbs does not follow the
present, but it takes the same form which should
have been the regular present, as

SAGALLA DIALECT.

63

Sing.
Plur.
Nalya, I have eaten ;
Talya, we have eaten.
Walya, thou hast eaten ; Mwalya, you have eaten.
Walya, he or she has
Walya, they have eaten,
eaten ;
etc.
The following is a list of monosyllabic verbs :
Kulya, to eat.
Kufwa, to die.
Kunwa, to drink.
Kusha, to grind. Kugwa, to fall. Kunya, to fall (of
rain).
Kucha, to rise (of the sun). Kuswa, to set (of the'
sun).
The past perfect of these verbs is formed by
changing the final letter -a into -Us or -ele.
The imperative of these verbs is formed thus : lyi'ga,
or lya, singular, and lyeni, plural.
Kuja, to come, is peculiar to itself.
Present
Sing.
Neja, I come.
Weja, thou comest.
Weja, he or she comes.

Tense.
Plur.
Teja, we come.
Mweja, you come.
Weja, they come, etc.

Imperfect Tense.
Sing.
Nendeja, I am coming ;
Wendeja, thou art coming ;

Plur.
Tendeja, we are coming.
Mwendeja, you are
coming.
Wendeja, he or she is coming ; Wendeja, they are
coming.
Perfect Tense.
The first perfect is the same as the present tense
Sing.
Plur.
Neja, I have come ;
Teja, we have come, etc.

64

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The other form of the perfect is the same as the first


followed by the infinitive, as
Sing.
Plur.
Neja kuja, I have come ; Teja kuja, we have come.
Weja kuja, thou hast
Mweja kuja, you have* come.
come;
Weja kuja, he or she
Weja kuja, they have come,
has come ;
etc.
Past Tense.
The first past is formed by changing the final -a
into -He,
Sing.
Plur.
Fejile, I came ;
Tejile, we came.
Wejile, thou eamest ;
Mwejile, you came.
Wejile, he or she came ; Wejile, they came, etc.
The other form of the past is the same as the first
followed by the infinitive, as
Sing.
Plur.
Nejile kuja, I came ;
Tejile kuja, we came.
Wejile kuja, thou earnest ;
Mwejile kuja, you came.
Wejile kuja, he or she came ; Wejile kuja, they came,
etc.
Future Tense.
This tense retains the
as
Nikuja, I will come ;
Ukuja, thou wilt ccme ;
Ukuja, he or she will
come ;

infinitive ku- throughou',


Tikuja, we will come.
Mukuja, you will come.
Wekuja, they will come,
etc.

Narrative Tense.
This tense inserts -ke- after the pronominal prefix,

SAGALLA DIALECT.

65

Sing.
Plur.
Ni-ke-ja, and I came ;
Ti-ke-ja, and we came.
U-ke-ja, and thou earnest ; Mu-ke-ja, and you came.
A-ke-ja, and he or she
We-ke-ja, and they came, etc.
came ;
IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing.
Njuu, come thou !

Plur.
Njuuni, come ye !

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Sing.
Xije, may I come ;
Uje, mayest thou come ;
Eje, may he or she come ;

Plur.
Tije, may we come.
Muje, may you come.
Weje, may they come, etc.

Some verbs, as kukala, to be cunning, kugada, to bo.


idle, etc., have a past form with a present meaning.
These insert -iw>- between the pronominal prefix and
the verb, as
Na-na-kalMe,
I am cunning.
Ta-na-gadiU,
we are idle.
The following verbs take this form :
Knbia, to be fierce.
Kukula, to be hard.
Kukala, to be cunning. Kugada, to be idle.
Kuhara, to be bitter, changes the -a into -are, as
' Gwa-na-har-are,
it is bitter.
Some verbs, as kuwasa, to be bad, kulua, to be dirty,
make their present tense by inserting -no- between the
pronominal prefix and the verb, and changing the final
letter of the verb into -i, as
Cha-na-wasi,
U-na-lui,

it is bad.
you are dirty.
E

66

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The verb kuweni, to know, has only a present and


past tense
Present Tense.
Sing.
Plur.
Naif.aweni, I know ;
Tanaweni, we know.
Unaweni, thou knowest ;
Munaweni, you know.
Anaweni, he or she knows ; Wanaweni, they know.
Past Tense.
Sing.
Plur.
Neweni, I knew ;
Teweni, we knew.
Uweni, thou knewest ;
Muweni, you knew.
Aweni, he or she knew ;
Weweni, they knew.
The verbs kushaia, to love, and kutlyoa, to begin,
are often used in their past form to denote a present
meaning, as
Nathalie, I love or I have loved.
Tatlyoile, we begin or we have begun.
The verbs Icvdaho, to forget, and kulemo, to be
unable, may be called deponents, as they have a
passive form with an active signification
Nalaho, I forget.
Talemo, we are unable.
Some verbs change their root vowel and stem
vowel in forming their past tense, askulala, to
sleep.
The past tense is nalele, for nalalUe, I slept.
AUXILIARY VERBS.

The verbs used as auxiliaries are as follows :


KukaUa, to be. Kutula, to continue. Kudua. to
finish. Kumalila, to finish. Kuja, to come. Kudima,
to be able. Kufweni, to become one, or to behove one.
Kusiga, to leave. Kulega, to refuse.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

tl7

Kukalla, with its various parts, is used to express


continuity ; it is followed by either the infinitive or
the -ke- tense
Nakalla kugenda,
I am still going.
Nuo ni-ke-dea,
I am still doing (it).
Neluo ni-ke-lisa,
I was still feeding.
Kutula is used to express the idea of repetition ; it
is followed by the verb in the infinitive
Nitula kugenda,
Situla knseka,

I will go again.
I will not laugh again.

Kudua and kumalila are both used to strengthen


the present perfect
Namalila kuleta,
I have finished to bring.
A'adua kukama,
I have finished to milk.
Kujais use 1 as an auxiliary to form the present and
past tenses
Weja kuja,
- they have come.
Wejile kuja,
they came or had come.
Can is expressed by the appropriate tenses of
kudima
Nadima kurumagia, I am able to bear (it).
May and might, where they imply a purpose, are
expressed by the subjunctive
Nihawe ineji ninwe, give me water that I may
drink.
Where they imply lawfulness, by lagelage, bad ;
fulo, right ; and kurigida, to forbid, as .
Nikawaha tindi zako, n'lagelage ? If I pluck your
tomatoes, is it wrong 1 or we should say, Is it wrong
for me to pluck your tomatoes ?
Kuiwa nifulo ? to steal is it right 1
Kukoza mwiti u'gu, kwanarigido, to burn this wood,
is forbidden.

68

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Where they imply power, by kudima, with the


infinitive.
Must is expressed by. suti or liatta, with the
subjunctive.
Ought is expressed by Icufweni, to behove, to
concern ; baha, better.
Yanifweni kugala, it concerns me to go, i. e. I ought
to go.
Baha ufume, it is better that you go out, i. e. you
ought to go out.
Should and would are expressed by mangu, or
macha
Mocha nadeaije ? what should I have done ?
Ndaa si'gufwile, macha 'gwazugua ndam, if it (tree)
had not died, it would have grown up now.
Xgera namwona, mangu nauya, if I had seen him,
I should have returned.
That one should have, or Why one shotdd have, is
expressed by inserting Jceja- between the pronominal
prefix and the verb, followed by the word n'ini ?
U-keja-dea hung', n'ini ? That you should have
done thus, what is it ? i. e. why should you have done
thus?
'
The verb ku-kalla, " to be."
This verb has irregularities peculiar to itself.
has two forms of the present tense

It

INDICATIVE MOOD.

First form. Present Tense.


Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Nakalla, I am ;
Takalla, we are.
Wakalla, thou art ;
Mwakatta, you are.
Wakalla, he or she is ; Wakalla, they are.
For the other classes of substances see present tense,
indicative mood.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

69

Second form. Present Tense.


Class.
Plur.
Sing.
I. Nuo, I am ;
Tuo or Uo, we are.
Uo, thou art 7
Muo, ye are.
Uo or eo, lie or she is ;
Tfeo, they are.
II. 'Guo, it is];
To, they are.
III. To,
-Z'io,

IV. Ohio,
Vio,
V. Lyio,
'Geo,

VI. Luo,

Xyuo,
VII. fo,
Veo,

Teo,

Veo,
VIII. .fiTwO,
Kuo,

IX. Kuo,
Kuo,

An imperfect is usednendekalla, I am, etc.


Past Tense.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Neluo, I was J
Teluo, we were.
Mweluo, you were.
Weluo, thou wast ;
Weluo, he W she was ;
Weluo, they were.
II. 'Gweluo, it was ;
Yeluo, they were.
in. yfe5,
Zeluo,

J>
IV. CV<eZM0>
Veluo,

>>
V. Lyeluo,
'Geluo,

J>
VI. Lweluo,
. Ny weluo,
JJ
VII. ZeJuo,
Veluo,

)J
.
TWwo,
Veluo,

>>
VIII. Kweluo,
Kweluo,

JJ
IX. Kweluo,
Kweluo,

JJ
Immediate Future.
-.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ni-kalla, I will be ;
Ti-kalla, we will be.
U-kalla, thou wilt be ;
Mu-kalla, you will be.
Ukalla, he or she will be ; We-kalla, they will be.

70

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

The final letter -a in this tense is often change 1


into ago, -Ni-kall a'ya, I will be.
Mediate Future.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ni-je-kalla, I will be ;
Ti-je-kaHa, we will be.
Uje-kalla, thou wilt be ; Mu-je-kal'a, you will be.
Uje-kalla, he or she will We-je-kalla, they will be,
be ;
etc.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sing.
Kalla, be thou ;

Plur.
Kalleni, be ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Ni-kalle, may I be.
Ti-kal'e, may we be.
U-kalle, mayest thou be. Mu-kalle, may you 1 e.
A-kalle, may he or she be. Wa-kalle, may they be.
For other forms of this verb see subjunctive mood,
p. 53.
INFINITIVE MOOD.

The infinitive and participle have the same form,


as
Kukalla huny', n'ini ? Being thus, what is the
reason 1 or what is the reason of being thus 1
The negative is made by prefixing the usual negative
sign si-, etc. ; see the verb.
There is another form of the verb " to be," ni, and
a negative si. It is used for all persons and numbers ;
as a copulative, it merely connects two notions
together without reference to time or place, as
Ichi ni yangu, this is mine.
Imi ni mbwaa, I am great.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

71

Mlungu 'gwako ni mlungu 'gwaloli, your God is a


good God.
TO HAVE.

To have is expressed in two ways


1. By the veib " to be " followed by na, as
Nuo na, I am with, i. e. I have.
When the object is to be denoted, the appropriate
relative particle must be added to na-, as
Nuo na-cho,
I have it.
Nakalla na-'go,
I have them.
Teluo na-lyo,
I had it.
Kalla na-cho,
have it.
NikaUe na-cho
may I have it.
2. By kuwesi, to have, as Nawesi, I have.
Present Tense.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Nawesi or nanawesi, I have ; Tanawesi, we have.
Wanawesi or unawesi, thou Mwanawesi, you
hast ;
have.
Anawesi, he or she has ;
Wanawesi, they
have.
Past Tense.
Class.
Sing.
Plur.
I. Newest, I had ;
Tewesi, we had.
Uwesi, thou hadst ;
Muwesi, you had.
Awesi, he or she had ; Wewesi, they had.
This last tense is rarely used.
The negative of these tenses is formed by prefixing
the usual negative sigu.
ADVERBS.

Adverbs gsnerally follow the words they qualify


Gora kirani, speak properly. Mbwaa muno, very big.

72

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Substantives are sometimes made to serve as adverbs


by the use of the preposition kwa or na, as
Kwa kasidi,
purposely.
Kwa nguvu,
by force.
Na isege,
quickly.
Some nouns expressing quality may be used
adverbially
Wagorafulo,
you speak truly.
Chanuka lagelage,
it smells badly.
The English adverb very may be expressed by the
words na ndigi
Tungura na ndigi !
sleep very much !
Gora na ndigi !
speak very loudly !
Adverbs of negation and affirmation are as follows
Haiye or hai,
no.
Ii or Hi,
no.
Mbai,
no.
Hatta,
no.
Ee or eee,
yes.
Kila,
indeed.
Ever is expressed by majua 'gose, every day, and
kutula, to continue, asMwalula kugamba, you are
always talking.
Never is expressed by na lyingi and kutula, as
Na lyingi sikuhawa,
I will never give you.
Ukalula sumwona, if you continue you shall not see
him, or you shall never see him.
PREPOSITIONS.

There are but few prepositions in the Sagalla


dialect ; they are chiefly these : kwa, for ; na or ni,
with ; kele, in ; ya, of ; ango, or ; hatta, until ; amiven,
inside ; ko or uko, upon, of time
Kwa has the force of to, as
Genda kiva aba,
go to my father.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

73

Na denotes instrument or object with and by


Mribe na rungu,
Naulagilo ni njala,

beat him with a club.


I am killed with hunger.

Kele has the force of in or near, as


Kele nyumba,
Kele mwiti u'gu,

in or near the house.


in or at this tree.

Ya or -a with the appropriate prefix is nearly


always translated by of, as
Mdu wa ndigi,
a man of strength.
Prepositions are frequently expressed by the applied
form of the verb, as
Kulima, to hoe ;
Kulimila, to hoe for.
From, of time, is expressed by kufuma, to come out,
as
Kufuma ijuzi hatta lelo, from the other day until
to-day.
From is also expressed by the subjunctive, as
Nije na Uyi,

from the time I came until now.

Until, as far as, of time and space, are expressed by


hatta, as
Geiida hatta kwake,
go as far as his place.
Mdafwe hatta eje,
wait until he come.
Vko or ko is used to express in, on, upon, of time
Ko hambiri,
Ko ijuzi,

in the beginning.
upon the other day.

CONJUNCTIONS.

There are but few conjunctions in the Sagalla


dialect. They are chiefly these : na, and ; ela, but ;
ango, or ; ima, or ; kwani, for.

I4

Er.BMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Na is often dispensed with by the usa of the -katense


Ni-ka-genda,
and I went.
If, since, etc., is expressed by the use of the con
ditional tenses.
In order that, etc., is expressed by the use of the
subjunctive.
Elaima, nevertheless, is a compound conjunction.
INTERJECTIONS.

The interjections of the Sagalla dialect are more


easily pronounced thin written, they are therefore
best learnt from the natives, both for the sake of their
proper pronunciation and proper application.
The following are a few :
Ee ! or It !
Expression of invocation.
Wot !

surprise.
Wai !

Poo!

contempt.
Kefuli!

Inde !
Come on ! let us go !
Noko 1

Ola, ati, atiqo, atiyoni, ado, all have pretty much


the same meaninglook here, I say, etc., but in order
to use them properly, nothing but frequent intercourse
with the natives will suffice.
ENCLITICS, ETC.

The following words may be called enclitics :


Ri is suffixed to substantives and adjectives thus :
[lit whs probably formerly Art, notice the phonetic
changes.]
Kaleri, not a very long time, from kale.
Kaileri, only twice, from kaili.
Kichacheri, only a little (thing), from kiclmche.
Mojori, only one, from moju.

SAGALLA DIALECT.

10

Ba is suffixed to pronouns, substantives, adjectives,


and veibi, and only used in interrogations
Ichi-ba ?
this ?
Wandu-ba ?
men ?
Waloli-ba ?
good ?
Walima-ba ?
are you hoeing 1
'Ga is suffixed to verbs to denoto continuity or the
idea of future
Nanadea-'ga,
I am in the habit of doing (it).
Ni-lima-'ga,
I will hoe.
Ima, or ma, is often suffixed to verbs in the impera
tive mood, as
Letema,
bring (it) then.
Gendama,
go then.
The following is a proclitic :
Ke is prefixed to verbs to denote, then why 1
Ke-wa'gamba ?
then why do you say (so) !
ADVERBIAL ENCLITICS.

There are other words which might perhaps better


be called adverbial enclitics. These differ from
ordinary adverbs in that they are uninterchangeable,
/. e. they cannot be used in connection with any other
verb or adjective than those to which they properly
belong.
They intensify rather than qualify the
words with which they are connected
Chwi is only used with kunyamala, to be silent
Nyamala chwi,
be very mute.
Chululu is only used with ikumi, ten
Ikumi chululu,
ten and only ten.
Buu is only ussd with Jcunuka
Chanuka buu,
it smells horridly.

76

ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO TAITA LANGUAGE.

Lu is only used with vikundu, red.


Mkundu lu, very red ; the lu may be repeated any
number of times according to the intensity of redness.
Pi or fi is used only with onyilu, black
Onyilu pi, very black ; the pi or ji may be repeated
any number of times according to the intensity of
blackness.
Tse is used only with omnyangi, white
Omnyangi tse, very white ; tse may be repeated any
number of times according to the intensity of white
ness.
Boo is used only with kukesua, to fade, or to
become any colour approaching red or yellow.
Chakesua doo, it is fading, or becoming red or
yellow.
Go is used only with kugora, to speak
Nagora go,
I have said everything.
Ku is used only with kukula, to be hard
Chanakulile ku,
it is very hard.
Tuku is only used with kumanga, to be fast
Chamanga tuku,
it is very fast.
Ng'a is only used with kuoma, to dry
Chaoma ng'a,
it is very dry.
Xg'we is also used with kuoma, to dry.
Chaoma ng'ive ng'a, it is very, very dry.
Ng'o is used only with negative verbs
Si-shaia ng'o,
I shall not love at all.

PART II.
ENGLISH-SAGALLA VOCABULAEY.
All substantives are written in the singular. Adjectives and
pronouns written with the hyphen take the variable prefix.
All verbs are written in the infinitive mood, the sign of which
is ku-.
ABBREVIATIONS.
Gram. = grammar ; condit. tense = conditional tense ; demonst.
= demonstrative ; pron. = pronoun ; conj. = conjunction ;
lit. = literal ; T. V. = transitive verb ; I. V. intransitive
verb.

Abandon, to, ku-siga.


Abash, to, ku-fusha waya.
Abate, to, ku-gotua, ku-uya
nyuma ; to cause to, ku-gotusha.
Abdicate, to, ku-siga, ku-taga.
Abdomen, kifu.
Abhor, to, ku-menya ; to
cause to, ku-menyesa.
Abhorrence, umenyo.
Abide, to, ku-kalla, ku-sinda,
ku-tula ; to cause to, kukallisha, ku-sindisa, ku-tulisha.
Abiding, ku-kalla.
Ability, ndigi, ku-dima.
Able, to be, ku-dima ; to cause
to be, ku-dimisha ; not to
be, ku-lemo.
Abolish, to, ku-siga.
Abound, to, ku-jula, ku-era, kukalla, nyingi ; to cause to,
ku-juza, ku-eresha.
About, sa, ngera, avui_na.

Above, igulu.
Abroad, shigati.
Abscess, kilonda.
Absent, he is, seo.
Absent, to be, ku-soeka.
Absolution, ku-sigo.
Absolve, to, ku-siga.
Absorb, to, ku-uwa, ku-oma,
ku-mila.
Abstain, to, ku-lega, ku-siga.
Abundance, -ngi, henga.
Abuse, to [by words}, ku-tukana,
ku-rasha.
Accept, to, ku-usa, ku-shaia.
Acceptance, ku-usa, ku-shaia.
Accident, 'dengwa, manza.
Accompany, to, ku-irima.
Accomplish, to, ku-malila, kuduisa.
Accord, one, ngolo moju [lit. one
heart].
Account, to, ku-tala, ku-wata
sabu.
Accumulate, to, ku-juzila.
Accurate, to be, ku-katana, kukalla karakarft.

78

VOCABULARY.

Accursed, to be, ku-kelemelo.


'Adultery, to commit, ku-laka,
Accusation, magore, mazigiriro.
ku-zinga, ku-iwa muke.
Accuse, to, ku-gorera ; falsely, Advance, to, ku-suguta hambito, ku-zigirira.
ri ; to cause to, ku-sugusa
Accuser, mgori.
hambiii ; goods, etc., to, kuAccustom, to, ku-ilisa.
kopesha.
Ache, to, ku-harisa, ku-lya, ku- Advantage, mbambara, faida.
luma, ku-shaha.
Adversity, mashaka.
Acknowledge, to, ku-rumagia, Advise, to, ku-hawa gore.
ku-shaia, ku-dumusa, ku-du- Advocate, to, ku-gorera.
muila.
Adze, to, ku-songola, ku-sema.
Acquaint, to, ku-manyisa.
Afar, kulele, sa ndigi.
Acquaintance, mgeni.
Affair, gore, undu.
Acquiesce, to, ku-shaia [see ac .Affairs, vilambo, maundu.
knowledge]. '
Afflict, to, ku-tirira, ku-sirima ;
Acquire, to, ku-pata, ku-dea.
to cause to, ku-siiimisa.
Acquit, to, ku-siga.
Affliction, mashaka, buga.
Aeross, to be, ku-kalla kizenre- Afraid, to be, ku-koga.
rumu.
After, nyuma, ima.
u ^Afternoon, hafuka.
Act, to, ku-dea.
Afterwards, konyuma.
Action, kideo.
~Add up, to, kutala.
Again, sena, kaili.
Add, to, ku-juzila.
Against, to stand, ku-kalla avui
Adhere, to, ku-wata, ku-nana ;
na ; to lean, ku-tsinila.
to cause to, ku-watisa, ku- .'Age, ubwaa.
nasa.
.-Aged, -'gosi.
Adjacent, avui na.
Aggravate, to, ku-koronga.
Adjourn, to, ku-dila ; to cause Agitate, to, ku-vuruga, ku-shuto, ku-dilisa.
hashuha, ku-nyavura.
Adjure, to, ku-nwesa mguli, ku- Agony, ku-lumo na ndigi.
gemesha.
< Agree, to, ku-sikilana, ku-pataAdmire, to, ku-shaia.
na ; [to be like], ku-kataAdmit, to, ku-ingiza, ku-isa [see
na.
assent],
Agreement, malagano.
* Admittance, ku-ingilo ; there is Aground, msangeni.
no admittance, sikuingilo.
Ailment, ukongo.
Admonish, to, ku-fimda.
Aim, to take, ku-katanisa.
Adopt, to, ku-lela, ku-wata.
Air, mbeo.
Adore, to, ku-voia, ku-tasa, ku- .Akin, mbari, kichuku.
lomba, ku-shaia na ndigi.
Alarm, to, ku-kumba oga ; to
Adorn, to, ku-ingiza, ku-riga.
be alarmed, ku-ingilo ni oga,
, Adornment [for a bride], maku-dea oga.
lasa.
Alike, to be, ku-katana, ku-kalla
karakara.
Adulterate, to, ku-runganya.
.Adulterer, mlaki, kitinga cha Alive, to be, ku-kalla moyo, kukalla mzima.
wake.

VOCABULARY.

All, -ose, putu.


Allege, to, ku-gora.
Allot, to, ku-sara.
Allow, to, ku-siga, ku-rumagia.
Almighty, mwenyi ndigi zose.
Almost, avui.
Alms, sadaka.
, Aloft, igulu [lit. heavens ; lugulu, lit. on the top of].
Alone, king'weri, -eke, -en.
Along with, to go, ku-genda naye ; side, toplace, ku-ikanya
na mbao [lit. to place along
side each other].
Aloud, na ndigi.
Already, ndamu, ndakwen, ilyen.
Also, sena, na.
Although, hatta, kwena ; [kwena
sinda kunulaga], although you
continue to kill me.
Altogether, andu kumoju, ngolo
moju, -ose putu, ngila moju.
Ahcays, majua 'gose, matuku
'gose.
Amaze, to, ku-kurumusha, kushinisha.
Amazed, to be, ku-kurumua, kushinika.
Ambassador, mshiki, mtumi.
Amend, to, ku-boesa, T. V. ; kugaluka, I. V.
Amidst, 'gati na 'gati.
Amiss, to do, ku-kosa.
Among, to be, ku-kalla auen.
Amuse, to, ku-helea, ku-sekesa.
Amusement, ku-seka, maseko,
hako.
- Ancestors, wandu wa kale.
m Ancient, -a kale na kale.
And, na, sena.
Angel, malaika.
Anger, hari.
Anger, to, ku-kumba hari, kujosa hari, ku-asila.

7!)

Angle, mbembe.
Angry, to be, ku-asilo, kubia,
ku-kalla na hari.
Animal, nyamandu.
Ankle, ungo 'gwa kigulu.
Anklet, irere lya kigulu.
Announce, to, ku-gorera.
Annoy, to, ku-sirimisa, T. V. ;
ku-gama, /. V. ; ku-sirima,
/. V. ; ku-koronga, /. V. ; kuemeka, /. V.
Annoyance, ku-sirima.
Anoint, to, ku-vila mavuta, kusara mavuta.
Another, -zima.
Another day, lau.
Another's, -a wandu.
Answer, to [to answer win n
called], ku-tika.
Antelope, Sambe, Shakwa, Makuli, Isha, Mbala, Ngulungu,
Dom, Gwali, Nausi, I'galu :
names of antelopes found in
Taita.
Ant-bear, loma.
Ant-hill, mbalyo.
Anticipate, to, ku-lolila.
Ants, sambiro, very small black
ants ; salafu, brown biting
ants ; tlyeha, white ants ;
ngumbingumbi, ants in their
flying state ; minyu, black
biting ants.
Anus, kivindu.
.Anvil, fulai.
Anxious, to be, ku-lya ngolo.
Any, -ose.
Apart, king'weri, -eke.
Ape, fue.
Apostle, mtumi.
Apparition, kijanijani.
Appear, to, ku-oneka.
Appearance, ku-oneka.
Appelise, to, ku-kumba beha.
Appetite, beha [lit. a longing
after], ku-ona njala.

sO

VOCABULARY.

Apple of the eye, mundu 'gwa Assent, to, ku-rumagia, ku-shaiziso.


ia, ku-dumusila, ku-tika.
Apply oneself, to, ku-dea mwen. Assert, to, ku-gora, ku-gamba,
ku-uza.
Appoint, to, ku-ika.
Approach, to, ku-suguta ; to Assist, to, ku-taria.
cause to, ku-sugusa.
Astonish, to, ku-shinisha, kuApprove, to, ku-rumagia, kukurumusha.
Astonished, to be, ku-shiniku,
shaia, ku-dumusila.
Apron, mshuru.
ku-kurumua.
Astonishment, ku-shinika.
Argue, to, ku-dea nganyi.
Argument, nganyL
Astride, taudahala.
Aright, karakara, kirani.
At, kwa, kele, case in -ni,
followed by pronouns in kw- ;
Arise, to, ku-uka ; to cause to,
ku-ukisa.
at fist, jako, jakundi, jandi.
Arm, rnkono ; under part of Atone for, to, ku-boesa [lit. tn
the, tsikila.
repair].
Attach, to, ku-wata ; to ca use
Armadillo, loma.
Armpit, kwaia.
to, kuwatisa.
Around, igasi lyose.
Attack, to, ku-kwita.
Arrange, to, ku-ika kirani, ku- Attend, to, ku-dafwarira ; to,
kumba cheta [lit. to pile up],
to, ku-sikizila.
Audible, to be, ku-sikilika.
(of firewood).
'Aunt [the father's sister], mama.
Arrival, ku-fika.
Arrive, to, ku-fika, ku-busa ; ^Authority, ndigi.
Avail, to, ku-fweni.
to cause to, ku-fisa.
- A i-row, iwano ; tofeather an, Avarice, iziso.
Avoid, to, ku-kila.
ku-papika.
Avow, to, ku-gema.
Artery, hasi [lit. muscle].
As, sa-; as it was, sa kwen ye- Awake, to, ku-uka, I.V.; ku-u
luo ; as you like, umwen.
kisa, T. V.
Ascend, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela ; Away, to take, ku-gensa noko.
to cause to, ku-josa, ku- Axe, isoka.
kweza.
B.
Ashamed, to be, ku-ona haya,
ku-wesi waya, ku-fwa waya. Baboon, fue.
Baby, mwana mkoo.
s Ashes, ivu.
Aside, mbale.
^Bachelor, mgaro.
Bachelor's house, garo.
Ask, to, ku-kota, ku-uza.
Asleep, to be, ku-tungura, ku-la- Back, mgongo.
la, ku-kalla haring 'eni ; to Back of the head, kiri.
cause to be, ku-tungurisa, ku- Back, to lie on one's, ku-lala kingazi, ku-tungura kingazi.
kumba haring 'a.
Backbone, iwindi lya mgongo.
Ass, mchungu.
Backward,
kinyuma.
Assemble,to, ku-kwoganya, T. V.;
Bad, lagelage ; -wasi, chanawasi,
ku-kwogana, /. V.
it is batl ; to make, ku-wa* Assembly, makwogauo, ikwani.

VOCABULARY.

81

sisa ; [to use bad language], ku- Bark, to, ku-teta.


lagalaga.
Barrel, gun, mrumo 'gwa bunduki.
Badness, ulagelage.
m Bag, dau, a small bag sewn up Barren [animal], koloi.
'Barren
[ground], bahawa.
one side ; kiondo, a small bag
with/rut seam ; kikuchu, a tri Barrier, iaanzu.
angular bag made of skin; Barrier, to make a, ku-hilila.
kitasi, a large bag ; mkoba, a Base person, mdu wa uduu.
large bag, generally a matting Bask, to, ku-bugga ; to bask in
the sun, ku-bugga ijua.
bag ; mi'uko, generally a
medicine bag ; wararu, a very Basket, ikapu.
Bat, mboo.
large sack.
Bait, kilembwilembwi.
Baihe, to, ku-oga, ku-bung'a.
Bait, to, ku-ika kilembwile Batter, to, ku-kwita, ku-shana,
mbwi.
ku-riba, ku-daha.
Bake, to, ku-ocha.
Battle, uta.
Bald head, kongola.
Battle, to, ku-lwana.
Be, to, ku-kalla ; nuo, / am ; uo,
Baldness, ukongola.
Ball, mpira.
thou art ; uo, or eo, he or she
is ; tuo, we are ; muo, yon
Bamboo, mraugi.
Banana, irugu ; ripe, ivunde.
are ; weo, they are.
.Beads, lukangi, ngangi, ushaBanana tree, ndembo.
nga ; samisami, red beads ;
~Band of soldiers, ifuko (?).
sawali, dark blue beads; maBangle, irere.
zia, white beads ; kiketi, light
Banish, to, ku-gusa, ku-funya.
blue beads; mkonya, black
^Banner, kipeo.
beads; chuma, light blue
mBa/)bab tree, mlamba ; fruit, kibeads ; ngoningoni, lustre
lamba.
beads ; burinaro za nyilu,
Baptize, to, ku-kumba mejini
[lit. to throw into water] ; kudark blue ring beads; burinaro
za makumbo, green ring beads.
tarisa meji [lit. to sprinkle] ;
ku-sukila meji [lit. to throw Beak, mlomo.
Beam, sun, mlengezi.
water].
Beans, ngunde ; cooked beans,
Barb, of an arrow, kirao.
kimanga.
^Barbarian, Mwibabu : a tribe
of wild people supposed to have ,J5ear, before marriage, to, kumida.
once lived in Taita.
Bear fruit, to, ku-vala. /. V. ;
Barber, mhari.
Bare, tnhu, mdu wa duu [lit. a
kuvaza, T. V.
^Bear, to [suffer], ku-rumagia.
simpleton].
Beard, gafa.
Bargain, zogori.
Bargain, to, ku-teta zogori, ku- Beard, goat's, sombe.
Beast, nyamandu.
zogora.
Bark, of a tree, ikoko, iganda ; Beat, to, ku-kwita, ku-riba, kushana, ku-daha, ku-'diza kuunbark, to, ku-shuhula, kuchafa.
konola, ku-gandula.

82

VOCABULARY.

Beautiful, -loli.
Beauty, uloli.
Because, kwani.
Beckon, to, ku-kunyira.
Become, to, ku-kalla, ku-uya.
Bed, ulili.
Bedding, matandiko.
Bee, nyuki.
Beef, nyama ya ng'ombe.
Beehive, mwatu.
Beer, njovi ; sweet beer, marami.
Beetie, large dung, Iwembe.
Befall, to, ku-gwa, ku-doka.
Before [of order], hambiri ; [of
time], imbele.
Beg, to, ku-lomba, ku-voia.
Beg t, to, ku-vaza.
1 Beggar, mlombi.
Begin, to, ku-tlyoa, ku-andika,
kn-ama.
Beginning, hambiri.
Behead, to, ku-pasa chongo, kudusula chongo.
Behind, nyuma.
Behold, to, ku-lola, ku-zigana.
Beleh, to, ku-geruka.
Belief, idumusi.
Believe, to, ku-shaia, ku-dumusa.
Believer, mdumusi.
Bell, kizomanzi.
'Bellows, mivua.
Belly, kifu.
Belong, to, to, -a wandu [lit.
another's].
Beloved, mshailo.
Below, isi, msangeni [lit. on the
ground].
Belt, mkoa.
Bend, to, ku-gomeka, /. V. ; kugomesa, T. V.
Bend down, fo,ku-damika, /. V. ;
ku-damisa, T. V.
Beneath, isi.
Benefit, to, ku-fweni.
Bent, to be, ku-gomeka.

Berry, ndembe.
Beseech, to, ku-lalama.
Beside, sena.
Best, to be, ku-isa [lit. to
surpass] ; -loli na ndigi [lit.
very good].
Betray, to, ku-funya, ku-gora.
betroth, to, ku-kumba ulanga
[lit. to make love].
Better, to be, ku-kalla behabaha ; I had better, baha.
Between, 'gati na 'gati.
Beware, to, ku-lola, ku-manya,
ku-kalla kirani.
Bewilder, to, ku-kamba chongo,
J. V. ; ku-kambisa chongo,
T. V.
Bewitch, to, ku-loga.
Beyond, chambuko, kwa ha
mbiri.
Bid, to, kuuza.
Big, -bwaa ; how big is it! chaluuganije ?
Bill, a kind of axe, mgundu.
Bind, to, ku-funga.
Bird, nyonyi.
Birds of prey, sangangoju, fukafuka mosi, lwigi, mowe.
Bitter, to be, ku-harara, kubia.
Blab, mdu wa duu [lit. a sim
pleton].
Black, -nyilu.
Blackberry, mtale.
Jilacksmith, mshani.
Bladder, seke.
Blade of grass, mgina [lit. the
young grans].
Blaze, to, ku-waka.
Bleed, to, ku-fuma bigati, /. V: ;
ku-segeta, I. V. ; ku-seta, I. V. ;
ku-segesa, T. V. ; [to cup], kulumika.
Blend, to, ku-runganya.
Bless, to, ku-bariki.
Blind, to be, ku-fwa meso.

VOCABULARY.
Blind of one eye, kifondo, chongo.
Blindncsi, udani [?]
Blister, iwicha.
Blood, bigati.
Blood from. the nose, mwanga.
Blood-vessel, hasi [lit. muscle].
Blossom, kilua.
Blossom, to, ku-funya vilua, kuusa ; the trees are in blossom,
miti yausa.
Blow, to, with the mouth, ku-furira ; as the wind, ku-vuma.
Slue beads, sawali, kiketi.
Blue vitriol, chuma.
Blunder, to, ku-kosa.
Blunt, to be, ku-jifwa, ndagala
yajifwili, the knife is blunt.
Blustering fellow, kigendeke,
makigendeka.
Boast, to, ku-kulika.
^, Body, muli ; dead, garia ; of
soldiers, ifuko [?].
Boil, tsumusi.
Boil over, to, ku-pachahika.
Boil, to, ku-isha, ku-teleka.
Bold, -lume.
^.Bondman, msunyi.
Bone, iwindi.
Book, chuo.
Boot, kilatu.
^Border, mwaka.
^Border, to, ku-akana.
Bore, to, ku-pola ; to be bored,
ku-poka.
^Born, to be, ku-valo ; anything
that has borne is called mgoma.
Borrow, to, ku-gosha.
^Bosom, lagaia.
Both, -ose -ile.
Bother, to, ku-sirima, /. V. ; kuemeka, /. V. ; ku-sirimisha,
T. V.
Bottle, water, kishori.
Bottom, isi, msangeni.

83

Bough, mbandi.
.Bcmndary, mwaka.
<Bow, ndana,
Bow, to, ku-damisa, T. V. ; kudamika, /. V.
Bowl, kihrro.
Box, sanduku, kasha.
Boy, mwana wa lume.
Bracelet, irere.
Brain, ongo, suko [?].
Branch, mbandi, mbasha.
Brand, kizinga.
'Brass wire, itsango.
Brave, -lume ; a brave man,
ngumbao, ing'oni.
Bravery, ulume.
Breach, ilanga, ngila.
Bread, from Indian meal boiled,
kinolo ; from Kaffir corn, kinaburi.
Breadth, ushabwa.
Break, to, ku-vunja, T. V. ; kuchusa, T. V. ; ku-dusula, T. V. ;
ku-vuujika, /. V. ; ku-chuka,
I. V. ; kn-dusuka, I. V.;
wind downwards, to, ku-shuta.
Break off, to, ku-sbaula, T. V. ;
ku-shauka,/. V. ;topicces,\mpaiapaia, T. V. ; ku-paikapaika, /. V. ; ku-barabaia, T. V. ;
ku-baiikabarika, /. V.
Breakfast, chakula cha kupatsa.
Breast, lagaia ; female, iwele.
Breath, mruki.
Breathe, to, ku-kwita mruki.
Breathe, to [rest], ku-zumua, kntsarusa ngolo.
Breed, to, ku-vala.
Bribe, to, ku-ha\va kindu, kunosa kindu [lit. to give a
thing],
Bride, mwali.
Bridegroom, musi muke.
Bridge, mrigo kuambuka.
Bright, to be, ku-ug'ala.

84

VOCABULARY.

Brighten, to, ku-hotsa, ku-su- Burn, to, ku-waka ; to cause to,


ku-washa, ku-koza ; to con
giila.
sume, ku-isha, T. V. ; ku-ia,
Bring, to, ku-leta, ku-konda,
/. V. ; food, ku-lungula.
ku-enda ; for, to, ku-letela ;
up, to, ku-lela ; together, Burst, to, ku-zaia, T. V. ; ku-zaika, 1. V. ; ku-rashuva, T. V. ;
to, ku-kwoganya ; near, to,
ku-rashuka, /. V. ; out into
ku-sugusa ;to life, to, ku-zutears, to, ku-gwa kulila.
sha.
Bury, to, ku-zika.
Broad, shabwa.
IfBurying-ground, kineni, ngo-Brook, kamweta.
meni, a place where skulls are
mBrother, -etu, etc. ; wokwetu, our
brother : mwana wa mawe, son
Jf-Bnsh-buck, ngulungu.
The
of my mother ; mruna.
natives are very superstitious
mBrother-in-law, mlam.
about
this
animal;
any
one
Brow, gambili.
eating it must not touch cattle
Bruise, to, ku-shogonola, T. V. ;
nor enter a house till he has
ku-shogonoka, I. V.
bathed.
Bruised, to be, ku-ondeka.
Brush to [scrub], ku-hotsa ; Business, undu, shauli.
[sweep], ku-shera, ku-kwoga But, ela, ima.
Butter, mafuta 'ga ng'ombe.(
nya.
Butterfly, kibambarisho.
Brute, nyamandu.
Buttock, shimba.
Bubble, ifulo.
Button, kifungu.
Bubble, to, ku-fuma.
.. Bud, to, ku-funya mguchu [lit. Buy, to, ku-gula.
to sprout] ; ku-fuma, to sp)'ing Buyer, mguli, mzogori.
out of the ground ; ku-rua, to By [after a passive verb], ni ; [of
an instrument], kwa ; [near],
put forth leaves; ku-zugua, to
avui ; [by the side of], kele.
grow.
^.Buffalo, mbogo.
C
Bug, nguuguni.
Cackle, to, ku-kangaslura.
Build, to, ku-agala.
Cage, nyumba.
^Building, iagalo.
Bulge, to, ku-fodesa, T. V. ; ku- ,Caldbash, kishori ; kazama,
very large calabash ; holoshi,
fodeka, /. V.
a small long-shaped calabash ;
_ Bull, njao.
mahado, the pulp of the cala
Bullet, risasi, iwano lya bondubash.
ki.
Bully, makugendeka, kigendeke. Calamity, buga.
Bump, to, ku-daha.
< Calf, ngachi, tago, a young
cow.
Bunch, kisangu [?].
Bundle, ijilo, offirewood ; ipane, Calico, nguo.
Call, to, ku-ita.
of sugar-cane.
*C'alm, to, ku-tsarusa.
Burden, msigo.
Burden, to, ku-gwaisa, T. V. ; Camel, ngamila.
| Cam]), chengo.
ku-gwaia, /. V.

VOCABULARY.

85

Can, to be able, ku-dima.


Centipede, mguli (?).
^JJane [bamboo], mraugi ; sugar Centre, gati.
cane, mugwa.
Certain, fulo.
^Cannibal, mlyigawandu.
Chaff, mafundo, kisusi.
Cannon, mzinga. ;
Chain, din a, a small chain.
Cap, kofia.
Chair, kifumbi.
-Captain, kilongozi.
Chance, nzani, waoneka nzani,
-.Captive, msunyi.
they are seen one here and
Capture, to, ku-wata.
another there.
Caravan, charo.
Change, to, ku-galusa, T. V. ; kuCaravan porter, mchukuzi,
galula, T. V. ; ku-galuka, /. V.
mtwali msigo.
Charcoal, makala.
Carcase, garia.
Charm, uganga, mbingu, kileto.
Care, to take, ku-manya, ku-ka- Chase, to [to hunt], ku-diwa ;
11a kirani, ku-lolila ; don't
away, to, ku-gusa.
care, sikwesi kazi [lit. there is Chastise, to, ku-'disa, ku-rasha.
nothing] ; kwanawesini ? what Cheap, to be, -a bule, ku-angua,
does it matter ?
ku-hanyua.
Careful, to be, kli-manya ki Cheat, mndimi, mlembi.
rani.
Cheat, to, ku-kopa, ku-kenga.
Careless, -duhu [lit. worthless]. Cheek, idumbu.
Caress, to, ku-sura.
Cheer, to, ku-sekesa.
Carriage, igari.
Chest, lagaia.
Carry, to, ku-twala, ku-duda ; Chew, to [as sugar-cane], kuhatsa ; [ as food], ku-kakaha.
on the back, ku-elcka.
Chicken, mwana wa ngnku, tuCartridge, risasi.
^Cassava, manga.
nguku.
Chief, mzuri, mdu mbwaa.
Cast, to, ku-taga, ku-kumba.
Castor-oil, mafuta 'ga mbono -Child, mwanake, kamwana.
.Childhood, unake.
plant, mbono.
_ Castrate, to, ku-twila.
Chin, gangaha (?).
Chisel, ndemwa.
Cat, mnyau.
Choice,
usaguli.
Catch, to, ku-wata.
Choke, to, ku-tswaia, ku-nyora.
^Cattle, mfugo, ng'ombe.
Choose, to, ku-sagula, ku-funya ;
^Cattle-fold, boro.
as you choose, andu ushaia u
Cause, for what cause ? kwa kimwen.
muni ? kwa ije ? kwani ? kudani ? Kilunganyo n'ini ? what Chop, to [as firewood], ku-paia ;
[to cut], kutema, ku-shinja ;
is the cause 1
[to cut small], ku-pasapasa.
Cause, to [see verbs causative],
Cave, mbanga.
.Churn, to, ku-suka.
Circumcise, to, ku-chwa.
Cease raining, to, ku-ela.
Cease talking, to cause to, ku Claim, to [to take], ku-wata.
JfClan, kichuku, lukolo.
nyamaza.
Cease, to, ku-siga ; talking, Clap hands, to, ku-kwita mai.
Clasp in the arms, to, ku-sura.
to, ku-nyamala.

86

VOCABULARY.

Clasp in the hand, to, ku-manzira, ku-wata, ku-hasisa.


Claw, lwala.
,Glay, ulongo.
^Clay, red, ilongo.
Chan, to [by washing], ku-elsa ;
[by rubbing], ku-hotsa, ku-sugula.
, Chan, to be, ku-ela.
Cleanse, to [to heal], ku-ambo-.
chola ; to be cleansed, ku-ambochoka.
Clear, to be, ku-kalla mwazi,
ku-ela.
Cleave, to [to split], ku-bara ;
[to unite], ku-nana.

Cleverness, uya, ulachu.


Climb, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela.
Cling, to, ku-manzira, ku-wata,
ku-hasisa.
Clock, saa.
Clod, iloa, mandu.
Close, to, kufunga, ku-rugara ;
to close up an opening, kuulaga.
Cloth, nguo : American sheet
ing, m3rikano ; blue calico,
narrow, msumbuji ; blue
calico, wide, mbege ; narrow
calico, mtsoromwilu ; medium
width, satini ; calico with one
red line along the border, kamwiti ; turban, kilemba ; a
long cloth twisted and used as
a girdle, mkumbo ; blue
calico with red border, kitambi. All very thin cloth is
called kabibi.
Clothe, to, ku-rwara.
., Clothes, mavalo.
Cloud, tlyara, iwengu.
^ulub, rungu.
Clumsy, to be, ku-gwaia [lit. to"
be heavy].
Coast, ujomba.
Coat, kizibau.

Coax, to, ku-ngo'angola.


Cob of Indian corn, ibemba ; cob
without the grain, kikonzi ;
the outer coating, ihorosho ;
the beard of the cob, sombe.
Cobweb, nyuma ya mbugi.
Cock, jongoli ; a young cock,
ipora.
Cockscomb, kinyiri.
. Cocoa-nut tree, mnyanzigi.
Cold, mbeo ; in the head, isama.
Collar of beads, kidiri.
Collect, to, ku-kwoganya, T. V. ;
ku-kwogana, /. V.
Colour, rangi.
Colour, to, ku-vila raDgi.
Come, to, ku-ja, imp, njuu.
Come to, to, ku-jila ; out, to,
ku-fuma; down, to, ku-jika,
ku-selela ; in, to, ku-ingila ;
up, to, ku-joka, ku-kwela ;
upon, to, ku-doka ; near,
to, ku-suguta avui ;together,
to, ku-kwogana ; to life
again, to, ku-zuka ; to light,
to, ku-oneka, lcu-manyikana ;
to nothing, to, ku-uya meji, m
ku-uya oa, lu-kunga lwauya
oa, the war-ery is nothing ; [to
arriv::], ku-tika, ku-busa ;
[come, let us go], mde tigale.
Comfort, to, ku-tsarusa ngolo.
Comfort r, mtsarusi ngolo.
Command, to, ku-funya mlomo,
ku-gamba, ku-gora.
Cmnmandment, mlomo, gore.
Commence, to, ku-tlyoa, ku-andika, ku-ama.
Commission, to, ku-lagiza.
Commit adultery, to, ku-laka,
ku-zinga, ku-iwa muke.
Commit, to, ku-dea.
Common, -a wandu wose.
Companion, mbetu, ours; mbenu, yours ; mbao, theirs. This

VOCABULARY.
is not exactly a companion, but
those who are with or belong to
us", etc.
jt. Company, ngaru, mbuzi ya Dga- .
ru, the company's goat, i. e. the
goat belongs to more than one
man ; a number of people,
ikwani ; a small number of
people, ki-sungu ; to be in
company with, ku-kezanya.
Compare, to, ku-katanisa ; [to
place together], ku-ikanya.
Compel, to, ku-funga ndigi. .
Complain, to, ku-guna.
Complete, to, ku-malila, T. V. ;
ku-duisa, T. V. ; ku-dua,
' I. V.; ku-sila, /. V.
Completely, kamare, putu.
Conceal, to, ku-visa, ku-finikila.
Concern, to, ku-fweni, chanifweni [lit. it concerns mc\
Conclude, to, ku-dua, ku-sila.
Conclusion, andu kwadua.
Condemn, to, ku-ita-ndimi.
Conduct, to, ku-gensa, ku-kaiyai, ku-leta, ku-twala, kufisa.
y(Sonfess, to, ku-gora, ku-rumagia.
Confide, to, ku-tsinila [lit. to lean
upon].
Confident, to be, ku-manya fulo
kwen.
Confuse, to, ku-kambisa chongo,
T. V. ; ku-kamba chongo,
/. V. ; ku-lahisa.
Congeal, to, ku-gandamana.
. Congregation, ikwani, makwogano.
Connect, to, ku-lunga, ku-nasa,
ku-funga.
Conquer, to, ku-sima.
, Conqueror, msimi.
Consent, to, ku-shaia, ku-ruma"
gia, ku-dumusila.
Constantly, majua 'gose.

87

Constipate, to, ku-kinga mavi.


Construct, to, ku-agala.
Consult, to, ku-dea njama.
Consultation, njama, mlandu,
maneno.
Consume, to [by eating], ku-lya ;
[by fire], ku-isha, T. V. ; ku-ia,
/. V.
Consumed, to be, ku-sila, kumalila.
Contain, to, ku-twala.
Contend, to, ku-dea nganyi, kuisana, ku-simana.
Content, to be, ku-ela ngolo,
ngolo yaela [lit. the heart is
at rest], ku-tsarua.
Continually, majua 'gose.
Continue, to, ku-tula, ku-sinda,
ku-kalla ; to cause to, kusindisa.
Contract, to [to make an agree
ment], ku-sikilana, ku-lagana.
Contradict, to, ku-kanya.
Control, to, ku-hasisa, ku-manzira, ku-wata.
Convert, to, ku-galusa, T. V. ;
ku-galula, T. V. ; ku-galuka,
/. V.
Cook, to, ku-ruga ; [to fry], kukalanga ; [to roast], ku-ocha ;
[to boil], ku-teleka.
Cooking-pot, nyungu.
Cool, to, ku-tsarusa, T. V. ; kutsarua, I. V.
fiopulate, to, ku-tomba, ku-emberuma, [vulgar] ; of cattle,
ku-zigira.
Cord [small cord], mrinsi ;
[medium], lugoi ; [thick rope],
gunga.
Cork, kifindiko.
Cork, to, ku-findika.
Corn, Indian, ibemba, mabemba.
Indian corn in its various
stages of growth :
Mabemba 'gafunya niguchu,

02

VOCABULARY.

Dumb, to be, ku-lema ku-gora Eight, nane.


Eighteen, ikumi na nane.
[lit. to be tinable to speak].
'Eighth, kanane.
Dun, to, kn-lei!a.
..Eighty, mirongo minane.
Dung, niavi.
Either, yose.
Dust, to, ku-angula.
Eland, dom.
^-Dwell, to, ku-kalla.
Elbow, hunguhungu.
Dwelling, makallo.
Elder,
mg'osi.
Dwindle, to, ku-gotua.
Elect, to, ku-sagula.
Dye, rangi.
Elephant, njovu.
Dye, to, ku-vi!a rangi.
Eleven, ikumi na moju.
Dysentery, ku-fwaha bigati.
.Eleventh, ikumi na kamoju.
E
Else, ango, ima.
Each man, killa mundu.
Elsewhere, andu kuzima.
Eagle, sangangoju.
Embarrass, to, ku-taga akili,
Ear, kisikilo.
ku-laho iii akili.
Ear of corn, suke.
Embrace, to, ku-sura.
Ear-drop, kipuli.
Embroil, to, ku-kumba sheshe.
Ear-ring, tele.
Employ, to [to send aboiU], kuEar-wax., mania.
tuma ; [to make use of], kuEarly [in the moming],ikesho ;
tuiuila ; [to be made use of],
[in point of time], msenya.
ku-tumika ; [to give work to],
Earnest, fulo.
ku-ingiza kazini ; [to employ
Earth, msanga.
a number of people to do a
Earth [the world], isanga lyose.
certain work], ku-kumba kiEase, to [to soothe], ku-tsarusa ;
kola, ku-kumba ngule.
[to be at ease], ku-tsarua ; Employment, kazi.
oneself, to, ku-nya.
Empty, to, ku-kupula ; [to pour
Easily, bule.
out as water], ku-tila, T. V. ;
Easy, to be, ku-ongua [lit. to be
ku-tika, /. V.
light] ; [to make easy], ku- Empty, kituhu.
onguisa.
Enable, to, ku-dimisa.
East, andu ijua lyifuma [lit. Encamp, to, ku-tula [lit. to put
the place where the sun rises].
down, ku-lala].
Eat, to, ku-lya ; [to eat flour], Encampment, ehengo.
ku-hafwa.
LEncircle, to [to fence in], kuEatable, to be, ku-lyika.
hilila.
Eat enough, to, ku-guta.
Enclose, to, ku-hilila, ku-dea
Eaves, kishushu.
isanzu.
Ebony, mwingo.
. Enclosure, nyua; [for cattle], boEdging, the red line along the
ro ; [for goats], urano.
edge of cloth is called mchili- Encourage, to, ku-funga ndigi,
linga.
ku-kumba ngolo.
Effect, to have, ku-kola.
End, to, ku-malila, T. V. ; kuEffort, to make an, ku-tima.
duisa, I. V. ; ku-dua, I. V. ; kusila, I. V.
Egg, igi.

VOCABULARY.

93

End, andu kudua [lit. where it


[to run away], ku-kimbila,
ends] ; of a thing [as of a
ku-duduga.
rope], mutu, mbale ; [after .^Espouse, to [to make love], kukumba ulanga.
wards], ko nyuma.
^Endure, to, ku-rumagia.
Eternal, kale na kale ; [there is
no end], sikwesi ku-dua.
^Enemy, maiza.
Engage, to [to agree], ku-sikila- Euphorbia, a kind of, kizori.
European,
mzungu.
na, ku-patana.
Engaged with, to be, ku-kalla na Evaporate, to, ku-omesa, T. V. ;
ku-oma, /. V.
shuhuli.
Enigma, wada na wada. The Even, karakara.
enigmatist says, Wada ; the one Even, if, hatta.
who guesses, answerv, Na wada. Even me, namosi.
Enig. Nyumba yangu siiwe- Evening, hafuka.
si mjango ? If it cannot be Evening [just before tJie sun
sets], lumisimis.
guessed. Enig. says, Ni-hawe
muzi. The answer is, igi, an Ever, majua 'gose, matuku 'gose,
kale na kale.
eggEnjoy, to, ku-bwelo, ku-ona Every, -ose, killa.
Everywhere, andu kose.
kwaloli.
Evil, ulagelage.
Enlarge, to, ku-juzila.
f Enmity, kondo.
Exactly, karakara go.
Enough, to be, ku-kata ; have, Exalt, to ku-kasa, ku-unula.
to, ku-guta ; [to be tired], ku- Exceed, to, ku-isa, ku-chumba.
Exceedingly, muno, na ndigi.
kqja.
e Enslave, to, ku-dea msunyi, kuKu-manya [to know], aiul Kuuja msunyi.
oma [to dry], are also used.
Entangle, to, ku-kumba matata.
Wakamkwita wakamanya, they
Enter, to, ku-ingila.
beat him exceedingly. WakaEntice, to, ku-emba [lit. to de
lwana na miti ikaoma, they
ceive].
fought exceedingly.
Entice, to, ku-ruta kwa ula- Except, ela.
Exchange, to, ku-inda.
chu.
Entirely, yose putu, kamare.
Exerement, mavi ; [of cattle], saru.
Exerete, to, ku-nya.
Entrails, utumbo.
Exercise, to, ku-ilisa.
""ntrance, ilanga, mjango.
Entreat, to, ku-lalama, ku-voia. Exhaust, to, ku-kojesa.
Exhausted, to be, ku-koja.
Envy, iziso.
Exile, to, ku-gusa.
Equal, karakara.
Expand to [to open out], kuEqual, to be, ku-katana.
kunjula, T. V. ; ku-kuujuka,
Equalize, to, kn-kataniaha.
Ere, hambiri.
I. V. ; ku-fundula, T. V. ; kuErect, to, ku-ika kimusi.
funduka, /. V. ; [to inerease],
Err, to, ku-kosa ; [to miss], kuku-juzila.
Expect, to, ku-lolila.
E<cape, to, ku-kila, ku-okoka ; Expend, to, ku-funya.

94

VOCABULARY.

Experience, to, ku-ona.


to, ku-budula, ku-potosa, kuExplain, to, ku-tambula,
po-tola.
Explode, to, ku-bafuka, ku-ba- False, ndimi.
rika.
Falter, to, ku-chagia.
Explore, to, ku-zigana.
Fame, nguma, sare.
Expose, to, ku-onya.
Familiar, to be, ku-ilisa.
Expound, to [to make a speech], 'Family [clan], kiehuku, lukolo.
ku-chila.
Famine, njala, mchangu.
Extend, to, ku-golola, T. V. ; ku- Fan, to, ku-pepea,
goloka, I.V.; ku-fisa, T.V.; Far, ku-lele, sa ndigi.
ku-fika, I. V.
Fast, to, ku-fuuga ; to break
Exterminate, to [to pull up],
one's fast, ku-fuugula, ku-paku-kula ; [to put out], ku-zitsa.
misa.
Fasten, to, ku-funga, ku-mangiExtinguished, to be, ku-zimika.
sa.
Fat, adj., -rifu, ndifu,wi<A nouns
Extol, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa.
Extra, mbale.
of the third class.
Extravagant, to be, ku-lagaza Fat, maraha, mavuta.
vindu bule.
Fat, to be, ku-banda ; [of ani
mals], ku-halasua.
Eye, iziso ; one-eyed, chongo
Eyeball, mundu wa iziso.
- father, aba, my father ; tatio,
Eyebrow, kikunya.
thy father; tatie, his father ;
aba wetu, or tatietu, our
ngoi.
father ; tatienu, your father ;
tatiyao, their father.
Fable, lugano.
- Father-in-law, the husband calls
Face, ushu.
his ivife'sfather mgosi wangu.
Fade, to [to wither], ku-nyaza,. Fatherless, mkiwa.
T. V. ; ku-nyala, /. V. ; [to be- Fatten, to, ku-bandisa.
come <AiB],ku-darun]isa, T. V. ; Fault, ikosa.
ku-daruma, /. V.
Favourite, mshaili, mahailo.
Fail, to [not to have], ku-soa ; ifear, oga.
[to be without], ku-soeka; [to Fear, to, ku-koga.
miss], ku-kosa.
Feather, loa ; the longest feather
Faint, to, ku-zima roho.
of a wing, mvako.
wFair [white], -nmyangi.
Fca'her arrows, to, ku-papika.
Faith, idumusi.
Feeble, -nyongi.
Fall, to, ku-gwa ; [as rain], ku- Feed, to [to tend cattle], ku-lisa ;
nya ; [as leaves], ku-anduka ;
[to bring up], ku-lela.
into, fo,ku-buduka,ku-poto- Feeder, mlisa.
ka.
Feeding, the work of, ulisn.
Fall in, to [the sides of a pit or Feel, to [to perceive], ku-omi ;
hole], ku-gemuka.
[to touch], ku-wata.
Fall in, to cause to, ku-gemula.
Female, -ke.
Fall, to cause to, ku-gwisha ; Fence, isanzu.
[as rain], ku-nyesha ; into, Fence in, to, ku-hilila.

VOCABULARY.

Ferment, to, ku-irwa.


Ferry, kiambuko.
Ferry over, to, ku-ambusa.
Fetch, to, ku-leta, ku-konda, kuenda.
Fever, mauko.
Few, -chache.
Fiddle, mbewewe.
/ Field, mbua.
Fierce, to be, ku-bia.
Fierce man, a, mvara.
Fierceness, ku-bia, ubia, uvara.
^.Fifteen, ikumi na sano.
~Fifth, kasano.
~ Fifty, mirongo misano.
'Fight, kondo.
Fight, to, ku-lwana ; to cause
to, ku-lwanisha.
File, tupa.
Fill, to, ku-juza ; [to be full],
ku-jula ; [to fill in a hole],
ku-kinili!a ; [to be nearlyfull],
ku-kalla goti ; [to fill with
food], ku-gutisha ; [to have
had enough], ku-guta.
Find, to, ku-ona, ku-pata, kuvumbula, ku-doka ; [to be
found], ku-oneka ; [to be findable], ku-onekeka ; [to find
out], ku-pola, ku-manya.
Fine, -loli.
Fine, to, ku-lya.
Finger, chala.
Finger-nails, lwala.
Finish, to, ku-malila, T. V. ;
ku-duisa, T. V. ; ku-dua, I. V. ;
ku-sila, /. V.
Fire, moto.
Fire, to [to set on fire], ku-kumba moto ; [to light afire], kur
koza moto, ku-washa moto ;
[to bum], ku-isha, T. V. ; kuia, /. V. ; [to fire a gun], kukwita bunduki.
_ Fire-place, the three stones which
support the pan, manga.

95

Fire-fly, kivunyu [?].


Fire-wood, nguni.
Firm, to be, ku-manga ; make,
to, ku-mangisa.
*First, hambiri ; [in point of
time], jako, jandi, jakundi ;
muka jako, wait first ; lima
jakundi, hoe finst.
First, to go, ku-kaia, kii-kaiai.
Fish, nguluma, makumba.
Fish, to, ku-vula, ku-wata.
Fist, ngonde.
Fit, to, ku-kata, ku-fweni.
Five, sano.
Fix, to, ku-mangisa, ku-funga ;
[to fix one's ey:s upon], kukula meso.
Fix, to be in a, ku-fungo.
Flame, lumuli.
Flame, to, ku-waka.
Flap, to, ku-pepea.
Flash of lightning, king' alang'ala.
Flat, the flat side of anything,
kibalo ; [aflatpie :e ofground],
kirindi.
Flay, to, ku-shinja.
Flea, sawa.
Flee, to, ku-kimbila.
Flesh, nyama.
Fling, to, ku-kumba, ku-taga.
*Flock, ngundi.
Flood, ukanga 'gwa rneji.
Flour, unga.
Flower, kilua.
Flmver, to, ku-funya vilua, kuusa.
Flute, nguli.
Fly, mbugombugo.
Fly, to, ku-buruka ; to cause In,
ku-burusa.
Foam, ifulo ; [from the mouth],
julali.
Fog, tlyara.
Fold,to, ku-kunja ; [in the arms]
ku-sura.

96

VOCABULARY.

Follow, to, ku-irima.


Folly, upambafu.
Food, chakulya, kilya, kandu ;
[grain], viro.
* Foods, kimanga, cooked beans;
ms\vara, porridge ; kinolo,
bread from Indian corn ; kinaburi, bread from Kaffir
com ; iole, that which is left
over ; itongi, a morsel ; uji,
thin gruel ; ndua, food for a
sick person.
Fool, mzimu.
Foolinhness, upambafu.
Foot, kigulu ; [sole of the foot],
lwaio.
Footprints [of a man], kitende ;
[of animals], lwaio.
Footstep, isege.
For, prep. kwa ; conj. kwani ;for
is often expressed by the use of
the applied form of the verb.
Forbid, to, ku-kanya ; [to be un
lawful], ku-rigido ; tauarigida, we forbid.
<
Force, kwa ndigi, kwa nguvu.
Forceps, ngula.
Ford, kiambuko, andu kuambuka.
Ford, to, ku-ambuka.
^Forefather, aba wa kale.
Forehead, gambili.
Foreign, -geni.
"Foreigner, mgeni.
-^ Forest on the top of the mountain,
msitu.
Forge, to, ku-shana.
Forget, to, ku-laho, ku-liwa.
Forgive, to, ku-siga [lit. to leave
alone].
Forsake, to, ku-siga, ku-tagana.
Fortify, to, ku-bilila.
Fortunate, to be, ku-dea Mlungu
waloli.
^ Forty, mirongo mine.
Forward, hambiri.

Foster, to, ku-lela.


Four, ine.
Fowl, nguku.
Fox, turuga, [a kind of wild
dog].
Free, to [to loose], ku-fungula ;
[to let go], ku-siga.
Freewill, ku-shaia -en.
Frequently, mujua 'gose.
Fresh, -ishi.
'Friend, mgeni.
Fright, oga.
Frighten, to, ku-kumba oga.
Frightened, to be, ku-koga, kuoga.
Fringe, marengere.
Frog, chula.
From, kele ; [since], ku-fuma
[lit. to come out] ; nije na ilya,
from the time I came until
this.
Front, hambiri.
Froth, ifulo ; [from the mouth],
julali.
Fruit, ishinga. There is really no
word for fruit, all fruit is
called after the name of its
tree : mrema mvula, [the tree] ;
irema mvula, '[its fruit] ; mlamba, [the tree] ; kilamba, [the
fruit].
Fry, to, ku-kalanga.
Frying-pan, kalango.
Fulfil, to, ku-timiza.
Fulfilled, to be, ku-timika.
Full, to be, ku-jula.
Fullness, ku-jula.
Fun, hako.
Further, hambiri. .
Future, hambiri.
G
Gain, mbambara.
Gain, to, ku-pata ; [profit, to],
ku-pata mbambara.
Gall, sahala.

97

VOCABULARY.

Game [the produce of hunting]


thin, ku-daruma ;
through [squeeze through], kumadiwi ; [amusement], hako.
tsira, 7. V. ; ku-tsirisa, T. V. ;
Gap, ilanga.
Gape, to, ku-kula myaio.
through, ku-poka, I. V. ;
Garden, mgunda, especially of
ku-pola, T. V. ; up, ku-uka,
sugar-cane ; mbalo, of sweet
I. V. ; ku-ukisa, T. V. ;upon,
potatoes ; mbua, of grain.
ku-joka.
.sGhost, kijanijani.
^Garments, nguo, mavalo.
Gift, unosi, mkono, a banana.
Garret, kale.
Gash, ngoru, lugumu.
Gimlet, lugumba, a piece of
pointed iron for making hobs.
Gasp, to, ku-sonda.
^. Gate, mjango.
Ginger, tangaisi.
Giraffe, ndiga.
_y Gateway, mterengo, ilanga.
Gather, to, [fruit], ku-aha ; Girder, m'gamba.
[Indian corn], ku-kwasha ; Girdle, mkoa.
[maize], ku-kwita ; up, ku- ,&irl, mchana.
shoa ; together, ku-kwogan- Give, to, ku-hawa ; a present,
ku-nosa ; lip, ku-funya ; [to
ya, T. V. ; ku-kwogana, I. V.
Gathering, makwogano, ikwi.
help one to food], ku-ega ; [to
cut offfor], ku-chwila ; out,
Gaze, to, ku-kula meso.
Gazelle, mbala.
[as words], ku-chila ; back,
Geld, to, ku-twila.
ku-uja, I. V. ; ku-ujisa, T. V. ;
^Generation, kivali.
ku-galisha, T. V. ; rations,
Generous, to be, ku-kalla na isluku-hawa leu ; room, ku-ingima.
la ; to drink, ku-nwesa ;
Genius, mlachu.
to eat, ku-lisa ; trouble, kuGently, mbole.
emeka, ku-sirimisa ; way
Get, to, ku-pata, ku-dea ; [to
under one, ku-fodeka ; light,
recover from an illness], kuku-langaza.
boa ; a little better, ku- Giver, mnosi, mhawi, mchwili.
kalla bahabaha ; drunk, Glad, to be, ku-bwelo.
ku-narua ; dry, ku-oma ; Gladness, ubwelo.
for, ku-patila, ku-deila ; Glance, to, ku-kumba meso.
into, ku-ingila ; another Glide, to, ku-sharadia.
into trouble, ku-shekera ; Glisten, to, ku-legesa meso [lit.
to make the eyes unable to look],
seed into the ground before
the rain comes, ku-buka ;
ku-ng'ala.
mouldy, ku-hubua ; out, Glorify, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa.
Glory,
ubwaa [lit. greatness].
ku-fuma, I. V. ; ku-funya,
T. V. ; out of the way, Gnaiv, to, ku-kakaha.
ingila niite ! [lit. let me Go, to, ku-genda ; [to return],
ku-gala, ku-uya ; after, [to
pass t] ; ima ! [lit. gel out of the
follow], ka-irima ; away,
m'V /] ;out of one's sight, kuku-genda noko ; your way,
genda noko ; palm wine,
ku-genda ngila zako ; back
ku-gema ; ripe, ku-irwa ;
ward', ku-genda kinyuma ;
[thin, watery], ku-salama ;
G

98

VOCABULARY.

bad, ku-ola ; before, ku- Grass, nyasi ; [young grass],


kaiai ; by, ku-ita ; down,
mgina.
ku-selela, ku-jika ; [to slip Grasshopper, panzi.
down quickly], ku-doromo- Gratis, banana, bule.
ka ; erooked, ku-gomeka ; Gratitude, kirani.
forward, ku-suguta ; .j/Gravc, kina.
into, ku-ingila ; marketing. Gravel, sangalawe.
ku-zogora ; off [to spring], Grease, mavuta ; [dirt], ikwi.
ku-duhuruka ; out, ku-fu- Great, -bwaa.
ma ; out [offire], ku-zimi- Greatness, ubwaa.
ka ; over, ku-ambuka ; Greed, iziso.
round, ku-mara ; . running, ]/Green, rangi ya nyasi.
ku-genda na isege ; to meet, ,Green ring beads, mburinaro za
ku-mara ; up, ku-joka, kumakumbo.
kwela.
Greet, to, ku-rogoa, ku-lamusa.
/.Goat, mbuzi ; [a he-goat], jigau ; Grey hair, iru.
[a castrated goal], sitima.
Grief, vilambo, buga.
Goat's beard, sombe.
Grieve, to, ku-asila.
God, Mlungu.
Grieved, to be, ku-asilo.
Gold, tbahabu.
Grin, to, ku-seka.
Good, -loli.
Grind, to, ku-sha.
Goodness, uloli, mbazi [?].
Grit, sangalawe.
Goods, mali.
Ground, isanga.
Gospel, uvoro 'gwaloli [lit. good Grow, to, lAi-zugua ; [to sprout],
ku-palala ; [to come up out of
news] ; ilago lyaloli [lit. good
the ground], ku-fuma ; fat,
news].
ku-banda ; thin, ku-daruGourd, kishori [see pumpkin].
ma ; [to be full-grown], kuGovern, to [to hold], ku-hasisa ;
kula.
to keep, ku-fuga.
Gruel, uji, mswara 'gwa meji ;
Grace, mbazi, uloli.
for a sick person, ndua .
Gradually, mbole.
Grumble, to, ku-guna.
Grain, viro.
Guard, to, ku-linda.
Grand, -loli.
^Grandchild, a grandson calls Guardian, mlindiri.
his grandfather, wawa, his Guess, to, ku-saka.
grandmother, ake ; a grand Guide, kilongozi.
daughter calls her grand Guide, to, ku-onya ngila [lit. to
father, ake, her grandmother,
show the way] ; ku-geusa [lit, to
wawa ; a grandfather calls his
take], ku-longoza.
grandson, wawa, his grand? Guilt, ikosa, kaung'a.
daughter, ake ; a grand Guinea-fowl, nganga.
mother calls her grandson, ,,&ully, mkarangu.
ake, her granddmighter, wa Gum, mongolo.
Gum [of the teeth], kini [?].
wa.
Gun, bunduki ; [cannon], mziGrant, to, ku-hawa.
Grasp, to, ku-wata, ku-hasisa.
Dga.

VOCABULARY.

99

Hatch, to, ku-lalila ; [to break the


Gun-cap, fataki.
Gun-lock, mtambo 'gwa bundueggs], ku-kongota.
Hatchet, isoka.
ki.
Hate, to, ku-meuya ; to cause
Gun'pmvder, baruti.
to, ku-menyeaa.
Gut, utumbo.
Hatred, ku-menya.
Gutter, muvo.
Have, to, ku-kalla na, ku-wesi.
Having, -enyi, -esi.
H
Hawk, to, ku-marisa [lit. to carry
Hack, to, ku-tema.
about].
Ha.fl, mwini.
He, ie, uyu, uu.
^Hair [of the head], aisiri ; Head, chongo, mutu.
straight hair is called mfuru- Head-dress, kilemba [lit. tur
ra ; woolly hair is called suban] ; of ostrich feathers, kiturizi ; [of animals], mafuri ;
tu.
hvisted into knobs, itiko ; Heal, to, ku-boesa, ku-ambo[grey hair], ivu.
chola.
^Half, nusu, mbeo.
Healed, to be, ku-boa, ku-amboHalt, to [to stand], ku-kalla
choka.
kimuai ; [to go lame], ku-sho- Health (good health), maana.
inzima.
gora.
Hammer, nyundo.
. 'Heap, kitungu ; [of weeds],
Hammer, to, ku-daha, ku-gonga,
mbii ; [of fireivood], cheta.
Mfingiri, a heap of'stones on ttic
ku-shana.
Hand, mkono, kikoto.
plains of Taita, said to have
Handle, mwini.
been erected by a tribe called
Handle, to, ku-wata.
Warwana.
Handsome, -loli.
Hear, to, ku-sikila.
Hang, to, ku-anika ; [to strangle], Hearken, to, ku-sikizila.
Heart, ngolo ; [of banana tree
ku-tswaia.
eaten in time of famine], kiHappen, to, ku-doka.
Happy, to be, ku-bwelo.
tau.
Hard, to be, ku-kula.
Heat, moto.
*Hard ground, gahara.
Heaven, mlunguni [lit. to God,
or with God].
Hardness, ku-kula.
Hare, hwaro.
Heavy, to be, ku-gwaia.
Harm, to, ku-dea lagelage ; there Hedge, isanzu.
Hedge, to, ku-hilila.
is no harm, sikwesi undu.
Hartebeest, gwali.
Heel, gimbi.
, Harvest,to, ku-kwasha,o/'/9Kre)s '^Heifer, tago.
corn ; ku-kwita, ofKaffir corn; Heights, dumu.
ku-aha, of beans, peas, etc.
Help, to, ku-taria, ku-arura ;
to food, ku-ega, especially of
Harvest, time of, matuku 'ga
porridge.
kukwasha, etc.
Helper, mwaruri.
Hasty, to be, ku-bia.
Hat, kofia.
Hen, nguku ya wake ; a layin

100

VOCABULARY.

- htn, mgoma ; a young hen, .Hoeing time, kilimo.


Hold, to, ku-wata, ku-hasisa,
tago.
ku-manzira.
Hence, aho.
Hole, mrumo, kina, ilanga ; a
Her, ie, uyu, uu.
l/ird, nguudi ; of wild animals,
hole where seed is, jina.
Holy, to be, ku-ela [lit. to be
muzi.
s$Herdsman, mlisa, mshungi.
clean].
Here, kunu, aha, aenya, aen ; Home,]zw&ngn.,my home ;kwako,
thy home ; kwake, his home ;
seo, he is not here; uaen, he
mzetu, our home; mzenu, your
is here.
home ; mzawe, their home.
Hereafter, konyuma.
Hesitate, to, ku-chagia.
Honesty, banana [lit. nothing].
*. Hide, mrongo, ngingo ; for Honey, uki ; native honey con
sleeping upon, kishelo ; for
sists of honey, beeswax, etc. ;
sleeping upon when travelling,
one part is called kimanga,
and is said to disagree with
njaruba ; a piece of hide, kikundi.
many.
Hide, to, ku-visa, ku-finikila.
Honour, ishima.
Hoot, to, ku-oda, ku-zuha.
High, lugulu.
- Hill, mgondi ; a very small Hope, to, ku-lolila [lit. to look
mound, kigemo ; a mountain,
for] ; ku-kalla na tamaa [lit. to
lngongo, kifumvu ; an antlong for].
, Horn, mbembe, lwembe ; kudu
hill, mbalyb.
horn used as a trumpet, guHim, ie, uyu, uu.
nda ; smaller horns, ndererc.
Hinder, to, ku-ima.
Hot, -a moto.
Hip, figo.
Hot, to be, ku-ia.
Hippopotamus, vuo.
Hot-tempered, ku-bia.
Hiss, to, ku-dea minyiro.
Hit, to, ku-lasa, ku-kwita, ku- Hour, saa.
riba, ku-'disa.
House, nynmba.
Hobble, to, ku-tiginya, ku-sho- How 1 ije ?
However, masena.
gora.
Bbe. igembe, an iron hoe ; mulo, Howl, to, ku-kema.
a small stick for digging ; Human, kidam.
mwando, a larger stick used in Humble, -nyongi.
Humbug, to, ku-gama.
pricking the ground.
Hoe, to, ku-lima ; [to cut down Humility, unyongi.
the grass before hoeing], ku- Hump [a eme's hump], ifufn.
chochola ; [to loosen the ground* ,Hundred, i'gana.
by pricking], ku-t]yatlyaia ; Hunger, njala.
[to get out thoroughly all the, Hungry, to be, ku - kalla i
. weeds], ku-sambula ; [to git upm
njala.
all the potatoes before sowing], Hunt, to, ku-diwa.
Hunter,
mdiwi.
ku-kaila ; [to seratch the .
ground when ihe first weeds Hurt, to, ku-harisa, ku-Iuma.
Husband, mlume.
appear], ku-buniga,

VOCABULARY.

Husks, maganda, mafundo.


*Hut, kianda.
, Hyaena, fisi.
Hymn, lumbo.

101

Jrlnclosure, nyua ; for goats, uiano ; for cattle, boro.


Inerease, to, ku-juzila.
Indebted to, to be, ku-leilo, nalyili kindu chake, / have
eaten something of his.
Indeed, fulo, fulokwen.
I, imi.
India-rubber, mpira.
Idiot, mzimu.
Indian corn, ibemba [see corn].
Idle, -mgadi.
Infirm, -nyongi.
Idle,, to be, ku-gada.
Infirmity, unyongi.
Idleness, ugadi.
Inform, to, ku-lya malago, kuIf, ngera, sala, kamba, nda,
hawa uvoro.
-ka-, inserted in the verb [see Information, uvoro, ilago.
conditional tense].
Ingenious, -lachu,
Ignorance, upambafu.
Ingenuity, uya, ulachu.
Ill, -kongo.
Inherit, to, ku-irima ufwa.
Ill, to be, ku-kalla mkongo ; [to Inheritance, ufwa.
be very ill], ku-lwala.
Injure, to, ku-harisa.
Illness, ukongo.
Innocent, -a banana.
Image, sura.
Inquire, to, ku-kota.
Imaginations, magelelo.
Inside, amwen, case in -ni,
Imagine, to, ku-gelela, ku-irifollowed by kwa-.
kanya.
Inspect, to, ku-zigana.
Imitate, to, ku-sunga.
Instead of, andu kwa-.
Immature, -koo.
Instruction, mafundisho.
Immerge, to, ku-busa, ku-fuma. Intellect, akili.
Immerse, to, ku-ingiza.
Intentionally, kasidi, 'dali.
Implore, to, ku-lalama.
Intercede for, to, ku-lombela.
Impossible, to be, ku-lega ku- Intercessor, mlombi, nishiki.
deika ; it is impossible, siku- Intercept, to, ku-kasha, to go
deika.
between two parties to prevent
Imprison, to, ku-funga, ku-kuthem from fighting.
mba kifungoni.
Interfere, to, ku-ingila.
Improve, to, ku-boesa.
Intestines, utumbo.
In, kele, case in -ni, followed Into, kele, amwen, case in
by pronouns in kw-, as : ngo-ni, followed by pronouns in
loni kwangu ; in front, kwa
kw-.
hambiri ; in order that [see Intoxicate, to, ku-narusa.
subjunctive mood] ; in place of, Invite, to, ku-ita.
andu kwa- ; in the middle, 'Iron, kizia.
'gati ; in the middle of, 'gati 'Irrigate, to, ku-finga meji.
na 'gati ; in the morning, na Irritate, to, ku-koronga, kuikesho.
emeka, ku-gama.
Inclose, to [to fence in], ku-hi- Is [see "to be"].
lila.
Issue, to, ku-fuma.

102

VOCABULARY.

It, ichi, icho [see demonstrative


pronouns].
Itch, uwele.
Itch, to, ku-hatso [lit. to be
bitten].
Ivory, njovu, hvembe lwa njo
vu. A male tusk about two
hands is called kibori ; about
three and a halfhands, tofwa ;
about four hands, tofwa shagangi ; five or six hands,
isange.

Kick, to, ku-kwita ilapa, ku-lasa


isege.
Kid, ndagina.
Kidney, tigo.
Kill, to, ku-ulaga ; for food,
ku-shinja ; in battle, ku-ula
ga mboi.
Kindle, to, afire, ku-washamoto, ku-koza moto, ku-kumba
tnoto.
Kind [of what kind J], muni [?] ;
[another kind], -zima.
Kindness, kirani.
^Kindred, mbari.
Jackal, gweha.
King, mdu mb\vaa, a big man ;
Jacket, kizibao.
mzuri, a rich man.
Jar [water-jar], sangu.
Kingdom, uzuri, ubwaa.
Jaw, munzu.
Kins, msusugo.
Jealous, to be, ku-kalla na iziso Kiss, to, ku-susuga.
[lit. to envy].
, .Kitchen, ku-rugoni.
Join, to, ku-nasa, ku-lunga, ku Knee, ngokoro.
bisa.
Kneel, to, ku-tlyaia ngokoro.
Joint [of the bones], nganju ; [of .Knife, ndagala ; [a big knife],
two branches], mbaragasha.
njomo.
Joke, maseko.
Knock, to, ku-kongota, ku-goJourney, charo.
nga ; down, ku-gwisha.
Knot, of a tree, fundo, igurufu ;
Journiy, to, ku-tamba.
in string, kifindiko.
Joy, to, ku-bwelo.
Know, to, ku-manya, ku-weni ;
,Judge, mtani.
[/ don't know], noko.
Judge, to, ku-taganya, kuKudu, sambe ; female, igalu.
amula.
Juice, of sugar-cane, marami ; of
trees, mazia, bigati ; of the
Lack, to, ku-soa.
banana tree, kitofe.
Jump, to, ku-chumba.
Lacking, to be, ku-soeka.
Justice, haohe, karakara.
Lake, ndiwa, izia ; a sheet of
water, ukanga.
K
Lamb, mwana wa ng'onzi.
Keep, to [to put away], ku-ika ; Lame man, kitigiuya.
[to guard], ku-linda ; [to hold], Lamely, to go, ku-shogora, kuku-wata, ku-hasisa, ku-manyanyaga.
nzira ; [to delay], ku-mukisa, Lament, to, ku-lila.
ku-sindisa ; [to keep awake], Lamentation, kililo.
ku-lala meso ; animals, ku- Lamp, taa.
Land, isanga.
fuga.
Landmark, mwaka.
Key, ufungulo.

VOCABULART.

^Language, mateto ; [to use bad


language], ku-lagalaga.
Large, -bwaa.
,
Lash [eyelash], ngoi.
Last, nyuma.
Last nighl, ihwaiu.
Last, to, ku-kalla luma.
Last, to be, ku-malila nyuma.
Late, to be, ku-elesa, ku-mukamuka [lit. to delay].
Laugh, to, ku-seka ; to cause
to, ku-sekesa.
'Law, mlomo [lit. a word] ; [to be
unlawful], ku-rigido.
iMy, to, ku-ika ; down, ku-tungurisa ; eggs, ku-vala ma
gi ; hold, ku-wata.
Lazy, to be, ku-gada.
Lead, iambu.
Lead, to, ku-longoza, ku-kaiai,
ku-dougoza ; astray, ku-lagaza.
Leader, mlongozi, mdongozi,
mkaiai.
Leaf, nyasi ; the new leaf in the
centre of the banana tree is
called mkombolodi.
Leak, to, ku-vuja.
Lean, to become, ku-daruma ;to
cause to become, ku-darumisa.
Lean upon, to, ku-tsinila.
Leap, to, ku-chumba.
Learn, to, ku-kufunda, ku-kumauyisa.
Leave, to, ku-siga, ku-fuma ; [to
leave go], ku-sigilila ; over,
ku-hangala ; [to be left over],
ku-hangalika ; [to take leave
of], ku-laga.
Leaven, to, ku-irwisha [lit. to
ripen].
Left hand, mkono 'gwa kimosho ; mkono 'gwa kiwake.
Leg, kigulu.
Lemon, ikapu.
Lenfl, to, ku-kopa.

103

Length, ulele.
Lengthen, to, ku-juzila ulele.
Leopard, ingwi ; the hunting
leopard, uji.
Leprosy, matana, mwiti.
Lessen, to, ku-erecha, ku-pungiiza, T. V. ; ku-punguka, /. V.
Let, to [to permit], ku-siga ;
down, ku-seleza,ku-jisa ;
loose, ku-fungula.
Letter, barua.
Level, karakara ; ground, kirindi.
Level, to, ku-gwisha kirindi ; [to
be equal with], ku-katana ; [tv
make equal], ku-katanisha.
Liar, mndiiui.
Liberal, to be, ku-kalla na ishima.
Lice, inda.
Lichen, madaida.
Lick, to, ku-tsuba.
Lid, kitindiko, malue.
Lie, ndimi.
Lie, to [to utter falsehood], kugora ndimi ; aeross, ku-kalla
kizemerumu ; . dott7t,ku-uaraga, ku-tungura, ku-lala ;
<,'<ife, ku-lala meso,ku-lavile ;
[this verb is past in form, but
present in meaning] on one's
back, ku-lala kingazi ; in
wait for, ku-lalila.
Life, uzima.
ii/Z,to,ku-unula ; [to lift a man
burden on to his haul], ku-tuka.
Light, mlangazi, moto ; [a gum.
called mtungu is used as a
light].
Light, to, ku-washa ; to be, kuela, ku-langala ; to Ije [not
heavy], ku-angua.
Light upon, to, ku-gwila.
Lighten, to [to make clear], knlangaza ; [to shine like light

104

VOCABULARY.

ning], ku-ng'ala, ku-kumba


lufu ; [to make less heavy], kuauguisa.
Lightning, lufu Iwa mvula.
Like, sa.
Like, to, ku-shaia, ku-shaile
[this verb is past in form, but
present in meaning].
Like, to be, ku-katana, ku-fwanana ; [what is it like ?] igenije ?
Liken, to, ku-katanisha, kufwananiaha.
Likeness, sura, ifwani.
Lime, takaa, ivu ; fruit, ndimu.
Limit, mwaka.
Limit, to, ku-dua mwaka.
Line, mchori, mhero.
Linger, to, ku-mukamuka, kusiuda ;to cause to, ku-sindisa.
Lion, shimba.
Lip, kishiniko.
Listen, to, ku-sikizila.
Little, -chache ; [very little],
-chachere.
Live, to [to be alive], ku-kalla
moyo ; [to continue to live],
ku-tula moyo ; [he is alive],
yu moyo.
Lively, to be, ku-karagara.
Liver, itima.
Lizard, ichorombo ; [large liz
ard], pambo.
Load, msigo ; offirewood, ijilo ; of sugar-cane, ipane.
Load a gun, to, ku-sindilila.
Lock, ku-fuli,
Lock, to, ku-funga.
Locust, nzige.
Log, mgogo, mrigo.
Loin-cloth, nguo ya chunu.
Loins, chunu.
Long, -refu, -lele : with nouns of
the third class they become
ndefu and ndele ; time,
luma ; [a long way], kulele.

Longfor, to, ku-kalla na tamaa,


ku-melehesa ; [in a bad sense],
ku-kalla na iziso.
Longing, beha, tamaa.
Look, to, ku-lola, ku-zigana ;
after, ku-manya ; out
for, ku-lolila ; for, ku-hada ; round [to turn the
head], ku-eria.
Looking-glass, kiloli.
Loose, to, ku-fungula.
Loose, to be [not tight], ku-kalla
bolobolo.
Lose, to, ku-lagaza.
Lost, to be, ku-lagaia.
Louse, inda.
Love, ushaio, mashaio.
Love, to, ku-shaia, ku-shaile
[this verb is past inform, but
present in meaning] ; [to make
love], ku-kumba ulanga.
Lovely, -loli.
Low, to, ku-doka.
Lower, to, ku-seleza, ku-jisa, kutula.
Lowly, -nyongi.
Luck [good luck], mlungu waloli ; [bad luck], ndesanya [?].
Lull, to, ku-ngolangola.
Lump, i'ungu ; [a small helping
of porridge], itongi.
Lungs, mbafu.
Lust, to, ku-kalla na iziso.
Lust, iziso.
M
Machine, mtambo.
Mad, -zimo.
Madness, mutu.
Magic, usai.
Maggot, kivunyu, kuhu.
'Maiden, mchana.
Maintain, to, ku-hasisa, ku- manzira, ku-wata ; [to support],
ku-lela.
Maize, ibemba [see corn].

VOCABULARY.

Make, to, ku-dea, ku-nmba ;


an agreement, ku-sikilana ;
^blood-brothers, ku-lya nrnma ;
good [to pay], ku-shana ;
clothes for, ku-shonela nguo ;
fat, ku-bandisa ; haste,
ku-dea shwoshwo ; ill, kuuja mkongo ; . love, kukumba ulanga ; metal
^things, ku-shana ; peace,
ku-shaana, ku-dea sere ;
plain, ku-tambula ; pot
tery, ku-umba ; room for,
ku-ingila ; sorry for, kuharisa ngolo ; to agree, kupatanisha ; unlawful, kurigida ; up a fire, ku-kongocha ; water, ku-kojela ;
well, ku-boesa.
'Male, -lume.
'Man, mdu, mundu ; [a yotmg
man], mtawana.
^Mankind, mdam.
'Manly, ulume.
Many, -ngi.
Mar, to, ku-nona.
.'Margin, mbalembale.
Mark, mhero, mchori, alama.
Mark, to, ku-dea mchori, kudea mhero ; [to draw a line on
the ground], ku-hera.
'Market, chete,
'Market, to, ku-zogora.
'Marriage, arusi.
. Marry, to, ku-lola, ku-usa ;
[to put one into a position to
marry by paying the price of
the girl, ku-loza ; [to pay the
price of the girl], ku-hoa.
Marvel, tambo.
Marvel, to, ku-shinika.
Mash, to, ku-onda.
-Master [the owner of a thing],
umweuyi, tatie.
Master, to, ku-sima.
Matches, kibiriti.

105

Matter [affairs], vilamho, uvoro,shuli ; [what is the matter ?]


n'ini ao ? [what is the matter
with you ?] uo na'ni ; [what
does it matter ?], kwanawesini.
-May, ngera [see Grammar, aux
iliary verbs].
Me, imi.
Meal, unga ; [food], ehakulya,
kilya ; [breakfast], kipatsi ;
[evening meal], kilalilo.
Mean, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia.
Meaning, -a kimuni, -a ije.
Meanness, unyongi.
Means, ngila.
Measure, kipimo, kitimo.
Measure, to, ku-tima ; [to place
side by side], ku-katanisha.
Meat, nyama ; cut up in long
strips and dried, mdanda.
Mediate, to, ku-gora [lit. to
speak] ; ku-lombela [lit. to
intercede for],
Mediator, mgori [lit. a speaker] ;
mlombi [lit. one who prays] ;
mshiki [lit. a go-between],
Medicine, uganga, mwiti ; [black
medicine], usai.
Medicine man, mganga.
Meditate, to, ku-gelela, ku-irikanya.
Meekness, ubanana.
Meet, to, ku-kwogana, ku-onana ; [to go to meet], ku-mara ;
[to meet a person when starting
out on a journey], ku-kwita
mzana. [This is considered
bad luck.]
Melt, to, ku-saga, /. V. ; kusagisa, T. V.
Memorial, ukumbusho.
Mend, to, ku-boesa ; clothes,
ku-rokosha.
Menstruate, to, ku-oga.
Mention, to, ku-gora.

106

VOCABULARY.

Mercy, ishima, waya.


Mercy, to show, ku-fwila waya.
Merry, to be, ku-sekaseka.
Message, mlomo.
Messenger, mtumi.
Mice, mbanya.
Mid-day, mseuya 'gati.
Middle, 'gati na 'gati.
Midnight, 'gati ya kiro, kiro kibwaa.
Might [power], ku-dima [see
Grammar, auxiliary verbs].
Mighty, ndigi, nguvu.
Mild, -a mbeo.
Mildew, to, ku-huhua.
*Milk, maziwa ; [new milk],
maziwa maishi ; [curdled
milk], maziwa 'gainviro; [butter
milk], maziwa 'gasukilo.
0Milk, to, ku-kama.
Millet, mwemba, [see corn] ; [a
small kind of millet], msele.
Mince, to, ku-pasapasa.
Mind, to, ku-manya, ku-linda,
ku-lola ; [/ don't mind], siwesi kazi.
Minister, mdafwariri.
Minister, to, ku-dafwarira.
Miracle, makilimbita,
Miscarriage, ku-fuma kifu.
Mischief, sheshe.
Mischief-maker, mdu wa sheshe.
Misery, mashaka.
Mislead, to, ku-kosesha, ku-emba.
Miss, to, ku-gosha, ku-kosa.
Missed, to be, ku-ririga, wan'ririga na ndigi aga matuku, you
are very much on my thoughts
these days.
Mist, tlyara.
Mistake, ikosa.
Mistake, to make, ku-kosa.
Mix, to, ku-runganya.
Mock, to, ku-sunga.

Moderation, karakava.
Modesty, haya.
Monkey [the common monkey],
mondovu ; [the black-faced
monkey], ngima ; [the collobus
monkey], mbega.
Month, mwezi.
Jinon, mwezi ; [the new moon],
mwezi kongo ; [the first ten
days], ikumi lya hambiri ;
[the second ten days], ikumi lya
'gati ; [the last ten days], ikumi
lya kizimu.
More, sena.
More, to add, ku-juzila.
Moreover, sena.
Morning, ikesho ; [early morn
ing], makeo.
Morrow, ikesho.
Morsel, kakindi, itongi.
Mortar, kituli.
Mosquito, nvai.
rMother, mawe [lit. my motlocr] ;
meo, your mother ; mee,
his mother; mee yetu, our
mother ; mee yenu, your
mother; mee yawe, their
mother ; [step-mother], mama ;
[mother-in-laiv], mkekulu.
Mould, to [to become mouldy],
ku-huhua.
Mound, kigemo.
Mount, to, ku-joka.
Mountain, lugongo.
Mourn, to, ku-lila.
Mourning, kililo.
Mouse, mbanya.
Mouth, mlomo.
Move, to, ku-sugusa, T. V. ;
ku-suguta, /. V. ; [to shake],
ku-nyavura ; [to change the
place of dwelling], ku-saina.
Mpalldh, nausi.
Much, -ingi.
Mucus, mafuri.
Mud, mabodo.

VOCABULARY.
Multitude, makwogano.
Murder, to, ku-ulaga.
Murderer, mulagi.
Murmur, to, ku-guna.
Muscle, hasi.
Mushroom, choo, voo.
Music, ngoma.
^Musical instruments, ngoma,
drum; gunda, a large kudu
horn; uderero, a small horn
used in fighting; Bguli, a
small reed whistle ; mbewewe,
a stringed instrument.
Must, hatta, sutti, shuti.
Mutilate, to, ku-tematema.
My, -angu.
Myself, imi mwen.
N
Nail [wooden pegs for stretching
skins on the ground], iambo ;
[finger-nail], lwala.
Naked, tuu.
Nakedness, utuu.
Name, izina.
Name, to, ku-ita, ku-hawa izi
na ; [to give names in a play
ful manner], ku-daria ; [what
is your name ?], unaitoani ?
Narrow, -stise.
Narrowness, ususe.
Nasty, to be [to be bitter], ku-bia,
ku-harara.
^Nation, mbari.
^Native, mdu wa isanga.
Navel, mkuvu.
Near, avui.
Necessaries, vindu vifwen.
Neck, singo.
Need, to, ku-shaia, ku-hada.
Needs, mahadi.
Needle, sinzano.
Neglect, to, kwsiga [lit. to leave] ;
ku-lega [lit. to refuse].
^ Neighbour, mbetu [lit. our neigh
bour] ; mbeuu, [lit. your neigh

107

bour] ; mbawe [lit. their neigh


bour].
Neither, hatta [lit. no and nor].
Nest [bird's nest], nyumba ya
nyonyi.
Never, hatta kale na kale.
Nevertheless, ela, ela ima.
New, -ishi ; with nouns of the
third class, mbishi.
News, uvoro, ilago.
Next, -a kaili.
Nibble, to, ku-kakaha, ku-hatsa.
Nice, -loli.
Nicely, kirani.
Niche, ngoru.
'Nickname, izina lya sare ; almost
every man has two names, one
given to him at his birth, the
other given to agree with some
peculiarity of his, thus :kilagai, a man who was once
lost, from ku-lagaia, to be
lost.
Nickname, to, ku-daria.
Nigh, avui.
Night, kiro ; [all night], kiro
che ; [last night], ihwaiu.
Nimble, to be, ku-karagara.
*Nine, ikenda.
'Nineteen, ikumi na kenda.
'Nineteenth, ikumi na kakenda.
^Ninety, mirongo kenda.
Nip, to, ku-tungula.
Nipple, iwele.
No, hatta, ii, haiya, mbai, nikutuu. This last word is only
used in amnection with the
words andu kungi . . . :
andu kungi nashaia ? nikutuu,
should I at all like ? no.
Nobody [there is nobody], sikwsi
mdungi.
Nod, to, ku-tumingila.
Noise, chelele ; [of voices], lwaka.

108

VOCABULARY.

Noise, to make, ku-dea chelele ;


shaia [lit. to like] ; ku-ruma[to shout], ku-kema ; [to make
gia [lit. to assent].
Object to, to, ku-lega, ku-ima [lit.
an uproar], ku-oda.
to refuse].
Nonsense, uduu.
Noon, msenya 'gati, ijua oho- Observe, to, ku-lola.
Obstinacy, uana.
ngoni.
Obtain, to, ku-pata, ku-dea.
NooseOccupation, kazi, shuli , undu.
Nor, hattaT
Occupied, to be, ku-kalla na
Nose, mbula.
undu.
Nostril, mrumo 'gwa mbula.
Not, si-, su- and sa-, prefixed to Of, -a, with the variable prefix
[see Grammar],
verbs. See negative tenses of
Offence, ikosa.
verbs.
Offend, to, ku-asila, ku-kumba
Not yet, ku-kaili.
hari.
Nothing, si kindu ; [for nothing],
ya banana ; [there is nothing], Offender, mkosi.
,. oa. Lukunga Iwauya oa [lit. Offer, to, ku-funya [lit. to bring
out. Koo is said when a thing
the war-ery hasbecomenothing],
is held out to be received.
i. e. a false alarm.
Nothing whatever, si kindu chi- Offering, sadaka.
ngi ; [there is nothing what Offspring, kivali.
Often, kingi ; [very often], majua
ever], sikwesi kindu chingi.
'gose.
Nourish, to, ku-lisha.
Now [directly], ilyen, short for Oh ! [int.], kila, na mbee, mai.
ilyli lyen, ndam, ndakwen ; Old, -a kale.
[to-day], lelo kwen ; [these fOld, to become [of a man], ku'gosia ; [of a woman], ku-kedays], a'ga matuku, aga makula.
geri ; [those days], 'galya ma
Old
man, m'gosi.
tuku ; [at this time]. ii ngelo ;
Old woman, mkekulu.
[our days], mandu 'getu.
Number, to, kusabu ; [how .Omen, the ery of a certain bird
many f] -linga ; with nouns of
in front of travellers is con
sidered a bad omen ; it is called
the third class, ndinga.
ku-kwito n'nyonyi [lit. to be
Number, to, ku-tala, ku-wata
struck by a bird]. To meet a
sabu.
man when starting on a
Numerous, to be, ku-era.
journey is a bad omen ; it is
Nurse, mlezi.
called ku-kwita mzana.
Nurse, to, ku-lela, ku-lisha.
Omit, to, ku-siga.
On, na lugulu, the case in -ni ;
0
[on the top of the table], mezaOa%k, m'guli, abas.
ni na lugulu ; [on both sides],
igasizose mbili ; [on all sides],
Oath, to take an, ku-gema, kuigasi zose ; [on foot], na magunwa m'guli.
Obey, to, ku-sikila [lit. to hear] ;
lu, kwamagulu ; [on purpose],
kwa kasidi, Mali.
ku-tumikila [lit. to serve] ; ku-

VOCABULABY.
Once, kamojori, kamoju ; [at
mm], ilyen ilyi, ndakwen.
One, moju, mosi ; [only one],
mojori ; [one-eyed], chongo,
kifondo.
Oneness, juku.
Only, tu ; [only this], hung' tu ;
[only a very little], tutu ; [that
is alt], nao bas ; [alone], weke,
king'weri.
Cpen, to, ku-fundula [lit. to
uncover] ; ku-funda, to be
uncovered] ; [to open a door],
ku-rugura, T. V. ; ku-ruguka,
/. V. ; [to unfasten], ku-fungula ; [to open one's eyes or
.mouth], ku-tambula, T. V. ;
ku-tambuka, I. V. ; [to make
wide], ku-shabusha, T. V. ;
ku-shabuka, /. V.
Open, to be, ku-kalla mwazi.
^Open space, kianzi, generally at.
the entrance to a village ; mwala, a cleared space for danc
ing.
Oppose, to, kn-ingila 'gati, ku-simana, ku-tetela.
Opposite, chambuko.
Oppress, to, ku-onela, ku-tirira.
Oppression, utiriri.
Oppressor, mtii'iri.
Or, ango.
Orange, ichungu.
Ordeal, m'guli.
Order, to [to command], ku-gamba, ku-gora , ku-uza ; [to put
in order], ku-ika kirani, kuboesa.
,. Origin, hambiri kwake, kutlyoa
kwake.
Ornament, tandara.
Orphan, mkiwa.
Oryx, tamahi.
Ostrich, nya'ga.
Other, zima.
^Others, wamoju.
Ought, ku-f\veni [lit. to bcJiove

109

one] ; yanifweni ku-genda, it


behoves me to go, i. e. / ought
tt> go ; baha [lit. better] [see
Grammar].
Our, -etu.
Out, shigati.
Out, to come, ku-fuma.
Outlet, andu ku-fuma, ilanga.
Outside, shigati.
Over, lugulu.
Over, to be [to remain over], kuhangalika ; [to be finished],
ku-dua, ku-sila ; [to surpass],
ku-isa.
Overcome, to, ku-sima.
Overflow, to, ku-tika.
Overhead, igulu.
Overjoy, to, ku-bwelo na ndigi.
Overturn, to, ku-galula, T. V. ;
ku-galuka, I. V.
Overwhelm, to, ku-sima.
Owe, to, ku-leilo [lit. to be
dunned] ; ku-kalla mdeni, to
be a debtor.
Own, -angu mwen, -ako umwen,
etc.
Owner, mwenyi, tatie.
Ox, ng'ombe.
Pace, kigendo.
Pack up, to, ku-funga.
Pad for the head, ngata.
Padding [something soft to light
upon], kisasaka.
Padlock, kufuli.
Pain, kuluma.
Pain, to, ku-luma, ku-harisa,
ku-shaha ; [my head aches],
nilyigo n'chongo ; [to feel
pain], ku-sikila kuluma.
.Paint, rangi ; [red ochre], ilongo.
Paint, to, ku-vila rangi ; with
red ochre, ku-kwila ilongo.
Palm [cocoa-nut tree], mnyanzigi ; [mkindu], nibale.

110

VOCABULARY.

Palm of the hand, lui.


Perhaps, ngera, ngazo, used as
Pant, to, ku-sonda.
follows: kadea ngazo uona,
Pap [the nipple], titi.

perhaps you will see.


Papaw, papai.
Peril, asara.
Period
[a long period], luma ; [n
Paper, karatasi.
Parable, ikatanisho.
short period], kafwani.
Pardon, ku-sigo.
Perish, to, ku-haita ; cause to,
Pardon, to, ku-siga [lit. to let
ku-haitisha.
alone].
Permit, to, ku-shaia, ku-rumaPare, to [of sugar-cane], ku-segia.
ma.
Perplex, to, ku-kambisa chongo,
Part, fungu.
T. V. ; ku-kamba chongo,
Part, to, ku-taganya, T. V. ; ku/. V. ; ku-laha, I. V. ; ku-latagana, I. V.
hisa, T. V.
Pass, ngila, ilanga.
Persecute, to, ku-gusa, ku-fukuPass, to, ku-isa, T. V. ; ku-ita,
za, ku-hutsa.
I.V.; over, ku-anibuka ; Persevere, to, ku-lwana [lit. to
over a fault, ku-siga ;
fight].
through, ku-tsira ; [to make rPerson, mundu ; [such a person],
one's way through grass or
ng'anya, mwaita.
bush], ku-vula, ku-vunja mba- Perspiration, irugudia.
le.
Perspire, to, ku-rugudia.
Patch, mrafu [lit. a rag], nda- Persuade, to, ku-hawa gore, kumi.
funda [lit. to teach].
Path, ngila ; [a newly trodden Pestilence, mtutumo.
path], mvori.
Pestle, musi.
Patient, to be, ku-rumagia.
Phlegm, ikolola.
Pause, to, ku-chagia.
Pice, ipesa.
Pay, to, ku-shana, ku-riha, ku- Pick, to [to choose], ku-sagula ;
[to gather beans, peas, etc.],
lipa ; for an injury, ku-taku-aha, ku-rura ; [to pick up],
hisa.
*Pea [mummy pea], shugu.
ku-shoa.
Peace, sere.
Picture, sura, ifwani.
Piece, lwandi, kindi, kikundi ;
Peace, to make, ku-shana.
Peak, dumu.
[a short piece of stick of any
Peck, to, ku-dona.
kind], kikore.
Peel, to, sugar-cane, ku-sema ; Pierce, to, ku-pola.
bananas, peas, etc., ku-oa ; Pig, ngulue.
bark off trees, ku-konola, i Pigeon, iringo lya maomu.
T. V. ; ku-konoka, I. V.
Pile, kitungu [see heap].
Peep, to, ku-sungulila.
Pile, to, ku-kwezanya [lit. to put
Peg out a skin, to, ku-amba.
on the top of each other].
Pegs, mambo.
Pinch, to, ku-tungula.
Penis, gudi.
Pine-apple, inanasi.
Pip, ndanga.
People, wandu.
Pepper [native], pilipili.
Pipe [tobacco-pipe], tcza.
Perceive, to, ku-ona, ku-manya. I Pistol, bastola.

VOCABULARY.

Ill

Pit, kina.
Poison [arrow poison], usungu.
Pity, ishima.
Pole, mwiti.
Pity, to, ku-fwila waya, ku-fwila Polish, to, ku-hotsa.
Pond, izia, ndiwa.
ugoma.
Place, andu ; [in such a place], Ponder, to, ku-gelela, ku-irikaiteni.
nya, ku-erekeza.
Place, to, ku-ika.
Poor, mkiwa.
Porcupine, tasa.
Plague, ukongo.
Plague, to, ku-gama.
.Porridge, mswara.
^Plain [the plains], kireti ; [a Porter caravan, mchukuzi.
flat piece of ground], kiri- Possess, to [to have], ku-kalla
' na; [to possess cattle], ku-fuga.
ndi.
Plait, to, ku-luka.
Possessions, mali.
Possessor, mwenyi, mwen, tatie.
Plan, njama.
Plan, to, ku-dea njama.
Post, nguzo.
Plank, mgogo.
Postpone, to, ku-dilisa, T. V. ;
ku-dila, /. V.
Plant, mwiti.
Pot cooking, nyungu.
Plant, to, ku-tiba.
Potato, sweet, ikaji.
-Plantation, banana, ipare.
Potter, mumbi nyungu.
Plaster, Uganda.
.Pound, to, Indian corn, ku-onda,
Plaster, to, ku-kanda.
ku-bunda ; sugar-cane, kuPlate, kihoro.
ula ; [to bruise with stones],
Play, to, ku-haka ; [to play an
ku-shana.
instrument], ku-kwita gunda,
etc. ; ku-teteza, ku-bang'isa, Pour, to, in, ku-sukila ; out,
ku-kupula, ku-tila, ku-buku-bang'a.
dula.
Plead for, to, ku-lombelsPlease, to, ku-bwelela, ku-seke- Poverty, ukiwa.
sa ; [as you please], andu Powder, unga ; [gunpowder], baruti.
ushaia umwen.
Power, ndigi.
Pleased, to be, ku-bwelo.
, 'Practise to, with a bow and
Pleasure, ku-bwelo.
arrow, ku-bola.
Pledge, mfungo.
Praise, nguma [lit. fame].
Pledge, to, ku-ika mfungo.
Praise, to, ku-lika, ku-kasa.
Plenty, -ingi.
Plenty, to be [to be numerous], Prate, to, ku-dongocha, ku-dongoda, ku-dongola.
ku-era.
Pluck, to, afowl, ku-kushua ; [to 'Pray, to, ku-lomba, ku-voia.
pull up], ku-kula a flower, ^Prayer, kulomba.
.J'reach, to, ku-gora, ku-chila.
ku-aha.
Precious, kima kibwaa.
Plucked up, to be, ku-kuka.
Precipice, ivongo, i'gamba.
Plug, to, ku-zisa.
Prefer, to, ku-shaia.
Plunder, to, ku-ruka.
Pregnant, to be, ku-kalla na
Pocket, kikuchu [see bag].
k'ifu.
Point, mutu.
Point, to, u;ith the finger, ku- Prepare, to ku-ika kirani, kukalla kirani.
lota.

112

VOCABULARY.

Present, inosi.
Present, to, ku-nosa, ku-hawa ;
[to be present], ku-kalla aha.
Press, to, ku-sindilila, ku-tsira.
Pretence, 'dali.
Prevent, to, ku-ima.
Prey, madiwo ; [birds of prey],
mowe, kite; lwigi, a small
swift kite; mang'olo, a large
black raven ; sangangoju,
eagle.
Pricker, huruma.
Pride, ung'eti.
Prison, kifungo.
Prisoner, mfungo.
Privy, sakeni.
Proceed, to, ku-genda ; [go on /],
ndoko ! haya cho ! [come on /],
inde !
Proclaim, to, ku-gorera, ku-chila.
i Proclamation, gore, mlomo, ila-

gProcurable, to be, ku-deika, kupatikana.


Produce for, to, ku-deila, kupatila.
Profit, mbambara.
Profit, to, ku-dea mbambara.
Prohibit, to, ku-rigida.
Promise, ilagano.
Promise, to, ku-laga.
Prop, sagi.
Prop up, to, ku-figika ; [to lean
upon], ku tsinila.
Proper, karakara, kirani.
Property, mail.
^Prophesy, to, ku-lagula [lit. to
divine],
'Prophet, mlaguli [lit. a diviner].
Prosper, to, ku-dea mlungu \valoli.
Protect, to, ku-liuda, ku-manya,
ku-kinga.
Pnotection, ulindiri.
Protector, mlindiri.
Proud, to be, ku-ug'eta.

Prove, to, ku-tima.


Provide, to [to put away], kuika.
Provisions, [food for a journeyJ,
leu ; [food in general], chakulya ; [grain], viro.
Provoke, to, ku-kumba hari, kuama.
Pull, to, ku-ruta ; down or
house, ku-fuchula ; [house
pulled down], ku-fuchuka.
Pull up, to, ku-kula.
Pulled up, to be, ku-kuka.
Pulp of a calabash, ihado.
Pumpkin [the plant], mrengi ;
[fruit], irengi ; [shell used to
carry liquids in], kishori, kazama, iholoshi.
Punish, to, ku-tirira.
Punishment, utriri.
Purchase, to, ku-gula.
Purchaser, roguli.
Purgative, uganga 'gwa kufwaha.
Purge, to, ku-fwahisa.
Purify, to, ku-elesa.
Purpose, kasidi, 'dali.
Purse, kikuehu.
Pursue, to [to follow], ku-irima ;
[to hunt], ku-diwa ; [to seek
after], ku-hada,
Pus, utilo.
Push, to, ku-sindika.^
Put, to an end, to, ku-duisa ;
a pot on the fire, ku-jigisa ;
away, ku-ika ; down, kutula ; forth leaves, ku-rua,
ku-rurura ; in, ku-ingiza ;
in order, ku-ika kirani ;
off, ku-dilisa, T. V. ; ku-dila,
I. V, ; on clothes, ku-rwara ; on a turban, ku-riga
kilemba ; out, ku-funya ;
out afire, ku-zimisha ;
- out cattle to keep, ku-tura ;
ready for use, ku-ika kirani ;
right, ku-boesa ; straight,

113

VOCABULARY.

ku-golola ; to flight, ku- Rations, posho, leu.


Raw, -ishi ; makes mbishi with
kimbilisa, ku-dudugisa.
nouns of the third class.
Python, satu.
Ray, mlengezi.
Razor, kiharo.
Reach, to, ku-fika, ku-buna ;
Quail, kwale.
Quake, to, ku-suka.
cause, to, ku-fisa.
Quarrel, to, ku-rashana, ku- Read, to, ku-shoma.
kwerana, ku-omana.
Ready, to be, ku-kalla kirani.
'Reap, to, Indian com ku-kwaQuench, to, ku-zimisha.
Question, kukota.
sha ; millet, ku-kwita ; beans,
Quickly, shwoshwo, kaf\vani ;
ku-aha ; peas, ku-rura.
[run quickly], kimbila ua Rear, to, ku-lela.
Reason, kwa kimuni [see cause].
Quiet, to be, ku-nyamala ; [to be Reason, to, ku-erekeza.
very quiet], ku-nyama!a chwi. Rebel, to, ku-lega kusikila [lit.
Quieten, to, ku-nyamalisha.
to refuse to obey].
Quietly, mbole.
Rebuke, to, ku-kanya, ku-raslia.
Quite, kamarc, -ose, putu.
Recant, to, ku-kana.
Receive, to, ku-usa.
R
Reckon, to, ku-tala, ku-wata
Race, to, ku-isana [lit. to strive],
sabu.
* Rafter, ihalo.
Recline, to, ku-naraga.
ling, irasi, mrafu ; [a worn-out Recognize, to, ku-tambula.
piece], kidemo.
Recollect, to, ku-kumbuka, ku, Bain, mvula ; the greater rains
manya.
are called mvula ya ishika ; Reconcile, to, ku-patanisba, kuthey last from the middle of
shanisha.
March to the middle of May. Reconciled, to become, ku-pat.iThe lesser rains are called
na, ku-sikilaua, ku-shana.
mvula ya vuli ; tliey lad from Recover, to, ku-boa.
the middle of October to the Red, nguudu ; anything in
middle of December.
clined to be red is called
* Rain, to, ku-nyesa mvula, T. V. ;
mkisu.
ku-nya mvula, i". V. ; [it tiied, to be, ku-kisua.
rains], mvilla .yanya ; [it has Redeem, to, ku-kombolu.
stopped raining], mvula ya- Redeemer, mkomboli.
Redemption, ukomboli.
ela.
Rainbow, ndana ya mvula.
Reduce, to, ku-erecha, ku-puuguRaise, to, ku-unula, ku-josa ;
za, ku-uja nyuma.
Reed [cane], mrangi.
from the dead, ku-zusha.
fRam [a male sheep], auru.
Reed-buck, ndoli.
Ramble, to, ku-selasela.
Reflect, to [to think], ku-irik:i
Rash, to be, ku-bile [lit. to be
liya, ku-erekeza.
fierce].
Refuge, makimbililo.
Rat, mbanya.
Refund, to, ku-galisha, kuRather [better], baha.
ujisa.
H

114

VOCABULARY.

Refuse, to, ku-legela, T. V. ; kulega, J. V.


Regret, to, ku-harisa ngolo [lit.
the heart to pain], ku-riha.
Reject, to, ku-taga [lit. to throw
Rejoice, to, ku-bwelela, T. V.;
ku-bwela, /. V.
Relations [relatives], wa mzetu^
etc.
"
Release, to, ku-fungula, kusiga.
Relish, to, ku-singilo.
Rely upon, to, ku-lolila.
Remain, to, ku-kalla, ku-tula ;
[to be left over], ku-hangalika ;
awake, ku-lala meso, kulavile [see to lie].
Remainder, a'ga 'gahangalika
[lit. those that are left].
Reine-mber, to, ku-kumbuka, kumauya.
Remind, to, ku-kumbusha, kumanyisa.
Remission, kusigo.
Remit, to [to pardon], ku-siga
[lit. to leave alone].
Remove, to, ku-ukisa, T. V. ; kuuka, I. V.
Rend, to, ku-rashura, T. V. ; kurashuka, /. V.
Renounce, to, ku-kana, ku-siga.
Repair, to, ku-boesa.
Repay, to [to take revenge], kulwana sili.
Repeat, to, ku-dea kaili.
Repent, to, ku-riha.
Reply, to, ku-ujisila ; [to answer
when called], ku-tika.
Reproach, to, ku-tetela [lit. to
scold].
Repulse, to, ku-gusa.
Requests, maha.li.
Rescue, to, ku-vuvula, ku-kiza.
Resemble, to, ku-fwanana, kukalla karakara.
Resent, to, ku-asilo, ku-dea hari.

Resist, to, ku-ima [lit. toprevent].


Resolve, to, ku-pasa ujama [lit.
to come to a conclusion].
Respect, to, ku-koga [lit. to fear].
Rest, to, ku-zumua ; [to breathe],
ku-tsarusa.
Resting-place, kizumuo, audu
kwa kuzumua.
Restore, to, ku-uja, ku-ujisa,
ku-galisha.
Restrain, to, ku-ima, ku-hasisa.
Resurrection, ku-zuka.
Retain, to, ku-hasisa, ku-wata,
ku-manzira.
Return, to, ku-ujisa, T. V. ; kuuja, T. V. ; ku-uya, I. V. ; kugalisha, T. V. ; ku-gala, /. V.
Reveal, to, ku-onya.
Revenge, ku-lwanila sili.
Reverence, ishima.
Reverence, to, ku-koga.
Revive, to, ku-ujisa moyo, T. V. ;
ku-uja moyo, /. V.
Revolt, to [to be disgusted], kuasilo.
Revolve, to, ku-marisa, T. V.
ku-mara, I. V.
Reward, to, ku-nosaua [lit. to
give to each other], ku-hawa
[lit. to give].
Rhinoceros, mbela.
Rib, lwaro.
Rice, mpunga.
Rich man, mzuri.
Riches, mali.
Ridicule, to, ku-sekela, kuzuha.
Right, hachi, fulo.
Right hand, mkono 'gwa kiju,
mkono 'gwa kilume.
Righteousness, hachi.
Rind, iganda.
Ring, tele, ngome.
Ring a bell, to, ku-kwita, kizomanzi.
Ringear, kipuli.
Ripe, to become, ku-irwa.

VOCABULARY.

115

dudugisa ; down a steep


Ripen, to, ku-invisha.
place, ku-doromoka.
Rise, to, ku-uka ; cause to,
ku-ukisa ; from the dead, Rust, ihub.ua.
ku-zuka ; [to ascend], ku-joka ; Rust, to, ku-huhua.
[to stand], ku-kalla kimusi ;
of the sun, ku-cha ; ijua lyaS
chega, the sun rises ; ku-fuma,
ijua lyafuma, the sun rises; Sack, wararo [see bag].
nachelo, the sun rose upon me. i ^Sacrifice, sadaka.
Saerifice, to, ku-dea sadaka.
Risk, to, ku-tima.
Sadness, uharari 'gwa ngnlo [lit.
River, mweta.
River-sand, msanzagala.
the bitterness of the heart].
Safe, maana, banana, more
Road, ngila.
Sake [for this cause], kwa hung'.
Roar, to, ku-ruma.
Roast, to, ku-oeha.
kwani ; [kwa uyu], for him.
Saliva,, mate.
.'Rob, to, ku-soka, ku-ambula.
Salt, munyu ; [native salt], ki'Robber, kiting'a.
sherere.
'Robbery, uting'a.
Salutation, kurogoa.
Rock, iwe.
The meeting salutation is as
Rod, ndata, msenge.
follows :
Roll, to, ku-bingilisha, T. V. ;
ku-bingilika, /. V.
(A) Voro!
(b) Voro ! Mzima t
Roof, kijungulila.
(a) Mzima.
Room, nyumba ; [place], andu ;
(b) Ndo vidzo !
[space], andu kutuu.
(a) Simanya uwe.
Root, mriginga; ofsugar-cane,
(b) A ! nami ni mzima.
shina.
Root, to take, ku-palala.
(a) Ndo vidzo.
Root up, to, ku-kula.
Then they begin to ask the
Rope, lugoi, ngoi, gunga.
news.
With women it is
Rot, to, ku-olesa, T. V. ; ku-ola,
usual to ask them if they are
doing what they happen to be
/. V.
Roughness, ignrufu.
doing at the time.
Round, mviringa.
Parting salutations :
(a) Nagala ndam kalle ma
Round, to, ku-viringisha, ku-dea
ana, or banana.
mviringa.
(b) Aya ! nawe gale banana.
Rouse, to, ku-ukisa.
Salute, to, ku-rogoa, ku-Iamusa.
Row [a line], rnraba, ilongo.
Row, to make, ku-zuhana, ku- Salvation, ku-okoka.
Same, -o -en [lit. that is it].
odana.
Sand, msanzagala.
Rub, to, ku-hotsa.
Sandal, kilatu.
Rubbish, majala.
Ruffle, to, ku-dudula [?].
Sap, meji, mazia, bigati.
Satan, shetani.
Ruin, to, ku-haitisa.
Satisfy, to, ku-katisa, T. V. ;
Ruined, to be, ku-haita.
ku-kata, I. V. ; with food,
Run, to, ku-kimbila, ku-duduga ;
cause to, ku-kimbilisa, kuku-gutisa ; [to give pleasure],

11C

VOCABULARY.

ku-bwela ; [to be satisfied], kuguta ; [to satiate], ku-kojesa,


T. V. ; ku-koja, /. V. [lit. to
tire one].
Sauce, mboga.
Sauce-pan, nyungu.
Save, to, ku-okola, ku-kiza.
Suval, to be, ku-okoka, ku-kila. ,
Saviour, mwokoli, mkizi.
Savoury, to be, ku-ninga ; to
make, ku-singiza.
Saw, lnsumeno.
Saw, to, ku-pasa na msnmeno.
Say, to, ku-gora, ku-gamba, kuuza.
Scald, to, ku-isha na meji, T. V. ;
ku-ia 11a meji, /. V.
Scare, to, ku-guna, ku-kumba
oga, ku-kema.
Scatter, to, ku-sagL, T. V. ;
ku-naga, I. V. ; seed, kufitsa.
Scent, mruki.
Scent, to, ku-kwita mruki.
School, msikiti, kushomeni [lit.
the place of learning].
Scold, to, ku-tetela, ku-iasha.
Scorch, to, by fire, ku-lungusha,
T. V. ; ku-lungula, I. V.
Score [20], koruja.
Scorn, to, ku-menya [lit. to
hate].
Scorpion, kishushe.
Scour, to, ku-hotsa.
Seraps, vicbache vichacbe.
Seratch, to, ku-kuua ; like a
hen, ku-fukula ; [to bruise],
ku-shogonola, T. V. ; ku-shogouoka, /. V.
Seream [a ery for help], lukunga.
Seream, to, ku-kema.
Sereen, the wattle and daub sereen
inside a native hut is called
ukindo.
Serofulous and gangrenous sores,
matana, mwiti.

Serub, to, ku-hotsa.


Scuffle, to, ku-watana.
Scum, ifulo.
Sea, bahari.
Search, to, ku-hada ; with a
light, ku-limika.
Season, ituku.
Seasons, the proper seasons are
Ishika, equal to our March,
April, and May ; the greater
rainy season. Kwalazi, June,
July, August, and September ;
the cold season, with little or
no rain. Vuli, October, No
vember, and December; the
lesser rainy season. Kaskazi,
January and February, the hot
and dry season. June and
July is called Mtsuo. The
coldest months are June and
July. The Iwttest months are
January and February.
See, to, ku-cma ; [to catch a
glimpse of], ku-pesa.
Seed, mbeyu, ndanga, ndembe.
Seel; to, ku-hada ; --for, kuhadila.
Seem, to, ku-oneka.
Seize, to, ku-wata.
Seldom [to be seldom seen], kuoneka nzani,
Self, -en.
Selfish, to be, ku-kushaia mwen
[lit. to love oneself].
Sell, to, ku-taga.
Send, to, ku-tuma, ku-gensa ;
to a person, ku-gensela ;
away, ku-gusa ; back, kugalisha, ku-ujisa, ku-uja.
Sense, suku [?].
Separate, to, ku-ika mbale, kufunya nibale ; [to distinguinh],
ku-tambula ; [to leave one onother], ku-tagana ; [to separate
people when fighting], ku-ta'ganya.
Serpent, nyoka.

VOCABULARY.

IV,

Servant, mtumishi.
Shelter, to, ku-kinga.
Serve, to, ku-tumika.
Shelter, to take, ku-duha.
Service, utumishi, utumiki.
.Shepherd, mlisa.
Set, ku-ika ; a trap, ku-tega ; Shield, ngao.
[of the sun], ku-swa, ijua lya- Shield, to, ku-kinga.
swa, [the sun is set] ; raswelo, Shin, iwindi.
the sun is set upon me ; in Shine, to, ku-ng'ala ; to ciiise
order, ku-ika kiiani; onfire,
to, ku-ng'arisa.
ku-kumba moto ; to fight, Ship, merikebu.
ku-lwanisha ; open a door, Shirt, kanzu.
ku-ika mwazi ; set up, ku-ika Shiver, to, ku-sukasuka.
kimusi.
Shivering, msuko.
Settle an affair, to, ku-pasa ma- Shock, to, ku-tunusa.
teto, ku-pasamlandu ;down, Shocked, to be, ku-tunuka.
ku-tsaraa.
Shoot a gun, to, ku-kwita ; [with
. - bmo awl arrow], ku-kumba.
^Seven, mfungate.
m Seventeen, ikumi na mfungate. Shop, iduka.
^Seventy, mirongo mfungate.
Short, -vui.
Short, to fall, ku-chuka, mbua
Severe, to be, ku-kula.
yachukile, there is not enough
Sew, to, ku-tlyaia.
[seed] for the garden.
Shade, kiju, mvuru.
Shorten, to, ku-erecha, ku-hingiShade, to, ku-kinga.
Shadow, kirenderende.
lisa, ku-pasa.
Shake, to, ku-sukasuka, ku-nya- Shortly, ndakwen.
vurisha, T. V. ; ku-nyavura, Should, mangu, macha [see aux
iliary verbs].
I. V.
Shoulder, iwega.
Shall, -je- [see Grammar].
Shout, to, ku-pang'a [lit. to call
Shame, haya.
Shame, to, ku-fusha haya.
loudly for one], ku-oda, kuShape, ombo.
kema.
Shape, to, ku-umba.
Show, to, ku-onyeza, ku-onya ;
Share, fungu, a thing which
light, ku-langaza.
belongs to more than one Shower, mshushuvi, mrundi.
person is called -a ngaio.
Shrcwd man, mlaehu.
Share, to, ku-sara, ku-sarisa.
Shrewdness, ulachu.
Shriek, to, ku-kema.
Sharp, to be, ku-kala.
Shrivel, to, ku-nyaza, T. V. '.
Sharpen, to, ku-nola.
ku-nyala, /. V.
Sharjmess, ukali.
Shave, to, ku-hara.
Shrub, kanaka.
She, iye [see Grammar].
Shut, to, ku-rugara, ku-funga.
^ Sheath, joa, the strips of wood Sick, to be, ku-kalla mkongo.
under the leather, mwiyo.
Sick, to be very, ku-lwala.
Sickness, ukongo.
Shed, kianda.
Shed leaves, to, ku-andula, T. V. ; Side [the sides], mbalembale ;
[this side], igasi kunu ; [the
ku-anduka, I. V.
other side], ehambuko ; [to
Sheep, ng'onzi.
place side by side], ku-ikany;i.
Shelter, pango.

118

VOCABULARY.

Sigh, to, ku-sonda, ku-kula Sky, mluuguni [lit. to or with


mruki.
God].
Sight, kuona.
Slander, sheshe.
Sign, alama.
Slander, to, ku-kumba sheshe,
Silence, to, ku-nyamalisha.
ku-zigirira, ku-lagalaga.
Silent, to be, ku-nyamala.
Slanderer, msheshe.
Silliness, upambafu, uduu.
Slap, to, ku-chafa, ku-disa, kuSilver, feza.
kwita.
Simpleton, mdu wa duu, mpa- Slash, to, ku-tema.
Maughter, to [to kill by cutting
mbafu.
Sin, kaung'a, makosa.
^ the throat], ku-shinja; [to kill],
Sin, to, kudea kaung'a, ku-kosa.
ku-ulaga.
Since, fuma, haugu.
Slave, msunyi.
Sing, to, ku-imba.
. Slay in battle, to, ku-ulaga
. Single man [unmarried man],
mboi.
mgaro ; [Uie house of a single Sleep, haring'a.
man], garo.
Sleep, to, ku-lala, ku-tungura ;
. Single woman, mchana.
cause, to, ku-lalisha, ku-tungurisha ; [to doze], ku-tumiSink, to, ku-zamisha, T. V. \
ku-zama, /. V. ; ku-malisa,
ngila.
Sleeping-place, ulalo.
T. V. ; ku-malika, I. V.
Sinner, mkaung'a, mkosi.
Slender, -suse.
Sip, to [to taste], ku-toa.
Slip, to, ku-sharadia ; [to slip
Sister, mwana wa mawe [lit. a
down a steep place], ku-dorochild of my mother] ; wokwemoka ; [out of one's hand]; kutu wa wake, our sister ; wo
fitsika.
kwenu, yours ; wokwawe, Slip-knot, shagala.
theirs.
Slit, to, ku-zaia, ku-rashura.
Sit, to, ku-kalla kitembo ; [of a Sloth, ugadi.
Slowly, mbolembole.
hen], ku-lalila.
*.Six, tandatu.
Small [thin], -suse ; [little], -cha"Sixteen, ikumi na tandatu.
che.
Sixth, katandatu.
Smallness, ususe, uchaohe.
Small-pox, mwadocha, kero.
- Sixty, mirongo mitandatu.
Smart, to, ku-shaha, ku-harisa.
Size, ubwaa, kimo.
Smear, to, ku-vila.
Skill, uya.
Smell, to, ku-nusa, T. V. ; kuSkim, to, ku-agila.
nuka, /. V. ; [a bad smell], ku Skin, mrongo, ngingo ; [a skin
nunga, nanungilo [lit. it is
to sleep on], kishelo ; [a skin
smelt by me] ; nasikila kuuuused as a sleeping mat wlum on
a journey], njarul>a.
ka, / perceive a smell.
Skin, to, ku-shinja.
Smelt, to, ku-teleka.
Skirt, irinda.
'Smith, black, mshana.
. Skull, the heads of dead people Smoke, mosi.
are dug up after decomposition Smoke, to, ku-fukiza, T. V. ; kuand placed in caves ; in tJiat
fuka, /. V. ; [to smoke tobacco],
slate they are called ngoma
ku-puta kimbako.

VOCABULARY.

Smooth, to be, ku-tendera.


Smoothe, to, ku-shalaza, ku-tendereza.
Snake, nyoka ; satu, python ;
are, cobra [?] ; kilimo mbimbi,
a long black snake.
Snare, mtego.
Snare, to, ku-tega.
Sneeze, to, ku-tisha.
Snore, to, ku-gona.
Snuff, kimhako.
Snuff-box, kiko cha kimbako.
So, hung', hung' kwen, -en may
be used with its appropriate
prefix ; ko kwen, just so.
Soak, to, ku-rwika.
Soap, sabuni.
Soft, to be, ku-hanyua.
Soften, to, ku-hanyuisa.
Soil, msanga.
Soil, to, ku-luisa.
^Soldier, askari ; the young
warriors are called bonjo.
Sole [of the foot], lwaio.
Solitude, weke.
Solve, to, ku-tambula, ku-ika
mwazi.
fSomeothers, wamojuwamoju ; [some one else's], -a mundu.
^Somebody, mundu.
Sometimes, ijua moju [lit. one
day].
*Son, mwana walume.
Song, lumbo.
Soon, kafwani, ndakwSn.
Soot, makala 'ga mosi.
Soothe, to, ku-tsarusa, ku-ngolangola.
Sore, kilonda.
Sorrow, vilambo, buga, kililo.
Sorry, "to be, ku-riha, ngolo kulila, ngolo ku-harisa.
m*Soul, roho.
Sound, Iwaka.
Soundness, banana, maana.
^
Sour, to be, ku-bia.

119

Source, andu kufuma [lit. a place


to come from].
Sow, to, ku-anda.
Space, andu kutuu [lit. an empty
place].
Span, ilamba.
Spark, isese.
Sparkle, to, ku-ng'ara.
Speak, to, ku-gamba, ku-gora,
ku-teta ; [to make a speech],
ku-chila ; [to begin a speech],
ku-lunga ; [to speak for], kutetela ; [to speak against], kugora lagelage ; [to speak
properly], ku-gora kiraui ;
[to speak loudly], ku-gora na
ndigi.
Speaker, mgori, mgambi, mchili.
.Spear, ichumu.
Speech, mateto.
Spend, to, ku-tumila ; time,
ku-sinda.
Spider, mbugi.
Spill, to, ku-tila, T. V. ; ku-tika,
1. V.
Spin, to, ku-luka.
Spirit [an evil spirit], pepo,
mchumba kazi.
Spit, mate.
S2>it, to, ku-chwila mate.
Splash, to, ku-pachahisa, T. V. ;
ku-pachahika, I. V. ; ku-tarisa, T. V. ; ku-tarika, I. VSpleen, iwengu.
Splice, to, ku-lunga.
Splinter, kiala.
Split, to, ku-paia, T. V. ; kupaika, /. V.
Spoil, to, ku-nona, ku-hakila.
Spoiled, to be, ku-noneka, kuhakilika, ku-hailikika.
Spoon, luko.
Sport, hako.
Sport, to, ku-haka.
Spot [a drop], katonya.
Spotted [a spotted goat], mbuzi
ya zarari.

120

VOCABULARY.

Sprain, to, ku-dufula, T, V. ; Steal, to, ku-iwa, ku-laka ;


ku-dufuka, I. V.
cause, to, ku-lakisa.
Spread, to [to tell out], ku-gore- Steep, to, ku-nvika.
ra ; [to make known], ku-ma- Stem of a tree, kiiimba.
nyisa ; [to unfold], ku-kunju- Step, kitende.
la ; [to be spread out], ku-ku- Step, to [to step on], ku-latila ;
njuka ; [to spread on the
[to step ovjt], ku-ambuka.
Itcp-mother, a child calls his
ground], ku-wala ; [to spread* -St<
p-mother mama.
out in the sun], ku-anika.
Spring, mtambo.
JStick [a man's walking-stick],
Spring, to, ku-tarika.
ndata ; [a woman's walkingSprinkle, to, ku-fitsa, ku-tarisa.
stick], msenge ; [a short heavy
Sprout, to, ku-funya mguchu,
stick], gongo ; [thin sticks for
ku-palala.
the roof of a house], ngombo,
Spue, to, ku-kweza.
lugombo ; [a stick for joining
Spur of a cock, lwala.
on to another], kilungi.
Stick, to [to adhere], ku-naua,
Spy, mzigani.
ku-wata.
Spy, to, ku-zigaua.
Squander, to, ku-!agataga.
Still [till now], hatta lelo ; [after
Squat, to, ku-tugusa.
that], sena ; [still you go], waSqueak, to, ku-kema.
tula kugeuda.
Squeeze, to, ku-kamula, ku-tsira. Still, to be, ku-nyamala.
Squint, mrei.
Sting, to, ku-luma.
Squint, to, ku-kalla na mrei.
Stink, to, ku-nuka lagelage, kuStab, to, ku-tlyaia.
nunga.
Stir,
to [to mix by stirring], kuStaff, ndata.
vuruga, ku-rua ; [to stir up
Stalks of corn before the fruit is
strife], ku-kumba sheshe.
gathered, magere ; after the
Stomach, kifu.
fruit is gathered, matasa.
Stone, iwe.
Stammer, to, ku-gugumiia.
Stoop, to, ku-damisa, T. V. ; kuStamp, to, ku-daha kigulu.
damika, I. V.
Stand, to, ku-uka kimusi, knkalla kimusi ; cause to, ku- Stop, to [to block up], ku-kinga,
ika kimusi.
ku-ulaga ; [to cease], ku-nya
Star, ndonde.
mala, ku-siga ; [to cause to
Stare, to, ku-kula meso.
cease], ku-nyamalisha ; [to
Start, to [to begin], ku-tlyoisa,
hold], ku-manzira ; [to stand
T. V. ; ku-tlyoa, I. V. ; [to
still], ku-kalla kimusi.
start out], ku-fuma.
Stopper, kifindiko.
Startle, to, ku-turukisa.
Store up, to, ku-ika.
Startled, to be, ku-turukia.
Store-house, kitundu, kitagati.
Starve, to, ku-ulaga na njala, Story [tale], lugano.
T. V. ; ku-fwa na nj lla, I. V. Stout, to be, ku-banda ; cause
to, ku-bandisa.
Slay, to, ku-kalla kitembo, kusinda ; [to wait], ku-muka, ku- Stoutness, urifu.
dafwa ; [to loiter], ku-muka- Straight, to be, ku-golok i.
Straighten, to, ku-golola.
muka.

VOCABULARY.

121

Strangeness, ugeni.
loss], ku-ona buga, ku-pata
Stranger, mgeni.
asara.
Strangle, to, ku-ts\vaia.
Suffice, to, ku-katisa, T. V. ;
Strap, mkoa.
ku-ka!a, /. V. ; ku-gutisa,
T. V. ; ku-guta, /. V.
Stray, to, ku-lagaia.
Sugar, sukari.
Stream, mwefa.
Strength, ndigi, nguvu.
Sugar-cane, mugwa.
Strengthen, to, ku-funga ndigi. Sulk, to, ku-oma ngolo.
Stretch, to, ku-golo!a.
Sulkiness, uana, furusi.
Strew, to, ku-tilatila, ku-fitsa-, .Sum, ijua.
fitsa.
Sunbeams, mlengezi.
Strife, kondo.
Sundries, takataka.
Strike, to, ku-kwita, ku-riba, ku- , .Sunrise, ku-eha
ilaha, ku-shana.
Sunset, ku-swa ; where tin sun
String, mrinsi, luzi.
sets is called mfumingovi.
String beads, to, ku-waka.
Superintend, to, ku-lola, ku-ziString of beads, kinengele.
gana.
String of ring-beads, mrere.
Superintendent, mzigani.
Strip, to [to plunder}, ku-am- Supper, kilalilo.
bula.
Support, to [to prop], ku-figika ;
Stripe, mchori, mchililingo.
[to keep], ku-le!a.
Strive, to, ku-isana, ku-lwana. /Suppose, to, ku-gamba [lit. to soy].
Strong, to be, ku-kalla na ndigi. Surpass, to, ku-ila.
Stroll about, to, ku-selasela, ku- Surprise, to, ku-shinisa.
barita.
Surprised, to be, ku-shinika.
Struggle, to, ku-lwana.
Surround, to, ku-marisa, T.V.;
Study, to, ku-funda.
ku-maia, I. V.
Stump, kishiki.
Survey, to, ku-laula.
Stun, to, ku-kurumusha.
Survive, to, ku-kila.
Stunned, to be, ku-kurumua.
Swallow, to, ku-miza, ku-mila.
Submit, to, ku-rumagia.
Swear, to, ku-gema ; when a
Subtlety, n)achu.
man swears he says, a bas ;
Succeed, to [to prober], ku-pata,
cause, to, ku-gemesha.
ku-dea.
Sweat, irugudia.
Succour, to, ku-taria, ku-arura. Sweat, to, ku-rugudia ; cause
Such [such and such], usiku na
to, ku-rugudisa.
usiku ; [such and such a thing], Sweep, to, ku-shera.
kisiku na kisiku ; [such and Stceet, to be, ku-singa.
such a man], msiku na msi- Sweeten, to, ku-singiza ; [na singilo, I like [lit. I am sweet
ku.
Suck, to, ku-mama.
ened],
Swcetheart, mlume yangu [lit.
Suckle, to, ku-mamisa.
my man] ; mke wangn [lit.
Suddenly, shwoshwo, kafwani,
my woman].
aoen.
Sweetness, msinga.
Sue, to, ku-leila.
-Suffer, to, ku-mmagia ; [to feel Swell, to, ku-fura.
pain], ku-hariea ; [to suffer ^Sword', lufu.

122

TOCABCXABT.

Table, meza.
Table-cloth, nguo ya meza.
Tail, kirensi, mkoba ; [tail of a
bird], mshushu.
Take, to, ku-usa ; aeross, kuambusa ; a walk, ku-barita,
ku-sela ; away, ku-funya ;
by force, ku-soka, ku-ambula ; care, ku-lola, ku-manya ; care of, ku-ika ;
down, ku-angula ; fire, kuwata moto ; leave of, kulaga ; off clothes, ku-rua ;
out, ku-funya, ku-ega ;
out of tlie pot, ku-ula ;
revenge, ku-lwana sili ; to a
person, ku-geusela, ku-twalila ; to a place, ku gensa,
ku-usa.
Tale, lugano, ngno.
Tale, to tell a, ku-gana.
Talk, to, ku-sumurira, ku-helea.
Talker, msumuriri.
Tall, -lele ; with nouns of the
third class, ndele.
Tamarind-tree, mkeju ; fruit,
ikeju.
To,me, to, ku-kelesa.
Tame, to be, ku-kela.
Tank, kina cha meji.
Tarry, to, ku-muka ; cause
to, ku-mukina.
Taste, to, ku-toa ; eatise to,
ku-toesa.
TcocA>fo>ku-fundisha, ku-funda.
Teacher, m fundi.
Tear, mbori.
Tear, to, ku-rashura, ku-zaia ;
[to be torn], ku-rashuka, kuzaika ; [to tear down a house],
ku-fuchula ; [a house to be torn
/down], ku-fuchuka.
Tease, to,ku-koronga, ku-emeka.
Tell, to, ku-gora, ku-gamba.
Temperate, -a karakara.

Tempest, ngungu.
Tempt, to, ku-tima.
Tempter, mtimi.
Ten, ikumi.
Tend, to, ku-lisa.
Tender, to be, ku-hanyua.
Terrify, to, ku-kumba oga.
Terror, uoga.
Test, to, ku-tima.
Testicles, makende.
Thank, to, ku-uza asanta.
Thankfulness, kiraui.
That man, mdu uyla.
That thing, kindu kilya [see
Grammar].
That [how that] kamba ; [in
order that], [see Grammar,
snbj. mood].
Thatch, to, ku-vimba.
Thee, uwe.
Their, -awe.
Theft, uting'a.
Them, waio.
Themselves, wo wen.
Then [afterwards], nao, konyuma, nyuma yake, aho, ahoba ;
[after this], uiko : ['n those
days], matukn "gslys ; [at tJuct
time], ijua lyilya : ' " t.ie " is
often expres&xi bit hs* of th/i
-it?- tense [nee Grammar, also
eondU. tenses].
There, aho, ao, igasi, alya, aoen, alyen.
Therefore, kwa hung'.
These, awa [see Grammar,
demonst. pro.].
They, -ao, waio.
Thick, -rifu ; with nouns of the
third class, ndifu.
Thicken, to [as porridge], ku-rufusa, T. V. ; ku-rufuka, /. V.
Thin, -suse.
Thin,to become [as porridge], kusalama.
Thin, to make [as porridy], kusalamisa.

VOCABULARY.

Thing, kindu ; [an inferior


thing], kinyamandu ; [things
of the intellect], undu, vilambo, gore ; [there is nothing],
sikwesi undu ; [what kind of
doings are these ?], gore muni
izo ?
**Third, katatu.
Thirst, kau.
Thirst, to, ku-kaua ; cause
to, ku-kauisa.
^Thirteen, ikunii na -tatu.
This, uyu [see Grammar,
demonst. pro.].
Thither, aho [see there].
Thorn, mwia, munjwa.
Those, awa [see Grammar,
demonst. pro.].
Thou, uwe.
Though, hatta, kweni [see
Grammar, condit. tenses].
Thought, igelelo.
Thrash, to, ku-kwita.
Thread, tama, luzi.
Threaten, to, ku-kumba oga [lit.,
to frighten].
fThrec, -tatu ; with nouns of the
third class, ndatu.
Thrill, to, ku-sukisa.
Throat, irangi.
Throttle, to, ku-nyora.
Through [to put through], ku-isa
ku-tsira ; [to come through],
ku-poka.
Throw to, ku-kumba ; about,
ku-tagataga ; away ku-taga ; dom,ku-buka, ku-gwisha.
Thrust, ku-sindika.
Thumb, chala eha kigosi.
Thump, to, ku-daha.
Thunder, to, mvula ku-duduga
[lit. the rain to run away].
Thunder [without rain], enturo,
the inhabitants of the heavens
supposed to be fighting.
This, hung'.

123

Thy, -ako.
Thyself, uwe mwen.
Thwart, to, ku-nona.
Tickle, to, ku-hodahoda.
Ticks, ngua, the small black
kind, sanga ; the spotted kind
which infest goats, machererendi.
Tie, to, ku-funga ; - a knot, kufindika.
Tight, to be, ku-manga.
Tighten, to, ku-mangisa ; [to
pull], ku-ruta.
Till, hatta.
Timber, mwiti.
Time, ngelo, hawa, mbaza,
luma, these refer more especial
ly topresent time ; igeri, ituku,
these refer more especially to
past time [times], mageri, matuku ; [sufficient time], ijua
ni ibwaa ; [hour], saa ; [a long
time], luma ; [a long time
ago], kalere.
Time of the day, makeo, very
early, the first erow of the
cock ; ikesho kiro, the second
erow of the cock ; ikesho, after
the sit,i has appeared ; msenya, day-time ; msenya 'gati,
midday ; ijua ku-chunguluka, after twelve o'clock; hafuka, afternoon or evening ;
lumisimissi, about dusk ; kiro,
night ; nyungu ku-kalla motoni, about nine o'clock [lit. the
pot to be still on thefire] ; wandu
ku-tungura, ten to eleven [lit.
the people to go to sleep] ; haring'a za hambiri, twelve to two
[lit. thefirst sleep] ; haring'a za
Byuma[K<. the last sleep],three
to four.
Times of the year [see season].
Timid, -oga.
Tire, to, ku-kojesa, ku-silisa
ndigi.

124

VOCABULARY.

To [a sign of the infinitive], ku-.


To, before a verb where it ex
presses a purpose, is generally
expressed by the subjunctive;
nihawe meji ninwe, give me
water that I may drink;
muze agende shuoshwo, tell
him to go quickly ; unto is
generally contained in the
verb; when not thus con
tained, it may be expressed by
the applied form of the verb or
by the word Kwa ; nagenda
kwa aba, / go to my father ;
[as far as], hatta.
Tobacco, kimbako.
Tobacco-pipe, toza.
To-day, lelo ; [this day], lelo
kwen.
Toe, chala.
Together, to be, ku-kezanya, kukalla andu kumoju.
Token, alania.
Tolerate, to, ku-rumagia.
Jo-morrow, ikesho ; [day after
to-morrow], lau.
Tongs for pulling out the eye
lashes, ngula.
Tongue, ulumi.
Too, sena.
Tooth, ijego.
Tooth-ache, ijego kulya ; [ijego
lyanilya], my tooth aches.
Top, lugulu.
,. Topsy-turvy [of a bow], tsingilo.
Torment, utiriii.
Torment, to, ku-tirira.
Tormentor, mtiriri.
Tortoise, nguru.
Total, -ose, putu.
Touch, to, ku-wata.
Tough, to be, ku-kula.
Tmcards, ngila ya.
Towel, nguo ya ku-kuagila [lit.
the cloth, to wipe oneself].
^ Town, kaia, muzi.
,
.' Track, hvaio, kitende, mvoii.

Track, to, ku-chwila, ku-irima


lwaio.
Trade, to, ku-chuma, ku-zogora.
Trader, mchumi, mzogori.
Trail, to, ku-kurugusa.
Train, to, ku-lela.
Trample, to, ku-latila.
Trannform, to, ku-galula, T. V. ;
ku-galuka, I. V.
Transgress, to, ku-kosa.
Translate, to, ku-galula mateto,
ku-dzigidza [?].
Trap, mtego, iliwa.
Trap, to, ku-fega.
Travail, to [ofa jcom?t],kulumo.
Travel, to, ku-tamba.
Traveller, mtambi, mcharo.
Tray, kihoro.
Treacle, uki 'gwa mugwa.
Tread, to, ku-latila ; into
plaster, ku-rua.
Treat, to well, ku-dea kirani ;
badly, ku-dea lagelage.
Tree, mwiti.
Tremble, to, ku-sukasuka.
Trench, shoko, muvo.
Trial, kutimo, itimo.
.Tribe, mbari, kikuku, lukolo.
Mwibabu, a tribe of wild
people stq>poscd to have once
inhabited Taita.
Tribulation, mashaka, buga,
vilambo.
Trick, tambo.
Trim, to, ku-boe.sa.
Triumph, to, ku-sima.
Trouble, vilambo, buga, undu
'guwasi.
Trouble, to, ku-gama, ku-emeka ; [to get people into trouble],
ku-shekera.
Troubled in mind, to be, ku-shekero ni ngolo, ku-hariso ni
ngolo.
True, fulo.
Trumpet [a large kudu horn],
gunda.

VOCABULARY.

123

Trunk, of a tree, kirimba ; [ Undress, to, ku-raa.


Unfold, to, ku-kunjula, T. V.;
of a tree cut down], gogo.
ku-kunjuka, /. V.
Trust, to, ku-lolila [lit. to look
to] ; ku-tsiuila [lit. to lean Unite, to, ku-lunga, ku-nasa.
upon] ; ku-dumusa [lit. to Unify, umoju.
Unlawful, to be, ku-rigido ;
assent to].
to make, ku- rigida.
Truth, fulo kweni.
.-Unripe [young], ikoo.
Try, to, ku-tima.
Unthatch, to, ku.-fucb.ula.
Tub, buta.
Tumble, to, ku-gwa ; cause, to, Until, hatta.
Unto, kwa [see to].
ku-gwisha.
Up, igulu.
Turban, kilemba.
Turn, to, ku-galula, T. V. ; ku- Upon, na lagulu ; case in -ni
[see on].
galuka,/. V. ; over, ku-chungulusa, T. V. ; ku-chungulu- Uppermost, -a lugulu.
ka,/. V. ; round, ku-marisa, Upright, to be, ku-kalla kimuni.
T. V. ; ku-mara, I. V. ; Uproar, kondo.
back, ku-tangalila, ku-ehu- Urge, to, ku-sindika.
Urinate, to, ku-koje'a.
lusa.
Urine, makojo.
Turn [by turns], ndisa.
Tusk elephant, lwembe lwa njo- Us, isi.
Use, to, ku-tumila ; [to be of use],
vu, njovu.
ku-fweni.
twelve, ikumi na mbi'.i.
.. Used up garden, bahawa.
^.Ticcnty, mirongo miili.
-Use [custom], ada.
JTwice, kaili.
Twist, to, ku-riga.
Twisted, to be, ku-rigika.
-Two, pili, -ili ; with nouns of the Vagina, ngini.
Vain, in, -a bule.
third class, mbili.
Valiant man, mvaru, ing'oni.
U
Valley, shauibi.
Valuable, to be, ku-kalla na kiUdder, suruku.
ma kibwaa.
Ugly, to be, ku-wasi.
Value, to, ku-ika kima ; [to pit
Ulcer, kilonda,
a price upon], [what is the
Umbrella, mwavuli.
price ?], zogoii ni ije '!
Unawares [he caught me un
Vegetables, mboga ; kisenya, the
awares], an' doka lagelage.
leaf of a weed ; muavu, leaves
- Uncle [the mother's brother],
of the bean plant ; kitojo, irehaka.
nge, pumpkin.
Uncover, to, ku-fundula.
Vein, hasi [lit. muscle].
Under, isi.
Understand, to, ku-sikila [lit. Venture, to, ku-tima.
to hear] ; ku-manya, ku-ta- Very, sana, na ndigi, muuo,
Vex, to, ku-a:ii!a.
mbula [lit. to know].
Undo, to, ku-fungula [lit. to un Vexed, tobe, ku-bia.
fasten] ; ku-fuudula [lit. to Vict, ulagelage.
untie] ; ku-iiona [lit. to spoil]. Village, kaia, muzi.

126

VOCABULARY.

Violence, machu, ndigi.


Warm water, meji 'ga moto.
Visible, to be, ku-oneka.
Warm place, andu kurugudia.
Visit, to, ku-genda kulola.
Warmth, moto.
Visited, to be, ku-jilo.
Warn, to, ku-gorera [lit. to
Voice, lwaka.
tell].
Vomit, to, ku-kweza ; cause Wart-hog, jalo.
to, ku-kwezesha.
Was [I was], neluo [see Gram
mar, verb " to be "].
Vow, mguli [lit. an oath].
Wash, to, ku-ogesha ; clothes,
Vow, to, ku-nwa mguli.
ku-fula ; on-self, ku-oga.
Vulture, ndere.
Waste, to, ku-taga bule, ku-nona
bule.
W
Watch, to, ku-linda ; for, kuWag, to, ku-nyavura.
daf\varira, ku-lolila.
Watchman, mlindiri.
Wages, mafungu.
Wail, to, ku-lila.
Water, meji.
Wailing, kililo.
Water, to, a garden, ku-fingn
Wait, to, ku-muka, ku-dafwa ;
meji ; plants, ku-tuhil<l
[wait a bit], mnka jakundi,
meji, ku-sukila meji ; [to
make water], ku-kojela.
muka jako ; genda jandi, go
away first.
Water-buck, shakwa.
Wake, to, ku-ukisa, T. V. ; ku- Water-jar, saugu.
uka, I. V. ; [to lie awake], ku- Wave, to, ku-pepea.
lavile : this verb is past in Waves, mivomivo.
form, but present in meaning, Wax, sungu ; [earwax], mania.
ku-lala meso.
Way, ngila.
"Way, to make a, ku-vula, kuWalk, kigendo.
Walk, to, ku-tembea, ku-genda
vunja mbale.
na magulu ; [to walk about], Waylay, to, ku-lalila.
ku-ma:amara ; [to take a We, isi.
walk], ku-sela, ku-barita ; [to Weak, t-o be, ku-soa ndigi [lit.
to be witlwut strength].
walk lame], ku-shogora.
Weakness, unyoDgi.
Wall, kipesa.
Wander, to, ku-selasela, ku-ma- Wealth, mali
Wear, to [to put on], ku-rwara ;
ramara.
Want, [poverty], ukiwa.
[to wear out], ku-demesa,
Want, to,ku-hada, ku-shaia j [to
T. V. ; ku-dema, /. V.
be wanting] ku-soeka.
Weary, to, ku-kojesa.
Wants, mahadi.
Weary, to be, ku-koja.
War, uta.
Weave, to, ku-luka.
Ward off, to, ku-kinga.
Wedding money [the beads, hws,
Warm, to, ku-patsisa moto, kucloth, etc. necessary to complete
buggisa, moto ; oneself, kuthe bargain], malasa.
bugga moto ; [to warm by Wedge, kiano.
sheltering], ku-rugudisa ; [to Weed, to, ku-buruga.
be warm by sheltering], ku- -iVceds, isaka, mbuza.
HVccp, to, ku-lila.
ru-gudia.

VOCABULARY.

127

Who ? ani ?
Weeping, kililo.
Weigh, to, ku-tima.
Whoever [he who likes], uu aWell, kiua cha meji.
shaia ; [he who is found], uu
Well, to be, ku-kalla banana,
adoko.
ku-kalla maana, ku-kalla Whole [all], -ose, putu, kamare,
-lanzi, with, nouns of the third
moro.
class, ndanzi, nzima ; [a whole
Well, to get, ku-boa.
tree], mwiti mlanzi ; [the pot
Were [we were], teluo [see
full], nyungu nzima.
Grammar].
Wei, to, ku-nyafusa.
Whole [sound], -zima, -a banana,
Wet, to be, ku-nyafua.
maana.
What ? kimuni ? ini ? -ni suf Whom ? ani ?
fixed to the verb [see Grain- Whose 1 -a ani ?
mar] ; [that which] [see Gram- Why? kudani 1 kwani ? kwaimar].
je ? -a kimuni ?
Whatever, -ingi, used only in the Wicked, -a lagelage.
negative sense, as si kindu chi- Wide, -shabwa.
ngi [lit. nothing whatever].
Wide, to be, ku-shabuka.
Widen, to, ku-shabusa.
When ? nini ?
When [if, as soon as, etc.] [see Widow, mke afwilo ni mlume.
Grammar, condit. tenses].
Width, ushabwa.
Whenever [whenever I go], andu tWife, muke.
nigenda.
Wild, -a sakeni.
Where ? hiyo ? iyo ? [see Gram Wild animals, nyamandu.
' Wilderness, kireti ; that part of
mar.]
Where [the place where], andu,
the wilderness near the moun
[/ don't know where he is],
tains, which is cultivated, is
simanya andu eo.
called nyika.
Wherefore, kwa hung'.
Will, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia.
Wherever, andu kose.
Will [mind], ngolo, kasidi.
Whet, to, ku-nola, ku-kabanya Will [shall] [see Grammar].
[lit. to rub two knives together]. Wind, mbeo.
Whetstone, kinolo.
Wind, to, ku-riga, T. V. ; kumarisa, T. V. ; ku-rigika,
Whether or, ango ango ;
/. V. ; ku-maia, I. V.
[if], ngera, nda.
Which? -hiyo, -iyo ; uoiyo ? Window, ilanga, idirisha.
Wing, ibambato.
which man 1 [see Grammar],
While is expressed by the use of Wipe, to, ku-agila, ku-angula.
the -ke- tense [see Grammar, Wire [thick brass wire], matsango ; [thin brass wire], mkunzo .
condit. tenses].
Whisper, to, ku-shashira.
Wisdom, ulachu, uya.
Whistle [a reed whistle], nguli.
Wise man, mlachu.
Wise, to be, ku-kalla na ulachu.
Whistle, to, ku-ficha.
, White, -mnynge ; [the white neck Wish, ihadi.
Wish, to, ku-hada, ku-shaia.
of a raven], ikombe.
White ants, tlyeha, msagu ; .Witch., msai.
[white ant-hill], mbalyo.
^ Witcheraft, usai.

128

VOCABULARY.

With, na ; [to be in company


wo [lit. il belwces him to be
with], ku-kezanya ; [an in
given].
strument], na, kwa ; [having], Would, mangu, macha [sec
-esi, -enyi.
Grammar].
Withdraw, to, ku-funya, T. V. ; Wound, to, ku-Iumiza, ku-paia
ku-fuma, /. V.
lnguma ; [to wound the head.],
Wither, to, ku-nyaza, T. V. ;
ku-paia luguma,
ku-bara
ku-nyala, /. V. ; ku-omesa,
ngoru,
Wrath, hari.
T. V. ; ku-oma, /. V.
Withhold from, to, ku-ima.
Wriggle, to, ku-rigariga.
Within, amwen, amwenikwen. Wring, to, ku-kamula.
;
Without, shigati.
Wrist, ungo.
Without, to be, ku-soa.
Write, to, ku-tsora, ku-andika.
Withstand, to, ku-rumagia.
Writer, mtsori, mwandiki.
Witness, to, ka-ona.
Wrong, ikosi.
Woe, vilambo [lit. trouble].
Wrong, to, ku-kosa.
JiVmnan, muke, mdumuke ; [a
young unmarried woman],
Yawn, to, ku-enda miayo.
mohana.
Womb, kifu.
Ye, inyu.
Year, mwaka.
Wonder, Uhiniko.
Wonder, to, ku-shinika.
Yell, to, ku-kema.
Wood, mwiti.
Yes, ee, eee ; [it is so], fulo
Wool of the sheep's back, mafuri
kwen ; [that is just so], ko
kwen.
'ga ng'onzi.
Yesterday, igulo ; the day before
Word, iteto, gore.
yesterday], ijuzi.
Work, kazi.
Yet [until now], hatta ilyi.
Work, to, ku-dea kazi.
Yolk of an eyg, loga.
Work iron, to, ku-shana kizia.
Yonder, alya, kulya [see Gram
Workman, mkazi.
mar].
World, isanga lyose, masanga
You, inyu.
'gose, unmengu [?]
Worm, kivunyu.
Your, -ako.
Young, -koo.
Worn-out thing, kidemo.
Worry, to, ku-siri:iiisha, T. V.;. Young man, mtawana.
, Young people, irika.
ku-sirima, /. V.
Worship, to, ka-voia, kutasa.
Yourself, uwe mwen.
Worth,\am& ; [what is it worth ?]. Youth, unake.
zogori ni ije ?
Worthy, to be, ku-fweni [lit to
be of use to], yamfweni kuha- Zebra, faro.

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