You are on page 1of 44

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

THEORY & APPROACH


TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC
NONTECHNICAL-NONSCIENTIFIC

Definition:
A series of procedure involving experts,

teachers & representatives of beneficial


party, in stages to plan, design, implement
& evaluate a curriculum
A collective & intentional process or activity
directed at beneficial curriculum change

Curriculum development is about


making decision on what curricula
should be
Different ways in interpreting the needs
and purposes of a curriculum leads to
establish discourse on curriculum from
different approaches

Ornstein and Hunkins (2009) - curriculum

development encompasses on
Planning
Implementing
Evaluating

Ornstein and Hunkins (2009)


although curriculum development
models are technically useful, they
often overlook the human aspect such
as the personal attitudes, feelings,
values involved in curriculum making

Curriculum models help designers to

systematically and transparently


map out the rationale for the use of
particular teaching, learning and
assessment approaches

Most commonly curriculum models


divided into the product model and the
process model
Neary (2003)

The product model plans and intentions

The Process Model - activities and effects

A way of planning curricula to

optimize students learning & to


allow them to increase their output
The use of rational approaches to
develop curricula

Social Efficiency

Emphasize on the social utility of

each individual in a society


Students could be scientifically
evaluated & educated towards their
predicted role in society

Social Efficiency

Society could be controlled

The curriculum designed around

specific life activities that correlate


with each students societal future

Mental disciplinarians / Humanist


Students' abilities to develop mental
reasoning , therefore education was
not intended for social reform in itself
but for the systematic development of
reasoning power

Mental disciplinarians / Humanist

Five mandatory subject matters

should be taught:
grammar, literature and art,
mathematics, geography, and
history

Mental disciplinarians / Humanist

Good reasoning power would lead

to the betterment of society.


Too much emphasis on the
"classics" as determined by the
dominant groups in a society

Social Reconstructionist

The use of rationality on how to

understand the society


Problems arise among students does
not reflect the way society should be,
but understand the problems within
the society

Social Reform

Education is a tool to reform

society and create change for a


better future
Focus on the power of the
individual's intelligence, and the
ability to improve on intelligence

Social Reform

An individuals future was not

predetermined by gender, race,


socio-economic status, heredity
or any other factors

Developmentalists
Dewey, Kilpatrick

Use the characteristics of children and

youth as the source of the curriculum


Attention to the development of
children's emotional and behavioral
qualities

Developmentalists
Curriculum of the individual child is

related to the role of the school within


society
The social experiences of the child are
the starting point for developing a
curriculum

Maccias

Theories

Formal theory speculation on the

structure of the discipline that


comprise the curriculum
Event theory speculation on what
will occur when given certain
circumstances

Maccias

Theories

Valuational theory - speculation on

the appropriate means to attain the


objectives
Praxiological theory - speculation on
the appropriate means to attain what
is considered valueable

Bobbitt & Charters Social

Efficiency
What activities necessary to

improve students abilities &


personal qualities for proper
performance

Bobbitt & Charters Social Efficiency

Bobbitt & Charters Activity Analysis

Model
Selecting objectives
Develop activities
Analyzing for working units
Analyzing students achievement

Tylers approach

Focuses on social needs with the

use of variety of rational &


technical ways to determine
curriculum

Tylers approach

Four Basic Principles


Purposes of the school
Educational experiences
Organization of experiences
Evaluation

Tylers Curriculum Development Model


PLANNING CURRICULUM
Society
Subject
matter

Philosophy

Sources

Objectives

Screens

Instructional
Objectives

Psychology

Learner

Organization of
Learning
experiences

Selection of
Learning
experiences

CURRICULUM
DESIGN

Evaluation

CURRICULUM
EVALUATION

Taba

Grassroots Rationale

Teachers actively involve in

curriculum development to
incorporate needed elements of
innovation or improvement in the
curriculum development

Seven steps of Grassroots Rationale


Diagnosis of needs
Formulation of objectives

Selection of content
Organization of content
Selection of learning experiences
Organization of learning activities
Evaluation & means of evaluation

Hunkins Decision-making Model


Curriculum conceptualization & legitimization
Curriculum diagnosis

Content selection
Experience selection
Curriculum implementation
Curriculum evaluation
Curriculum maintenance

Stresses on the subjective,

personal, aesthetic, heuristic &


transactional
The curriculum evolves rather
than being planned precisely

Circularity of Reality

Reality is constructed of

overlapping & interacting


systems, therefore no linearity
or sequence of action

Schwab (1969) approach to

curriculum development
Deliberation may involve violent

discussions & debate


Curriculum constructed by subject
matter, learner, teacher & milieu

Schwabs Deliberation Model


Public sharing
Identify agreement & disagreement
Explaining position
Determine changes in position

Negotiating points of agreement


Adopting a decision

Walkers (1971) Deliberative Model

Deals with uncertain practical

problems of curriculum development


activities
Social needs or problems leads to
proposals to solution

Walkers (1971) Deliberative Model

Educators engage in curriculum

decision making to make known their


ideas & values to conceptualize
What is essential for learning and teaching

DESIGN
P
R
O
C
E
S
S

Identify needs for means & ends


Generates alternatives & Consider
precedents
Consider consequences
Predict cost & consequences
Choose the most defensible

PLATFORM

The set of relationship


embodied in the
Materials in use

DELIBERATION

Conceptions / beliefs
Theories
Aims
Images
Procedures

Brice (2000)
Deliberative discussion complex and

needs communication skills & norms of


behavior
Arguing coherently & fairly
Considering relevant alternatives
Capacity to question, examine & reflect
Willingness to question others assumption
Ability to identify competing arguements

Eisners artistic approach

The founder of qualitative research

Social reality is negotiated, subjective,

constructed & multiple


The study of education needs a variety
of new assumptions & methods to
explore the richness of educational
practice

Procedure of artistic approach


Goals & its priorities
Content of the curriculum

Types of learning opportunities


Organization of learning opportunities
Organization of content areas
Mode of presentation & mode of response
Types of evaluation procedures

Critical exploratory also known as

Reconceptualist
Characteristics
Holistic value of people relationship with

the nature
Individual as an agent in the construction
of knowledge
Diversity & pluralism

Characteristics
Mixture of existential philosophy,

phenomenology, radical psychoanalysis &


humanistic
Personal liberty & higher level of
consciousness become central value in the
curriculum process

Divided into two major

categories:
Social structures & mainstream

curriculum practices
Nature of learning as the basis for
action

Social structures & mainstream

curriculum practices
To encounter issues domination,

exploitation, resistance &


legitimate/rightful knowledge

Nature of learning as the basis

for action
To enhance schooling experience

by focusing on experienced
curriculum rather than a planned
curriculum

Thank you