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Recycling and Reusing Hardscapes and Landscape Waste

Cost Calculator

This Cost Calculator is designed to help landscaping companies and landscape managers
estimate the cost savings associated with recycling and reusing hardscapes and green waste.
Green waste includes yard trimmings, leaves, plants, grass and other organic waste. The specific
hardscape materials addressed in this tool include: lumber, brick, and concrete and aspalt. The
Cost Calculator demonstrates that recycling and reusing hardscapes and landscape waste can
offer significant savings compared to disposal, depending on a facility's material needs and
proximity to recycling facilities.
Based on the values that you enter in the Inputs tab, the Cost Calculator tab estimates the cost of
four scenarios for handling hardscape and landscape waste: (1) reusing all waste possible on-site,
then recycling all waste possible, and then disposing of the rest; (2) reusing all waste possible and
disposing of the rest; (3) recycling as much of the remaining waste as possible and disposing of
the rest; and (4) disposing of all materials. If you are not generating a particular waste during a
given time frame, enter "0" in the corresponding cell. Increasing the use of compost over time may
offer additional cost savings in terms of reduced fertilizer and/or pesticide use, but the calculator
does not consider these potential savings.
In the Cost Data tab, EPA provides national averages of costs associated with recycling and
disposing landscape waste. Cost data collected from sources dated before 2006 are adjusted for
inflation. If you prefer, you can substitute your own cost data into the green cells. EPA
encourages users to change the fuel cost data in cell B26 of the Cost Data tab.
The EHS Benefits tab provides a summary of the environmental, health and safety benefits of
recycling and reusing landscape waste.
The Quantified Benefits tab provides estimates of environmental impacts avoided by reusing and
recycling waste instead of landfilling waste. Although many benefits are quantified, including
lifecycle benefits of avoided virgin material production, and avoided impacts from transportation,
data are not available to develop a general estimate of some key benefits associated with
recycling and reusing landscape waste, including reducing runoff and nonpoint source pollution
and improving soil health. To calculate your GHG emissions from alternative green waste
management methods, see EPA's WARM model at:
http://epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/calculators/Warm_home.html
The Environmental Data tab presents data utilized on the environmental impacts associated with
the production, use, disposal, and transportation of asphalt, concrete, bricks, and lumber.
Macros need to be enabled for the calculator to work properly. Each time you run the calculator,
you should save the file under a different file name to maintain a complete record. The file name
will appear at the top of each printed page.
Please direct any questions or comments on this cost calculator to: Jean Schwab, U.S. EPA
GreenScapes Program Manager, schwab.jean@epa.gov or 703-308-8669.

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste

In which region are you located?

South-Central

Green Waste
How many cubic yards of green waste are generated annually?
What percentage of the volume of green waste is wood > 1" diameter?
How many cubic yards of compost will you use per year, on average over the next 10 years?
How many cubic yards of mulch will you use per year, on average over the next 10 years?

77
24%
15
11

Do you own a large chipper ( 6"+) to chip lumber and large branches?

Yes

Do you have access to a local green waste recycling facility?


How much does green waste recycling cost per ton (including transportation)?
How many miles is it to the nearest recycling facility for green waste?
How many miles is it to the nearest landfill?
How many miles does new compost and mulch travel to reach your site?
Lumber
How many linear feet of lumber will be removed over the course of the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?
What percentage of the volume of removed lumber is pressure treated?
How many linear feet of lumber will you need over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?

Yes
$17.80
43
43
65

Do you have access to a local lumber recycling facility?


How much does lumber recycling cost per ton (including transportation)?
How many miles is it to the nearest lumber recycling facility?
Roughly how many times will you remove lumber in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
How many miles does new lumber travel to reach your site?
Roughly how many times will you need to order lumber in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
Brick
How many bricks will be removed over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?
How many bricks will you need over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?

Yes
$16.00
26
1
3
6
10
50
1
3
6
10

Do you have access to a local brick recycling facility?


How much does brick recycling cost per ton (including transportation)?

Yes
$22.00

600
3000
6000
10000
0%
233
1500
3000
5000

1200
3600
7200
12000
658
1974
3948
6580

How many miles is it to the nearest brick recycling facility?

29

Do you plan on purchasing recycled bricks instead of new bricks for construction projects?
How much do recycled bricks cost (per used brick)?
Roughly how many times will you remove brick in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
How many miles does new brick travel to reach your site?
Roughly how many times will you need to order brick in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
Concrete & Asphalt
How many tons of concrete waste will be generated at your site over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?

Yes
$0.18
2
6
12
20
50
1
3
6
10

Do you own a crusher to crush and reuse concrete and asphalt?


How many tons of asphalt waste will be generated at your site over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?
How many tons of crushed surfacing will you need over the next year?
Over the next three years?
Over the next six years?
Over the next ten years?

Yes
1.2
3
6
10
3
6
12
20

Do you have access to a local concrete recycling facility?


How much does recycling concrete cost per ton (including transportation)?
How many miles is it to the nearest concrete recycling facility?
Roughly how many times will you remove concrete in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
How many miles does new concrete travel to reach your site?
Roughly how many times will you need to order concrete in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?

Yes
$15.50
25
1
3
6
10
50
1
3
6
10

Do you have access to a local asphalt recycling facility?


How much does recycling asphalt cost per ton (including transportation)?
How many miles is it to the nearest asphalt recycling facility?
Roughly how many times will you remove asphalt in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?
How many miles does new asphalt travel to reach your site?
Roughly how many times will you need to order asphalt in the next year?
In the next three years?
In the next six years?
In the next ten years?

Yes
$15.00
25
1
3
6
10
50
1
3
6
10

1.6
3
6
10

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape


Waste Cost Calculator
Maximum Reuse, then Recycle,
Landfill Remaining Waste
New Material Cost
Compost
Mulch
Lumber
Brick
Crushed Surfacing
Reuse Costs
Initial Cost of Crusher
Crushing Labor
Crusher Maintenance
Initial Cost of Chipper
Wood Chipper Maintenance
Wood Chipping Labor
Recycling Cost/Disposal Cost
Green Waste
Lumber
Brick
Asphalt
Concrete
Total Cost
Average Annual Cost to Date
Maximum Reuse, Landfill Remaining
Waste
New Material Cost
Compost
Mulch
Lumber
Brick
Crushed Surfacing
Reuse Costs
Initial Cost of Crusher
Crushing Labor
Crusher Maintenance
Initial Cost of Chipper
Wood Chipper Maintenance
Wood Chipping Labor
Disposal Cost
Green Waste
Lumber
Brick
Asphalt
Concrete
Total Cost
Average Annual Cost to Date
Recycle All Waste Where Facilities
Exist
New Material Cost
Compost
Mulch
Lumber
Brick
Crushed Surfacing
Recycling Cost/Disposal Cost
Green Waste
Lumber
Brick
Asphalt
Concrete
Total Cost
Average Annual Cost to Date
Landfill All Waste
New Material Cost
Compost
Mulch
Lumber
Brick
Crushed Surfacing
Disposal Cost
Green Waste
Lumber
Brick
Asphalt
Concrete
Total Cost
Average Annual Cost to Date

1 year

3 years

6 years

10 years

$0
$0
$0
$0
$17

$0
$0
$0
$0
$36

$0
$0
$0
$0
$72

$0
$0
$0
$0
$119

$0
$20
$2
$0
$33
$15

$0
$42
$4
$0
$98
$46

$0
$84
$7
$0
$195
$92

$0
$140
$12
$0
$325
$154

$93
$9
$27
$0
$0
$214
$214

$278
$36
$80
$0
$0
$619
$206

$555
$72
$161
$0
$0
$1,238
$206

$926
$120
$268
$0
$0
$2,064
$206

1 year

3 years

6 years

10 years

$0
$0
$0
$0
$17

$0
$0
$0
$0
$36

$0
$0
$0
$0
$72

$0
$0
$0
$0
$119

$0
$20
$2
$0
$33
$15

$0
$42
$4
$0
$98
$46

$0
$84
$7
$0
$195
$92

$0
$140
$12
$0
$325
$154

$138
$15
$32
$0
$0
$270
$270

$413
$60
$97
$0
$0
$794
$265

$826
$119
$194
$0
$0
$1,589
$265

$1,376
$199
$323
$0
$0
$2,648
$265

1 year

3 years

6 years

10 years

$257
$78
$91
$118
$36

$770
$235
$585
$355
$72

$1,539
$471
$1,170
$711
$143

$2,565
$784
$1,950
$1,184
$238

$274
$14
$59
$18
$25
$971
$971

$822
$72
$178
$45
$47
$3,181
$1,060

$1,645
$144
$356
$90
$93
$6,361
$1,060

$2,741
$240
$594
$150
$155
$10,602
$1,060

1 year

3 years

6 years

10 years

$257
$78
$91
$118
$36

$770
$235
$585
$355
$72

$1,539
$471
$1,170
$711
$143

$2,565
$784
$1,950
$1,184
$238

$408
$24
$71
$42
$42
$1,168
$1,168

$1,223
$119
$214
$79
$79
$3,732
$1,244

$2,446
$238
$429
$159
$159
$7,464
$1,244

$4,076
$397
$715
$265
$265
$12,440
$1,244

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Cost Data


Disposal Fees
Northeast
Mid-Atlantic
South
Midwest
South-Central
West-Central
West

Unit

On-site Asphalt and Concrete


Crushing Costs

Cost Estimate
$77.58
$50.92
$34.07
$38.46
$26.47
$41.51
$/Ton
$37.72

Repa, Edward, Ph.D (2005) NSWMA 2005 Tip Fee Survey.


<http://wastec.isproductions.net/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/478-Tipping%20Fee
%20Bulletin%202005.pdf>
If you know your own disposal cost per ton, change the green cell to the left for your
region.

Capital Cost

N/A

Sources
Concrete/Asphalt Crushers. September, 2003.
$64,350 <http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>

Labor Cost
Equipment Maintenance Cost

$/Ton
$/Ton

Concrete/Asphalt Crushers. September, 2003.


$7.02 <http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>
Concrete/Asphalt Crushers. September, 2003.
$0.59 <http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>

Green Waste Grinding Costs

Units

Source and Comment

Cost Estimate

Units

Labor cost of green waste


chipping/shredding

Cost Estimate

$/Hour

Time to shred/chip
Hours/CY
Maintenance of Commercial
Chipper $/Hour Used
Initial Cost of 6" Commercial
Chipper
N/A
Amount Saved by Mulching
$/CY
Chipper Maintenance

Cost
Blades

0.05 Personal Communication with Customer Service, BearCat. August 29, 2007
$54.96
$8,318.96
$2.78
Replacement Time
(Hours)
10

$27.13

Bearings

$60

50

Total

N/A

N/A

New Material Costs

Units
$/Cu. Yard

Mulch

$/Cu. Yard

Lumber (2"x 6" Decking Boards)

$/LF

Brick

$/Brick

Bear Cat estimated that a 6" chipper can chip


This
brochure
says that
industry
average by
100 feet
per minute.
100the
feet
was multiplied
for mulching-related
labor is
the
amount of cubic yards
in $25/hour.
1 foot of 2"x6"
lumber. The inverse of this figure was divided
by 60 to convert to hours/CY.

Norwalk
Power
Equipment
Company. Bear
Catcost
Commercial
Chippers
6"
This value
is calculated
by subtracting
the total
of producing
a CY (Gravity
of mulchFeed)
from the
Capacity
- Bear Cata 71620.
Accessed
27,of2007.
cost
of purchasing
CY of mulch.
TheAugust
total cost
producing a CY of mulch is equal the See Total Below
<https://017e702.netsolstores.com/index.asp?PageAction=VIEWPROD&ProdID=1886>.
The Bear
71620saved
sells by
for mulching
$7,999. on-site
product
of the time to chip a CY of yard waste and the sum of the hourly labor and
This
is theCat
amount
maintenance costs.
rather than buying mulch.
Cost Per Hour

Source

$26.62

Comments
$248 is the retail price for the blade
replacement kit

Customer service at Bear Cat provided estimates regarding how often


The average price of gasoline in the United
each of these maintenance elements would be needed, as well as
States was multiplied by the volume of the
how much it would cost to replace all the blades and bearings. This
$27.13
chipper's gas tank.
information was given on August 30, 2007.
The average price of fuel, $4.11 per gallon, was taken from the
Energy Information Administration's U.S. Retail Gas Prices.
Each bearing costs $29 and the chipper
$1.21 Accessed July 18, 2008.
contains two bearings.
<http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mo
gas_home_page.html>. To update the calculator for changing fuel
prices, go to the that website, find the current price of fuel, multiply
$54.96 that value by 6.6, and enter the result into cell B26.

Cost Estimate

Compost

Comments

Comments

Mulch Mule Brochure. Accessed August 28, 2007.


$26.00 <http://www.mulchmule.com/files/10730Literature.pdf >

$266

Fuel

Sources

States
CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT
DE, MD, NJ, PA, VA, WV
AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN
IN, IA, MI, MN, MO, OH, WI
AZ, AR, LA, NM, OK, TX
CO, KS, MT, NE, ND, SD, UT, WY
CA, HI, ID, NV, OR, WA

Sources Ron, Tyler, Rod, and Goldstein, Nora. "Increasing Dollar Value for Compost
Alexander,
Products." Biocycle. Oct. 2004 <http://www.environmental$17.10 expert.com/resulteacharticle4.asp?cid=6042&codi=4162>.

Comments

Earth Products. Orange County Landfill -- Orange County, NC. Accessed December 29,
$7.13 2006. <http://www.co.orange.nc.us/recycling/earthproducts.asp>

Orange County landfill sells yard waste mulch


for $20 per 3 cubic yards. This price was
divided by three to find the price per cubic yard.

Lumber and Plywood Estimating Price Guide. Ace Hardware. January 30, 2006.
$0.39 <http://www.acehardware.net/estimate/>.

The seven price estimates divided by their


corresponding linear feet are all at or very
close to $0.36 per LF.

Liu, Henry; Williams, Burkett and Haynes, Kirk. Improving Freezing and Thawing
$0.39 Properties of Fly Ash Bricks. March, 2005. <http://www.flyash.info/2005/20liu.pdf>.

This website states that ordinary bricks cost


between $300-$400 per thousand. This range
was averaged to $350 per thousand or $0.35
per brick.

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Cost Data


Disposal Fees
Northeast

Unit

Crushed Surfacing

Conversion Factors

Cost Estimate
Source and Comment
States
$77.58 Repa, Edward, Ph.D (2005) NSWMA 2005 Tip Fee Survey.
CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT
<http://wastec.isproductions.net/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/478-Tipping%20Fee
%20Bulletin%202005.pdf>
If you know your own disposal cost per ton, change the green cell to the left for your
Dayton, Kevin J., State Construction Engineer, WSDOT Headquarters Construction
region.
Office. Construction Update. August 8, 2006. p. 1.
<http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/biz/Construction/CostIndex/CostIndexPdf/constructionupdater
$/Ton
$11.92 eport.pdf>

From

To

Factor

Brick

Bricks

Tons

Concrete, Asphalt & Brick

Tons

Cu. Yards

Green House Gas

Carbon

CO2

2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards Cubic Meters

mbf (1000 Board


Feet)

2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards


2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards
General
General
General
General
General
GHG
Water

Yard Waste

Yard Waste to Compost

Linear Feet
Linear Feet
KWh
MJ
Kilograms
Metric Tons
Ounces
MTCO2E
Gallons

Cu. Yards

Cu. Yards

Tons
Cubic Yards
MJ
BTU
Pounds
Tons
Grams
MTCE
Kilograms

Tons

Cu. Yards

Inflation Adjustment Table


One Dollar in
Equals this many 2008 Dollars
2003
$1.17
2004
$1.14
2005
$1.10
2006
$1.07
2007
$1.04
Source: CPI Inflation Calculator. <http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl>

Source
Table 4. Accessed on November 4, 2006.
0.00225 <http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/tables2.html>.

Comments
This value was given in pounds and converted
to tons by dividing by 2000.

0.83 http://www.buckscontainerservices.com/conversions.htm

US EPA - Non-CO2 Gases and Carbon Sequestration - Conversion


Units. http://www.epa.gov/nonco2/units.html. Accessed October 30,
3.6667 2007.
Milota, M.; West, C.; and Hartley, I. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory
of Softwood Lumber Production. Wood and Fiber Science, December
1.6240 2005, v. 37.

Lumber Weight Calculator. Accessed November 4, 2006.


0.0015 <http://www.csgnetwork.com/lumberweight.html>.
0.0031
3.6
947.8
2.2046
1.1023
28.3495

This value was derived by using a lumber


weight calculator. Pine was chosen to convert
linear feet to tons because it is commonly used
in decking. If you are using heavier wood(s),
you may
want
this conversion
factor.
One
linear
foottoofreplace
2"x6" contains
.0031 cubic
yards of wood.

0.2727
3.79
General Permit for Yard Waste Composting Facilities Under the South
Dakota Waste Management Program. Board of Minerals and
Environment. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
October 13, 1998. p. 6.
<http://www.state.sd.us/DENR/DES/WasteMgn/SWaste/COMPGEN.p This value was given in pounds and converted
0.2 df>.
to tons by dividing by 2000.
Wilson, C.R. and Feucht, J.R. Composting of Yard Waste. Colorado
State University Coopertive Extension. October, 1997.
0.375 <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/GARDEN/07212.pdf>.

The article states that 50-75% of plant volume


is reduced by composting. This range was
averaged to derive a conversion factor.

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Cost Graph

Hardscape and Landscape Waste


Disposition Costs Over Time

$12,000
$10,000
$8,000
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$0
1 year

3 years

6 years

Time

Maximum Reuse, then Recycle, Landfill Remaining Waste


Maximum Reuse, Landfill Remaining Waste
Recycle All Waste Where Facilities Exist
Landfill All Waste

Average Annual Hardscape and Landscape Waste Dispostion Cost (Over 10 Years)

Cost

Cost

$14,000

$1,400.00
$1,200.00
$1,000.00
$800.00
$600.00
$400.00
$200.00
$0.00
Maximum
Reuse, then
Recycle,
Landfill
Remaining
Waste

Maximum
Reuse,
Landfill
Remaining
Waste

Recycle All
Waste
Where
Facilities
Exist

Approach
(Waste Disposition)

Landfill All
Waste

10 years

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Environmental, Health and Safety
Benefits
Reduces waste/demand for landfill space because materials that would otherwise be disposed
of are reused or recycled.
Reuses waste materials because hardscape and landscape waste is being reused directly onsite.
Reduces air pollution or improves air quality because reusing materials on-site results in fewer
pollutants emitted from transporting waste materials, and methane emissions from landfills are
reduced from both reuse and recycling.
Conserves fossil fuels because energy needed to transport both hardscape and landscape
wastes, as well as new materials, will be reduced. Also, compost can reduce the need for
chemical fertilizers, the production of which is fossil fuel intensive.
Conserves timber because reused and recycled lumber reduces demand for virgin lumber.
In addition to the above benefits, the following benefits are associated with maximizing
compost use and minimizing use of fertilizers and pesticides:
Conserves water because compost can improve the water retention of the soil, reducing the need
for irrigation.
Reduces human exposure to hazardous materials or substances because compost can
reduce the need for pesticides and herbicides and the associated human exposures.
Reduces runoff and nonpoint source pollution because compost can substitute for pesticides
and fertilizers, which can produce polluted runoff.
Improves groundwater recharge because compost increases the soil's ability to retain water.
Improves soil quality and retards erosion because using compost improves soil quality.

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape


Waste Environmental Benefits
Maximum Reuse, then Recycle, Landfill Remaining Waste
Green Waste
1 year
3 years
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
20,400
61,200
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
10,400
31,200
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
0
Lumber
1 year
3 years
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
699
4,500
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
1,101
4,500
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
0
Environmental Benefit
Energy Conserved (MJ)
2,150
10,757
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
5,286
25,633
CO Avoided (grams)
1,254
5,882
VOC Avoided (grams)
219
1,029
NOx Avoided (grams)
2,969
9,762
SO2 Avoided (grams)
317
1,900
PM Avoided (grams)
97
361
Brick
1 year
3 years
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
2,961
8,883
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
2,439
7,317
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
0
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
113
340
Energy Conserved (MJ)
5,686
17,059
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
1,811
5,432
CO Avoided (grams)
1,070
3,210
VOC Avoided (grams)
228
683
NOx Avoided (grams)
4,947
14,841
SO2 Avoided (grams)
5,455
16,364
PM Avoided (grams)
3,916
11,747
Concrete
1 year
3 years
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
3,200
6,000
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Asphalt
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Total Env Benefit
Waste Reused (lbs.)
Waste Recycled (lbs.)
Waste Landfilled (lbs.)
Total Recycled or Reused
Energy Use (MJ)
Avoided Air Emissions
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
Water Conserved (ga.)

6 years
122,400
62,400
0
6 years
9,000
9,000
0

10 years
204,000
104,000
0
10 years
15,000
15,000
0

21,514

35,856

51,266
11,764
2,058
19,524
3,801
723
6 years
17,766
14,634
0

85,444
19,606
3,431
32,540
6,335
1,205
10 years
29,610
24,390
0

680
34,117

1,134
56,862

10,864
6,420
1,365
29,682
32,728
23,495
6 years
12,000

18,106
10,701
2,276
49,470
54,547
39,158
10 years
20,000

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

270
858

507
1,608

1,014
3,216

1,690
5,360

1,491

2,796

5,592

9,320

465
1,004
87
3,009
807
334
1 year
2,400
0
0

1,249
2,406
260
8,036
1,551
693
3 years
6,000
0
0

2,498
4,812
521
16,073
3,102
1,385
6 years
12,000
0
0

4,163
8,021
868
26,788
5,170
2,309
10 years
20,000
0
0

115
2,362

288
5,904

576
11,808

960
19,680

4,272

10,680

21,360

35,600

819
515
87
2,181
65
116

2,214
1,521
260
3,440
3,323
281

4,428
3,042
521
13,031
360
641

7,380
5,071
868
21,718
600
1,069

1 year
29,660
13,940
0
43,600
11,055

3 years
86,583
43,017
0
129,600
35,327

6 years
173,166
86,034
0
259,200
70,655

10 years
288,610
143,390
0
432,000
117,758

8,380
3,843
620

34,528
13,019
2,233

69,056
26,039
4,465

115,093
43,398
7,442

13,106

36,079

78,309

130,515

6,644
4,463

23,139
13,083

39,991
26,244

66,652
43,740

5,763
499

13,476
1,135

26,952
2,270

44,920
3,784

Maximum Reuse, Landfill Remaining Waste


Green Waste
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
20,400
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
0
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
10,400
Lumber
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
699
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
0
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
1,101
Environmental Benefit
Energy Conserved (MJ)
838
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
2,249
CO Avoided (grams)
1,155
VOC Avoided (grams)
202
NOx Avoided (grams)
2,546
SO2 Avoided (grams)
310
PM Avoided (grams)
81
Brick
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
2,961
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
0
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
2,439
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
62
Energy Conserved (MJ)
3,118
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
1,164
CO Avoided (grams)
853
VOC Avoided (grams)
171
NOx Avoided (grams)
3,851
SO2 Avoided (grams)
3,008
PM Avoided (grams)
2,178
Concrete
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
3,200
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Asphalt
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Total Env Benefit
Waste Reused (lbs.)
Waste Recycled (lbs.)
Waste Landfilled (lbs.)
Total Recycled or Reused
Energy Use (MJ)
Avoided Air Emissions
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
Water Conserved (ga.)

3 years
61,200
0
31,200
3 years
4,500
0
4,500

6 years
122,400
0
62,400
6 years
9,000
0
9,000

10 years
204,000
0
104,000
10 years
15,000
0
15,000

5,398

10,796

17,993

13,291
5,584
976
8,491
1,881
307
3 years
8,883
0
7,317

26,581
11,169
1,952
16,982
3,761
614
6 years
17,766
0
14,634

44,302
18,615
3,253
28,304
6,268
1,023
10 years
29,610
0
24,390

187
9,354

373
18,708

622
31,179

3,492
2,560
514
11,554
9,024
6,533
3 years
6,000

6,984
5,119
1,028
23,108
18,047
13,066
6 years
12,000

11,640
8,532
1,713
38,513
30,079
21,777
10 years
20,000

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

270
858

507
1,608

1,014
3,216

1,690
5,360

1,491

2,796

5,592

9,320

465
1,004
87
3,009
807
334
1 year
2,400
0
0

1,249
2,406
260
8,036
1,551
693
3 years
6,000
0
0

2,498
4,812
521
16,073
3,102
1,385
6 years
12,000
0
0

4,163
8,021
868
26,788
5,170
2,309
10 years
20,000
0
0

115
2,362

288
5,904

576
11,808

960
19,680

4,272

10,680

21,360

35,600

819
515
87
2,181
65
116

2,214
1,521
260
3,440
3,323
281

4,428
3,042
521
13,031
360
641

7,380
5,071
868
21,718
600
1,069

1 year
29,660
0
13,940
29,660
7,176

3 years
86,583
0
43,017
86,583
22,264

6 years
173,166
0
86,034
173,166
44,527

10 years
288,610
0
143,390
288,610
74,212

4,697
3,528
547

20,246
12,072
2,010

40,491
24,143
4,021

67,485
40,238
6,701

11,588

31,521

69,193

115,322

4,191
2,709

15,779
7,814

25,270
15,706

42,117
26,177

5,763
448

13,476
982

26,952
1,963

44,920
3,272

Recycle All Waste Where Facilities Exist


Green Waste
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
0
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
30,800
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
Lumber
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
0
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
1,800
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
Environmental Benefit
Energy Conserved (MJ)
2,144
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
4,924
CO Avoided (grams)
99
VOC Avoided (grams)
18
NOx Avoided (grams)
424
SO2 Avoided (grams)
7
PM Avoided (grams)
20
Brick
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
0
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
5,400
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
0
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
113
Energy Conserved (MJ)
5,686
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
1,305
CO Avoided (grams)
283
VOC Avoided (grams)
90
NOx Avoided (grams)
1,586
SO2 Avoided (grams)
5,405
PM Avoided (grams)
3,826
Concrete
1 year
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
0
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Asphalt
Quantity Reused (lbs.)
Quantity Recycled (lbs.)
Quantity Landfilled (lbs.)
Environmental Benefit
Water Conserved (ga.)
Energy Conserved (MJ)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
Total Env Benefit
Waste Reused (lbs.)
Waste Recycled (lbs.)
Waste Landfilled (lbs.)
Total Recycled or Reused
Energy Use (MJ)
Avoided Air Emissions
GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent)
CO Avoided (grams)
VOC Avoided (grams)
NOx Avoided (grams)
SO2 Avoided (grams)
PM Avoided (grams)
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams)
Water Conserved (ga.)

3 years
0
92,400
0
3 years
0
9,000
0

6 years
0
184,800
0
6 years
0
18,000
0

10 years
0
308,000
0
10 years
0
30,000
0

10,718

21,436

35,727

24,495
300
55
1,281
21
75
3 years
0
16,200
0

48,991
599
111
2,563
42
151
6 years
0
32,400
0

81,652
999
184
4,271
71
252
10 years
0
54,000
0

340
17,059

680
34,117

1,134
56,862

3,916
850
271
4,757
16,215
11,477
3 years
0

7,831
1,701
542
9,514
32,429
22,953
6 years
0

13,052
2,835
904
15,857
54,049
38,256
10 years
0

3,200
0

6,000
0

12,000
0

20,000
0

181
105

340
196

679
392

1,132
653

102
121
18
485
42
15
1 year
0
2,400
0

267
344
54
1,410
86
41
3 years
0
6,000
0

534
688
109
2,819
172
82
6 years
0
12,000
0

889
1,147
182
4,699
287
137
10 years
0
20,000
0

136
78

340
196

679
392

1,132
653

93
117
18
475
33
14

267
344
54
1,410
86
41

534
688
109
2,819
172
82

889
1,147
182
4,699
287
137

1 year
0
43,600
0
43,600
8,013

3 years
0
129,600
0
129,600
28,169

6 years
0
259,200
0
259,200
56,337

10 years
0
432,000
0
432,000
93,896

6,425
620
145

28,945
1,838
435

57,890
3,676
871

96,483
6,127
1,451

2,970

8,858

17,716

29,526

5,487
3,874

16,408
11,634

32,816
23,269

54,694
38,781

0
430

0
1,020

0
2,039

0
3,398

Enery Avoide d (M J)

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Environmental Benefits Graphs

Tons of Was te Re cycled or Reuse d


500,000
400,000
350,000

14,000
12,000

300,000

10,000

250,000

8,000

200,000

6,000

150,000

4,000

100,000

2,000

50,000

Em is s io n s A v o id e d ( g r a m s )

0
1 year

3 years

6 years

Time
Maximum Reuse, then Recycle, Landfill Remaining Waste
Maximum Reuse, Landfill Remaining Waste
Recycle All Waste Where Facilities Exist

Maximum
Reuse, then
Recycle,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

10 years

Average Annual Air Emissions Avoided (Over 10 Years)

Em is s io n s A vo id e d (lb s .
o f C O2 e q u ivale n t)

Tons

450,000

Average Annual Energy Use Avoided (Over 10 Years)

Maximum
Reuse,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

Recycle All
Waste Where
Facilities Exist

Average Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions Avoided (Over 10 Years)

14,000
12,000

14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0

10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000

W a te r C o n s e r ve d ( g a llo n s )

CO

Maximum
Reuse,
Landf ill
Remainin
g Waste

VOC

NOx

SO2

390
380
370
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
Maximum
Reuse,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

0
Maximum
Reuse, then
Recycle,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

PM

Average Annual Water Conserved (Over 10 Years)

Maximum
Reuse, then
Recycle,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

2,000

Recycle
All Waste
Where
Facilities
Exist

Recycle All
Waste Where
Facilities Exist

Hazardous Was te
Avoided (gram s )

Maximum
Reuse,
then
Recycle,
Landf ill
Remainin
g Waste

Maximum
Reuse,
Landf ill
Remaining
Waste

Recycle All
Waste Where
Facilities Exist

Average Annual RCRA Hazardous Waste Avoided (Over 10 Years)


5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
Maximum
Reuse, then
Recycle,
Landfill
Remaining
Waste

Maximum
Reuse, Landfill
Remaining
Waste

Recycle All
Waste Where
Facilities Exist

1
2
3
4

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Environmental Coefficients

Energy

Haz
Waste

Water
Use

NOx

SO2

g/ton
44
551
331

g/ton
27
484
1,998

g/ton
48
172
1,410

g/ton
MJ/ton
183,016
1,968
37,099
536
201,800
2106

units kg/mbf kg/mbf kg/mbf kg/mbf


Lumber (Pacific Northwest) 2.32232 0.1299 1.0881 1.6727
Lumber (Southeast)
2.97192 0.7958 1.0394 0.6983
Lumber (average)
2.64712 0.46285 1.06375 1.1855
Green Waste

kg/mbf
0.0812
0.0812
0.0812

kg C/mbf
907.9
1113.3
1010.6

Material

CO
units

Asphalt
Concrete
Brick

g/ton
42
337
45

VOC

23

PM

GHG

Material

CO
units

Asphalt
Concrete
units
Lumber (average)
Green Waste
Transportation Impacts

28

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

HDDV Class

Class Source

Transportation Impacts included in Lifecycle Environmental Impacts


Transport to
Transport of
Transport to
Transport to Site
Disposal
Raw Materials
Distributor
Source
(Delivery) Included?
Included?
Included?
Included?

g/ton
gal./ton
3,560
96
932
169
42

MJ/mbf
3705
3492
3598.5

units

VOC

g/ton
10.54
10.54

NOx

SO2

g/ton
25.0
25.0

g/ton
22.1
22.1

PM

GHG

Energy

Haz
Waste

g/ton
1.76
1.76

g/ton
MJ/ton
10,000
65
10,000
65

0
0

kg/mbf kg/mbf kg/mbf kg/mbf kg/mbf


0.00158 0.0013 0.0069 0.0008 0.01389

kg C/mbf
MJ/mbf
1002.2727 3572.73

CO
g/mi

VOC
g/mi

NOx
g/mi

SO2

PM

GHG

Capacity

g/mi

g/mi

g/mi

tons

Concrete Mixer
Asphalt Tanker

4.327
4.327

0.796 21.301 0.3446


0.796 21.301 0.3446

0.6067
0.6067

1584.8
1584.8

20
20

Brick Tractor Trailer

5.784

1.009 24.715 0.3665

0.6632

1685.6

27

5.784
g/mi

1.009 24.715 0.3665


g/mi
g/mi
g/mi

0.6632
g/mi

1685.6
g/mi

9.12
cy

Lumber Tractor Trailer


units

Water
Use
kg/ton
113
113

no
no
no

yes
yes
yes

yes
yes
yes

no
no
no

2
2
1

no
no
no

yes
yes
yes

yes
yes
yes

no
no
no

3; 12 for GHG
3; 12 for GHG
3; 12 for GHG

Source
13; 14 for GHG
13; 14 for GHG

13; 14 for GHG and energy

Capacity Source

29
30

Recycling Coefficients

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Lifecycle Environmental Impacts

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Notes
We use these coefficients to estimate impacts from transportation for delivery and
disposal, and which are not included in the coefficients above.
The source says concrete mixers typically have a 8-12 cy capacity. 10 cy is the average of
this range. 10 cubic yards was multiplied by two becasue 1 cy of concrete equals
4 approximately 2 tons.
5
Alabama Brick can place 12,000 bricks in their tractor trailers. This number was converted
6 into tons.
A 50 ft tractor trailer can fit two units of 20' 6x2 lumber. Each unit is 3040 board feet. The
7 per unit board footage was multiplied by two and converted into tons.

The source gives the capacity of a triple axle dump truck as 16-20 cy. This range was
averaged. We assume that all disposal and off-site recycling of waste is transported by
Dump Truck
5.784
1.009 24.715 0.3665 0.6632
1685.6
18
10 dump truck.
Emissions were derived from EPA's MOBILE6 Vehicle Emissions Modeling Software. The model was run for both class 8a and 8b to determine emissions in grams per mile.

8a
8a

8
11

8b

8b

8b

10

Sources:
1. Koroneos, C. and Dompros, A. Environmental Assessment of Brick Production in Greece. March 17, 2006.
2. Pavement Life-Cycle Assessment Tool for Environmental and Economic Effects (PaLATE). Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing, University of California Berkeley.
3. Puettman, Maureen & Wilson, James. Life Cycle Analysis of Wood Products: Cradle-to-Gate LCI of Residential Wood Building Materials. Wood and Fiber Science, December 2005, V. 37. www.corrim.org/reports/2005/swst/18.pdf. Accessed September 25, 2007.
4. Concrete in Practice: What, Why & How?, CIP31 - Ordering Ready Mix Concrete. NRMCA. buildersconcrete.com/UserFiles/File/Ordering%20Ready%20Mix%20Concrete.pdf. Accessed November 8, 2007.
5. Paul, Stephanie; Puspa-Dewi, Linda; Lueprasert, Kamolwan; and Madon, Heinko Dona. Asphalt Paving Operation. https://engineering.purdue.edu/CEM/People/Personal/Halpin/Sim/Examples/pave.htm. Accessed November 8, 2007.
6. Alabama Brick. Personal Communication, November 7, 2007.
7. Curtis Lumber. Personal Communication, November 7, 2007.
8. Concrete Mixing Truck. Accessed November 7, 2007. http://www.jgtec.com.cn/english/html-en/gongcheng/hntj.htm
9. Tractor Trailor - 148,000 lbs. Denver: The Mile High City. http://www.denvergov.org/EquipmentList/SemiTractorTrailerOperator/SemiTractorTrailerOperator1/tabid/386845/Default.aspx. Accessed November 8, 2007.
10. Dump Truck-On Road. U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.nimsonline.com/resource_typing/Dump%20Truck-On%20Road.htm. Accessed November 8, 2007.
11. International 8300 Asphalt Tanker 1988. http://www.used-trucks-central.org/truckview.php?view=308. Accessed November 8, 2007.
12. Milota, M.; West, C.; and Hartley, I. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory of Softwood Lumber Production. Wood and Fiber Science, December 2005, v. 37. www.corrim.org/reports/2005/swst/47.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2007.
13. Cochran, K.M. Construction and Demolition Debris Recycling: Methods, Markets, and Policty. University of Florida, 2006.
14. WARM Model. Environmental Protection Agency. Appendix B: Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emission Factors

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Environmental Equivalents

The charts below present the quantity of pollutants avoided on average, for each of the three alternative scenarios and contexual measures.
Maximum Reuse, then Recycle, Landfill Remaining Waste
Total Environmental Benefit
Waste Avoided
Statistic

Statistic

Quantity Reused (lbs.) =

28,861

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

2,413.1 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Recycled (lbs.) =

14,339

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

1,198.9 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Landfilled (lbs.) =

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

0.0 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3


99.8 U.S. households per day 2

Energy Use (MJ) =

11,776

118 the electricity used to power

GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2


Equivalent) =
CO Avoided (grams) =

11,509
4,340

33 the daily GHG emissions of


14.2 the CO emissions of driving

349.0 passenger vehicles 2


305.6 miles in the average car 4

1.40 the VOC emissions of driving

531.6 miles in the average car 4

VOC Avoided (grams) =

744

NOx Avoided (grams) =

13,052

SO2 Avoided (grams) =

6,665

277,324 running an old coal plant for

PM Avoided (grams) =

4,374

0.75 the PM emissions of driving

RCRA Hazardous Waste


Avoided (grams) =

4,492

Water Conserved (ga.) =


378
Maximum Reuse, Landfill Remaining Waste
Total Environmental Benefit
Waste Avoided

47 the daily NOx emissions of

the amount of mercury


0.7 contained in

40 the water used by


Statistic

274.9 passenger vehicles 5


0.02 minutes 6

5,832.0 miles in the average U.S. truck 7

6,417.1 fever thermometers9

9.5 loads of laundry 8


Statistic

28,861

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

2,413.1 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Recycled (lbs.) =

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

0.0 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Landfilled (lbs.) =

14,339

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

1,198.9 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Energy Use (MJ) =


GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent) =
CO Avoided (grams) =
VOC Avoided (grams) =
NOx Avoided (grams) =

7,421

118 the electricity used to power

6,749
4,024
670

33 the daily GHG emissions of


14.2 the CO emissions of driving
1.40 the VOC emissions of driving

11,532

47 the daily NOx emissions of

Quantity Reused (lbs.) =

SO2 Avoided (grams) =

4,212

277,324 running an old coal plant for

PM Avoided (grams) =
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams) =

2,618

0.75 the PM emissions of driving


the amount of mercury
0.7 contained in

4,492

Water Conserved (ga.) =


327
Recycle All Waste Where Facilities Exist
Total Environmental Benefit
Waste Avoided

40 the water used by


Statistic

62.9 U.S. households per day 2


204.6 passenger vehicles 2
283.4 miles in the average car 4
478.6 miles in the average car 4
242.9 passenger vehicles 5
0.02 minutes 6
3,490.2 miles in the average U.S. truck 7
6,417.1 fever thermometers9

8.2 loads of laundry 8


Statistic

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

0.0 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Recycled (lbs.) =

43,200

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

3,612.0 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Quantity Landfilled (lbs.) =

the muncipal solid waste


11.96 generated by

0.0 U.S. households per day 1, 2, 3

Energy Use (MJ) =


GHG Avoided (lbs. Of CO2
Equivalent) =
CO Avoided (grams) =
VOC Avoided (grams) =
NOx Avoided (grams) =

9,390

118 the electricity used to power

9,648
613
145

33 the daily GHG emissions of


14.2 the CO emissions of driving
1.40 the VOC emissions of driving

2,953

47 the daily NOx emissions of

SO2 Avoided (grams) =

5,469

277,324 running an old coal plant for

PM Avoided (grams) =
RCRA Hazardous Waste
Avoided (grams) =

3,878

0.75 the PM emissions of driving


the amount of mercury
0.7 contained in

Water Conserved (ga.) =

340

Quantity Reused (lbs.) =

40 the water used by

79.6 U.S. households per day 2


292.6 passenger vehicles 2
43.1 miles in the average car 4
103.6 miles in the average car 4
62.2 passenger vehicles 5
0.02 minutes 6
5,170.8 miles in the average U.S. truck 7
0.0 fever thermometers9

8.5 loads of laundry 8

Sources
1. Wastes: What You Can Do - Basic Facts About Waste. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/facts.htm
2. Calculations and References. US EPA. http://www.epa.gov/solar/energy-resources/refs.html
3. USA Quickfacts. U.S. Census Bureau State and County Quickfacts. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
4. Vehicle Emissions - Transportation Air Quality Selected Facts and Figures. EPA. January 2006.
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/aqfactbk/page15.htm
5. EPA, Emissions Facts, http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/f00013.htm
6. Lethal Legacy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund, 2003. http://uspirg.org/uspirg.asp?id2=11087
7. ICF Consulting, North American Trade and Transportation Corridors: Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Strategies, Prepared for the North
American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, February 2001.
8. Clothes Washers. Energy Guide, http://www.energyguide.com/library/EnergyLibraryTopic.asp?bid=austin&prd=10&TID=17246&SubjectID=8374
9. Mercury Thermometer Fact Sheet. http://www.hendersoncountync.org/health/Documents/Mercury%20Thermometer%20fact%20sheet.pdf

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Default Cost Data
Reference this sheet if you want to re-enter default values into the Cost Data Page
Disposal Fees
Northeast
Mid-Atlantic
South
Midwest
South-Central
West-Central
West

Unit

On-site Asphalt and Concrete


Crushing Costs

Cost Estimate
$77.58
$50.92
$34.07
$38.46
$26.47
$41.51
$/Ton
$37.72

Repa, Edward, Ph.D (2005) NSWMA 2005 Tip Fee Survey.


<http://wastec.isproductions.net/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/478-Tipping
%20Fee%20Bulletin%202005.pdf>
If you know your own disposal cost per ton, change the green cell to the left for your
region.

Capital Cost

N/A

Sources
Concrete/Asphalt Crushers. September, 2003.
$64,350 <http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>

Labor Cost
Equipment Maintenance Cost

$/Ton
$/Ton

Concrete/Asphalt Crushers. September, 2003.


$7.02 Concrete/Asphalt
<http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>
Crushers. September, 2003.
$0.59 <http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_6.html>

Green Waste Grinding Costs

Units

Source and Comment

Cost Estimate

Units

Labor cost of green waste


chipping/shredding

Cost Estimate

$/Hour

Time to shred/chip
Hours/CY
Maintenance of Commercial
Chipper
$/Hour
Used
Initial Cost of 6" Commercial
Chipper
N/A
Amount Saved by Mulching
$/CY
Chipper Maintenance

Cost

Sources

Mulch Mule Brochure. Accessed August 28, 2007.


$26.00 <www.mulchmule.com/info/mulchmule2006.pdf >
0.05 Personal
Communication
Customer
Service,
BearCat. August
29,(Gravity
2007
Norwalk Power
Equipmentwith
Company.
Bear
Cat Commercial
Chippers
Feed)value
6" Capacity
- BearbyCat
71620. Accessed
August
27, 2007. a CY of mulch
This
is calculated
subtracting
the total cost
of producing
<https://017e702.netsolstores.com/index.asp?
from
the cost of purchasing a CY of mulch. The total cost of producing a CY of
PageAction=VIEWPROD&ProdID=1886>.
mulch
is equal the product of the time to chip a CY of yard waste and the sum of
the hourly l
Cost Per
Hour
Source

$52.91
$8,318.96
$2.89
Replacement Time
(Hours)

Blades

$266

10

Gasoline

$25.08

Bearings

$60

50

Total

N/A

N/A

New Material Costs

Units

$26.62

$/Cu. Yard

Mulch

$/Cu. Yard

Lumber (2"x 6" Decking Boards)

$/LF

Comments

Comments
Bear Cat estimated that a 6" chipper can chip
This feet
brochure
says that
industry
average by
100
per minute.
100the
feet
was multiplied
for
labor is
the mulching-related
amount of cubic yards
in $25/hour.
1 foot of 2"x6"
lumber. The inverse of this figure was divided
by 60 to convert to hours/CY.
See Total Below
The Bear
71620
sells by
formulching
$7,999. on-site
This
is theCat
amount
saved
rather than buying mulch.
Comments
$248 is the retail price for the blade
replacement kit

The average price of gasoline in the United


Customer service at Bear Cat provided estimates regarding how often States was multiplied by the volume of the
chipper's gas tank.
$25.08 each of these maintenance elements would be needed, as well as
how much it would cost to replace all the blades and bearings. This
information was given on August 30, 2007.
The average price of gasoline, $2.75 per gallon, was taken from the Each bearing costs $29 and the chipper
$1.21 Energy Information Administration's U.S. Retail Gas Prices.
contains two bearings.
Accessed May 23, 2008.
<http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mo
$52.91 gas_home_page.html>

Cost Estimate

Compost

States
CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT
DE, MD, NJ, PA, VA, WV
AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN
IN, IA, MI, MN, MO, OH, WI
AZ, AR, LA, NM, OK, TX
CO, KS, MT, NE, ND, SD, UT, WY
CA, HI, ID, NV, OR, WA

Sources Ron, Tyler, Rod, and Goldstein, Nora. "Increasing Dollar Value for
Alexander,
Compost Products." Biocycle. Oct. 2004 <http://www.environmental$17.10 expert.com/resulteacharticle4.asp?cid=6042&codi=4162>.

Comments

Orange County landfill sells yard waste mulch


Earth Products. Orange County Landfill -- Orange County, NC. Accessed December for $20 per 3 cubic yards. This price was
$7.13 29, 2006. <http://www.co.orange.nc.us/recycling/earthproducts.asp>
divided by three to find the price per cubic yard.
Lumber and Plywood Estimating Price Guide. Ace Hardware. January 30, 2006.
$0.39 <http://www.acehardware.net/estimate/>.

The seven price estimates divided by their


corresponding linear feet are all at or very
close to $0.36 per LF.

Recycling and Reusing Hardscape and Landscape Waste Default Cost Data
Reference this sheet if you want to re-enter default values into the Cost Data Page
Disposal Fees
Northeast

Unit

Brick

Crushed Surfacing

Conversion Factors

Cost Estimate
Source and Comment
States
$77.58 Repa, Edward, Ph.D (2005) NSWMA 2005 Tip Fee Survey.
CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT
<http://wastec.isproductions.net/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/478-Tipping
%20Fee%20Bulletin%202005.pdf>
If you know your own disposal cost per ton, change the green cell to the left for your
This website states that ordinary bricks cost
region.
between $300-$400 per thousand. This range
Liu, Henry; Williams, Burkett and Haynes, Kirk. Improving Freezing and Thawing
was averaged to $350 per thousand or $0.35
$/Ton
$/Brick
$0.39 Properties of Fly Ash Bricks. March, 2005. <http://www.flyash.info/2005/20liu.pdf>. per brick.

Dayton, Kevin J., State Construction Engineer, WSDOT Headquarters Construction


Office. Construction Update. August 8, 2006. p. 1.
<http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/biz/Construction/CostIndex/CostIndexPdf/constructionup
$11.92 datereport.pdf>

$/Ton

From

To

Factor

Brick

Bricks

Tons

Concrete, Asphalt & Brick

Tons

Cu. Yards

Green House Gas

Carbon

CO2

2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards Cubic Meters


2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards Linear Feet
2"x 6" Wood Decking Boards Linear Feet
General
KWh
General
MJ
General
Kilograms
General Metric Tons
General
Ounces
MTCO2E
GHG
Water

Gallons

mbf (1000 Board


Feet)
Tons
Cubic Yards
MJ
BTU
Pounds
Tons
Grams
MTCE
Kilograms

Yard Waste

Cu. Yards

Tons

Yard Waste to Compost

Cu. Yards

Cu. Yards

Inflation Adjustment Table


One Dollar in
Equals this many 2008 Dollars
2003
$1.17
2004
$1.14
2005
$1.10
2006
$1.07
2007
$1.04
Source: CPI Inflation Calculator. <http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl>

Source
Table 4. Accessed on November 4, 2006.
0.00225 <http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/tables2.html>.

Comments
This value was given in pounds and converted
to tons by dividing by 2000.

0.83 http://www.buckscontainerservices.com/conversions.htm

US EPA - Non-CO2 Gases and Carbon Sequestration - Conversion


Units. http://www.epa.gov/nonco2/units.html. Accessed October 30,
3.6667 2007.
Milota, M.; West, C.; and Hartley, I. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory
of Softwood Lumber Production. Wood and Fiber Science, December
1.6240 Lumber
2005, v. Weight
37.
Calculator. Accessed November 4, 2006.
0.0015 <http://www.csgnetwork.com/lumberweight.html>.
0.0031
3.6
947.8
2.2046
1.1023
28.3495

This value was derived by using a lumber


weight calculator. Pine was chosen to convert
linear feet to tons because it is commonly used
in decking. If you are using heavier wood(s),
you may
want
this conversion
factor.
One
linear
foottoofreplace
2"x6" contains
.0031 cubic
yards of wood.

0.2727
3.79
General Permit for Yard Waste Composting Facilities Under the South
Dakota Waste Management Program. Board of Minerals and
Environment. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
October 13, 1998. p. 6.
<http://www.state.sd.us/DENR/DES/WasteMgn/SWaste/COMPGEN.p This value was given in pounds and converted
0.2 df>.
to tons by dividing by 2000.
Wilson, C.R. and Feucht, J.R. Composting of Yard Waste. Colorado
State University Coopertive Extension. October, 1997.
0.375 <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/GARDEN/07212.pdf>.

The article states that 50-75% of plant volume


is reduced by composting. This range was
averaged to derive a conversion factor.