You are on page 1of 120

Transparency

{]

&.s.&

: 01 2005-5897

(CIP)

'I( ($.:

2007
ISBN 978-7-112-095483

11. @@

ill.

IV.TU

CIP (2007) 135951

TransparencyI Colin Rowe rt Slutzky


Copyright @ 1997 Birkhuser Verlag AG (Verlag fr Architektur) , P .0.
Box 133, 4010 Basel, Switzerland
Cese Translation Copyright @ 2007 China Architecture &lding Pre
A rights r!erved.

Birkhuser

Verlag AG

:
z

{}

*
($)

?7

x 1092

200 l J

1/16

: 7)'2

2008 l J

: 25.

ISBN

9787 112-09548-3

(16212)

( 100037)

: 146

"":

23

57

(1982 )

84

85

1955 (Colin Rowe)

(transparency)
(Rudolf Wittkower)
bert Slutzky) ( Josef

Albers )

z {

z
1956
[ (()) (Arc1itecture eview)

{{PersC 8 ":

"

'

((Perscta}) 8

1955

((Perspecta))
(History

and Theory of Architecture of the ETH) ((

1968

"":*

1968 3 12 '
"""
'
'

" 1 "

( "Transpare")

2 " ((
""(

) "" (modem)

3
1968
1950

(Alexander
Caragonn) +1 -

1951 - 1958 1951 - 1958


xas Rangers)

"" 5
(John
Hejduk) 1981

aragonne) -

(-

7ff. )

1951 - 1958
(Texas Rngers. A Short History 0/ a Teaching
Program at the University 0/ Texas College 0/
Architecture , Cam bridge , Mass.: MIT

(Alexander

Pr! 1993)

Transparence , relle et virtuelle , Paris:


Editions du Demi Cercle , 1992 , pp.

"

(......9+1 (Itha

) J6

1968

1955 '

Jil IJ: 7
""

8 ((

(Nicolaus Pevsner) 9

10
1962

1963 ((Perspecta)) 8 11

" 12

13

"Transparenz"

1967
(gta)
" (L C) " (L C Corb

E) 0 14

1968 2 18 (Adolf

Max Vogt) "


--AV

(Ozenfant) )) (Apr le

Cubisme)

" 15 '

"

20
"

16

1960 4 1 TH)
1967
(Franz
Oswald)

"" 17

18

1968

'"""

" 19
!?

1968 3 19 "

" 20
(gta)
1973

erspecta)) : 13/14 21 1976

1968

11

(Michelangelo) (San

Lorenzo) 22 ((

((i

'

h
1951 - 1956
1956 |:

(Alberti) 23
()

24
"

""" 25

1954 3
(Harwell

Hamilton

Harris)

"""" 26

""
"

"
""'
(Peter Eisenman)
(Panofsky) "

"

""

12

(Giedion) (Picasso)
)) (Arlienne)

1962
))

(The Beginnings of

Art) '

1944
(Gyorgy Kepes) ))

(Language of

Vision) ?"
" (!:

) "
' (Mohol
y.N
a

gy

r)
{)) (Spac

Time and Architecture)

((

30 1989 ""
31

32

i
reuer)

"'"
(Klaus erdeg)

33
"

34
"" 35 ""
{
1954
1

: (Domino scheme) (Van

Doesburg) 1923 "" (Counter Constructions) 0

36

'. 30

37

38
( Objectivity )
(De Stijl)
25 )) (Interlational Architecture)
"

(MoMA) 4 "

(Modem Architecture) 1932 ""


1936 ""

(Cubism and Abstract Art)

MoMA

""""" 40
H {

""

41 4
"

(Contrast and Condescension) 1928

:"

"

"" 42 1936
?

.K. (Theodor
14

K. Rohdenberg) 1954

wd

V
T
2

()~ 39 MoMA

1933 - 1954
""

(Revolution and Clarification)

"

":"

"" 45
"

" 46
1950 (J osef Albers)
(Richard

Adams Rathbone)

))

to Functional Design)

(Introduction

20

;""
47
(Harvard

Graduate School of Design) 1950


(Wemer Seligmann)

"" 48

IJ (Letarouilly)

49 1951 "" (Proporzioni) "


" (Modular)

(Rudolf Wittkower) )) (Architectural Principles


in the Age of H umanism)
50

1968

15


"
51

!""
(Style) " ( the

Intemational

Style)

""

": (Mahew

Nowick.i) 1952 ))

in Modem Architecture)

(Origins and Trends

52

""

"
""""
(Wlf"

"
" u

"
"(

{) 53

(the Smithsons)

("
"""")))

(The

Heroic Period of Modem Architecture)


1955 - 1956 |f

"'"~

"'\
16

"""
"

""""

55
1969
1961 2 4 (ETH)

"
40 ""

56 1975
u """

57 1968

1957
""):

1. ""//>
2. /( gta. 4 ) />

3. /( gta. 4 )0
4. // 58

(Stuttgart
Weissenhofsiedlung) Neubhl

59

(Julius Posener) "


J "?:

" 60 1983 10
(Do Schnebli) : "(

)
\"

61

b 1947

"" (The

Mathematics of the ldeal V


17

(Palladio) "

""
" u"""

(Collage City)

"" 62
1956 i
(Cooper
Union) 1972
))

- 1 5

(Education of an

Architect) ~';H
"

63
" York

Five)

?
(Garches)

))

(Five Architects)

""

" 1969 "


"

(CASE Group) (

) (Kenneth Frampton) 1972 :

~
"

?!"

""

! 1983 9 26
" 30

{k "
18

67

.. ( 105

1968 3fj5 3

'

1968 3 12

1968 3 12 "{)

)) (Transparenz) , Kommentar von

.. AR

Bemhard

l] E

(? )

/ 1968 1974

63

"

((Perspecta))

13/14 1971 ) 3

// 1989

( 1982

""

72

1968 1 17

((

"" (literal)

AFM. f:

"" (phenomenal)

5 20

5 22

(Stanislaus

237

" i" 1989

fr Sch weizerische

(Harmen Thies)

und Kunstgeschichte)) 27

("Glaken" ({Daidalos)) 33

((Zeitschft
Archie

10

von Moos) 1970

14 )

- 238

""

11

":

""

" ({Perspecta)) 8

""

1963

("

((Oppositions)) 13

"i

1970 121 )

"

10

324 ':

: "1962 E

"

6
7

12

1968 3 12

334

({Perscta)) J .

165

-n

Shaw)

""

'

" ( 165 ) '

" ( 173 )"

19

13

..

z 24

""
25

(()) 103 64

26

((i )) 33 1953

1 - 21 12a , """
"'

14

15

1954 3 10 5JJ3

2 67 "

1967 ? 28

( 9 "

1968 2 18 S

...

(Adolf

Max Vogt)

")

i"

(Lee Hirsche) (Irwin

"

u1) (

1968 2

)0 1954 3 13

: "1.

16

2.

17

: 1968 5 7

() 3.

4.

1968 4JJ4

( ((
fli)) 33 )"

27

((|)) 33

(Carpenter Center)

28

S. (( Eternal

Present) : (The Beginnings of


Art) , A'W' 1957

18

- 34

: 1968 2 21
"" 18

{: 1962 )

1952 ))

""

News) 47 ":

"" 1968 3

"

l ~

modern)

(Art

(Transparency: primitive and

19

20

1979 , Hoe/von

21

29

E)) 2 ((Perscta))

1951 6 - 7 )"

(Art Means

Reality)

30

// (()) ,

3 22 !" 51

f?:

41 z

"

31 :-
"
wiedergelesen" ((Daidalos)) 33 1989
I

""

106 "

"~"

Paradigm) ))

(Program vs.
(The
Cornell journal of Architecture) 1983

20

Vision :

: 1944 6 12

17)

24

)) (Langlage

of

"

23

"27 Mrz

Fu (rrer)" ]

({
13/14 286

22

32
33

Architecre) : 1942

"

106 "

"

..

..

"

))

"......

(the
Decorated Diagram. Harvard Architecture
and the Failure of the Baaus Legacy) ,

:"0 ( 5-6 )
41

1932

: MIT 1983

(Henry

78

RuU Hitchk) (

34 84

:m) 1922

35

>> (le

since

it

25 "

"" 1975

1975 4 25

(Wemer

"""

Welt' banni by the naons" ({aS!gna))

"

38 1989 6-8

42 (()) 10

"

43

") ""

44

54 ("""

))(Genius

and the obocracy) : Duell , Sloan


& Pearce , 1949 "
{. i" ft

45 "

44

(emer

'

"

(Die Jahre in Texas md die ersten


Jahre an der TH Zrich 1956 - 196 1),
((Architekturlehren)) , Bemhard li an
der Architekturabeilung der ETH Zrich

"
46

50 ""

"
47

.A. : (()}

(Z.ch 1989) 7-9

// 1950

j"

" E

"

J :

({>> 34

"

37 " 30

48 33 () I 35 (i

"

39

.K. (Theodor K.
Rohdenburg): ((:
)) (A History of the School of
Architecture: Columbia U niversity)

1954 34

semann) "

38

Oechslin) "Neues Bauen in der

""
".. (

36

Intemationa1 Style , Arcmre

1922) W. Non 1932

71)
49

(Ben Veinreb)

1992 ? 3

(1996 10 4

(Alfred

"""

H.

Barr , Jr.)

40

(Owen

40 ""
>>

(What is Modem

- 50 z (Guadet)
Jones)

(L Edifices

de Rome

i
Modem

21

l ))
Sa1 Pierrer

Basilique de

le

(La

59

Vatican)"

50

51

1968 13

4 56 i
60 1978 7 2

52 35
53

"DS Verhaltnis von Funktion


und Form 1 der Architektur als Grundlage
Fur die Ausbilung des Architekten" ,
({Schweizesche Bauzeing)) 34 1961

(Emst

. t (Stanislaus

Heidrich) "Beitrge

zur Ghichte und

Kunstg'hichte"

"

Methode der

1917 F. (F. Kreis)

""

"Der Kunstgchichtliche Gegenstand. E1


Beitrag zur Deutung des Sbriff"

von Moos ,

61

1983 10 23

1928 43

54 "'wiedergel1"

62

109 107 31

"" (Program
vs. Parad.igm) 24

(1989 )

{ 1973

55 1966 4

""

"E1e

1969 CASE"

({De 1964 663 )

(Conferen of Architects 1 the


Study of the Environment meeting)"

{{

zeitgemasse
Architektenausbildung anstreben" (

"

(1972 h 1975

"

"

"0 {

""\-

(Alan

56

Colquhoun):

" z

63

~ (Diana Lewis) -

(Kim

MIT 1989 57

: Rizzoli

1980 - 1987)) N
- 67
"Das erhaltnis von
Funktion und Form in der Architektur
a.ls Grundlage Fur die Ausbildung des
Architekten" , ({Schweizerische Bauzeitung))

{{

({:

)) ittenbom

1975 3 5 7

34 1961 ?

1975

65

66

(Frontality vs.

Iil--iLLaEfb

(David

Shapiro): ":
Transparenz /

67

1983 9 26

Jrit

"u)) 91 59

1957"

58

Rotation) 9

13 3

"ahlfach

"""
'hduf
f
t

Bel Etage"
"" (Von Ideen zu
Methode im Architekturunterricl

"Club

22

Shkapich):

1980 8

64

1960 9 16

57

(Ebeth Der)

" ({.

:*

(Transparency)
1.

2 :!J

1}.
;

3. [] Durchlauc

? (His ransparency the Du. )


(Transparent)

1. ;

::
" (opaque) "
" (trans Iucent )

2.
X

3. ::(

4. :
::

5. : a. ::;

.::;

;;
c

1 5 ;

))

* ((Perspecta)) 8
1964

23

" (Transparncy) ""

(simultaneity )"

(space time) ,

(interpenetration) ""

""

(superimposition) ,

"

" (ambivaler:
11'1

"

"

. (Transparenz

1968) :
( 13-17 25)

Miguel

Rubio arillo

- 12
18 19 20 22 23 25

24

:
z

---

"

'
g () "

"
))

(Vision in

Mon)

"""""

"2
"

" 3
(Jam Joyce) """"

"Ij'

" 4

""
Y-""

: (()):
- 1944 77

(Moholy-Nagy): ((

)) :

1947 157 159 188 194

3
4

210
350

25

z 1911

- 1912

""
i (Minkows)

))

(Mont

Sainte Victoire)

1904 - 1906 (

73cmx92cm

: {{:
}}

(Picasso: Fifty years of

His Art) 2
1946 5 68

26

{
(analytical

cubisfil)

'

: -:Jj

j1

?}}
(Braque)

(The Clarinet Player


)} (The Portuguese

27

(Le Cl arnettiste)

. Cooper)

106cmx67cm

JIIDi

28

cmx40cm

29

|a

(Robert Delaunay)
(Juan Gris)

1 11 )) (Simltaneous Windows

1912 )) ( Still Life


?

(L ntres Simules)

46cmx40cm

""
:

30

IJ

(Nature Morte)

54.5cmx46cm

: IJ

31

g
' P

))

(Abstract of an

Artist)

1921 ""

"

"

1930 ))

(La

(Femand Leger) ))

Sarraz 6)

(The Three

Faces 7)

;
;

;Ij""

""

(()) ,

1947
75

32

62cmx47cm

33


IJ
g

50

96cmx 140cm

">>

(trompe l' oeil eff.ts)

34

?
(
"""

"

35

8
}} (L' Arl sienne

P.

73cmx54cm

i: ((
}) | 1954

490

36

- 491

( 10)

10

1910 - 1929

Verlag fr Architektur

'

37

(
11) g
:

11

Moranc 1929

( 12)

38

( 8)

12

39

()'
Fp "
"~

----:2
i

( 10)

IJ

(
)
u

() ;
z

( 11)

z () ,

40

13

41

fbl$

( 11 l
z
""()

14

42

g
a

1920
(Russian Constructivists) :

""

(Mondria"
(Kl) (Kandinsk (Malevich)
(El Lissitsky) (Van Doesburg)

43

( 1
( 16)
( 17)

(
19)

15

16

"

44

3 ?
( 18)

"'J

17

(League

of Nations , 1927)

45

18 i

46

19-1

: {{ (L 'Architecture Vvant

Moranc 1929

47

48

19 2

1929

:((} Moranc

:'

49

( 17)

( 20)

20

1927

(ETH)

50

( 21) IJ

SII.N

9 21

'"\

1927\\\\

(ETH)

51

( 22)

52

( 23)
g

23

. 1927

(ETH)

53

24

1927

(TH)

'

( 24)

54

"" z
"

z """

"""() "

(looserting

up a buil)"

"

( 25)

g 25

() g

"" (species) "

: ((>> i
;+1 1954 489

: ((->>
1954 54

55 :

loosening up ""

""""
i

()

55

1948 )) (Paint19

Toward

Archltecture) (Duell

Sloan

& Pear) 1964

1948

19
$

(Qud) (Dudok)

(Niemeyer) (A)

(Miro) 1920
'
"""
f'

57

"" (toward) ?

<<
b

"

""
<<

()
1/4

"

1918

1945

""
1920
1945

((

58

1948
1955

{
?

~:""
()
?""
:""

;
i (Sullivan) "
":{
))

(The Autobiography of an

Idea

59


10

{
g

'

60

"
( 40 )

"j"(

43 ):
ffi

l "

61

tt {Saint- (Meurthe Valley);

(Vogesen) "
"""{ 30 32

62

Ftb

.-

31

1945

/;

JJ11

40 :

()

"

71< (Canopus)

63


(Jaip)

".,
4

64

""
)) (Collage Citv)

1978 1+1 J

: (Taliesin

West)

(Gris)

4Y

65

: (Sa Andre
(Mantua)

: (VaE)

66

ggm

-w
d" (o

m E
mB
ir
BW
HR

: (Rsidence pr de

Cherchel) , 1942

68

: (Villa Sara-

bhai) , 1955

"$

"0 ( 43 )

: 1945

69

(Ullmann Hose)

(Martin

House) , 1904

\ J

(Fag

1893 10

70

Water) ,

1936 "

1917 (La
de-Fonds)

Chaux-

"" (Maison

Turque)

( Auguste Perret)

( 33 )

*:

'(Richar C.
)) (le

MacCormac) ,
Anatomy of W right' s

Aesthetic) , (()) 1968 2

""( Jean Baier)


""
i
(
) ;

': (Maison

Currutchet) , 1950

)(

) : s

l
11'1

72

i
(Villa Carthag
1928

.,"

^ {

r.~-

..d<_

"!

E()

l!J:

-_---

" (( 31
1 .1910 1929

) i:
2005 26

73

JA

(C d'Oro)

: 43 :

"
"

74

3
: f*

s 1 4

* 1955

1955
;

1973 ((Perspecta)) 13/14

1955 "':

" 293

296

75

-.J

M
N E

(1)

1=1

(2)

1935 ""

77

78

.1:

...

"..

'.....J....

F j

.~....i

_,_-

1: .-:1?=.;.2I

"( word-to-word)

Jj_? )

79

(Manufacture

Saint-cli

""

( 43 )

81

~:

"""" g

1918 :
""1E

82

""
1950

1953
(AixProvence) CIAM 1 G ......

1930

" (V:e
Radise) 1954
"" (New Brutalism)

1918 ...... 1933


""

(Louis
Kahn)
-

""
1918

1950 ...... 1965


20 IJ
(New Canaan)
~ 1954 3 (Vincent Scully) ))

(Art

NeVS)
'"

"
:

1968 3

83


(1982 )

84

1968

{?
:

85

(Linn)

""

2
1968
] :

""

"""
"

- (Bernard
)}

Berenson): ((
(Italian Painters of the

Renaissance) , ((

40 1957 180

""
(Christian NorbergSchulz)
"" (Toward an Authentic
Architecture) }} (The Presence
of the Past) 1980 21

86

""

z
:"
"

""

:{

?""?

?
s

""

" 3 9 (Louis Svan)


)) ( Autobiography

of an

Idea) "

J'

(Hora G10) :
))

(Form and Function) ,

1 47
60 61 xv

87


"

:
y f (x) ""

""'"
"
:
! (Diocletian

of

Spalato) (stadion

of

Palace

Domitian)

"

..._____---

~
19 60 {1;1 50
{

""
:

"
"

-: (()) (Vers
une Architecture)
Fral, 1958 146
: ((-)}

1947 184

88

a?

$
""?
:

"" (use) ?
" (form)

:"
J6
"...

""
(Descartes)

""; 17

: (()) (New

World of Space) :
1948 71

(Rudolf Amheim):
)) (Dynamics of
Arcltectural Fonn)

; 1977 9

89

:()

"
""( 1)

:
"

(00 burg)

( 2)

90

2b

()()

2c

""
""

2a

2d

"""
"""

91

g ""

( 3b 3c)
""()""()

1893 - 1906

3a

(Arthur

Drexler)

":

"

" ((

"

)) Fral , 1958

: (())

150

(Ravensburg) , 1960 15

92

'.

3c

3bjc

:""""

93

;J J:
/

:"": ((
-)) . 1960 15

94

(No):

( 5)

""

""

5c

(P.

Letarouilly)

?
""

111

"

"()()" 10_"

(Brnard Berenson)
)) (Athetics

and History):

<<

II

""

(Neo
Rationalists) (volme)

""

z ""

13

;
""

10 -( Steven
))

Peterson) ,
(Space and Anti-

Spa) , (()) (Harv Review)


MIT 1980

89
11

: (())

(Doubleday

Anchor) , 1954 97

96

12 (John

Berger): ({
(Moment of Cubism)
(Weidenfeld and
Nicolson) , 1969
1]))

13 :
1948

" E
" 14

()

""

14
)) (Matati

of the ldeal Villa and Other


Eay: MIT 1976 194

97

( 6)

''c.crER

[
(Martin House)

98

1904 1 70 ]

""

""

( Collage) Ij l5
"IJ
16

15 - (Fred

Koetter): {{>> {(
1975 8 89
83

99

(Spalenvorstadt)

9 11 13

""

(Jansen) (Lucek)

1981

100

umam

&

f..

101

"

/
/
/
/

/
/

102

1979 - 1980 e

'

/' '

,
/

'

, ,,

"

...

...

'

... -

..

---

...

/
/

103

tOI
(lt)ld sueH)

Q: 6L61

2d*

'

O~f

k }~

: A

JB

105

.....

.
,

..
,
...

,
.

(Kleinbasel) 19

20

1981 1982

:IJ . (Willy Kladle

106

107

1978 *
:
(Church of San

* "Oieci Immagini per Venezia"

1980

108

Itt1ta--

ii

1ii?iitFAAUEe

u
ta

222

zan

gtpp

hi''

Gi)

109

-E
~I

iij:1f)

11

1979

-- 1980 a :

(Mcel Meili)

- (Fabrizio Gellera)

110

?:

( Carthusian)

111

v
ENZL~fFd1
aawUFd

zjh

113

112

.,. i

..

1;

Ee

E:rzzaz--E

U i

I
|

*
197~ 1980 z
R. (.
( St.

Lucek)

Brunschoten)

113


!!iiit

=1

J
\

"

_....-

./
J

J
"
F

,
d

114

*:

1979 - 1980 :
M. (M. Jarzombek)

115

116

""\

1971 290

117

Poch

Poch

"1'

oeuf poch"

"pocher" "la

poche" ""
"pocher" "
" "poch"

: eingesackt
poch

poch

t
"
'!

poch

11 R

"

",. -..-....

""""

fU poch

poch ""

""

""

poch""

"

"

poch

119