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HIV/AIDS AND ITS DETRIMENTAL

EFFECTS

PUBLIC SERVICE PACKAGE

KhaylaDaniel:

SourceI.(Novel)TheOriginofAids:JacquesPepin
In the novel, The Origin of Aids, Jacques Pepin discusses the
transmission and epidemiology of HIV/Aids. It can be noted that AIDS was
first discovered approximately thirty years ago and henceforth is and was
one of the worlds most devastating pandemics. The author worked as an
infectious disease physician in Japan and Africa. In order to gain a better
understanding of the disease, Pepin did research on the historical and
evolutionary trends. It has been found that the disease was first transmitted
to humans from chimpanzees. Human activities, unsanitary medical
practices, and promiscuous activity in combination with the constant
emergence of diseases through intercontinental travel and urbanization
would later contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS. The novel is a decent
source. It provides a vast scale of information on the history of the disease
along with additional prehistoric diseases from the viewpoint of developing
countries.

SourceII.(PopularMediaArticle)MedicalNewsTodayHIV/AIDS:Causes,Symptoms,
Treatment: Christian Nordqvist
Citation:Nordqvist,Christian."HIV/AIDS:Causes,SymptomsandTreatments."MedicalNews
Today.MediLexicon,Intl.,11May.2016.Web.
7Dec.2016.http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/17131.php
ThearticleHIV/AIDS:Causes,Symptoms,andTreatmentwaspublishedbyMedical
NewsToday(MNT).MNThasbeenapopularsourceforthelatestdiscoveriesrelatedtodisease

andhealthforthepastthirtyyears.Inthearticle,informationcanbefoundabouttheactualHIV
retrovirus,thetransmittance,andtheresultingdeficiencycondition.Treatmentandpossible
preventionmethodsarealsodiscussedinadditiontoaddressingthecommonmythsand
stereotypesthatareassociatedwiththedisease.Thearticleisagoodsourcebecauseitclearly
identifiesamajorityofthetopicsthatIwishtocoverwithinmypublicservicepackageandthen
some.

SourceIII:(ScholarlyArticle)PopulationBulletin:FacingtheHIV/AIDSPandemic
Citation:Lamptey,Peter,MerywenWigley,DaraCarr,andYvetteCollymore."Facingthe
HIV/AIDSPandemic."FacingtheHIV/AIDSPandemic.PopulationReferenceBureau,Sept.
2002.Web.07Dec.2016.
PopulationBulletinisapublicationthatisapartofthePopulation
ReferenceBureau.Thepublicatorreleasesscholarlyarticlesthatdiscusses
topicsthatarerelatedtothehumanpopulationandbreaksthetopicsdownbased
upondemographics.Thisarticleisdifferentfromtheothersourcesbeingthatit
discussesHIV/AIDSbydiscussingitasapandemic,meaningadiseasethathasspread
worldwideandbymentioningthediseaseanditseffectsfromasocialstandpoint.Usingthis
articleasasourcewillprovidemewiththesocialstereotypesandstigmasalongwith
demogrpahicinformationthatIcanincludewithinthepublicservicepackage.

An
HIV/AIDSisadiseasecommonlyknownasHIV.Itconsistsoftwo
components;theactualHIVvirusandAIDSwhichisamedicalcondition
thatresultsfromthevirus.Thetwoareintertwinedhencethereasonthat
thetwotermsareoftensaidincombinationwithoneanother.HIVhas
detrimentaleffectsontheimmunesystemsofthosewhoareinfected,
inhibitingtheirabilitytofightdisease.ThisalonemakesHIV/AIDSoneof
themostdeadlydiseases.

IntroductiontoHIV/AIDS
TheHistoryofHIV/AIDS

ResearchshowsthatHIVwasfirsttransmitted
tohumansbychimpanzees.Longago,chimpanzees
wereaprimarysourceoffood,asaresulttheywere
hunted.TheHIVvirusitselfwasofadifferentvirus
strainknownastheSimianImmunodeficiencyvirus
andwasspreadamongsttheprimatessimilarlyto
humansbysexualcontact.Asthehunterscameinto
contactwiththeinfectedbloodandconsumedthe
meat,theygotexposuretothevirus.Overtheyears,
thevirusmutatedtoanewformthathadthecapacity
toinfecthumansandcausedisease.
WhiletheHIVvirushasbeenaroundfor
centuries,AIDSdidnotbecomeprevalentuntilthe
twentiethcentury.ThefirstcaseofAIDSwasreported
HIVvsAIDS:Whatsthe
duringtheJuneof1981.Thecaseinvolved5
DifferenceBetweenthe
homosexualmalesthatwerelivinginLosAngeles.
Two?
Themaleswerereportedforhavingseverecasesof
HIVstandsforhuman
AIDSstandsforauto
Pneumonia.Themenwerenotedforbeingfairly
immunodeficiencyvirus.
immunedeficiency
healthy.Pentamidinewasrequestedfortreatment.The
HIVitselfisaretrovirus syndrome.AIDSisthe
Spontaneousorderforthemedicinesparkedconcern
thatinfectsanindividual, medicalconditionthat
ofapharmacytechnician.Hisconcernwouldlater
targetingtheimmune
occurslateroninthestate
leadtothestudyofHIVanddiscoveritsrelationship
WhatMakesHIVDifferentfromOtherViruses?
systemanddecreasingthe ofinfection.WithAIDS,the
tothedevelopmentoftheautoimmunedisorder.
Unfortunately,viralinfectionscannotbecured,medicationcanbe
potentialoftheT.cells. infectedindividualsuffers
administeredthatcanhelptolightenthesymptomshowever.The
Withthedegradationof fromacomprimisedimmune
infectedindividualmustwaitanaverageof5to7daysforthe
suchcells,theindividual systemduetothe
virustorunitscoursebeforetheyarecompletelyrelievedof
isunabletoperform
degredationofT.cellsby
symptoms.Evenwhenanindividualisnolongerexperiencingthe
regularimmunefunctions theHIVvirus.Amajorityof
symptomsofavirus,thevirusisstillpresentwithinthe
andresponses.This
theindividualswhoget
individualsimmunesystem.WithHIV,thesymptomsandsigns
increasestheindividuals infectedwiththeHIVvirus
ofinfectionwillnevergoaway.Astimeprogresses,thecondition
vulnerabilitytoother
willdevelopAIDS.
onlygetsworse.Theindividualexperiencesdecreasedimmune
infectiousdiseases.
functionwhichinturnincreasestheirsusceptibilityofdisease.

TheSpreadandTransmittanceofHIV
AbouttheHIVVirus:
Whiledeadly,theHIVvirusisalsoveryfragileinabiologicalsense.Theviruscannot
surviveforalongamountoftimeonceoutsideofthehostsbodyorwithinexposed
bodilyfluids.Inaddition,thevirusmustpenetratethroughbrokenskinforthevirustobe
BloodtoBloodTransmission:
transmitted.Forthisveryreason,HIVcannotbespreadthroughcasualphysicalcontact
suchaskissingandsharingthesamefacilitiesasaninfectedindividual.Therearetwo
Bloodtobloodtransmissionoccurswhenthe
typesofHIVviruses:HIV1andHIV2.HIV1isthemostcommonvirus.Withinthe
bloodofaninfectedindividualbecomesinjected
virus,therearearound10variousstrains.HIV2iscommoninWestAfricaandisnotas
intothebodyofahealthyindividualthroughthe
easilytransmittedasHIV1.Inaddition,thevirusprogressesataslowerratethanHIV1.
breakingoftheskin.Suchcanhappenbytheuse
ofhypodermicneedlesthatarecommonlyused
HowisHIVSpread?
fortattoos,piercings,anddruginjection.Inthe
TheHIVviruscanbespreadthroughsexualcontact,bloodtobloodtransmission,
past,thereweresituationsinwhichHIVwas
mothertochildtransmission,andbycontaminatedhypodermicneedles.
SexualContact:
passedamongstindividualsthroughblood
Oncethevirusinfectsthebody,thevirionusesthehosts
transfusions.Thiswasduetotheinabilityto
resourcestoreplicateitself.Withthatbeingsaid,thevirus
SignsandSymptomsof screenthevirus.Developedcountriesdont
becomespresentwithinthebloodandbodilyfluidsof
Infection:
sharethesameriskasdevelopingcountrieswith
thosewhoareinfected.Thevirusgetsspreadduring
transmittancethroughtransfusions.
Fatigue,weightloss,fever,andthe
intercoursewhenbodilysecretionsareexchanged.
swellingoflymphnodesare
MothertoChildTransmission:
commonsignsofinfection.
Therearemanycasesinwhichanindividualis
Infectedindividualsexperience bornwithHIVanddevelopsAIDSearly.Thisis
symptomsasaresultofinfectionsthesadrealityformanychildren.HIVcanbe
thatarecausedbyfungi,parasites,
transmittedfrommothertochildthroughthe
bacteria,andviruses.Inmany actualpregnancy,childbirth,andbreastfeeding.
cases,theinfectedindividualis Thismodeoftransmissionismostprevalentin
unawareoftheirinfection.They Developingcountries.
overlooktheirsymptomsothers
howevermaybeasymptomaticfor
monthstoyears.

HIV/AIDSandSociety
HIVandAIDSisaveryseriousissue.Itisoneofthemosttalkedaboutdiseasesof
todaysmillennium.Thishandoutwilldiscussvariousaspectsofthediseasesuchas
theagegapnotedwithininfectedindividuals,thegendergap,discrimination,and
differencesininfectionindevelopinganddevelopedcountries.

TransmissionandInfectioninDevelopingCountriesvs.
DevelopedCountries:
Ratesoftransmissionaretypicallyhigherindeveloping
countries.Manyofthedevelopingcountrieslackresourcesand
adequatehealthcare.Inaddition,manyofthedeveloping
countriesareoflowerincomeandeducation.Currentlythe
countriesthatarehavingthehighestnumbersofinfection
includeAfrica,specificallySubSaharanAfrica,countries
withinAsia,andthosewithinLatinAmerica.Thisisnottosay
thatdevelopedcountriesdonotalsohavehighinfectionrates,
itsjustthatdevelopedcountrieshavemoreresourcesandare
abletobettersupportinfectedindividuals.Europealongwith
TheAgeGap:
CentralAsiahavethehighestprevalenceofHIV.
Infectionratesarehighestamongstindividualsaged25andyounger.
Thisisduetotheirincreasedlikelihoodtoparticipateinmorehighrisk
activitiessuchasunprotectedsex,havingmultiplepartners,prostitution,
druguse,andgettingtattoos.Lackofeducationalsocontributestothe
agegap.Youngerindividualsarentalwaysawareoftheseriousrisks
associatedwiththeiractions.Theagegapisalsoduetochildrenwhoare
bornwiththedisease.Theagegapsvarybasedonthecountry.
Discrimination:
Manyarefearfulofdisease.Thefearofothersdrives
ignoranceanddiscriminatoryactionsthatfurther
complicatethelivesofthosewhoareinfected.Such
discriminationagainstthosewhoareinfectedwith
HIVcanbeseencommonlyintheworkplace,
school/childcareagencies,andwithininsuranceand
medicalcareproviders.Insociety,theinfected
individualisoftenshunned.Intheworkplace,those
whoareinfectedarecommonlyfiredorprevented
fromobtainingajobduetothecostsandproductivity
lossassociatedwiththeindividualbeingoutofwork
duetoillness.Inthepast,childcarefacilitieswere
hesitanttocareforinfectedchildrenandinfants.
Receivingtreatmentfortheillnessesassociatedwith
AIDSisverycostlymanycannotaffordsuch
treatment.Inaddition,healthinsuranceratesarehigher
forinfectedindividuals.Thismakesthemedicalcosts
unbearable.

Gender Gap:
Themostcommonmodesoftransmissionforfemales
involvesunprotectedintercoursewithmeninfectedwith
HIV.Duringunprotectedintercourse,femaleshavea
higherriskofbeinginfectedthanmen.Thisisduetothe
structureofthefemalereproductivetract.beingthatthe
femalereproductivestructurehasalargersurfacearea
thanthemalereproductivestructure,tissuesusceptibility
comesintoplaywhichresultsininfection.Forthemale

populationhowever,semencontainsahigherconcentrationofthevirusthanvaginalsecretions,making
seminaltransmissionmoreprevalent.

LinksforVisualDesign:
https://www.canva.com/design/DACGu8RqP_g/TfQxJImjjJ6AD9mj29MlOw/edit?
utm_source=popup&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=infographic&utm_campaign=onboard
ing
https://www.canva.com/design/DACG1Ej43ys/KGs3u88oPbquCSubc05MGA/edit
AdditionalSources:
http://images.clipartpanda.com/populationclipartpopulationcolorgroupmd.png
http://www.clipartkid.com/images/685/vaccineclipartclipartscoJsKxCpclipart.jpg
http://clipartix.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/Freemedicalclipartclipartpicturesgraphics
illustrations24.gif
https://www.grad.uiowa.edu/sites/gc/files/u7/HIVvirusWEB.jpg
https://ourworldindata.org/hivaids/
http://www.avert.org/professionals/hivaroundworld/westerncentraleuropenorthamerica/usa
http://www.avert.org/sites/default/files/USAdonut.png
http://www.igwg.org/source/57.3facingaidspandem_eng.pdf