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Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity

Key Issue 1 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?


Distribution of Ethnicities Within the United States
1.

Define ethnicity:

2.

Define race:

3.

In the chart below identify Americas four ethnic groups (other than
white). Give their percentage of total U.S. population and shade
in 4 colors the areas on the map in which they are clustered.
Ethnic Group

AFRICAN AMERICANS IN USA


IN USA

% of U.S. Population

HISPANICS

ASIAN AMERICANS IN USA


USA

AMERICAN INDIANS IN

4.

What is the major Hispanic group in the U.S. where are most
settled?

5.

What are the major Asian groups in the U.S where are most
settled?

6.

Provide an example to illustrate that African-Americans or Hispanics


in the U.S. are more urbanized.

7.

Complete the chart below to summarize the historic migration


patterns of African-Americans.

Migration from Africa

Migration to the
North

Migration Within
Cities (ghetto)

Differentiating Ethnicity & Race


In the terms of the concept of race
8.

What is the problem with the way the U.S. Census Bureau defines
Asian?

9.

What is the difference between African-American and black?

10.

How does the U.S. Census Bureau consider Hispanic/Latino?

11.

What is racism?

Describe the following concepts dealing with the geography of race (#s 12
14).
12.

Separate But Equal

13.

White Flight

14.

Blockbusting

Case Study in Division By Race South Africa (Complete the case study
as organized below)
15.

Define apartheid:

16.

Explain the key components of the apartheid system:

17.

Complete the following timeline of South African history and


annotate the map of 10 homelands.

1652
1795
1948
1991
1994 -

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 2 Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed Into
Nationalities?
Pgs. 217 224
Rise of Nationalities
1.

Define nationality:

2.

Though they are very similar, use the chart below to show how
nationality differs from ethnicity.
Ethnicity

Nationality

3.

Define self-determination:

4.

Define nation-state:

5.

Why is Denmark a fairly good example of a nation-state?

6.

Two regions of Denmark prevent the country from being a perfect


nation-state. List and describe them in the chart below
Denmarks Non-Danish Regions

Region:

Region:

Description:

Description:

7.

Shade and label Denmark and her territories on this map of the
North Atlantic region.

8.

What is nationalism?

9.

How do nations and states foster it?

10.

What are centripetal forces?

Multinational States
11.

What is a multiethnic state? Give an example.

12.

What is a multinational state? Describe in detail how the United


Kingdom is an example.

13.

When the Soviet Union dissolved into 15 countries in the 1990s, the
new countries were based on ethnicities. Other than Russia, they
can be divided into 4 groups based on their location. Complete the
chart below to indicate the countries in each group. NOTE: Be sure
to look at the map on pg. 220 to familiarize yourself with the
location of these countries.

Baltic Region
(3 states)
Eastern Europe
(3 states)
Central Asia
(5 states)
Caucusus
(3 states)
14.

Note the major religion and language of each of the Baltic States.

15.

The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are blurred
for what reasons?

16.

What did the majority of Moldovans want when they gained


independence? Who opposed this?

17.

What religions and languages are most common in the Central


Asian countries?

18.

Have there been ethnic problems in Central Asia? If so, where? If


not, why not?

19.

How many different nationalities (ethnicities) are found in the


country of Russia?

20.

Why are independence movements flourishing among these


groups?

21.

Russia has resisted the independence movement in Chechnya for


what TWO reasons?

22.

In the Caucusus region, there have been many problems with the
new nations and ethnicities. Summarize the main problems and
note specifics of regions and peoples for each.

Azeris (Azerbaijan)

Georgians
(Georgia)

Armenians
(Armenia)

23.

Using Figure 7-19, whats the main problem with the Caucusus
region?

Revival of Ethnic Identity


24.

How did Communists suppress the issues of ethnicity and


nationalism? (Give several examples)

25.

With the fall of Communist governments in the 1990s, what kinds of


problems have arisen in what places? Why?

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 3 Why Do Ethnicities Clash?
Pgs. 224 229
Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality
1.

Make notes on major issues in each of these ethnic conflicts as


well as shade and annotate the map as necessary.

Case Study: Africa


Ethiopia & Eritrea

Sudan

Somalia

2.

Read Ethnic Competition in Lebanon and complete the case study


by listing the religions of Lebanon and annotating them on the map
provided (use map pg. 226).

Case Study Lebanon


Religions of Lebanon

3.

How did Lebanons 1943 constitution seek to solve the religion


problem?
The president

The premier

The speaker of the chamber of deputies

The foreign minister

4.

How has the make-up of the population changed since 1943?

5.

What happened in 1975? How has it been resolved?

Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State


6.

When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, how
was the region divided politically, and how was the region divided
ethnically (religiously)?

Answer #s 7-13 regarding Forced Migration


7.

How many people found themselves on the wrong side of the


boundary in the 1940s?

8.

How many Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan (Pakistan,


today)?

9.

How many Muslims migrated to East Pakistan (Bangladesh, today)?

10.

How many Hindus migrated from East and West Pakistan into India?

11.

What happened to many of the refugees as they traveled?

12.

Why is the region of Kashmir a problem?

13.

Note the following regions on the map below:

India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Sri Lanka
Nepal
Butan
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan
Sinhalese & Tamil in Sri Lanka Case Study
14.

Complete the chart that compares the two ethnicities of Sri Lanka in
terms of language and religion.

Ethnic Group
and %

Language (family,
etc.)

Religion

Where?

15.

How has violence between these two groups (which goes back
2,000 years) been suppressed during the past 300 years?

16.

What occurred in 1948?

17.

Which group is unhappy? Why?

18.

Annotate the map of the religious-ethnic geography of the island of


Ceylon, the country of Sri Lanka.

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 4 What is Ethnic Cleansing?
Pgs. 229 235
1.

Define ethnic cleansing:

2.

How is ethnic cleansing different than normal warfare?

Ethnic Cleansing in Europe


3.

List the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.

4.

List important/interesting facts regarding the creation of the postWWI country of Yugoslavia.

5.

Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of
Josip Tito, identify the following of Yugoslavias:
FIVE NATIONALITIES
FOUR LANGUAGES
THREE RELIGIONS
TWO ALPHABETS

6.

What ethno-political problems did the country face after the death
of Tito in the 80s and the fall of Communism in the 90s?

7.

Why did Serbs and Croats in Bosnia (aka Bosnia-Herzegovina)


ethnically cleanse themselves of Bosnia Muslims?

8.

What was agreed upon at the accords signed between these rival
ethnicities in Dayton, Ohio in 1996?

9.

Who got the best deal? Who got the worst deal? Explain.

Regarding the region of Kosovo, answer #s 10-13.


10.

What country controlled Kosovo?

11.

What ethnic group lives in Kosovo (and %)?

12.

With the breakup of Yugoslavia, what began to happen in Kosovo?

13.

How did the U.S. and U.N. respond?

14.

Define balkanized:

15.

Define balkanization:

16.

If peace comes to the Balkan Peninsula in the next few years, why
will it be in a tragic way according to the author of the textbook?

Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa


17.

Give the historical background of the two rival groups in Central


Africas countries of Rwanda and Burundi.
Hutus

18.

Tutsis

What is the situation in Rwanda and Burundi today?

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 1 Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
Pgs. 206 - 217
Distribution of Ethnicities Within the United States
1. Define ethnicity:
Identity with a group of people who share the cultural
traditions of a homeland or hearth.
2. Define race:
Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor
3. In the chart below identify Americas four ethnic groups (other than
white). Give their percentage of total U.S. population and shade in 4
colors the areas on the map in which they are clustered.
Ethnic Group
Hispanics (Latinos)
African-American
Asian American
American Indian

% of U.S. Population
15%
13%
4%
1%

4. What is the major Hispanic group in the U.S.?


Mexican
5. What are the major Asian groups in the U.S?
Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean & Vietnamese

6. Provide an example to illustrate that African-Americans or Hispanics in


the U.S. are more urbanized.
African-Americans make up 85% of the Detroit population but
only 7% of the rest of Michigan. Hispanics make up 25% of
New York Citys population but only account for 1/16th of the
population for the state of New York.
7. Complete the chart below to summarize the historic migration patterns
of African-Americans.
Migration from Africa
Forced migration to
American colonies in
1700s as slaves thru
triangular trade

Migration to the
North
Emigrating from
South to North after
WWI & WWII to get
factory jobs

Migration Within
Cities (ghetto)
African-Americans
were clustered in
ghettos or housing
projects within a city
In 1950s densities
were high &
neighborhoods began
to expand in 1970s

Differentiating Ethnicity & Race


In the terms of the concept of race
8. What is the problem with the way the U.S. Census Bureau defines
Asian?
It lumps together people from different Asian countries
9. What is the difference between African-American and black?
African-American identifies a group of people with extensive
cultural tradition. Black is just a term that denotes dark skin
10.
How does the U.S. Census Bureau consider Hispanic/Latino?
Hispanic & Latino arent considered races. So, they arent on
the census. Hispanics can select white, black or other
11.
What is racism?
The belief that race is the primary cause of human traits and
capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent
superiority of a particular race
Describe the following concepts dealing with the geography of race (#s 12
14).
12.
Separate But Equal
Discouraged special interaction and kept blacks and whites in
separate neighborhoods through restrictive covenants

13.
White Flight
Instead of integrating, whites fled areas that anticipated black
immigrating into
14.
Blockbusting
Neighborhoods would change from all white to all black due to
unscrupulous real estate practices
Case Study in Division By Race South Africa (Complete the case study
as organized below)
15.
Define apartheid:
Physical separation of different races into different geographic
areas
16.
Explain the key components of the apartheid system:
Based on race a legal status was determined: where one could
live, go to school, work, own land, vote, etc.
17.
Complete the following timeline of South African history and
annotate the map of 10 homelands.
1652 Apartheid system
began when Dutch settled
in Cape Town; people
known as Afrikaners
1795 Britain seized the
Dutch colony & controlled
S. Africas govt until mid
20th century
1948 Afrikaners gained
control when their
Nationalist Party won
elections when colonial
rule in Africa was being
replaced; reinstated
Apartheid law & forced
99% of S. Africas black
population into 10
homelands
1991 Apartheid was
repealed & the African
National Congress
legalized; leader Nelson
Mandela released from jail
1994 All South Africans
permitted to vote; Nelson
Mandela became 1st black

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 2 Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed Into
Nationalities?
Pgs. 217 224
Rise of Nationalities
1. Define nationality:
Identity with a group of people who share a legal attachment &
personal allegiance to a particular country
2. Though they are very similar, use the chart below to show how
nationality differs from ethnicity.
Ethnicity
- Shared values such as religion,
language & material culture
- Identifies groups with distinct
ancestry & cultural traditions,
i.e. Polish Americans

Nationality
- Shared values such as voting,
getting a passport, performing
civic duties
- Identifies citizens of a country,
i.e. people of the United States

3. Define self-determination:
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
4. Define nation-state:
A state whose territory is occupied by a particular ethnicity
that has been transformed into a nationality
5. Why is Denmark a fairly good example of a nation-state?
Territory occupied by Danish ethnicity closely corresponds to
the state of Denmark: shared sense of unity; nearly all speak
same language; nearly all Danish speakers live in Denmark
6. Two regions of Denmark prevent the country from being a perfect
nation-state. List and describe them in the chart below
Denmarks Non-Danish Regions
Region: Faeroe Islands
Region: Greenland
Description: Speak Faeroese; not
attached to mainland Denmark;

Description: 88% Inuit people;


Greenland controls their own

21 islands ruled by Denmark for


last 600 years

domestic affairs; official


language is Greenlandic

7. Shade and label Denmark and her territories on this map of the North
Atlantic region.

8. What is nationalism?
Loyalty and devotion to a nationality
9. How do nations and states foster it?
Promoting symbols such as flags and songs
10.
What are centripetal forces?
Attitudes that unify people and enhance support for a state
Multinational States
11.
What is a multiethnic state? Give an example.
A state that contains more than one ethnicity United States
12.
What is a multinational state? Describe in detail how the United
Kingdom is an example.
A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions

of self-determination that agrees to coexist peacefully by


recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
U.K. has 4 main nationalities England, Scotland, Wales & N.
Ireland. They have some ethnic differences but very different
historical experiences. Wales & Scotland merged into England,
and when Ireland broke away from England, N. Ireland chose to
remain under British rule.

13.
When the Soviet Union dissolved into 15 countries in the 1990s,
the new countries were based on ethnicities. Other than Russia, they
can be divided into 4 groups based on their location. Complete the
chart below to indicate the countries in each group. NOTE: Be sure to
look at the map on pg. 220 to familiarize yourself with the location of
these countries.
Baltic Region
(3 states)
Eastern Europe
(3 states)
Central Asia
(5 states)

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

Caucusus
(3 states)

Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia

Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine


Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

14.
Note the major religion and language of each of the Baltic States.
Estonia Lutheran & speak a Uralic language related to Finnish
Lithuania Catholic & speak a language in the Balto-Slavic
branch
Latvia Lutheran with Catholic minority speak a language in
the Balto-Slavic branch
15.
The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are
blurred for what reasons?
Because they speak similar East Slavic languages & all are
mostly Orthodox Christians
16.
What did the majority of Moldovans want when they gained
independence? Who opposed this?
To reunify with Romania; the Ukrainian & Russian ethnicities in
Moldova opposed reunification with Romania
17.
What religions and languages are most common in the Central
Asian countries?

Population is mostly Muslim practicing Islam and speak Altaic


languages
18.
Have there been ethnic problems in Central Asia? If so, where?
If not, why not?
In Tajikistan tensions between Tajiks & Uzbeks where fighting
has left 15% of the population homeless
In Kazakhstan tensions between Kazakhs & Russians, but they
have been able to coexist peacefully
19.
How many different nationalities (ethnicities) are found in the
country of Russia?
39

20.
Why are independence movements flourishing among these
groups?
Russia is unwilling to suppress the movements forcibly
21.
Russia has resisted the independence movement in Chechnya for
what TWO reasons?
Russia doesnt want other ethnicities to start movements &
because Chechnya has large petroleum deposits
22.
In the Caucusus region, there have been many problems with the
new nations and ethnicities. Summarize the main problems and note
specifics of regions and peoples for each.
Azeris (Azerbaijan)

- Western part of Azerbaijan is separated from


the rest of the country by Armenian land.
- Azeris are also located in Iran

Georgians
(Georgia)

- Many ethnicities Georgian, Azeri,


Armenian, Russian, etc.
- Abkhazia & S. Ossetia are recognized by
Russia as 2 independent states & they operate
as though independent of Georgia

Armenians
(Armenia)

- 98% of population is Armenia


- Battled over boundaries with Azeris
- Nagorno-Karabakh is Armenia but with an
Azerbaijan boundary

23.
Using Figure 7-19, whats the main problem with the Caucusus
region?

Territory occupied by ethnicities doesnt match the boundaries


of states
Revival of Ethnic Identity
24.
How did Communists suppress the issues of ethnicity and
nationalism? (Give several examples)
Use of centripetal forces; use of Russian language; minimized
organized religion
25.
With the fall of Communist governments in the 1990s, what kinds
of problems have arisen in what places? Why?
Problems occurred in the Balkans (Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,
Czechoslovakia) where nation-states could not be outlined
peacefully. These countries were dismantled because minority
ethnicities opposed dominance by majority ethnicities.

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 3 Why Do Ethnicities Clash?
Pgs. 224 229
Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality
1. Make notes on major issues in each of these ethnic conflicts as well
as shade and annotate the map as necessary.
Case Study: Africa
Ethiopia & Eritrea
- Eritrea given to
Ethiopia after
WWII
- Eritrean
legislature
dissolved & use of
Tigrinya language
banned
- Eritrea rebelled
in 30 year fight &
gained
independence in
1993 but still
disputed border
- Eritrea has
Christians &
Muslims and 2

ethnic groups
(Tigrinya & Tigre)
- Ethiopia is
multiethnic 2
major groups:
Amharas
(Christians) &
Oromo (Muslim
fundamentalists)

Sudan
- Arab-Muslim govt in north &
other ethnicities in south, west &
east
- S: black Christians & animists
(war with North resulted in
forming South Sudan)
- W: black Muslims in Darfur
fought with North (U.N.
considered rapes & murders by
Sudanese govt genocide)
- E: many ethnicities fought
govt with support from Eritrea
over disbursement of oil

Somalia
- Mostly Sunni Muslims that
speak Somali
- Population is divided among
several clans & sub-clans
- Declared independent states of
Somaliland (N), Puntland (NE),
Galmudug (center),
Southwestern Somalia (S)
- Islamic militias took control in
2000s

2. Read Ethnic Competition in Lebanon and complete the case study by


listing the religions of Lebanon and annotating them on the map
provided (use map pg. 226).
Case Study Lebanon
Religions of Lebanon
Maronite
Greek Orthodox
Shiite Muslims
Sunni Muslims
Druze Muslims

3. How did Lebanons 1943 constitution seek to solve the religion


problem?
Each religion was to be represented in the Chamber of
Deputies
The president
Maronite Christians
The premier
Sunni Muslims
The speaker of the chamber of deputies
Shiite Muslims
The foreign minister
Greek Orthodox Christian
4. How has the make-up of the population changed since 1943?
Muslims are the majority now, not Christians
5. What happened in 1975? How has it been resolved?
A civil war where each religion established a militia to protect
its territory. Each religion received half of the seats in
parliament.
Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State

6. When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, how was
the region divided politically, and how was the region divided ethnically
(religiously)?
The land was divided into 2 countries: India & Pakistan, and
they were religiously divided Hindu (India) & Muslim (Pakistan)
Answer #s 7-13 regarding Forced Migration
7. How many people found themselves on the wrong side of the
boundary in the 1940s?
17 million people
8. How many Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan (Pakistan,
today)?
6 million
9. How many Muslims migrated to East Pakistan (Bangladesh, today)?
1 million
10.
How many Hindus migrated from East and West Pakistan into
India?
9.5 million
11.
What happened to many of the refugees as they traveled?
Killed by rival religious members
12.
Why is the region of Kashmir a problem?
Pakistan & India never agreed on a boundary line

13.

Note the following regions on the map below:

India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Sri Lanka
Nepal
Butan
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan
Sinhalese & Tamil in Sri Lanka Case Study
14.
Complete the chart that compares the two ethnicities of Sri
Lanka in terms of language and religion.
Ethnic Group
and %
Sinhalese 82%

Language (family,
etc.)
Indo-European
family & IndoIranian branch

Religion

Where?

Buddhism

Southern Sri
Lanka

Tamil 14%

Dravidian family

Hindu

Northern Sri
Lanka

15.
How has violence between these two groups (which goes back
2,000 years) been suppressed during the past 300 years?
Because they were under European control
16.
What occurred in 1948?
Sri Lanka became independent

17.
Which group is unhappy? Why?
Tamil because Sinhalese dominate the govt, military,
commerce & Tamil feel their ethnic identity is jeopardized.
18.
Annotate the map of the religious-ethnic geography of the island
of Ceylon, the country of Sri Lanka.

Chapter 7 Learning Guide Ethnicity


Key Issue 4 What is Ethnic Cleansing?
Pgs. 229 235
1. Define ethnic cleansing:
When a more powerful ethnic groups forcibly removes a less
powerful ethnic group in order to create an ethnically
homogeneous region
2. How is ethnic cleansing different than normal warfare?
Removal of ever member of the ethnicity: men & women;
children & adults; frail/elderly & strong youth
Ethnic Cleansing in Europe
3. List the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, former Yugoslavia
4. List important/interesting facts regarding the creation of the post-WWI
country of Yugoslavia.
- Yugoslavia was created by the Allies to unite several Balkan
ethnicities because they spoke similar south Slavic languages
- Yugo - Slavic for south
- Josip Broz Tito governed for 27 years
5. Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of
Josip Tito, identify the following of Yugoslavias:
FIVE NATIONALITIES
Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrans, Serbs & Slovenes
FOUR LANGUAGES
Croatian, Macedonia, Serbian & Slovene (Montenegrans
speak Serbian)
THREE RELIGIONS
Catholic in North, Orthodox in East & Islam in South
TWO ALPHABETS
Roman Alphabet (Croatian/Slovene) & Cyrillic
(Macedonian/Serbian)
6. What ethno-political problems did the country face after the death of
Tito in the 80s and the fall of Communism in the 90s?
The creation of independent countries where territories didnt
match the nationality

7. Why did Serbs and Croats in Bosnia (aka Bosnia-Herzegovina)


ethnically cleanse themselves of Bosnia Muslims?
To justify their case from breaking away from Bosnia. Ensured
they were better candidates to join with Serbia & Croatia.

8. What was agreed upon at the accords signed between these rival
ethnicities in Dayton, Ohio in 1996?
Bosnian Serbs got the land; Bosnia Croats got of the land;
Bosnian Muslims got of land
9. Who got the best deal? Who got the worst deal? Explain.
Bosnia Serbs got the best deal because they got the most land
with only 1/3 of the population.
Bosnian Muslims for the worst deal because they only got 25%
of the land even though they made up 50% of the population
Regarding the region of Kosovo, answer #s 10-13.
10.
What country controlled Kosovo?
Serbia
11.
What ethnic group lives in Kosovo (and %)?
Albanians (90%)
12.
With the breakup of Yugoslavia, what began to happen in
Kosovo?
Serbia began to ethnically cleanse Albanian majority
13.
How did the U.S. and U.N. respond?
Launched an air attack on Serbia
14.
Define balkanized:
Description of small geographic areas that couldnt be
organized into stable states because of the many ethnicities
with antagonisms toward each other
15.
Define balkanization:
Process where a state breaks down through conflicts among its
ethnicities
16.
If peace comes to the Balkan Peninsula in the next few years,
why will it be in a tragic way according to the author of the textbook?
Because ethnic cleansing would have worked by forced killing
or migration to create ethnic homogeneity

Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa


17.
Give the historical background of the two rival groups in Central
Africas countries of Rwanda and Burundi.
Hutus
- 85% of population
- Farmers in Rwanda & Burundi
- Gained control in 1962 & began
to ethnically cleanse Tutsi in
1994

Tutsis
- 15% of population
- Cattle herders who migrated to
Rwanda & Burundi
- Took control & made Hutus
their serfs
- Counter-attack and cleansed
Hutus

18.
What is the situation in Rwanda and Burundi today?
Rwanda & Burundi remain calm; most refugees have returned to
the countries; democratic elections have been held