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Design of Steel Structures

Introduction

L Karthi

Contents
Structural Steel and its application
Euro codes- Introduction, Scope of structural Euro codes, National
Application Document(NAD), C-EC3: Concise Eurocode3
for design of steel buildings in U.K.

Axes convention
Actions and Combination of Actions
Material Strengths, yield strength and steel grades
Classification of Cross Sections
Flexural Members

Structural Steel and Its Applications


Characteristics
Elasticity: Ability of metal to return to its original shape after loading and
subsequent unloading
Fatigue:

Cyclic loading and unloading stresses of material above its


endurance limit and leads to failure

Ductility: Deformation without fracture beyond the elastic limit

(ineleastic behavior) - High Ductility


Toughness:

Combination of strength and ductility High toughness

Maintenance: Susceptible to Corrosion when exposed to air and water

Use paints, or weathering steels


Fireproofing: Strength reduces with increased temperature
Fireproofing required

Structural Steel and Its Applications contd..

Advantages
Economy
Durability
Design flexibility
Simplicity
All weather construction
Easy repair
Recyclable -100% any number of times

Structural Steel and Its Applications contd..

Structural Steel The Evolution


1780 - 1840

Cast Iron.
( iron-carbon alloys, >2% C)
arch-shaped bridges upto 30m span.

1840 - 1890

Wrought Iron.
Spans upto 100m.

1870 - 1920
Bessemer Converter
Introduction to Carbon Steel
1920 - Till date

(soft, ductile fibrous, <0.1% C)

(from pig iron)

Steel (C - 0.002% -2.1%)


Third most popular construction material
after Concrete and Timber.

Structural Steel and Its Applications contd..

The Iron Bridge (1779) Shropshire, England

Euro codes
set of common structural design standards
developed and specified by the European Standards Organization, CEN.
applicable to all the European countries.
Limit State method of design is adopted in Euro code
Each country has its own European Standards(EN)

In the UK, it is the British Standards Institution which has designated DD

ENV.
In UK, the Euro Code for structural Steel Design is known as DD ENV

1993-1-1 Euro Code 3; Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.1: General Rules
for buildings (together with the UK National Annex).

Euro codes contd..

Scope of Structural Euro codes

The first 2 codes are material independent


EN 1990 Basis of structural design
EN 1991 Action on structures
Remaining 8 codes focus on materials:
EN 1992 Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Design of steel structures
EN 1994 Design of composite structures
EN 1995 Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Geotechnical design
EN 1998 Design of structures for earthquakes
EN 1999 Design of aluminium structures

Euro codes contd..

Concise Euro code 3


What does a National Application Document(NAD) mean?
NAD a document to use with the EN (European Standards) for providing
information to designers relating to product standards for materials.
What does Concise Euro code (C-EC3 ) mean?
C-EC3- Concise Euro Code 3 for the Design of Steel Buildings in the
united kingdom published by The Steel Construction Institute , UK.
This document is an abridged version of DD ENV 1993-1-1
covers only the clauses which are necessary for the design of types of steel
structures most commonly used in the United Kingdom.
NOTE: ALL DESIGN EXAMPLES ON STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS,

COLUMNS, COLUMN SPLICES , AND BASE PLATES AND CONNECTIONS WILL


BE DISCUSSED, EXPLAINED AND SOLVED IN ACCORDANCE WITH C-EC3 .

Euro codes contd..


Concise Euro code 3 contd..

Many of the design provisions in C-EC3 document are presented in tabular

or chart format as shown in Table 1 below

Euro codes contd..

Structural Steel Sections - Types

Hot-Rolled Sections.
Steel
Structural
Sections

Cold Formed Sections.


Built-Up Sections.

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Hot-Rolled Sections.

UC
(a) Wide-flange
Shape

(f) Pipe
Section

UB
(b) British
Standard
Beam

(g) Structural
Tubing

C
(c) British
Standard
Channel

(h) Bars

L
(d) Angle

WT or ST
(e) Structural
Tee

(i) Plates

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Cold Formed Sections

(a) Channels

(d) Angles

(b) Zees

(c) I-shaped double channels

(e) Hat sections

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Built-Up Sections.

Built-up (I) shapes.

Built-up (C) Channels.

Built-up (L) Angles.

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Tension Members.

(a) Round and rectangular


bars, including eye bars
and upset bars.

(d) Rolled UC and UB


sections.

(b) Cables composed


of many small wires.

(e) Structural
tee.

(c) Single and double


angles.

(f) Built-up box


sections.

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Compression Members.

(a) Rolled UC-and UB- (b) Double


sections.
angles.

(c) Structural (d) Structural


tee.
tubing

(f) Built-up section

(e) Pipe
section

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Bending Members.

(a) Rolled UB-and


other I-shaped
sections.

(d) Angle

(e) Channel

(b) Built-up
Sections.

(c) open web joist.

(f) Built-up members

(g) Composite steel-Concrete

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Structural Steel Sections


Conforming to
BS 4-1:2005 :
Structural steel sections. Specification for hot-rolled section
Applies to : universal beams; universal columns; universal bearing piles;
joists; structural tees cut from universal beams; structural tees cut from
universal columns; parallel flange channels.
Mass, length and depth tolerances for taper flange joists and channels are
also given.

BS EN 10034:1993 :
Structural steel I and H sections. Tolerances on shape and dimensions

Euro codes contd..


Structural Steel Sections Types contd..

Structural Steel Sections


A section shall be designated by the serial size in millimeters and mass per unit length
in Kg/m.
Ex: UB/UB 914x419x388 indicates a beam with D=921.0mm, B= 420.5mm at 388Kg/m

Figure 1 (Source: Arya (2009) Design of Structural Elements Pg.377)

Axes Convention
1.7 Conventions for member axes BS EN 1993-1-1:2005, EN 1993-11:2005 (E) (P20)
(1) The convention for member axes is:
x-x - along the member
y-y - axis of the cross-section

z-z - axis of the cross-section


(2) For steel members, the conventions used for cross-section axes
are generally:
y-y - cross-section axis parallel to the f1anges
z-z - cross-section axis perpendicular to the flanges

Axes Convention
Euro Code (CEC3)

Along the
member
Major Axis

Minor Axis

Figure 1.1: Dimensions and axes of sections

BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
EN 1993-1-1:2005 (E)

Y
Z

Actions and Combination of Actions


Actions in Euro Code is terminology for loads and imposed deformations.

Dead and imposed loads are generally referred to in EC3 as Permanent

and Variable actions respectively.


The term Actions is used when referring to:
Persistent loads (G): Ex: Permanent actions or dead loads such as self

weight
Variable loads (Q): Ex: Variable actions or imposed loads, wind loads and

snow loads
Accidential loads (A): Ex: Explosions, fire

Actions and Combination of Actions contd..

A comparison between the values of partial safety factor for loads which

are adopted in C-EC3 and BS:5950 are given in Table 2:


Table 2:

Material Strengths
C-EC3 designate the steel grades as Fe 430 or S275 , represent steel

equivalent to Grade 43
Fe 510 or S355 which represent steel equivalent to grade 50.
Table 3.1 show the nominal values of yield strength, fy and ultimate

tensile strength, fu, for structural steel to EN 10025-2 (Table 3.1, EC3)

Table 3.1: Nominal values of yield strength(fy) for different grades of steel

Classification of Cross Sections


The four classifications are identical: C-EC3 designate the steel grades as
Fe 430 or S275
C-EC3
Class 1

Plastic

Class 2

Compact

Class 3

Semi Compact

Class 4

Slender

Classification of Cross Sections contd..


Clause 5.5

Class1 can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity


required from plastic analysis without reduction of the
resistance.

Class 2 can develop their plastic moment resistance, but


have limited rotation capacity because of local buckling.

Class3 the stress in the extreme compression fibre of the


steel member can reach the yield strength, assuming an
elastic distribution of stresses, but local buckling is liable to
prevent development of the plastic moment resistance.

Class4 local buckling will occur before the attainment of yield


stress in one or more parts of the cross-section.

Classification of Cross Sections contd..


Clause 5.5

The classification of a cross-section depends on the width to


thickness ratio of the parts subject to compression.

Compression parts include every part of a cross-section


which is either totally or partially in compression under the
load combination considered.

The various compression parts in a cross-section (such as a


web or flange) can, in general, be in different classes.

A cross-section is classified according to the highest (least


favourable) class of its compression parts.
Alternatively the classification of a cross-section may be
defined by quoting both the flange classification and the web
classification.

Classification of Cross Sections contd..

Classification of Cross Sections contd..

Bending Moment

Shear Force

Shear Force contd..

Shear Force contd..

Shear Force contd..

Serviceability Limit State

Serviceability Limit State contd..

Types of Beams

Types of Beams (Flexural Members)

Girders usually the most important beams.


Stringers Longitudinal bridge beams spanning
between floor beams.
Floor Beams In buildings, a major beam usually
supporting joists; a transverse beam in bridge
floors.
Joists A beam supporting floor construction but
not major beams.
Purlins Roof beam spanning between trusses

Types of Beams

Problem on fully restrained beam


Select a suitable UKB in S275 steel to function as a simply supported beam

carrying a 140mm thick concrete slab together with an imposed load of


7.0kN/m2. The beam span is 7.2m and beams are spaced at 3.6m intervals.
The slab may be assumed capable of providing lateral restraint to the
beams top flange.

Problem on fully restrained beam


In a composite floor construction steel beams are placed at 2.5m intervals

to support RCC slab. The span of the beam is 7.5m. The loading on the floor
is as follows.
1. characteristic permanent action including the self weight = 3.7kN/m2
2. Characteristic variable load on the floor
= 5.0kN/m2
Design a suitable steel section of grade S275 steel to support the floor loads
and check the section for serviceability conditions.

Problem on unrestrained beam


Steel beams are placed at 4m intervals to support a storage area. The span

of the beam is 6.0m. The loadings on the floor are as follows.


1. characteristic permanent action including the self weight = 5.7kN/m2
2. Characteristic variable load on the floor
= 5.0kN/m2
Design a suitable steel section of grade S275 for the unrestrained beam to
support the floor loads.

Thank You