This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Lecture 7: Energy Methods
**

Introduction

Introduction

• Objectives: To learn how to apply energy methods to solve problems involving deflection • Scope:

– Discussion of work and strain energy – Determination of the displacement and slope at a point on structural members and mechanical elements using:

• Principle of conservation of energy • The method of virtual work • Castigliano’s theorem

MEC 3611

2

Introduction

• Energy methods are an alternative to the direct approach (equilibrium methods) • Based upon the concept of strain energy • Advantages:

– Can be used to obtain the required answer without solving for set of quantities that are of no particular interest for particular situation. – Effective in cases involving members of variable cross sections, in complex problems dealing with elastic stability, and in dealing with multi-element structures. – Facilitate the determination of displacement of slender members under combined loads. – Are central to the development of finite element method.

MEC 3611

3

Outline

• External Work and Strain Energy • Elastic Strain Energy for Various Types of Loading

MEC 3611

4

**Work and Energy
**

F O F dr O y dx z x F Let the deformation at the the point be infinitesimal and be represented by vector dr. The work done W = F dr For the general case: W = Fx dx i.e., only the force in the direction of the deformation does work.

MEC 3611

5

Consider a solid object acted upon by force, F, at a point O.

**Amount of Work done
**

Constant Force: If the force is constant, the work is simply the product of the force and the displacement, W = F x F x

Displacement

**Linear Force: If the force is proportional to the displacement, the work is 1
**

W= 2 Fo xo

F

Fo

xo

x

Displacement

6

MEC 3611

Strain Energy

x F k Consider a simple spring system, subjected to a Force such that F is proportional to displacement x; F=k x. Now determine the work done:

W = 1 1 Fx = kx 2 2 2

This energy (work) is stored in the spring and is released when the force is returned to zero. The work done by external forces in producing deformation is stored within the body as strain energy.

MEC 3611

7

**Strain Energy Density
**

y a a a y Fx x Consider a cube of material acted upon by a force, Fx, creating uniaxial stress σx=Fx/a2 causing an elastic displacement, δ in the x direction, and strain ex=δ/a 1 W = Fxδ 2

1 1 1 2 3 U = σ x a e x a = σ x e x a = σ x e xV 2 2 2

a

δ

x

U 1 3 3 1 u = = σxexa / a = σxex V 2 2

Where U is called the Strain Energy, and u is the Strain Energy Density.

MEC 3611

8

**Shear Strain Energy
**

y a a a y τxy x Consider a cube of material acted upon by a shear stress, τxy, causing an elastic shear strain γxy

1 U = τ xy γ xy a 3 2 1 1 3 3 u = τ xyγ xy a / a = τ xyγ xy 2 2

γxy

x δ = γxya

MEC 3611

9

Total Strain Energy for a Generalized State of Stress

**1 u = (σ xε x+σ y ε y + σ z ε z+τ xyγ xy + τ yzγ yz + τ xzγ xz ) 2
**

εx =

1 σ x −ν ( σ y + σ z E 1 εy = σ y −ν ( σ z + σ x E 1 εz = σ z −ν ( σ x + σ y E 2( 1 + ν ) γ xy = τ xy E 2( 1 + ν ) γ yz = τ yz E 2( 1 + ν ) γ zx = τ zx E

[

] ] ]

[

[

MEC 3611

10

**Strain Energy for axially loaded bar
**

∆

F

L A

F σaxial = A FL ∆= AE 1 F 2L U = F∆ = 2 2 AE

F = Axial Force (N) A = Cross-Sectional Area Perpendicular to “F” (mm2) E = Young’s Modulus of Material (MPa) L = Original Length of Bar (mm)

MEC 3611

11

Comparison of Energy Stored in Straight and Stepped bars

L A

∆a

F

L/2 nA

L/2 A

∆b

F

(a) U = F L

2

(b)

2 AE

F 2L / 2 F 2L / 2 U= + 2nAE 2 AE F 2L 1+ n = 2 AE 2n

3 F 2L Note for n=2; case (b) has U= which is 3/4 of case (a) 4 2 AE

MEC 3611

12

**Strain Energy for Beam Elements
**

F(x) x

y

z y

dA dx y

A beam that is symmetrical in cross-section is subjected to bending. Consider an infinitesimal volume element of length dx and area dA as shown. This element is subjected to a normal stress: σx=My/I 1 u = σ xε x The Strain Energy Density on this element is: 2 (For linear elastic material)

MEC 3611

=

1 2 σx 2E

13

**Strain Energy for Beam Elements
**

Substituting, σ x =

My I

and multiplying by the Volume of the element

udxdA =

M 2 y2 2 EI

2

dxdA

Hence, the Strain Energy for a slice of the beam, of width dx, is

dU = ∫ udxdA

A

x

∫

dx y

A

M2 dx ∫ y 2 dA = 2 A 2 EI y 2 dA = I xx

M2 dU = dx 2 EI

M2 U= dx 2 EI

∫

MEC 3611

14

Assumptions….

• There is no axial force on the element (case of pure bending) • The shear stress & strain on the element is relatively small, and hence the contribution of shear strain energy is negligible. • These assumptions are generally valid for long slender beams.

MEC 3611

15

**Strain Energy in Entire Beam
**

Consider the cantilever beam as shown L F x x I y

M = − F ( L − x)

δ

L-x M V

F

U=

∫0

L

[F (L − x )] 2 dx

2 EI

F 2 L3 = 6 EI

MEC 3611

16

Example 1

MEC 3611

17

Example 1 - Solution

MEC 3611

18

Example 2

MEC 3611

19

Example 2 - Solution

MEC 3611

20

Example 2 - Solution

MEC 3611

21

**Shear Strain Energy
**

F(x) x

y

z

dA dx

U = udV =

y

dV

τ xy 1 ( u = τ xy γ xy ; τ xy = Gγ xy ⇒ u = ) 2 2G

f is called a form factor: Circle f=1.11 Rectangle f=1.2 Tube f=2.00 I section f=A/Aweb

22

2

G τ xy = f V / A; Where V = shear force 1 U= 2

∫

2 1 τ xy

2∫

2

∫∫

A

L

0

dAdx AG

2

fV

1 L fV 2 U= ∫ dx 2 0 AG

MEC 3611

Example 3

P Determine Elastic Strain Energy due to shear strain for simply supported 3-point bending member of constant X-section.

For 0 ≤ x≤L/2: V=P/2

x L/2 y

Shear Force

P/2

L/2

-P/2

PL/4

Moment MEC 3611

Note by symmetry we can find the total strain energy by doubling the strain energy of the LHS.

23

Example 3 - Solution

Recall… for rectangle x-section z b y Compare with h Izz= bh3/12 A = bh

1 L fV 2 U= ∫ dx 2 0 AG

A = 12 I / h 2 fP Lh 1.2 P Lh Uτ = = 96GI 96GI

2 2 2 2

For most metals G ≈ 0.4E:

P 2 L3 Ub = 96 EI

** 3h 2 U τ = U b 2 And for slender beam, L/h=10 L U τ = 0.03U b
**

MEC 3611

24

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd