Development of an Automatic Arc Welding System Using Smaw Process

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Development of an Automatic Arc Welding System Using Smaw Process

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DOI 10.1007/s00170-004-2171-y

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Received: 4 July 2003 / Accepted: 5 March 2004 / Published online: 26 January 2005

Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Abstract This paper describes a developed automatic welding

control system for alternating current shield metal arc welding.

It replaces manual operations which require a well-trained technician. We derived a mathematical model of the welding control

system and identified the value of the system parameters thereof.

A fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller modulates the rate of an

electrode feed mechanism that regulates arc current. The electrode feed rate mechanism with this controller driven by an AC

servomotor can both compensate for the molting part of the electrode and the undesirable fluctuation of the arc length during

welding operation. It can also be easily applied to any welding

system whose electrode is consumed during the welding process. By maintaining the magnitude of the arc current at the

desired value and ensuring the stability of the arc length, excellent welding performance can be obtained. The simulation and

experimental results both show that this automatic welding control system, based on the fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller,

can perform effectively.

Keywords Fuzzy Gain scheduling PID controller

Shielded metal arc welding Welding robot

Nomenclature

a

e

e

na

nb

nk

J

mechanism.

Error signal of the fuzzy logic controller.

Derivative error of the fuzzy logic controller.

Number of poles of the ARX model to be identified.

Number of zeros plus one of the ARX model to be

identified.

Identification delay.

Total inertia of the electrode feed-rate mechanism.

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

National Central University,

Chung-Li, Taiwan 320

E-mail: t331166@ncu.edu.tw

Tel.: +886-3-4267304

Fax: +886-3-4254501

ki

ku

vf

vm

Ai

Bi

Ci

Di

Kd

Ki

Kp

Ku

Kt

Tu

Ua

K p

K d

K p,i

K d,i

C(s)

E(s)

G(s)

H(s)

U(s)

Ia (s)

Ir (s)

i

i

Coefficient ratio of the molting rate to the arc voltage.

Electrode feed-rate.

Electrode molting rate.

Fuzzy set on the corresponding supporting set e.

Fuzzy set on the corresponding supporting set e .

Fuzzy set on the corresponding supporting set K p .

Fuzzy set on the corresponding supporting set K d .

Derivative gain of a PID controller.

Integral gain of a PID controller.

Proportional gain of a PID controller.

Oscillation gain at the stability limit under the P-controller.

Motor constant of the electrode feed-rate mechanism.

Period of oscillation at the stability limit under the

P-controller.

Arc voltage.

Crisp output variable K p of the fuzzy controller.

Crisp output variable K d of the fuzzy controller.

Value of K p corresponding to the grade of MF i for

the ith rule.

Value of K d corresponding to the grade of MF i for

the ith rule.

Controller of the welding control system.

Error signal of the reference input Ir (s) and the welding current Ia .

Control plant of the welding control system.

Current sensor of the welding control system.

Output signal of the current controller.

Transfer-function of the arc current Ia of the welding

control system.

Transfer-function of the reference input of the welding

control system.

Integral time constant: a singleton membership function fuzzy number.

Membership function.

Fuzzy set of the corresponding supporting sets .

Truth value of the ith rule of the membership function

values in the antecedent part.

282

Ai

MF value of the fuzzy set Ai , given some value of e.

Bi

MF value of the fuzzy set Bi , given some value of e .

xSmall () Fuzzy output variable for the rule Small.

xBig () Fuzzy output variable for the rule Big.

1 Introduction

Welding machines are widely used in the industry. Of a variety

of welding processes, stick electrode welding is the most common. It is more formally known as shielded metal arc welding

(SMAW) and conventionally performed by manual operators.

Although the labor wages continue to rise up and manufacturers

are moving to automate their processes for increasing productivity, SMAW still holds a large share of the total welding filler

metal business. This is largely due to its attractive advantages

including exceptional versatility, low cost of equipment, convenient power source, low maintenance costs, durability, relative

simplicity of operation, and ease of set-up [1, 2].

The welding performance can be improved by appropriate

inverter control [3]. There have been many control methods proposed for this such as output current slope control and pulsed

output current control [4]. Since these control methods have basically ignored the welding problems occurring in the metal transfer procedure itself, this may result in the welding procedure to

be performed under non-optimal conditions, so that there can be

only limited reduction of spatter generation, as described in [5].

A more desirable welding performance can be achieved by incorporating an instantaneous output current control, which is based

on a metal transfer procedure using the feedback current control

method [6, 7]. However, the practical implementation of this type

of control is complex, since it requires an optimum reference

waveform of output currents, and sophisticated adjustment of the

gain of the current controller. All papers on this subject have focused on gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc

welding (GTAW).

The SMAW process is conventionally performed manually.

The arc is initiated no sooner than the electrode touches the base

metal. After igniting the electrode, the heat of the arc melts the

surface of the base metal to form a molten pool at the end of

the electrode, and the electrode supplies the filler metal in the

welding process. In the SMAW process, the electrode also acts as

a consumed material in this welding process. It requires a welltrained technician to perform such a consumed electrode welding

technique. To develop an automatic welding control system for

replacing manual welding, the main challenge is how to control

the feed-rate of the electrode to preserve the stability of the arc

during the welding process. This is also the central object in this

study.

The best known controller for the industrial application is

the PID controller, whose design requires the determination of

three parameters: the proportional gain, integral time constants,

and the derivative time constant. The Ziegler-Nichols [8] turning method may be the most popular among the various kinds

of turning methods, which have been developed for this purpose. On the other hand, the application of knowledge-based

of fuzzy logic control [9, 10], due to its empirically demonstrated

robustness [11], as well as its applicability for unmodeled dynamic system control. Furthermore, the fuzzy control methods

can not only be used as a PID control scheme [12, 13], but it can

also be used to tune the parameters of the PID controller using

a fuzzy gain scheduling [14, 15]. This paper proposes an automatic welding system using a SMAW process based on a fuzzy

gain scheduling PID controller [16].

The schematic structure of our automatic SMAW control system is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of the computer-controlled

electrode holders driven by a welding robot, a positional table,

and a welding power supply. The servomotor A drives a welding

robot, which is served as an electrode feed-rate control mechanism moving up and down, while the servomotor B drives the

welding robot along the welding path direction. An electrode

holder is fixed to the welding robot. A current sensor is used to

generate a feedback signal, so that a closed-loop SMAW control

can be achieved. An arc current controller is used to drive servomotor A, and regulates the feed-rate of the electrode so that the

arc length can be kept stable to obtain the desired current setting

value. Consequently, this automatic SMAW control system can

be considered as an electrode feed-rate control system, or a kind

of arc current control system. The arc current controller plays

a very important role in this automatic welding control system.

283

with a very steep current output slope as shown in Fig. 2, provides the welding current. The output current is essentially constant in the normal operating range. Such a constant current

power supply is used for numerous welding processes, but primarily for flux-covered stick electrode (SMAW) welding, since

a steady current is very important in these processes. During operation, the desired welding current values are predetermined by

the operator. The fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller controls

the electrode feed-rate, based on the feedback signal obtained

from the current sensor. The desired current value is obtained by

regulating the length of the arc between the electrode and the

work-piece.

We can eliminate arc length fluctuations of a consumed electrode arc welding by modulating the feed-rate of the electrode.

Furthermore, we can stabilize the system parameters, such as the

arc current Ia and the arc voltage Ua selected for the welding

process. To maintain a stable arc length, the electrode feed-rate

v f should be equal to the consumption of the electrode or the

melting rate vm , i.e.,

vf

= vm ,

(1)

melting rate. The electrode melting rate is a function of arc current Ia and the arc voltage Ua [17, 18], i.e.,

vm = ki Ia ku Ua ,

(2)

where ki is the coefficient ratio of the melting rate to the arc current, and ku is the coefficient ratio of the melting rate to the arc

voltage. Substituting Eq. 1 into Eq. 2, we can obtain the following equation:

Ia =

v f ku

+ Ua .

ki

ki

(3)

and the arc voltage Ua , based on the assumption that the electrode feed-rate v f is equal to the electrode melting rate vm for

a specific electrode feed-rate.

The operating points of Ia and Ua must always be kept on the

characteristic curve formed by Eq. 3. The welding process with

this operating method will satisfy the condition vm

= v f . The

melting rate, vm , will not be equal the electrode feed-rate, v f ,

when the operating point deviates from the characteristic curve.

This results in a fluctuation of the arc length. Equation 3 shows

that the welding current, Ia , is dependent on the electrode feedrate, v f and the arc voltage, Ua , for a constant electrode feed-rate

welding process.

The SMAW is classified as a kind of long arc length welding

process. For this process, the welding current Ia affects the electrode feed-rate v f more than the arc voltage Ua . Thus, to simplify

the control of the automatic SMAW welding control system, the

arc voltage Ua can be treated as a disturbance. As a result, the arc

current Ia is almost proportional to the arc electrode feed-rate v f ,

then

vf

Ia =

.

(4)

ki

The electrode holders driving mechanism, which consists of

a ball screw welding robot driven by the AC servomotor A, is

a first-order velocity dynamic system. It can be expressed by

a transfer function of the form:

V f (s)

Kt

=

,

U(s)

Js + a

friction (viscous) damping coefficient of the driving mechanism.

The purpose of this driving mechanism is to control the electrode

feed-rate v f , making it equal to the melting rate vm , using the AC

servomotor A as an actuator. The input signal is the control voltage U, applied to the AC servomotor input terminal; the output

of the velocity driving mechanism is the electrode feed-rate v f .

By combining Eq. 4 with Eq. 5, and considering Ua in Eq. 3 as

a disturbance Td , the controlled plant of the automatic welding

process can be expressed as:

G(s) =

Fig. 2. Current output characteristic and the arc static characteristic for

a SMAW welding process with constant current power supply

(5)

Kt

.

ki (Js + a)

(6)

The automatic SMAW welding control system is illustrated

by the block diagram in Fig. 4. In this figure, G(s), C(s), and

H(s) represent the controlled plant, the controller, and the current

sensor, respectively. The reference input Ir (s) is the command

signal of the welding control system, while the arc current Ia (s)

is the controlled output variable. A feedback voltage signal that

is directly proportional to the magnitude of the arc current Ia is

obtained using a current sensor. The error signal E(s), which is

the difference between the reference current Ir (s) and the current

sensor feedback signal, serves as the input to the controller C(s).

Reference input Ir (s) is subtracted from the current sensor feedback signal at the summation point. We can thus obtain the error

284

scheduling PID controller can be obtained as follows:

Fig. 3. Block diagram for an open loop transfer function of the SMAW

welding control system

(1) Normalize the two controller gains K p and K d , the range between zero and one, i.e., K p , K d [0, 1] via the following

linear transformation:

K p = K p K p,min / K p,max K p,min ,

K d = K d K d,min / K d,max K d,min ,

(8)

where the appropriate prescribed ranges K p. min , K p. max

and [K d. min , K d. max ] are determined experimentally.

(2) Determine the parameters K p , K d , and by a set of fuzzy

reasoning rules of the following form:

If e is Ai and e is Bi , then K p is Ci , K d is Di , and is i

i = 1, 2, , m ,

Fig. 4. Block diagram of the controlled plant for an automatic SMAW welding process

output signal, which determines the performance of the welding

control system.

The values of many unknown parameters in Eq. 6 cannot

be directly obtained. Thus, in order to precisely design a controller that satisfies all the requirements, a system identification

technique is required to obtain the value of these parameters.

By using the ARX model in the MATLAB Identification Tool

Box, the best-fit values of the parameters for the welding control

system are estimated. Accordingly, the nominal mathematical

model of the SMAW controlling system can be expressed as

follows:

Ia (s)

19034

=

.

U(s)

s + 166.9

(7)

It is clear that the transfer function in Eq. 7 is a first-order nominal transfer function with one pole located on the left half part

of the s-plane. The DC gain of the SMAW control system transfer function is 114, which means that the nominal current output

will be 114 A if we apply 1 V as input to the system.

Once the mathematical model of the SMAW control system is

obtained via the identification method, we can design a current

controller using a traditional control design method. However,

since we assume that the arc voltage Ua is a disturbance, the

mathematical model obtained should be a nominal model with

some uncertainties. Therefore, we can not design a current controller for the welding process with sufficient precision by using

conventional control methods.

In this paper, we introduce a fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller [16] with a rule-based gain scheduling scheme to control

the current for this automatic welding control system. According

(9)

where Ai , Bi , Ci , and Di are fuzzy sets on the corresponding supporting sets, and i is a fuzzy number with a singleton

membership function.

(3) Seven triangular membership functions are used for the two

inputs e and e for the fuzzy controller, while only two are

used for the outputs, K p , K d ; four singletons define the output i .

(4) The fuzzy sets, Ci and Di , may be either Big or Small and are

characterized by the membership function (MF) , where the

membership function and the fuzzy variables x are represented by the following functions:

xSmall () = e4 ,

4

xBig () = 1 e

, for the Big rules,

(10)

(5) The truth value of the ith rule in Eq. 11 i is obtained from

the product of the membership function values in the antecedent part of the rule:

i = Ai [e] Bi [e] ,

(11)

of e, and Bi is the MF value of the fuzzy set Bi given a value

of e .

(6) We determine the crisp output values of the fuzzy controller,

K p and K d , for each rule from their corresponding membership functions based on the defuzzification process through

the following relations:

K p =

m

i K p,i ,

i=1

K d =

=

m

i=1

m

i K d,i

,

i i .

i=1

(12)

285

grade i , for the ith rule.

(7) After obtaining a normalized K p , K d , and , the PID controller parameters K p , K d , and K i can be calculated by the

following equations:

K p = K p,max K p,min K p + K p,min ,

K d = K d,max K d,min K d + K d,min ,

(13)

K i = K 2p /(K d ) .

(8) A rule of thumb for determining the range of K p and K d is:

K p,min = 0.32K u ,

K p,max = 0.6K u ,

K d,min = 0.08K u Tu ,

K d,max = 0.15K u Tu ,

(14)

Fig. 7. Parameters of the fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller in Fig. 6

oscillation at the stability limit of the P-controller [8].

Figure 5 shows the configuration of the automatic SMAW

control system with the fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller. In

this paper the gain, K u , and period Tu of the oscillation are obtained experimentally as 0.75 and 0.2, respectively. The simulation results of the automatic SMAW control system with a fuzzy

gain scheduling PID controller are shown in Fig. 6, where 80 A

step input is the reference command. Figure 7 displays the simulation results for the three control system parameters, K p , K d ,

and K i .

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram for a closed loop SMAW controlling system with

fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller

Fig. 6. Simulation result of the fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller using

80 A as the reference command input

A schematic diagram of the structure of the automatic welding control system is shown in Fig. 1. It includes a PC-based

controller (586 PC Computer), a welding robot driven by an

AC servomotor, a current sensor, and a welding power source.

The welding current is measured by the current sensor, and then

transferred to a digital signal by an A/D converter, which acts

as feedback to the PC-based controller. The controller evaluates the error signals via the implemented fuzzy gain scheduling PID control algorithm, and sends the output signal through

a D/A converter to an amplifier. The amplifier drives AC servomotor A, which is built into the welding robot, to regulate the

electrode feed-rate.

An LEM HAS 200 SI current sensor, which is of the Hall

effect type, is used to measure the welding current. The peak current and the rms rated voltage of the sensor are 200 A and 50 V,

respectively. We also use a PC-based controller, which is capable

of realizing the complex control algorithm, to control this welding system. The welding current command is set to 80 A. The

centerline of the electrode driven by the AC servomotor B is kept

vertical to the welding path and the direction of its movement

is tangential to the welding path. The current controller controls

the electrode feed-rate. The electrode type is E4313, and the core

wire diameter is 2.6 mm.

Figure 8 shows the steady state response of the experimental arc current for this SMAW controlling system controlled by

a fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller with 80 A as the reference

286

Fig. 8. Experimental arc current output response using 80 A as the step reference command input

Fig. 10. Plate position welding experiment

control process is 1 ms, the data can only be taken per 5 ms, because of the limited memory of the control computers MS-DOS

operating system. Figure 9 shows evaluated values of the three

corresponding parameters, K p , K i , and K d .

Unexpected noise can arise during the experimental process

due to errors arising from the derivative term. This kind of noise

is undesirable, especially for faster sampling times, which leads

us to calculate the derivative error, e simply by subtracting the

error at two neighboring sampling times. As a result, the value of

the derivative component is smaller than that of the other parts,

which is why the derivative gain K d in the simulation diagram

is much smaller than that in the experiment plot. Since increasing the reference input command increases the derivative gain

K d , we must set an upper limit for this parameter during the

experiments.

Figure 10 shows the experimental results for a plate position welding experiment. It shows that the welding result has

uniform ripple beads. Figures 11 and 12 show the arc current

response and the experimented results for a manual operation

Fig. 9. Experimental parameters K p , K i , and K d of the fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller in Fig. 8

and 12, the stability of the arc welding current, the uniformity

of the welding beads, and the reduction of spatter generation

are improved dramatically. Figure 13 shows the experimental

results for a tube welding process. It is operated with 80 A

as the reference command input. The photographs show that

the automatic SMAW control system works well for both plate

and tube welding processes and can obtain a better welding

performance.

287

arc welding.

References

5 Conclusion

In this paper, an automatic SMAW control system, based on a

fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller is developed for an alternating current power supply welding machine. A mathematical

model of this automatic welding control system is obtained by

analyzing physical laws and the system identification method.

By employing a Hall effect current sensor to measure the arc

current, a desirable closed-loop control system is formed. The

fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller determines the output signal by evaluating the error signal and the derivative error signal

obtained using a current sensor. This control output signal is

then sent to a welding robot driven by an AC servomotor, so

that the electrode feed-rate mechanism can be controlled and

the arc length can be regulated to obtain the desired current

setting value. We also examine the performance of this fuzzy

gain scheduling PID controller experimentally. The experiments

show that the developed automatic SMAW control system, with

a fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller can not only replace man-

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