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CHEMICAL

Name

acetic
acid
acetylsalic
ylic acid

Ascorbic
acid
Carbonic
acid
Hydrochlo
ric acid

nitric
acid

CHEMICAL
FORMULA

CH3CO
OH

C9H8O
4
C6H8O
6
H2CO3

Uses
food preservation and
preparation, when in
solution with water it
is known as vinegar

pain relief, fever


relief, to reduce
inflammation,
known as aspirin

antioxidant,
vitamin, also
called vitamin
C
carbonated drinks,
involved in cave
stalactite and
stalagmite formation
and acid rain

HCl

digestion as gastric juice


in stomach, to clean steal
in a process known as
pickling, commonly
called muriatic acid

HNO3

to make fertilizers,
colorless, yet
yellow when
exposed to light

to make detergents,
fertilizers and soft
drinks, slightly sour
but pleasant taste,
detergents containing
phosphates cause
water pollution

phosphori
c acid

H3PO4

sulfuric
acid

H2SO4

car batteries, to
manufacture fertilizers,
and other chemicals,
dehydrating agent,
causes burns by
removing water from
cells

Citric
acid

C6H8
O7

Citric acid exists in greater


than trace amounts in a
variety of fruits and
vegetables, most notably
citrus fruits. Lemons and
limes have particularly
high concentrations of the
acid; it can constitute as
much as 8% of the dry
weight of these fruits
(about 47 g/L in the
juices[8]).[

Boric
Acid

H3BO3

Bases

Use As
Disinfectant Or
Pesticide

aluminum
hydroxide

calcium
hydroxide

magnesiu
m
hydroxide

sodium
hydroxi
de
ammoni
a

Al(OH)
3
Ca(OH
)2

color-fast fabrics,
antacid, water
purification,
sticky gel that
collects
suspended clay
and dirt particles
on its surface
leather-making,
mortar and
plaster, lessen
acidity of soil,
called caustic
lime

Mg(OH)2

laxative,
antacid, called
milk of
magnesia when
in water

NaOH

to make soap, oven


cleaner, drain cleaner,
textiles, paper, called
lye and caustic soda;
generates heat
(exothermic) when
combined with water,
reacts with metals to
form hydrogen
cleaners, fertilizer, to
make rayon and nylon,
irritating odor that is
damaging to nasal
passages and lungs

NH3

Lithium
hydroxi
de

LiO
H

It is soluble in water and


slightly soluble in ethanol,
and is available
commercially in
anhydrous form and as
the monohydrate
(LiOH.H2O), both of which
are strong bases. It is the
weakest base among the
alkali metal hydroxides.

Rubidiu
m
hydroxi
de
Strontiu
m
hydroxi
de

RbOH

Rubidium hydroxide is
rarely used in industrial
processes because
potassium hydroxide and
sodium hydroxide can
perform nearly all the
industrial functions of
rubidium hydroxide in a
less violent and hence
safer way.

Sr(OH)

It is synthesized by
combining a
strontium salt with a
strong base.
Sr(OH)2 exists in
anhydrous,
monohydrate, or
octahydrate form.

Potassium
hydroxide

KOH

is used in products that clean


and disinfect surfaces, in drain
cleaners, cuticle removal
products and leather tanning
chemicals. It is used in
petroleum and natural gas
refining to remove organic
acids and sulfur compounds.

Barium
hydroxi
de

Ba(OH)2(H2
O)x

used in analytical chemistry


for the titration of weak acids,
particularly organic acids. Its
clear aqueous solution is
guaranteed to be free of
carbonate, unlike those of
sodium hydroxide and
potassium hydroxide, as
barium carbonate is insoluble
in water.