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QUESTION 2 Principles of the following classification methods: A. B. C. D. Natural Breaks Equal Interval Quantiles Jenks Optimization

A.

NATURAL BREAKS – Manual

Natural Breaks Classification method divides data into classes based on the natural groups in the data lassification distribution and their obvious breaks are used as the class boundaries. A method that most preferred by many cartographers because it captures the character of the data set. Objective data itself. Steps Natural Breaks) I. II. III. IV. Sorting the data values in ascending order. Vertical Axis is the values in the array. Horizontal Axis is the ranks of the values. Place a dot on the graph according to each value’s position. V. VI. Visually inspect the dot line. Select the Class Limits where the slope of the line changes dramatically. VII. Try to check numbers of Class Limit using mathematical calculations; log N/log 2; lations; where N is the total of data value. VIII. These points define the boundaries between classes.

E.g Natural breaks in graphs

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: To create ranges based on gaps inside the

: (Rank-order graph is often used to find order

MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini SUG243 – CARTOGRAPHY II jacketphish@yahoo.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

B.

EQUAL INTERVAL

Equal Interval Classification method divides a set of attribute values into groups that contain an equal range of values. This method emphasizes the amount of an attribute value relative to the other values. The map designed by using equal interval classification is easy to accomplish and read. Its better communicates with continuous set of data such as percentages and temperature. It however is not good for clustered data because you might get the map with many features in one or two classes and some classes with no features because of clustered data. Objective: Step: i. Choose the number of classes using mathematical calculation. log N/log 2; where N is the total of data value. ii. Compute and find the Class Limits using the difference of Ranges Interval = X max – X min / (n (n+1)/2). Where; X; variable use to show data value max; maximum value of total data value min; minimum value of total data value iii. Calculate the limit of each classes to have constants classes with the equal-sized of ranges.

Natural Breaks

Equal Interval

Quantiles

**E.g the differences of classification method as it shown on the choropleth map
**

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini SUG243 – CARTOGRAPHY II jacketphish@yahoo.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

C.

QUANTILES

Quantiles classification method distributes a set of values into groups that contain an equal number of values. This method places the same number of data values in each class and will never have empty classes or classes with too few or too many values. It is attractive in that this method always produces distinct map patterns. This method are best used on datasets where there is a fairly even spread of values. That is, the data should not group or cluster around particular values or geographic locations.

This method also may be really simple to understand, but it is often the most misleading. Data sets such as population counts can become highly distorted when using the quantile classification method, as only a few places may be highly populated.

Objective:

to have same number of observations to put in each class. The distortion can be minimized by increasing the number of classes.

Step: i. Choose number of classes based on method used • • • ii. iii. iv. Quartiles (4 classes) Quintiles (5 classes) Deciles (10 classes)

Compute the limits using the differences of domain ranking. Rank the attribute data values in ascending order. Compute using the formula; Category Ranges= N / C. Where; C is Number of classes and N is Total of data

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini SUG243 – CARTOGRAPHY II jacketphish@yahoo.com _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

D.

JENK’S OPTIMIZATION

This optimization system developed by Cartographer George Jenks was used to define the breakpoint in Natural Breaks legend classification. This method rather complex but basically it minimizes the sum of the variance within each class.

Objective

: to form groups that is internally homogeneous while assuring heterogeneity among classes

Step: i. ii. iii. iv. Start with a single class: range (a single class) = max data value – min data value introduce another group whereby; minimize within group variance (member data values closer in value) maximize between group variance (difference in group averages as great as possible)

E.g. The graphic shown is about how the procedure of Jenk’s Optimization is done and how its presented in choropleth map

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