You are on page 1of 54

Use of

Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag


(GGBS- confirming to BS 6699)
for
DURABLE CONSTRUCTIONS

SHAILESH GOSAVI
Head:- Technical Services (Maharashtra & Gujarat)
JSW CEMENT LTD

# 8691037751
Email : shailesh.gosavi@jsw.in

JSW CEMENT LIMITED


Unity in Diversity - The JSW Group
The JSW Group lead by dynamic & Visionary leadership of Shri. Sajjan
Jindal, today is a dynamic business conglomerate with a high growth in
diverse fields; Steel, Energy, Minerals & Mining , Aluminum, Infrastructure
& logistics, Cement & Information technology. From Steel plant to what it
is today a US$ 10 billion entity the group has docked itself into the league
of big guns.

The main architect of JSW- late Shri O P Jindal , the group founder set
the ball rolling of what would later become a billion dollar, multi location
and multiproduct industrial empire. To begin with started to trade in steel
pipes, later established a manufacturing plant rolling out steel pipes,
bends and sockets.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

USD 11 Billion Group with presence across Core Sectors

JSW Steel: Indias largest


integrated steel producer. (Steel
Capacity: 14.3MTPA )

JSW Energy: Engaged across


the value chain of power Business
(Operational plant 3,140 MW)

JSW Cement: Slag Cement Plant


of 6.0 MTPA Capacity

JSW Infrastructure: Engaged in


development and operations of
ports.(Goa, Jaigarh & Dharamtar)

JSoft Solutions: An IT & ITES


arm of JSW group

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

JSW Cement Plant Locations & Capacity

Dolvi Plant, 0.6 million tons

Nandyal Plant, 4.8 million tons


Vijaynagar Plant, 0.7 million tons

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag


(GGBS)
approvals at various
Government, Semi Government &
Private Organisations
for Durable Concrete

DMRC approval to JSW


GGBS for Metro Rail Projects
in various cities

3. CONCRETE: PLAIN AND REINFORCED


3.1 Materials Pg No 1-31
Cement
a. The cement used shall be of the following types :
i. 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement conforming to IS: 8112.
ii. 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement conforming to IS:12269.
iii. IRST-40 Indian Railway standard specifications for special
grade cement for use in concrete sleepers. Slag cement for piling
works conforming to IS:455 or EN 197-1.
iv. Slag cement for piling works conforming to IS 455 or EN
197-1.
v. Low heat cement for massive elements (pier caps) or during hot
weather conditions, conforming to IS:12600. Suggested cement
mixes for hot weather conditions are OPC grade 43 + 50 to
70% GGBS or OPC grade 43 + 10-25% PFA, conforming with
EN197-1.
For piling and foundation work, type of cement shall be as
mentioned in Section 8 on Pile Foundations herein.
For piling and foundation work, slab on grade and all structures in
contact with earth, type of cement shall be as mentioned in
section 8 on pile foundations.

4.2. CEMENT CONCRETE


CPWD SPECIFICATIONS 2009 Page No 94

1. Cement content prescribed in this Table is irrespective of the grades of


cement. The additions
such as fly or ground granulated blast furnace slag may be taken into
account in the concrete
composition with respect to the cement content and water-cement ratio, if
the suitability is
established and as long as the maximum amounts taken into account do
not exceed the limit of
pozzolona and slag specified in IS 1489 (Part 1) and IS 455 respectively.
2. Minimum grade for plain concrete under mild exposure condition is not
specified.
3. The above minimum cement content and maximum water cement ratio
apply only to 20 mm
nominal maximum size aggregate. For other sizes of aggregate, these
should be changed as per
Table 6 of IS 456.

5.46 Directions for use of GGBS


MCGM No- Dy.Ch.E/ Rds/ 1011 /WS dated 23.01.2014.
5.46 Directions for use of GGBS
1. Granulated slag used for manufacture GGBS shall conform to IS: 12089
2. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ( GGBS ) to be used as cementitious material
shall conform to BS 6699.
3. Cement used by RMC/ Contractors shall conform to OPC/ Portland Slag Cement
conforming to IS: 455.
4. In case of site mixing, a blend of 40% GGBS and 60% OPC 43 grade shall preferably
be used.
5. The mixture of cement containing GGBS and OPC shall conform to IS:455 for
chemical parameters.
6. RMC plants shall submit Manufacturer's test certificate of GGBS every
week.
7. RMC plants shall submit certificate of physical testing of cement mixture twice a month
and chemical testing of the same before its use.
8. To cover durability parameters of concrete, R.M.C. plants shall submit one report
during the project on permeability test (RCPT as per ASTM 1202) and heat of hydration
of cement mixture determined at 7 & 28 days from the Laboratories approved by Chief
Engineer (Roads & Tr.)

CLAUSE SP 13 SPECIFICATIONS FOR PQ CONCRETE FOR ROAD WORK


PCMC Tech Specs for Design & Construction of Bridge Page No 83

1. PCMC will not supply cement to the Contractors. They shall have to
purchase cement from open market manufactured by reputed cement
companies (except companies having mini plant). The cement shall be 43
grade OPC conforming to IS 8112, Portland slag cement or mixture of 43
grade cement blended with GGBS, both conforming to IS: 8112 for
physical parameters and IS: 455 for chemical parameters shall be tested at
Approved Laboratory at Contractors cost as mentioned in Table-1 from
special conditions for the Ready Mix Plant Owners, preferably before its
use. In case, the cement test results are not available before its use, the
concreting work shall be permitted on the explicit understanding that they
will remove and redo the work at their own cost in case the cement
specimen fails to attain the specified compressive strength.

Indian Road Congress (IRC)


permission to blend 50% to
70% GGBS by mass of OPC
in Batching plants having
facility similar to RMC plant

FEW OF OUR GGBS ESTEEMED CUSTOMERS

FEW OF OUR GGBS ESTEEMED CUSTOMERS

LODHA WORLD ONE and NEW CUFFE PAREDE.


M40 RAFT FOUNDATION WITH 70 % GGBS UTILISATION
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

FEW OF OUR GGBS ESTEEMED CUSTOMERS

AJMERA TRION:- GGBS USED IN


ALL APPLICATIONS

NATHANI HEIGHTS :- GGBS USED IN


M80, M40 OPC Replacement >50%

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

FEW OF OUR GGBS ESTEEMED CUSTOMERS

CCI Borivali:- M40 RAFT FOUNDATION


WITH 70 % GGBS UTILISATION

OMKAR L&T WORLI:- GGBS USED IN


M80, M40 OPC Replacement >50%

INDIA BULLS WORLI :- GGBS USED IN


M70, M40 OPC Replacement >50%

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

GGBS and OPC Samples

GGBS

OPC
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Bogues compounds in Cement


S.N
O

Name of
Compound

Abbreviati Oxide
Appro Function
compositi x.
on
on
(%)

Tri calcium
silicate

C S

3CaO,SiO 45 to
55

Responsible for early strength (1


to 7 days.)

Di calcium
silicate

CS

2CaO,SiO 20 to
30

Responsible for later strength

Tri Calcium
Aluminate

C A

3CaO,Al2
O

6 to
10

C3A increases rate of hydration of


C3S. It gives flash set in absence of
Gypsum

Tetra Calcium
Aluminoferrate

C AF

4CaO,
Al2O,Fe2
O

15 to
20

It hydrates rapidly but its


contribution to strength is
uncertain and generally very low.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Comparison of Chemical composition


Oxides

Cement Clinker
(%)

CaO

62

40

<>22

SiO2

22

35

55

Al2O3

14

30

MgO

<1

0.5

Fe2O3

GGBS

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

(%)

Fly Ash

(%)

Blast Furnace Slag


Non metallic product.
Consisting of glass containing silicates
and aluminates of lime.
Developed simultaneously with iron in
blast furnace.
Obtained

by

rapidly

chilling

or

quenching with water or steam and air.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Slag Granulation

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Chemical Composition Of Slag


(As per IS 12089:1989)
CHEMICAL
RANGE (%)
COMPOSITION
SILICA
LIME
ALUMINA
IRON
MAGNESIA
GLASS CONTENT

27 - 32
30 - 40
17 - 31
0-1
0 - 17
85% MIN.

Microscopic examination reveals the glassy


nature of GGBS particles
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Slag Activity ASTM C989


Slag activity shall be evaluated by determining the compressive strength of both
Portland-cement mortars and corresponding mortars made with the same mass of
50-50 mass combinations of slag and Portland cement.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

OPC & GGBS hydration mechanism


OPC

water

C-S-H
gel

Ca(OH)2

C-S-H
gel

Ca(OH)2 - Weakest component


Higher C3S - More Ca (OH)2
C3S Produce - 61 % CSH + 39 % CH
C2S Produce - 82% CSH + 18% CH
High Early Strength - High C3S
High C3S - High heat of Hydration

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

JSW GGBS

EFFECTS OF GGBS DOUBLE HYDERATION

7 Days
3 Days

28 Days- CSH Filling Pores

GGBS - Improves the properties of concrete


Dispersion of Cement Particles
Particle Packing Effect
Secondary Reaction
Long term Strength development

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Advantages of using GGBS


Better long
term strength

Improves Ultimate & Flexural

Strength of Concrete
Max. Reduction in heat of

Lesser
Cracking

GGBS
Concrete

Increased
durability

hydration.
High Impermeability.
Resistance to Chemical

Improved resistance to Acid,


Chloride, Sulphate & fire

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Attacks

Concrete:- A Brief History


The first recorded statement on history of CONCRETE has appeared in a journal called
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN in their issue of April 1848. It was recorded that Concrete was a good
material to be used as Sub Strata for Plank Roads.
In contrast, todays concrete after about 166 years, has become a versatile material of
construction, responsible for making our vast world into a global village.
The quantity of concrete consumed by human beings is next only to water.
National Cooperative Highway Research Programe (NCHRP) of USA in their survey during 1995
reported that lakhs of bridges built with OPC Concrete, showed signs of premature deterioration
and lack of Durability.
Concept that STRONGER CONCRETE WILL HAVE ALL THE DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF
CONCRETE:- Not a universal truth by any means.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

In the recent revision of IS 456: 2000, particular attention was paid to the Durability aspect of
Concrete.
The code for the first time allowed the use of pozzolanic materials such as GGBS, Flyash, Silica
fumes, MetaKaoline, Rice husk ash etc as mineral admixtures in concrete, mainly for the purpose
of enhancing the durability of concrete.
In our Mumbai/Pune Metro Region, we are undergoing a transformation in terms of Residential
and Infrastructure development, it has been recognized that the use of OPC alone or using OPC
in high percentage in the concrete is not only coming in the way of GREENER CONSTRUCTION
but also having many disadvantages in particular with respect to the following
a. Drying shrinkage,
b. Excess heat of hydration,
c. Continued increase in permeability,
d. Lack of resistance to chemical attacks especially in Costal cities.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

DURABLE CONSTRUCTION
A GLOBAL CHALLANGE

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Durability of concrete
Durability may be defined as "consistent performance of the structures during
its expected life time conforming to the predetermined set parameters and
under prevailing conditions without resorting to maintenance".
The durability of any structure is affected by loading and environmental
conditions, and natural phenomena such as rain, snow fall, floods, fire, etc.
The statistical analysis would be helpful to determine the probable cycle and
severity of such occurrences.
The selection of cementitious material should be based on the durability
requirements.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Factors influencing Durability


Environment

Workmanshi
p

Cover to
embedded
steel

Shape &
Size of
member

Type & quality


of constituent
materials

W/C ratio

Cementitious
Content

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Concrete- TYPICAL FAILURES

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Concrete-Durability
Strong Concrete is not always a Durable Concrete.
Environmental Condition has become an important factor for durability.
Concrete Deterioration
Physical
Deterioration

Chemical
Deterioration

Acid

Sea water

Reinforcement
Corrosion

Alkali-aggregate
reaction

Carbonation

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Leaching

Chlorides

Challenges to CONCRETE:-

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

DURABLILITY FEATURES :A] Primarily A High Ultimate Strength Cement


80
70
60

MPa

50
40
30
20
10
0

1d

2d

3d

7d

28d

56d

90d 180d 270d 365d

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

B] GGBS Hydration:- A Double Reaction

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

C-1] Heat Of Hydration in PSC & OPC


Heat of Hyderation ( Cal/
gm)

100

72.04

66.74

60.26

80
60

95.17

82.27

42.63

40
20
0

3 DAYS

7 DAYS

28 DAYS

C-2] Temperature Rise in PSC Vs OPC & PPC Concrete


Temp Rise-PPC vs PSC Concrete
70

35

60

Temp Deg C

Temperature, Degree C

40

30

25

50
40
30
Core Temp PPC

20
10

20
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

Age, minute
PSC Concrete

35000

40000

45000

Core Temp PSC

0
1

7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70

Time in hrs

OPC Concrete

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

D-1] Chloride Ion Permeability

Chloride Ion Penetrability Limits as per ASTMC 1202 -97


Charges (Coulombs)

CL Ion Penetrability

> 4000

High

2000 - 4000

Moderate

1000 - 2000

Low

100 - 1000

Very Low

< 100

Negligible

GGBS replacement
level
0%

Average

25%

1034

40%

628

50%

526

2220

Source RMC India Readymix


SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

D-2] Improved Corrosion Resistant


Portland slag cement/GGBS lead to increase electrical resistivity of concrete and reduce
diffusivity of chloride ions from outside. The resistance to corrosion of reinforced steel in
concrete is enhanced due to less proportion of chloride ions available in pore solution.

Cement Diffusivity
10-9 Cm2/g
OPC

44.7

PPC
(70:30)

14.7

PSC
(45:55)

4.1

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

E-1] Improved Sulphate Resistance


The Portland Slag Cement containing active slag in required proportion offer an improved
resistance to sulphate attack because of depletion of Ca(OH)2, lower C3A content as well as
improved water tightness of concrete.
SULPHATE ATTACK
Cement + WATER
CSH + Ca (OH)2
+ SULPHATES - SOIL / WATER

CaSO4 2H2O
REACTS WITH C3A OF CEMENT
Cal - SULPHO ALUMINATE (ETTRINGITE)

VOL. EXPANSION

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

E-2] SULPHATE RESISTANCE OF PSC VS OPC


Effect of GGBS in Concrete w.r.t. % Expansion

Increasing % age of GGBS in Concrete


SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

F] Improved Water IMPERMEABILITY

Water Permeability test, specified in Indian Standard is only applicable to Low


strength high permeability concrete. It is not suitable/ applicable to concrete with less
than 0.4 W/c ratio. For High strength and high performance concrete, that are used
today, Water Penetration Test is more appropriate to measure permeability.
In this test, hydraulic head is applied by pressure which usually ranges between 0.1
and 0.7 Mpa(1 Bar to 7 Bars) on a specimen of concrete.
MORST specifies the pressure application as follows
A. 1 Bar for the first 48 Hrs.
B. 3 Bars for the next 24 Hrs.
C. 7 Bars for another 24 Hrs.
At the end of four days, the depth of penetration of water is found by observation of
split surface of concrete (Moist concrete being darker).
A depth less than 50 mm classifies the concrete as impermeable.
A depth less than 30 mm as impermeable under aggressive conditions.
MORST limits the depth of Water penetration to 25mm.
DELHI METRO specifies the depth of penetration to not more than 10mm for
underground structures.

WATER PERMEABILITY RESULT** conforming to DIN 1048


TYPE

GGBS Replacement Level

Mean mm

OPC

0%

OPC+GGBS

25%

OPC+GGBS

40%

OPC+GGBS

50%

21
18
15
10

**Source RMC India Readymix

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

G] ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION: PSC VS OPC


Effect of increasing GGBS % in Concrete on Expansion due to ASR

When a critical amount


of reactive aggregate is
present, sufficient gel
can be formed to cause
disruptive expansion
and cracking of the
concrete.
Daqing Railway Bridge, China
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

H] ECO FRIENDLY- GGBS


TO ACHIEVE SUSTANIBILITY
IN CONSTRUCTION
Embodied CO2
(Kg./tone)

Material

Portland cement, CEM I

Addition/s
or
cement
constituent

Aggregate

Reinforcement

930

GGBS

52

Fly ash

Limestone

32

Minor additional constituent

32
4

GGBS manufacture typically


releases 52 kg of CO2/t of
GGBS: about 5% of the
carbon footprint of normal
Ordinary Cement

427

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

Heat Consideration with GGBS


A number of high-rise buildings and large Infrastructural projects, are coming up.
The thickness of foundation raft, Columns, and Beams provided for such high-rise buildings is
generally One to five meters. Similarly in the infrastructural projects the members such as Pears,
Columns and Bedblocks are becoming massive in nature, where in, THERMAL CONSIDERATION
should become Mandatory.
These aspects are given special consideration to increase the durability of concrete.
The temperature control in such massive structural elements becomes very important to avoid early
thermal cracks (ETC).
If measures are not taken to limit the rise of temperature in the Core of these structural elements,
the maximum temperature of the core may go up to 70oC or more, whereas the surface temperature
will be the ambient temperature, with the result that very steep temperature gradient develops
between Core and surface which causes tensile cracks.

For no tensile cracks, the difference in temperature, between Core and Surface should be less than
about 25oC.
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

For this reason we must reduce the development of high temperature at the Core. A pragmatic
and wise solution is to replace OPC with 60 70 % GGBS.
For example, in one of the major projects in central Mumbai, 55% GGBS is used as replacement
of cement, for M 40 raft foundation, 3.5 meter thick.
The following is the mix design:
Cement
GGBS
10 mm Agg.
20 mm Agg.
River Sand
Water
Admixture
Density
-

217 Kg / m3
263 ,,
410 ,,
571 ,,
845 ,,
160 ,,
6 ,,
2472 Kg / m3

(45%)
(55%)

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

As per the IS 14591 Guidelines to Mass Concrete, the Adiabatic Rise in Temperature (To) is calculated
by the following equation
To = WH
c

Combination

Cementitious
Content

To

Expected Core Temp (Max)

OPC

400

40o C

40o C+ 32o C = 72o C

OPC(70%)+FA(30%)

480

36.4o C

36.4o C+ 32o C = 68.4o C

OPC(45%)+GGBS(55%)

480

29.5o C

29.5o C+ 32o C = 61.5o C

From the above table, we should select GGBS as the most effective Cementitious Material for
reducing the peak temperature in Concrete. The reduction in Core temperature by substituting
55% of GGBS, would be about 72 61.5 = 10.5oC.

This is a significant Reduction Of Core Temperature to avoid tensile cracks in Massive concrete
structure.
SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

GGBS CONCRETE USED WORLD WIDE


A} Queen Elizabeth Bridge, London
GGBS was chosen for its Durability in Aggressive Environment.
GGBS was used to achieve the Design Life of Concrete Structures of 100+ years.

70% Substitution in all


sub - structures

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

B} Medway Bridge, London


GGBS was specified for sulfate resistance, chloride Resistance, Reduced Heat of
hydration and Appearance
60% GGBS in cross-Over Bridge
70% GGBS in Piles, slip from piers & all sub structures
80%GGBS in pile caps & Caissons

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

C} Eastern Scheldt Storm surge Barrier,


The Netherlands
Designed for 300 years

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

D} King Fahd Causeway, Saudi-Bahrain

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

E} Sardar Sarover Narmada Nigam


:- Dam / Power House / Canals
PSC is being extensively used

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

F} Worli - Bandra sewage outlet pipeline


Use of GGBS ( 70% replacement)

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751

GGBS PROVIDES US NOT ONLY WITH A


GREAT OPPORTUNITY BUT ALSO AN
OPPORTUNITY TO BE GREAT.

SHAILESH GOSAVI #8691037751