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Lecture 18: Torsion of Thin-walled Sections

Outline

Review of Torsion Formula Solid Non-circular Shafts NonThinThin-walled Tubes Having Closed Cross Sections ThinThin-walled Multi-cell Tubes MultiTorsion of thin-walled open sections

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**Torsion of thin-walled open sections
**

For thin-walled sections, shear stress must always be tangential to the local wall of the section. t Shear stress flow my be regarded as shown on the figure Assume the section is made up of nested thin-walled tubes of wall thickness, y, b one of which is shown here If we neglect small curved regions near the ends, mean area enclosed A, and perimeter S are given by A = 2yb S = 2b

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y y

**Torsion of thin-walled open sections
**

Angle of Twist If a given tube carries an elemental torque, T, the twist per unit length will be given by: t f dTS dT = = hence, 2 L 4 A Gdy 8by 2Gdy

8by 2Gfdy dT = L 2 t / 2 8by Gfdy bt 3Gf T = ò dT = ò = o

L 3L

b

y y

**3TL This can be written in the form: f= 3 bt G bt 3 TL ; where, K = f= 3 GK
**

Torsional resistance

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**Torsion of thin-walled open sections
**

Shear Stresses Referring to the previously derived formulas for T and T

8by 2Gfdy bt 3Gf and T = dT = 3L L f dT dT 3T f 3T = = 3 also, ; therefore, = 3 2 2 L 8by Gdy 8by Gdy bt G L bt G 24Ty 2dy hence, dT = t3 Shear stress of the elemental tube can be determined as dT 24Ty 2dy 6Ty t= t= = 3 Recall: A = 2yb 3 2 Ady 4 ybt dy bt

varies linearly through the thickness;

t

at y = t/2

t max

3T = 2 bt

t max

Tt = K

5

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Example 3

For the slit box with a = 160 mm, t = 5 mm and made of steel G = 80 GPa, find the maximum shear stress and the twist per unit length if T = 1800 N.m

t

a

a

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Example 3 - Solution

The perimeter of the section is 640 mm, so

bt 3 640 ´ 53 K= = = 26667 mm 4 3 3

**The twist per unit length is therefore
**

f T 1800 = = = 0.84 rad / m 9 -12 L GK 80 ´10 ´ 26667 ´ 10

**And the maximum shear stress is
**

t max = 3T bt

2

=

3 ´ 1800000 640 ´ 5

2

= 337.5 MPa

**Alternatively, we could also find the maximum shear stress using
**

Tt 1800000 ´ 5 t max = = = 337.5 MPa K 26667

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Loading of an open section away from its shear centre When an open section is loaded away from its shear centre, a twisting results The procedure to find stresses and twist is as follow:

a) b) c) d) e) Find the shear stress distribution due to an equal shear force acting through the shear centre Find the location of the shear centre Find the equivalent torque due to the offset of the prescribed line of action of the shear force from the shear centre Find the stresses and the twist due to this torque Superpose the results form (a) and (d)

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Example 4

A steel beam with the channel section shown is loaded by a shear force of 10 kN with the line of action as indicated in the figure. Find the maximum shear stress and the twist per unit length. The section has a second moment of area Ix = 0.81x106 mm4 and G = 80 GPa for steel.

6 mm 6 mm

2a=80 mm

12 mm

10 kN

a=40 mm MEC 3611

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Example 4 - Solution

(a) Find the shear stress distribution due to an equal shear force acting through the shear centre: The shear flow in the flanges and in the web are VQ V (t x)a Q f = (t x)a è q f = =

Ix Ix

(a + y ) _ 3a 2t y 2 t Qw = ( at ) a + (a - y )t = 2 2 2

è

qw =

VQ Vt = 3a 2 - y 2 Ix 2I x

(

)

**The maximum shear stress occurs in the web at the neutral axis (y=0) and is
**

3a 2 t 3 ´ 37 2 ´ 6 Qw = = = 12321mm 3 2 2 VQw 10000 ´ 12321 t max = = = 25.3 MPa 6 I xt 0.81´ 10 ´ 6

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Example 4 - Solution

(b) Find the location of the shear centre

F f = Fuf = Flf =

òq

0

a

a

f

dx =

ç òç è

0

a æ Vtxa

Ix

ö Vta 3 10 ´ 6 ´ 37 3 ÷dx = = = 1.88 kN ÷ 6 2I x 2 ´ 0.81´ 10 ø

æ Vt( 3a 2 - y 2 ) ö ç ÷dy = V = 10 kN Fw = q w dx = ÷ -a -a ç 2I x è ø

ò

a

ò

**The shear centre is located at a distance c, such that
**

V ´ c = Fuf ´ a + Fw ´ 0 + Flf ´ a

c=

2Ff a V

2 ´1.88 ´ 37 = = 13.9 mm 10

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Example 4 - Solution

(c) Find the equivalent torque due to the offset of the prescribed line of action of the shear force from the shear centre

T = V ´ (c + 12) = 10000 ´ (13.9 + 12) ´10-3 = 259 N .m

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Example 4 - Solution

(d) Find the stresses and the twist due to this equivalent torque - The channel section has a constant thickness t = 6 mm and perimeter b = 37 + 74 + 37 = 148 mm so bt 3 148 ´ 63 K= = = 10656 mm 4 3 3 - The torque generates a maximum shear stress Tt 259000 ´ 6 t max = = = 145.8 MPa K 10656 - and the twist per unit length

f T 259 = = = 0.30 rad / m 9 -9 L GK 80 ´ 10 ´10.656 ´10

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Example 4 - Solution

(e) Superpose the results from (a) and (d)

t max = 25.3 + 145.8 = 171.1 MPa

- This example shows that the offset of the line of action of the shear force has a dramatic effect on the behaviour of the beam in shear: t max increases by a factor of 7 and produces an unacceptable amount of twist per length. - Thus with open sections, it is important to ensure that shear forces are applied as near to the shear centre as possible. This is generally easier to achieve with symmetric sections such as I-beams rather than with channels.

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