You are on page 1of 10

Experiment 4

:
Conductance of Aqueous Ions
Name: Amar Safwan bin Mohd Ali Hanapiah
No Matrix: 2015272222
Group: AS2454D2
Group Member:
1. Mohd Amirul bin Yunos
2. Muhammad Isfaiz bin Iskandar
3. Ahmad Zulkifli bin Amiruddin

Lecturer’s Name: Madam Sabrina binti Md Yahaya

(2015258708)
(2015217926)
(2015492024)

the presence of ionic species in solution increases the conductance considerably. the reciprocal ohm Ω-1 is now called a Siemens. The conductance. . To determine the molar conductivity and the limiting molar conductivity of some electrolytes. I. passing through a given body of solution is proportional to the applied potential difference. Although water is itself a very poor conductor of electricity. R. Conductance behavior as a function of concentration is different for strong and weak electrolytes. The conductance of such electrolytic solutions depends on the concentration of the ions and also on the nature of the ions present (through their charges and mobilities). where the potential difference is expressed in volts and the current in amperes. at a number of dilute concentrations. S=1 Ω-1 ). Thus the current. V.Experiment 4: Conductance of Aqueous Ions Objective: i. The acid dissociation constant (also called acidity constant or acidionization constant) for a weak electrolyte will be calculated from the data obtained. In this experiment we will study both strong and weak electrolytes. of a homogeneous body of uniform cross section is proportional to the cross-sectional area A and inversely proportional to the length ℓ: 1 = κ·A R ℓ where κ is the specific conductance with units Ω-1m -1 (By international agreement. The resistance. defined as the reciprocal of the resistance. Introduction: In this experiment we shall be concerned with electrical conduction through aqueous solutions. Electrolyte solutions obey Ohm's law just as metallic conductors do. of the body of solution in ohms (Ω) is given by R = V/I.

40 0.15x10-6 Scm-1)/(0.08 8.13x10-6 Scm-1)/(0.02 M) = 0. For CH3COONa ʌ = (1000)(1.005 2.10 6.Result NaCl Conc (M) - k (µScm 1 ) 0.34 0.08 4.008 127.08 Deionized water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 0.04 4.020 8. A/l.4300 The result show in the table below.010 4. For NaCl ʌ = (1000)(2. The cell constant.13 0.28 0.17 Tap water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 99.02 Deionized water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 ) - 1. Determine ʌ values for all of the solutions that contains a strong electrolyte.29 Tap water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 ) - 109.60 0.02 2.04 2.34x10-6 Scm-1)/(0. ʌ values of strong electrolyte – Sodium chloride (NaCl) .15 0.40 Calculations: 1.004 88.0670 iii. For HCl ʌ = (1000)(2. i.80 - ) - 116.90 CH3COONa Conc k (µScm (M) 1 Conc (M) - CH3COOH Conc k (µScm (M) 1 0.18 0.40 ) ) - 1.00 Deionized water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 ) ) - 2.02 1.40 0. is equal to 1 cm.020 204.16 Tap water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 ) - 116.83 Tap water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 ) - HCl k (µScm 1 ) ) 1.1065 ii.72 Deionized water Conc k (µScm (M) 1 0.040 16.010 142.10 10.005 M) = 0.91 0.40 0.02 M) = 0.29 0.42 0. Formula: ʌ = 1000 k / C Calculation sample i.

02 0.1065 0.91 x 10-6 6.04 0.4180 .02 x 10-6 k (Scm-1) 1.28 x 10-6 10.4290 0.34 x 10-6 2.15 x 10-6 4.005 0.08 0.1045 0.10 iii.4300 0.08 0.0650 0.29 x 10-6 8.02 0.020 0. ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) 0.Conc (M) 0.18 x 10-6 8.04 0.13 x 10-6 4.60 x 10-6 4.42 x 10-6 16.1035 0.08 x 10-6 ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) 0.0670 0. k (Scm-1) 2.0608 ʌ values of strong electrolyte – Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Conc (M) 0.010 0.0614 0.4210 0.040 k (Scm-1) 2.72 x 10-6 ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) 0.1002 ʌ values of strong electrolyte – Sodium acetate (CH3COONa) Conc (M) 0.10 ii.

03x + 0.2.1 0.25 0.35 .1 0.15 0.06 0.07 ʌ (Scm2mol-1) 0.07 0.0.25 c1/2 (Mol litre-1)1/2 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.11 R² = 0.87 0.2 0.99 0.35 c1/2 (mol litre-1)1/2 ʌ vs C1/2 of CH3COONa ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) Linear (ʌ value (Scm2mol-1)) 0.2 0. Plot ʌ vs C1/2 and determine ʌo for all the strong electrolytes.1 0.07 0.15 0.06 0.06 f(x) = .3 0.3 0.04x + 0.0.06 0.1 0.07 R² = 0.1 0.11 ʌ (scm2mol-1) 0.11 f(x) = . ʌ vs C1/2 of NaCl ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) Linear (ʌ value (Scm2mol-1)) Linear (ʌ value (Scm2mol-1)) 0.

14 0.44 0. Using the Kohlrausch method.43 0.004 ¿ 22. ɑ.ʌ vs C1/2 of HCl ʌ value (Scm2mol-1) Linear (ʌ value (Scm2mol-1)) 0.42 ʌ (Scm2mol-1) f(x) = .06 0.4375 ʌo CH3COOH = ʌo CH3COONa + ʌo HCl . and k and present these findings in a table.1x + 0.22 . determine ʌ.12 0.43 0.41 0.16 0.1 0.40 x 10 0.4 0.1 0.2 c1/2 (mol litre-1)1/2 3.41 0.18 0.44 R² = 0.3988 4.42 0.4375 – 0.92 0.0. For each acetic acid solution.0720 ʌo NaCl = 0.0723 + 0.ʌo NaCl = 0.08 0. evaluate ʌo for acetic acid. Formula for calculating ʌ: ʌ =1000 k C −6 ¿ 1000 88.1110 = 0. ʌo CH3COONa = 0.1110 ʌo HCl = 0.

416 39.004) ¿ 1−55.925 14.577 ka (M) -0.010 0.004 0.932 35.Formula for calculating α: α= ¿ ʌ ʌo 22.3988 ¿ 55. Conc (M) 0.416 Formula for calculating ka: ka = α 2c 1−α ( 55.100 15.1 0.416 ¿ -0.3277 -0.3674 -0.008 0.240 10.707 25.416 )2 (0.200 α (ʌ/ʌo) 55.2257 -0.020 ʌ (Scm2mol-1) 22.2257 The results show in the table below.5324 .

As for this experiment. both positive and negative. and doubling the concentration of the acid added does not double the number of ions. the distance between nearest neighbour ions is large. This is the reason for extrapolating the data to infinite dilution. the following is our conductance of tap water and distilled water measured for calibrating the probe. and only the effect of the applied electric field is felt by individual ions. The field affecting any particular ion changes slightly because of these surrounding ions. The limiting molar conductivities of the compound above are 0. because ions interact strongly with one another.110. sodium acetate. The solution conducts electricity through motion of the ions under the effect of an electric field. . At high concentrations. each ion is surrounded by other ions. 0. the molar conductivity is found to vary according to the concentration. For instance. Their conductance is varied which the strongest electrolyte which is hydrochloric acid dissociates completely in water while the weak electrolyte which is acetic acid just partially dissociates in water. the conductivity of a solution is not exactly proportional to the number of ions present.03 Conclusion: In the nutshell. 0. the molar conductivities of sodium chloride.4375 and 0.Discussion: For this experiment. hydrochloric acid and acetic acid are measured and determine successfully based in the given concentration respectively. At infinite dilution. Water types Tap water Distilled water Conductivity 0. Secondly.71 0.0720. the concentration of ions in a solution of a weak acid depends on the concentration of the acid in a complicated way.3985 respectively. One reason for this variation is that the number of ions in the solution might not be proportional to the concentration of the electrolyte. Therefore its conductance is weaker than the others.

2) Why did the salt make the water more conductive to electricity? The chemical formula of salt NaCl. These electrons used for more current flow and increase conductivity of water and will generate more electricity. 5) The molar conductivity of an aqueous 0. calcium. This is because tap water has a small amount of salts (e.Question: 1) Compare the conductivity of tap water to that of deionized water.909 ʌ= k R ( 0. HCl splits into the ions H+ and Cl. the resistance of the solution is found to be 35Ω.15K. When dissolve it into water it removed an electron and breakdowns into Na+ and Cl-. HCl has a lower pH than the others.10 M solution of AgNO3 is 109.02 M acetic acid solution have lower electricity conductivity than 0.ions. In the same concentration. In addition. 3) Why does 0. stronger acid will dissociates completely in water and the ions will conduct electricity higher than acetic acid which is a weak 4) Among all 0. Compute the specific conductivity of the AgNO3 solution. ʌ =1000 k C 109. and sodium) dissolved in it. Strong acids are fully ionized in a solution however weak acids are partially ionized in a solution.g. in a water solution which is a polar solvent.. Which has higher electrical conductivity? Why? Tap water has the higher electrical conductivity than distilled water. which one has the highest electrical conductivity? Why? HCl has the highest electrical conductivity because HCl is a strong acid.1k ) . while pure water (distilled water) has nothing in it that can conduct electricity.02 M HCl? It is because HCl is a stronger acid.02 M solutions. Ions are carrier of electric charges in solution and therefore give it a high conductivity. magnesium. Strong acid has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions compared to weak acids.09=1000 k =10.09Scm2mol1 at 298. when this solution is placed in a particular conductance cell.

Specific Conductance: how to calculate. from http://www. (2012)..com/2009/11/lab-report-on-determination-of-kaof. to use and the nd pitfalls.d).. Oct. (n.w4z8vOTT. (n.art-xy. Retrieve on on 18 23 Oct.aqion. 2016 from http://www.31169 S cm mol −1 REFERENCES Appelo & Postma.dpuf Molar conductivity.. Retrieve from https://en. 2016 2016 .d).909 35 2 ¿ 0. Geochemistry.wikipedia.¿ 10.html#sthash. Retrieve on 21 Oct. In wikipedia. groundwater and pollution.de/site/70 Aqion. 2 ed.org/wiki/Molar_conductivity Molar conductivity.