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Experiment 4:

Conductance of Aqueous Ions


Name: Amar Safwan bin Mohd Ali Hanapiah
No Matrix: 2015272222
Group: AS2454D2
Group Member:
1. Mohd Amirul bin Yunos
2. Muhammad Isfaiz bin Iskandar
3. Ahmad Zulkifli bin Amiruddin

Lecturers Name: Madam Sabrina binti Md Yahaya

(2015258708)
(2015217926)
(2015492024)

Experiment 4: Conductance of Aqueous Ions

Objective:
i.

To determine the molar conductivity and the limiting molar conductivity of some
electrolytes.

Introduction:
In this experiment we shall be concerned with electrical conduction through aqueous
solutions. Although water is itself a very poor conductor of electricity, the presence of ionic
species in solution increases the conductance considerably. The conductance of such
electrolytic solutions depends on the concentration of the ions and also on the nature of the
ions present (through their charges and mobilities).
Conductance behavior as a function of concentration is different for strong and weak
electrolytes. In this experiment we will study both strong and weak electrolytes, at a number
of dilute concentrations. The acid dissociation constant (also called acidity constant or acidionization constant) for a weak electrolyte will be calculated from the data obtained.
Electrolyte solutions obey Ohm's law just as metallic conductors do. Thus the current, I,
passing through a given body of solution is proportional to the applied potential difference, V.
The resistance, R, of the body of solution in ohms () is given by R = V/I. where the
potential difference is expressed in volts and the current in amperes.
The conductance, defined as the reciprocal of the resistance, of a homogeneous body
of uniform cross section is proportional to the cross-sectional area A and inversely
proportional to the length : 1 = A R where is the specific conductance with units -1m
-1 (By international agreement, the reciprocal ohm -1 is now called a Siemens, S=1 -1 ).

Result
NaCl
Conc
(M)

k (Scm
1

0.02
2.13
0.04
4.18
0.08
8.28
0.10
10.02
Deionized water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

1.29
Tap water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

109.90

CH3COONa
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

Conc
(M)

CH3COOH
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

0.02
1.34
0.04
2.60
0.08
4.91
0.10
6.08
Deionized water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

0.005
2.15
0.010
4.29
0.020
8.42
0.040
16.72
Deionized water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

0.004
88.40
0.008
127.40
0.010
142.40
0.020
204.00
Deionized water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

2.83
Tap water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

HCl
k (Scm
1

1.17
Tap water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

99.80

116.40

1.16
Tap water
Conc
k (Scm
(M)
1

116.40

Calculations:
1. Determine values for all of the solutions that contains a strong electrolyte. The cell
constant, A/l, is equal to 1 cm.
Formula:
= 1000 k / C
Calculation sample
i.

For NaCl
= (1000)(2.13x10-6 Scm-1)/(0.02 M)
= 0.1065

ii.

For CH3COONa
= (1000)(1.34x10-6 Scm-1)/(0.02 M)
= 0.0670

iii.

For HCl
= (1000)(2.15x10-6 Scm-1)/(0.005 M)
= 0.4300

The result show in the table below.


i.

values of strong electrolyte Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Conc (M)
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.10

ii.

value (Scm2mol-1)
0.1065
0.1045
0.1035
0.1002

values of strong electrolyte Sodium acetate (CH3COONa)


Conc (M)
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.10

iii.

k (Scm-1)
2.13 x 10-6
4.18 x 10-6
8.28 x 10-6
10.02 x 10-6

k (Scm-1)
1.34 x 10-6
2.60 x 10-6
4.91 x 10-6
6.08 x 10-6

value (Scm2mol-1)
0.0670
0.0650
0.0614
0.0608

values of strong electrolyte Hydrochloric acid (HCl)


Conc (M)
0.005
0.010
0.020
0.040

k (Scm-1)
2.15 x 10-6
4.29 x 10-6
8.42 x 10-6
16.72 x 10-6

value (Scm2mol-1)
0.4300
0.4290
0.4210
0.4180

2. Plot vs C1/2 and determine o for all the strong electrolytes.

vs C1/2 of NaCl
value (Scm2mol-1)

Linear ( value (Scm2mol-1))

Linear ( value (Scm2mol-1))


0.11
0.11
0.11
(scm2mol-1)

0.11

f(x) = - 0.03x + 0.11


R = 0.87

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

c1/2 (mol litre-1)1/2

vs C1/2 of CH3COONa
value (Scm2mol-1)

Linear ( value (Scm2mol-1))

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
(Scm2mol-1)

0.06

f(x) = - 0.04x + 0.07


R = 0.99

0.06
0.06
0.06
0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

c1/2 (Mol litre-1)1/2

0.3

0.35

vs C1/2 of HCl
value (Scm2mol-1)

Linear ( value (Scm2mol-1))

0.44
0.43
0.43
0.42
(Scm2mol-1)

f(x) = - 0.1x + 0.44


R = 0.92

0.42
0.41
0.41
0.4
0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

c1/2 (mol litre-1)1/2

3. Using the Kohlrausch method, evaluate o for acetic acid.


o CH3COONa = 0.0720
o NaCl = 0.1110
o HCl = 0.4375
o CH3COOH = o CH3COONa + o HCl - o NaCl
= 0.0723 + 0.4375 0.1110
= 0.3988

4. For each acetic acid solution, determine , , and k and present these findings in a
table.
Formula for calculating :
=1000

k
C
6

1000

88.40 x 10
0.004

22.1

0.22

Formula for calculating :


=

22.1
0.3988
55.416

Formula for calculating ka:


ka =

2c
1

( 55.416 )2 (0.004)

155.416
-0.2257

The results show in the table below.


Conc (M)
0.004
0.008
0.010
0.020

(Scm2mol-1)
22.100
15.925
14.240
10.200

(/o)
55.416
39.932
35.707
25.577

ka (M)
-0.2257
-0.3277
-0.3674
-0.5324

Discussion:
For this experiment, the molar conductivity is found to vary according to the
concentration. One reason for this variation is that the number of ions in the solution might
not be proportional to the concentration of the electrolyte. For instance, the concentration of
ions in a solution of a weak acid depends on the concentration of the acid in a complicated
way, and doubling the concentration of the acid added does not double the number of ions.
Secondly, because ions interact strongly with one another, the conductivity of a solution is not
exactly proportional to the number of ions present. Their conductance is varied which the
strongest electrolyte which is hydrochloric acid dissociates completely in water while the
weak electrolyte which is acetic acid just partially dissociates in water. Therefore its
conductance is weaker than the others.
The solution conducts electricity through motion of the ions under the effect of an
electric field. At high concentrations, each ion is surrounded by other ions, both positive and
negative. The field affecting any particular ion changes slightly because of these surrounding
ions. At infinite dilution, the distance between nearest neighbour ions is large, and only the
effect of the applied electric field is felt by individual ions. This is the reason for
extrapolating the data to infinite dilution.
As for this experiment, the following is our conductance of tap water and distilled
water measured for calibrating the probe.
Water types
Tap water
Distilled water

Conductivity
0.71
0.03

Conclusion:
In the nutshell, the molar conductivities of sodium chloride, sodium acetate,
hydrochloric acid and acetic acid are measured and determine successfully based in the given
concentration respectively. The limiting molar conductivities of the compound above are
0.110, 0.0720, 0.4375 and 0.3985 respectively.

Question:
1) Compare the conductivity of tap water to that of deionized water. Which has higher
electrical conductivity? Why?
Tap water has the higher electrical conductivity than distilled water. This is because
tap water has a small amount of salts (e.g., magnesium, calcium, and sodium)
dissolved in it, while pure water (distilled water) has nothing in it that can conduct
electricity.
2) Why did the salt make the water more conductive to electricity?
The chemical formula of salt NaCl. When dissolve it into water it removed an electron
and breakdowns into Na+ and Cl-. These electrons used for more current flow and
increase conductivity of water and will generate more electricity.
3) Why does 0.02 M acetic acid solution have lower electricity conductivity than 0.02 M
HCl?
It is because HCl is a stronger acid, stronger acid will dissociates completely in water
and the ions will conduct electricity higher than acetic acid which is a weak
4) Among all 0.02 M solutions, which one has the highest electrical conductivity? Why?
HCl has the highest electrical conductivity because HCl is a strong acid. Strong acid
has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions compared to weak acids. Strong acids are
fully ionized in a solution however weak acids are partially ionized in a solution. In
the same concentration, HCl has a lower pH than the others. In addition, in a water
solution which is a polar solvent, HCl splits into the ions H+ and Cl- ions. Ions are
carrier of electric charges in solution and therefore give it a high conductivity.
5) The molar conductivity of an aqueous 0.10 M solution of AgNO3 is 109.09Scm2mol1 at 298.15K. when this solution is placed in a particular conductance cell, the
resistance of the solution is found to be 35. Compute the specific conductivity of the
AgNO3 solution.
=1000

k
C

109.09=1000
k =10.909

k
R

( 0.1k )

10.909
35
2

0.31169 S cm mol

REFERENCES
Appelo & Postma., (n.d). Specific Conductance: how to calculate, to use and the
nd
pitfalls. Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution, 2 ed. Retrieve on 21 Oct,
2016
from
http://www.art-xy.com/2009/11/lab-report-on-determination-of-kaof.html#sthash.w4z8vOTT.dpuf
Molar conductivity., (n.d). In wikipedia. Retrieve
from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molar_conductivity
Molar
conductivity.,
(2012).
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