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JAZZ

In classical music, how a work is performed is rarely considered as important as the


work itself. In Jazz the work itself is never really as important as the way in which it is
played.
The beginnings of jazz came about through a blending of the musical cultures of Africa
and Europe. From the merging of these heritages came American jazz.
In Africa, music was for a whole community, and everyone from youngest to oldest
participated. Music was so interwoven with work, play, and social religious activities that
to isolate one phase from its role in the total life of the people is difficult. Africans
themselves did not consider their music an art. It was the background brought by African
slaves to the United States that provided the seeds of jazz. The slaves did not
intentionally invent a new music. It was the emphasis on rhythm that can truly be
designated African and helped to influence jazz rhythms.
Types of influences:
Field Hollers (Cries)
Work songs
Religious Music
Blues
The blues is not an era in the chronological development of jazz, nor is it actually a
particular style of playing or singing jazz. Because of the great variety of individual
styles used by different singers who are referred to as blues singers it is contented
That there is no single or set manner of interpreting this type of jazz that could be labeled
blues style. In the development of jazz the blues has been sung in every era and can
be performed with many interpretations.
Characteristics include: 12 measure form, Blue notes, Harmonic chord progression
I, I, I, I, IV, IV, I, I V, VI, I, I
Blues singer after Civil War
1800s-1930
WC Handys the Memphis Blues
Huddie Ledbetter, Bessie Smity, Ma Rainey
1930 to present
T-Bone Walker and B.B. King, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald
Early New Orleans Jazz 1900-1920
New Orleans bred more jazz and more important jazz musicians than any other area.
Characteristics include: Instrumentation-Trumpet, Clarinet, Trombone, Banjo, Tuba,
Drums. Custom structure consisted of full band chorus, solo improvised choruses with
rhythm section, full band. 4 beat pattern

Musicians include: King Oliver, Buddy Bolden, Original Dixieland Jazz Band , Louis
Armstrong
Ragtime Piano 1900-1917
Because piano players were not used in the early New Orleans Dixieland bands, the
pianist developed a solo style of playing. Ragtime was solo piano using intricate
rhythmic syncopation. Ragtime was a refreshing change from the usual songs with often
common place melodies and predictable rhythmic feeling. Unlike the blues the mood of
ragtime was happy.
Musicians included: Jelly Roll Morton, Fats Waller, Scot t Joplin
Chicago Style Dixieland 1920s
Was a result of the night life (Storyville) in New Orleans being shut down by the Navy.
As a result many of the musicians headed north for better paying jobs. Quite a few
musicians drifted north to Chicago. Chicago Style Dixieland was different from New
Orleans Jazz. The piano was added, the Tuba replace with a string bass and banjo
replaced with the guitar. Chicago jazz also switched from a flat 4 beat pattern to an
accented 2 beat rhythmic pattern.
Musicians included: Kid Ory, Louis Armstrong, King Oliver, Earl Hines
Swing 1932-42
Swing refers to large dance bands that played written arrangements occasionally
using improvised solos. With the repeal of the Volstead Act in 1933, social life so
changed that large ballrooms such as the Riverside Ballroom in Green Bay were needed
for the thousands who wanted to dance every night. Thus, large swing bands seemed to
be the answer. The bands of the Swing Era produced a fuller sound than that of the
Dixieland bands mainly because they utilized two or three times as many players. Swing
bands were all fronted with a leader that directed, played their musical instrument as a
soloist and acted as an MC throughout the dance performance. These leaders began to
become famous and treated like the rock stars of today. Each leader had their own fan
club that followed them and supported them throughout the country. However, because of
the draft for military service and problems of transportation, the Swing Era came to an
abrupt end at the beginning of World War II. The war meant no gasoline and no
automobile tires for civilians, and therefore all unessential travel came to a halt. One
other event contributed to the shutdown of employment for musicians. The federal
government levied a 30 percent cabaret tax, and most ballrooms simply closed their
doors. As a result the big swing bands could not find worked and began to disband.
Musicians included: Fletcher Henderson, Count Basie, Glen Miller, Benny Goodman,
Woody Herman, Count Basie, Duke Ellington

Bop 1940-1950
Bop was a revolt against the confines of the larger bands. Soloists desired more freedom
for experimentation, the young musicians were tired of reading written arrangements like
in the Swing Era. Most bop players turned back to smaller combos ( 4 or 5 piece bands).
The draft and transportation difficulties during WWII favored the smaller band necessary
for these new experimentations. Bop playing employed faster tempos, higher harmonics,
complex harmonies and more tension in the solos and musically arrangements
themselves. Bop was not for dancing but more for complex listening. Thus, to the
average listener who was use to the melodic swing era arrangements, bop sounded like
the musician was just playing a bunch of scales and arpeggios up and down on their
instrument. Thus, the bop musicians did not appeal to a lot of the former swing era fans.
The music was too fast and experimental for their ears. The absence of an easily
recognizable melody has been one of the main obstacles to the acceptance of bop by the
general public.
Musicians included: Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonius Monk John Coltrane,
Cool 1949-55
The bop style was a revolt against swing and the cool style of playing was a revolt
against the complexities of bop. Conservation and understatement were the keys to this
era. The tonal sonorities of these conservative players could be compared to pastel colors,
while the solos of the bop players compared to fiery RED. As a matter of fact musicians
like Miles Davis even turned his back to the audience and played his solos on occasion.
The cool musicians introduced the flugelhorn and more complex musical time signatures
such as 5/4, 9/4 in comparison to the standard 2/4 and 4/4 time signatures.
Musicians included: Miles Davis, Clark Terry, Dave Brubeck, Don Ellis, Gerry Mulligan
Funk 1954-63
At first this style was called Funky Hard Bop Regression, but the style was changed
considerably and the title was shortened to funky. The word funky refers to the rollicking
rhythmic feeling of the style. Funky was a rawboned type of playing, with a highly
rhythmical melody and a less complex harmony then that of the preceding era of Cool
Jazz. The music had a happy sound and lacked tension and frustration. Many elements
of the funky era sound lean towards gospel jazz. The Hammond organ later heard in 60s
rock and roll was a widely accepted instrument in funk. The players of the swing era
added more musicians; the bop players played with extended harmonies and complicated
melodies; the cool players brought in new instruments, time signatures, extended forms;
and so forth. But the funky style went back to the basics.
Musicians include: Cannonball Adderly, Ramsey Lewis, Richard Holmes, Lee Morgan

Rock and Roll All the following movements were significant for the beginning rock
and roll: Black work songs, spirituals, ragtime, dixieland, boogie woogie, primitive
blues, classic blues rhythm and blues, urban blues, country.
**************HERE I WOULD GO INTO THE ROCK UNIT***********
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