General Aptitude
Q.1Q.5 carry one mark each.
1. Which of the following is CORRECT with respect to grammar and
usage? Mount Everest is ____________.
(A) the highest peak in the world
(B) highest peak in the world
(C) one of highest peak in the world
(D) one of the highest peak in the world
Ans: (A)
Solution: The sentence is stating the highest peak in the world. Since
it is a specific thing, we need to use the definite article the before it.
Also the sentence is using the superlative degree and so we say the
highest peak in the world making option 1 the correct answer. There
cannot be many highest peaks in the world and so options 3 and 4
are incorrect.
means something that is not fitted. Louse is the singular form of the
word lice that is a parasite that lives in the skin of mammals and
birds. Loss is a noun that means the process of losing someone or
something. Eg: He suffered tremendous loss in his business.
4. In a huge pile of apples and oranges, both ripe and unripe mixed
together, 15% are unripe fruits. Of the unripe fruits, 45% are apples.
Of the ripe ones, 66% are oranges. If the pile contains a total of
5692000 fruits, how many of them are apples?
(A) 2029198
(B) 2467482
(C) 2789080
(D) 3577422
Ans: (A)
15
100
5692000= 853800
R = T U= 4838200
A(U) = 45% of U:
45
100
853800 = 384210
A(R) = (10066)% of R:
34
100
4838200 = 1644988
= 35%
50
100
Ans: (D)
Solution:
According to given information the points we got are
a) Shiva is brother of Pavithra
b) Shiva and Pavithra are cousins of Leela
c) According to their ages Shiva > Leela > Pavithra
d) They all live play chess
e) Pavithra wins more often than Leela but information about
winning cases of Shiva is not given.
So from the given options statement which is clearly true is that
Pavithra is the youngest of all.
1
s
and s c =
1
q
qa = r ; r b = s and s c = q
a log q = log r (1)
And b log r = log s (2)
And c log s = log q (3)
Multiplying equations (1),(2) and (3)
abc (log q) (log r)(log s) = (log r)(log s)(log q)
abc = 1
10.
P, Q, R and S are working on a project. Q can finish the task in
25 days, working alone for 12 hours a day. R can finish the task in 50
days, working alone for 12 hours per day. Q worked 12 hours a day
but took sick leave in the beginning for two days. R worked 18 hours
a day on all days. What is the ratio of work done by Q and R after 7
days from the start of the project?
(A) 10:11
(B) 11:10
(C) 20:21
(D) 21:20
Ans: (C)
Solution:
Person
Days
Hours
Man
hours/piece
of work
P
Q
25
12
2512
50
12
5012
Work done
per hour
1
25 12
1
25 12
S
After 7 days from start of project:
Q took sick leave on first 2 days
Man hours by Q = 512
work done by Q = 5 12
1
2512
1
5
1
5012
7 18 =
21
100
1
21
5 100
100
521
20
21
Technical
Q.1Q.25 carry one mark each.
1. Let M4 = I, (where I denotes the identity matrix) and M I, M2 I
and M3 I. Then, for any natural number k, M1 equals:
(A) M4k + 1
(B) M4k + 2
(C) M4k + 3
(D) M4k
Ans: (C)
Solution:
Given M 4 = I
Multiply both sides with M1 we get
M 1 . M 4 = M 1
M 1 = M 3 = M 0+3 = M 4k+3 for k = 0
M 1 = M 4k+3
_____________(1)
2 + 2 = 0 ( + 2) ( 1) = 0
= 2 (or) 1
as variance () is always positive = 1
1
4R2
fda
sphere
B)
C)
D)
(C)
Ans: (A)
Solution: Finally we need to find the integration of given wave form.
(C) 0
(D) sin(0)
Ans: (C)
Solution:
Complex exponentials are Eigen function of linear time invariant
system. Eigen function of any system are a class of function which
when applied to the system gives the same function as output together
with a constant. We know this property for LTI systems is true for
complex exponential. Thus ejo t is the required eigen function.
Suppose if we take input x(t) = ej0 t then output y(t) = Kej0t , where
K is a constant.
Ans: (B)
Solution: Given x(n) = an u(n) + bn u(n)
z
z
X(z) =
+
za zb
ROC: z > a and z > b
But given that 0< a < b < 1
A B
]
C D
10.
A continuoustime sinusoid of frequency 33 Hz is multiplied
with a periodic Dirac impulse train of frequency 46 Hz. The resulting
signal is passed through an ideal analog lowpass filter with a cutoff
frequency of 23 Hz. The fundamental frequency (in Hz) of the output
is _________
Ans: 13
Solution:
The input sinusoid (Let x(t)) spectrum is X()
11.
A small percentage of impurity is added to an intrinsic
semiconductor at 300 K. Which one of the following statements is
true for the energy band diagram shown in the following figure?
(A) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with pentavalent atoms to form ntype semiconductor
(B) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with trivalent atoms to form ntype semiconductor
(C) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with pentavalent atoms to form ptype semiconductor
(D) Intrinsic semiconductor doped with trivalent atoms to form ptype semiconductor
Ans: (A)
Solution: As we see that the new Fermi level is above the mid band
energy level. So, the impurity added must be n type. Hence, a
pentavalent impurity and the resulting semiconductor is n type.
12.
Consider the following statements for a metal oxide
semiconductor field effect transistor
(MOSFET):
P: As channel length reduces, OFFstate current increases.
Q: As channel length reduces, output resistance increases.
R: As channel length reduces, threshold voltage remains constant.
S: As channel length reduces, ON current increases.
Which of the above statements are INCORRECT?
(A) P and Q
(B) P and S
(C) Q and R
(D) R and S
Ans: (C)
Solution:
We have MOSFET current ID given by
1
W
ID = n x (Vus VTH )2
2
L
So as channel length increase ID decreases. So statement S is true. Now
as channel length reduces the depletion regions under source and
drain come closer and interact more, increasing the OFF state current.
Thus, statement P is true. Also as channel length reduces output
impedance decrease. So, statement Q is incorrect. Also the channel
length affects the threshold voltage. So, statement R is incorrect.
Overall Q and R are incorrect statement and option C is the correct
option
13.
Consider the constant current source shown in the figure
below. Let represent the current gain of the transistor.
(A) 0 = (
(B) 0 = (
)
+1
+1
(C) 0 = (
(D) 0 = (
)
+1
Ans: (B)
Solution:
collector current IE =
Ic = Io = (
(1+)Ic
Vref
)
1+ R
14.
The following signal Vi of peak voltage 8 V is applied to the
noninverting terminal of an ideal opamp. The transistor has VBE =
0.7 V, = 100; VLED = 1.5 V, VCC = 10 V and VCC = 10 V.
10(2)
2+8
=2
So from the given wave form we can say that the LED turns ON for 3
times.
15.
Consider the oscillator circuit shown in the figure. The function
of the network (shown in dotted lines) consisting of the 100 k
resistor in series with the two diodes connected backtoback is to:
16.
The block diagram of a frequency synthesizer consisting of a
Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and a divideby counter (comprising
2, 4, 8, 16 outputs) is sketched below. The synthesizer is
excited with a 5 kHz signal (Input 1). The freerunning frequency of
the PLL is set to 20 kHz. Assume that the commutator switch makes
contacts repeatedly in the order 1234.
17.
(A) A+B+C
(B) A(B+C)
(C) B(C+A)
(D) C(A+B)
Ans: (C)
Solution:
)
Y = ABC (AB BC) = (ABC)(AB BC) + (AB BC)(ABC
)(BC
)
Consider AB BC = (AB)(BC) + (AB
+B
B
C + B
)(B
+ C) = ABC + A
+B
+A
C
= ABC + (A
C + B
C + (B + B
C + AC + B
=A
)(AC + B
) = A
= ABC + A
C
+ AC + B
) = ABC
(ABC)(AB BC) = (ABC)(A
(AB BC) = AB(BC
) +
+ C) +
Consider ABC
AB(BC) = AB(B
+B
BC + ABC
)BC = A
(A
BC + ABC = BC + ABC
= B(C + CA)
Y = ABC + A
= B(C + C)(C + A) = B(C + A)
18.
(A) 0 V
(B) (VT of PMOS + VT of NMOS) / 2
(C) Switching threshold of inverter
(D) VDD
Ans: (C)
19.
Match the inferences X, Y, and Z, about a system, to the
corresponding properties of the elements of first column in Rouths
Table of the system characteristic equation.
X: The system is stable
Y: The system is unstable
Z: The test breaks down
P: when all elements are positive
Q: when any one element is zero
R: when there is a change in sign of coefficients
(A) XP, YQ, ZR
(B) XQ, YP, ZR
(C) XR, YQ, ZP
(D) XP, YR, ZQ
Ans: (D)
Solution:
i) If the elements present in the first column of RH table has same
sign then we can say that system is stable;
ii) If there is any change in the sign of first column then we can say
that system is Unstable and number of sign changes indicates the
Number of poles present in the right side of S plane
iii) If any element is zero in the first column then it says the test
breaks down.
20.
A closedloop control system is stable if the Nyquist plot of the
corresponding openloop transfer function
(A) encircles the splane point (1 + j0) in the counterclockwise
direction as many times as the number of righthalf splane poles.
(B) encircles the splane point (0 j1) in the clockwise direction as
many times as the number of righthalf splane poles.
(C) encircles the splane point (1 + j0) in the counterclockwise
direction as many times as the number of lefthalf splane poles.
(D) encircles the splane point (1 + j0) in the counterclockwise
direction as many times as the number of righthalf splane zeros.
Ans: (A)
Solution:
From the principal of argument theorem the number of encirclements
about (1, 0) is N = P Z
Where P = Number of open loop poles on Right Half of s plane
Z = Number of Closed Loop Poles on Right Half of s plane
Given that closed loop system is stable means z = 0 N = P
So the Nyquist encircles the s plane point (1 +j0) in the counter
clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half s plane
poles
21.
Consider binary data transmission at a rate of 56 kbps using
baseband binary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) that is designed
to have a raisedcosine spectrum. The transmission bandwidth (in
kHz) required for a rolloff factor of 0.25 is ________
Ans: 35
Solution:
Birarate =
2(transmission Bandwidth)
(1 + )
2(BW)
BW = 28 1.25 = 35KHz
1 + 0.25
22.
A super heterodyne receiver operates in the frequency range of
58 MHz 68 MHz. The intermediate frequency and local
oscillator frequency are chosen such that . It is required
that the image frequencies fall outside the 5 8 M Hz 68 MHz band.
The minimum required (in MHz) is ________
Ans: 0.5
Solution:
The relation between image frequency and intermediate frequency is
given by
Fsi = fs + 2IF
Fsi1 = 58 + 2IF and Fsi2 = 68 + 2IF
If image frequency is 69 MHz then
69 = 68 + 2IF2
69 = 58 + 2IF1 ,

IF2 = 0.5 MHz
IF1 = 5.5MHz
Minimum value of Intermediate frequency IF = 0.5 MHz
23.
The amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is modulated by a single
sinusoid to obtain the amplitude modulated signal () = 5 cos 1600
+ 20 cos 1800 + 5 cos 2000. The value of the modulation index
is __________
Ans: 0.5
0.25
Solution:
The general ATT modulated signal expression is s(t) = Ac (1 +
cos m t) cos c t
Ac
[2 cos m t cos c t]
s(t) = Ac cosc t +
2
Ac
[cos(n + c )t cos(c m )t]
= Ac cos c t +
2
Ac
Ac
s(t) = Ac cosc t +
cos(m + c )t +
cos(c m )t
2
2
Thus, we see that two terms have same amplitudes. Comparing with
s(t) = 5 cos 1600t + 20 cos 1800t + 5 cos 2000t
We have
And
Ac
2
Ac
20
Ac =
= 20
Ac = 40
=5=
25
40
20
= = 0.5
0.25
42
24.
Concentric spherical shells of radii 2 m, 4 m, and 8 m carry
uniform surface charge densities of 20 nC/m2, 4 nC/m2 and s,
respectively. The value of s (nC/m2) required to ensure that the
at radius 10 m is _________
=0
electric flux density
Ans: 0.25
Solution:
For the flus density to be zero at radius r = 10m, total charge enclosed
must be zero. Total change enclosed on sphere of radius 2m is
4(r 2 )20
nC
m2
= 320 nC
nC
m2
nC
m2
= 256 nC
= 256s nC
25.
The propagation constant of a lossy transmission line is (2 +
5) m1 and its characteristic impedance is (50 + 0) at = 106
rad s1. The values of the line constants L, C,R, G are, respectively,
(A) L = 200 H/m, C = 0.1 F/m, R = 50 /m, G = 0.02 S/m
(B) L = 250 H/m, C = 0.1 F/m, R = 100 /m, G = 0.04 S/m
(C) L = 200 H/m, C = 0.2 F/m, R = 100 /m, G = 0.02 S/m
(D) L = 250 H/m, C = 0.2 F/m, R = 50 /m, G = 0.04 S/m
Ans: (B)
Solution:
Since the characteristic impedance is purely real and propagation
constant is complex, the transmission line is distortionless. Thus, =
R
R
Z20
100
2500
= 0.04
S
m
The integral
1
2
Ans: 20
Solution:
Given that I =
1
2
2
1
I=
(rcos + rsin + 10)rdrd
2
r=0
=0
2
1
r3
r3
=
( cos + sin + 5r 2 ) d
2
3
3
0
=0
1
8
8
1
=
= 20
[ ( cos + sin + 20) d] =
2
3
3
2[0 + 0 + 20(2)]
=0
27.
[]
]=
[ 1]
1 1 1
] [ ] , 2.
1 0 0
The initial conditions are x[0] = 1, x[1] = 1, and x[n] = 0 for n < 0.
The value of x[12] is _____
[
Ans: 12
Solution:
x(n)
1 1n 1
Given that [
] [ ]
]=[
x(n 1)
1 0 0
Put n = 2 we get
x(2)
1 1 1
][
[
]=[
x(1)
1 0 1
1 1
2 1 1
2
][ ] = [
][ ] = [ ]
0 0
1 1 0
1
Put n = 3 we get
x(3)
1 13 1
2 1 1 1 1
3 2 1
3
] [ ]=[
][
][ ] = [
][ ] = [ ]
[
]=[
x(2)
1 0 0
1 1 1 0 0
2 1 0
2
x(12)
1
[
]=[
x(11)
1
x(12) = 12
28.
In the following integral, the contour C encloses the points 2j
and 2j
1
sin
2 ( 2)3
, dz = 2i (sum of residues)
(z 2j)3
Pole is at z = 2 j
1 d2
(sinz)
[Residue] =
2! dz 2
z2j
1
d
1
1
= .
= sinz = sin2i
2 dz(cosz)
2
2
1
i e2 e2
= + isin h(2) = (+ ) [
] = + i (133.8)
2
2
2
(sin i = i sin h & sin hi = i sin
29.
1
sin
1
.
dz
=
2i (+133.8)i = + 133.8
2 (z 2j)3
2
,3
Ans: 9.424
Solution:
Volume = (d) (id). dz = d. d . dz
1 2 5
= ( )3 . ()4 (z)4.5
3
2
8
1
3
16 ( ) (4.5 3) = 8 = 3 = 9.424
2
4 8
4 2
30.
The Laplace transform of the causal periodic square wave of
period T shown in the figure below is
(A) () =
(B) () =
(C) () =
(D) () =
1+ 2
1
(1+ 2 )
1
(1 )
1
1
Ans: (B)
Solution:
Laplace transform for periodic signal is given as
T
1
F(s) =
f(t)est dt
1 esT
0
T
2
1
1
est 2
st
=
(1). e dt + 0 =
[
]
1 esT
1 esT s 0
0
[
]
sT
1
1
2]=(
=
.
.
e
[1
(1 esT ) s
F(s) =
sT
1 e 2
s (1 + e
sT
2 ) (1
ST )
e 2)
1
ST
s (1 + e 2 )
31.
A network consisting of a finite number of linear resistor (R),
inductor (L), and capacitor (C) elements, connected all in series or all
in parallel, is excited with a source of the form
3=1 cos(0 ) , where ak 0, 0 0
The source has nonzero impedance. Which one of the following is a
possible form of the output measured across a resistor in the
network?
(A) 3=1 cos(0 + ) , where bk ak ,
(B) 4=1 cos(0 + ) , where bk 0,
(C) 3=1 cos(0 + )
(D) 3=1 cos(0 + )
Ans: (A)
Solution:
Given input x(t) = 3k=1 ak cos(ko t)
Suppose R = 1, L = 1, C = 1 and they are connected in series then
transfer function of system
H(s) = R + sL + 1/sC
1
1 s2 + s + 1
H(s) = R + sL + = 1 + s + =
sC
s
s
At = ko H(j) = M
32.
A firstorder lowpass filter of time constant T is excited with
different input signals (with zero initial conditions up to t = 0).
Match the excitation signals X, Y, Z with the corresponding time
responses for t 0:
X: Impulse P: 1 /
Y: Unit step Q: t T(1 /)
Z: Ramp
R: /
(A) XR, YQ, ZP
(B) XQ, YP, ZR
(C) XR, YP, ZQ
(D) XP, YR, ZQ
Ans: (C)
Solution:
Let open loop transfer function G(s) =
Closed loop transfer function H(s) =
1
ST
1
1+sT
feedback)
Y(s) = X(s). H(s)
Case i :
if input = impulse X(s) = 1
1
1 1
. [
]
1 + sT T 1 + s
T
1 t
y(t) = eT
T
Y(s) =
Case ii:
If input = unit step X(s) =
1
s
Y(s) =
1
1 1
T
1
1
. = +
=
1 + sT s s (1 + sT) s 1 + s
T
t
y(t) = 1 eT
Case iii:
If input = Ramp x(s) =
1
s2
(T)
1
1
1
T2
Y(s) =
. 2= 2+
+
(1 + sT)
1 + sT s
s
s
t
y(t) = t + Tet/T T = t T (1 eT )
33.
An AC voltage source V = 10 sin(t) volts is applied to the
following network. Assume that R1 = 3 k, R2= 6 k and R3 = 9 k,
and that the diode is ideal.
Irms
3
1 Irms
Current through R 2 = .
2
Irms
6
Current through R 3 =
Irms
6
Irms
6
Irms
3
Vrms +
34.
In the circuit shown in the figure, the maximum power (in
watt) delivered to the resistor R is __________
Ans: 800
Solution:
V0 =
5(2)
= 2V
2+3
V0 (40)
40+10
= 80Vo = 160V
40(10)
Pmax =
50
V2Th
4Rth
=8
160160
48
= 800 watt
35.
Consider the signal
[] = 6 [ + 2] + 3[ + 1] + 8[] + 7[ 1] + 4[ 2] .
Ans: 8
Solution:
1
X(ej ) sin2 (2) d
We have
sin2 (2) =
1cos 4
2
Thus,
1
X(ej )
(1cos4)
1
1
=
X(ej )d
X(ej )cos4d
2
2
We have
1
X(ej )d = x[0] = 8
2
X(ej ) (
2
ej4 +ej4
2
) d
1 1
1
= [
X(ej )ej4 d +
X(ej )ej4 d]
2 2
2
= [x[4] + x[4]] = [0 + 0] = 0
2
2
Thus,
36.
Consider a silicon pn junction with a uniform acceptor doping
concentration of 1017 cm3 on the p side and a uniform donor doping
concentration of 1016 cm3 on the nside. No external voltage is
applied to the diode. Given:
kT/q = 26 mV, ni =1.5 1010 cm3, Si = 120, 0 = 8.85 1014 F/m,
and q = 1.6 1019 C.
The charge per unit junction area (nC cm2) in the depletion region
on the pside is ___________
Ans: 55.52
Solution:
We have
1
2
2si . Vbi Nd
1
xp = {
[ ][
]}
9
Na Na + Nd
Now Vbi =
KT
4
ln (
Na Nd
n2i
)
1016 1017
Vbi = 26 103 ln (
11.51010
) = 0.757 V
Now,
14
16
1
2
2 12 8.85 10
10
xp = {
}
(1.6 1019 )(1017 )(1016 + 1017 )
14
16
1
2
2 12 8.85 10
10
={
}
(1.6 1019 )(1017 ) 11 1016
xp = 3.47 106 cm
Now charge per unit volume in depletion region is
eNa = (1.6 1019 ) 1017 C/cm3
eNa = 1.6 102 C/cm3
Charge per unit area Q in depletion region on pside is eNa . xp
Q = 1.6 102 3.47 106
Q = 55.52 nC/cm2
37.
Consider an nchannel metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor (MOSFET) with a gateto source voltage of 1.8 V. Assume
that / = 4, N = 70 106 AV2, the threshold voltage is 0.3V,
and the channel length modulation parameter is 0.09 V1. In the
saturation region, the drain conductance (in micro seimens) is
________
Ans: 28.35
Solution:
The equation of current in saturation is given by
1
ID = n cox
(VGS VT )2 (1 + VDS )
Drain Conductance =
ID
VDS
= n cox
. (VGs VT )2 .
38.
The figure below shows the doping distribution in a ptype
semiconductor in log scale.
39.
Consider a silicon sample at T = 300 K, with a uniform donor
density = 5 1016
cm3, illuminated uniformly such that the optical generation rate is
= 1.5 1020 cm31 throughout the sample. The incident
radiation is turned off at = 0. Assume lowlevel injection to be valid
and ignore surface effects. The carrier lifetimes are 0= 0.1 s and
0 = 0.5 s.
2
2si . Vbi Nd
1
xp = {
[ ][
]}
9
Na Na + Nd
Now Vbi =
KT
4
ln (
Na Nd
n2i
)
1016 1017
Vbi = 26 103 ln (
11.51010
) = 0.757 V
Now,
14
16
1
2
2 12 8.85 10
10
xp = {
}
(1.6 1019 )(1017 )(1016 + 1017 )
1
40.
An ideal opamp has voltage sources V1, V3, V5, , VN1 connected
to the noninverting input and V2,V4, V6, , VN connected to the
inverting input as shown in the figure below (+VCC = 15 volt, VCC =
15 volt). The voltages V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, are 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4,
1/5, 1/6, volt, respectively. As N approaches infinity, the output
voltage (in volt) is ___________
Ans: 1.142
Solution:
If only V1 is present and remaining are OFF. Then voltage at non
inverting terminal = 0 V (because parallel connection of infinite
resistances leads to be short circuit)
So even if all V1 , V3 Vn1 are present, the voltage at Non
inverting terminal = 0 V
By using virtual ground concept voltage at inverting terminal = 0 V
Apply nodal at inverting terminal we get
O V2 O V4 O V6
O V0
+
+
.+
=0
10
10
10
10
Vo = (V2 + V4 + V6 + . VN )
1 1 1
V0 = ( + + + . )
2 4 6
1
1 1 1
= (1 + + + + . . . ) = 1.142 V
2
2 3 4
41.
A pin photodiode of responsivity 0.8A/W is connected to the
inverting input of an ideal opamp as shown in the figure, +Vcc = 15 V,
Vcc = 15V, Load resistor RL = 10 k. If 10 W of power is incident
on the photodiode, then the value of the photocurrent (in A)
through the load is ________
Ans: 800
Solution:
By Virtual Ground concept voltage at inverting = Non inverting = 0
V
Responsibility =
Ip
P0
42.
0 V0
8
= 4 = 800A
1 M
10
43.
44.
In an 8085 system, a PUSH operation requires more clock
cycles than a POP operation. Which one of the following options is
the correct reason for this?
(A) For POP, the data transceivers remain in the same direction as for
instruction fetch (memory to processor), whereas for PUSH their
direction has to be reversed.
(B) Memory write operations are slower than memory read
operations in an 8085 based system.
(C) The stack pointer needs to be predecremented before writing
registers in a PUSH, whereas a POP operation uses the address
already in the stack pointer.
(D) Order of registers has to be interchanged for a PUSH operation,
whereas POP uses their natural order.
Ans:
Solution:
PUSH is pre decremented operation
Since it is 16 bit operation it takes 6 clock cycles for Fetch and
decoding operation.
For PUSH operation:
T1
6 clock cycles
Fetch and Decode
T2
3 clock cycles
Write operation
T3
3 clock cycles
Write operation
T2
3 clock cycles
Write operation
T3
3 clock cycles
Write operation
45.
The openloop transfer function of a unityfeedback control
system is
2 + 5 + 5
The value of K at the breakaway point of the feedback control
systems rootlocus plot is _______
() =
Ans: 1.25
Solution:
Given open loop transfer function G(s) =
1 + G(s)H(s) 1 +
K
(s2 +55+5)
K
=0
(s 2 + 5s + 5)
K = (s 2 + 5s + 5)
For Break point calculation we need
dK
ds
= 0 2s + 5 = 0
s = 2.5
At s = 2.5 G(s) =
K
6.25+5(2.5)+5
K
=1
11.25 12.5
K
1.25
 = 1 K = 1.25
46.
The openloop transfer function of a unityfeedback control
system is given by
() =
( + 2)
For the peak overshoot of the closedloop system to a unit step input
to be 10%, the
value of K is ____________
Ans: 1.300
Solution:
Open loop transfer function G(s) =
K
s(s+2)
Characteristics equation is s 2 + 2s + K = 0
10
)=
100
1
k
12
100
12
= 0.537 = 0.6
1 2
K=
1
= 1.300
2
47.
The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is given
by
H(s) = 24 53 + 5 2
The number of zeros in the right half of the splane is ________
Ans: 3
Solution:
Given H(s) = 2s 4 5s 3 + 5s 2
Obtain RH criteria we get
s4
2
0
s3
5
5
2
s
2
2
1
s
4(0)
s0
2
Auxiliary Equation AE: 2s 2 2 = 0 and
dAE
ds
=4
48.
Consider a discrete memory less source with alphabet = {0,
1, 2, 3, 4, } and respective probabilities of occurrence =
1 1 1
source
is
2
1
4
1
8
1
2
1
16
H(s) = 1 + 4 + 8 + ..
H(s) = 1 + 2 + 3 +
H(s) = [1 2
2
1
4
4. ..
23
+3 +4
.]
Now, expansion of
(1 x)2 = 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 .
Comparing with
1
1
1
1+2 +3 2+4 3
2
2
2
1
We see, x =
2
22
Thus, 1 + 2 3
+4
1
23
1 2
= (1 )
2
1 2
=( )
2
= 22 = 4
1
49.
A digital communication system uses a repetition code for
channel encoding/decoding. During transmission, each bit is
repeated three times (0 is transmitted as 000, and 1 is transmitted as
111). It is assumed that the source puts out symbols independently
and with equal probability. The decoder operates as follows: In a
block of three received bits, if the number of zeros exceeds the
number of ones, the decoder decides in favor of a 0, and if the
number of ones exceeds the number of zeros, the decoder decides in
50.
An analog pulse s(t) is transmitted over an additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The received signal is r(t) = s(t) +
n(t), where n(t) is additive white Gaussian noise with power spectral
density
0
2
response h(t). Let and denote the energies of the pulse s(t) and
the filter h(t), respectively. When the signaltonoise ratio (SNR) is
maximized at the output of the filter (SNRmax), which of the following
holds?
(A) = ; max =
2
0
(B) = ; max =
(C) > ; max =
(D) = ; max =
2
20
2
0
2
0
Ans: (A)
Solution:
The SNR is maximum when the filter is matched to the input signal.
And when the filter is matched to the input the energies of both the
input and matched filter responses is same. Thus Es = Eh . And in that
case the SNR =
2Es
N0
2Eh
N0
51.
12
I=
2
400 sin
4
a
=0 =
24.64 r
= r 2 sinddar
12
I=
2
4
=0
24.64
400
r 2 sindd
12
4000.64
24.64
I=
I=
=
()
4000.64
24.64
4000.64
24.64
4000.64
4.64
2
0
r=0.8
sin2
12
624
2 [
12
]
2 [(
) 4 (sin 2
sin
6
)]
(1 )]
12
4
2
]
8
S=
2
4
=0 =
r 2 sin dd
12
S = 0.64
r=0.8
()2
0
( cos )
12
S = 0.64 2 (0.26)
S = 1.04
Now average current density Javg =
7.55
1.04
= 7.25
A
m2
Ans: (A)
Solution:
Antennas noise temperature TAN = 50K
Ambient temperature TA = 290K
Preamplifier noise figure FP = 2dB
Amplifier gain GP = 40dB
Now, effective noise temperature of amplifier input Te = (F 1)TA
2
72
2
= 1.445W
4r
PT
Where Gdr is directive gain of receiving antenna and Gdt is directive
gain of transmitting antenna.
We have Gdt = 101 . 8 = 63.1 and
Gdr = 102.2 = 158.5
And distance between antennas is given as r = 200
Thus, Pr = (158.5)(63.1) [
4200
] 1.445
Pr = 2.29W
Now sinusoid amplitude at receiver input Ar is such that
A2r
2
= 2.29 W Ar = 2.14
A2L
2
= 1.54W
54. The electric field of a uniform plane wave travelling along the
negative z direction is given by the following equation:
= ( + )0
This wave is incident upon a receiving antenna placed at the origin
and whose radiated electric field towards the incident wave is given
by the following equation:
1
= ( + )
0 2 cos
1
r2
cos 4 . C0 .
ar
1
r2
cos 4 . C0 . r 2 sin dd
Where 0
and 0 2
Umax
Prad
= 4
C0
1.256C0
= 10.005