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Selective education refers to the kind of education whereby the

students with different talents and the other characteristics move
towards different futures through different equitable schools for them
where they study separately apart from studying together at the same
school or in the same class, (Wallace, 2015).
Selective education also can be defined as an education of exclusion
containing of filtering mechanism permitting the retention of the
intended educational target, this means the provision of education is
done in a discrimination manner and the program content varies in
accordance with the program category of the individual concerned,
(Tatangang, 2011).
A concept of streaming can be understood as a grouping form which
measures a general ability of placing the students into a class which
they kept together for most subjects, apart from that, a concept of
setting can be referred as the re-grouping system whereby he students
are grouped on the basis of their attainment in a particular curriculum
subject and a school decides which subjects will be taught in sets.

From that matter, the students also may be grouped by their ability
within the class and this form of organization is common in primary
schools whereby grouping is mostly done by a teacher in order to
maintain class groups, (Savaci, 2006).
Historically streaming was a form of organization that was common in
the 1950s and 1960s that used both to assign pupils to secondary
schools and to group them into classes. The pupils would be in the
same class for all subjects on the basis of an overall assessment of
their ability arrived at through testing.
Streaming aims at providing each stream with appropriate educational
experiences whereby the pupils in the streams are being given what
are regarded to learn in an academic curriculum. In the past time,
there were top streams which given the pupils with the situation which
they learnt at the fast pace and where the streams by then were better
resourced and planned.
By the time of 1960s, this system was challenged on social grounds
and came with the introduction of comprehensive education which
founded on the desire to have equality of educational opportunity and
to provide a shared educational experience to all and from that matter;
the students are assigned to classes to create a mix of ability.

Setting refers to the organization form whereby the students within a

year group are assigned to classes for a given subject on the basis of
their prior attainment in that subject. Setting in the other hand may
lead to the situation that if the students can be in different sets for
different subjects and assumption underlying setting is that, teaching
and learning in each set or stream will be different particularly with
regard to the pace of learning hence may affect the academic
achievement of the involved students in learning.
A variant of setting is broad banding which is sometimes used in
subjects where there is limited assessment of information available to
guide the process of allocating students to sets. From that matter,
through setting the academic achievement can be experienced in the
following ways:i. The teachers through setting gets opportunity to reduce
significantly the time spent on organizing learning for a wide
range of achievement of educational goals within one class.
ii. It also eases the pressures of having to be constantly responsive
to very wide differences of students or pupils demands and
needs which are educational oriented.
The demands for this is the efficiency in direct teaching and to ensure
that the students work effectively on the tasks given for their

educational achievement and from that matter, setting is the system

that helps the students in their appropriate subjects to reach their
educational goals in a simplified situation than if could happen in a
single class of all different students, (Bryce & Humes, 2006).
Setting in a particular avoids some of the more common social
consequences of streaming. For example, it tends to avoid the
development of strong sub-cultural relatio9nships and groups among
the students who may adopt disruptive behaviors that may lead to
their academic failures, (Livesey, 2014).


Mobility refers to the transformation in the social status of an individual
or a group of people and the change in the social status is then called
social mobility, from that concept, social mobility refers to the
movement of an individual within a social structure; this is the
movement of person or group of people from one place to another,
(Ravi, 2011).
Ravi (2011) quoted Boardus (2000) to refer social mobility as the
change in social position such as occupational changes where persons

move up or down in the occupational scale or relation to office


a follower becomes a leader or leap from a low economic

class to a higher one or vice-versa. From this concept, Alarcon &

Garzon (2011) quoted Portes (1996) whereby he grouped social
mobility into downward and upward social mobility.
Upward social mobility depends on educational success although
success in educational system has been linked with family and cultural
embedding (the integration into networks of co-ethnics characterized
by strong ethnic cohesion). From that matter, academic success and
upward social mobility is linked to keep ethnic customs, bicultural and
bilingual and the other factors are human capital and social capital.
In downward social mobility, it leads to the marginal communities,
creation of feeling of refusal towards host society whereby someone
maybe marginalized of his educational success.
Social inequality refers to the differences in the society among the
social members or individuals on social position in terms like wealth,
education, culture and others resources available.

Social inequality occurs when people frequently receive more of the

societys valuable goods or services than others owing to their position
in the social networks of relations; the concept of social inequality does
not mean the results of natural or accidental process but is a result of
social process, Hoffmann, 2008).
The students educational achievements are being affected negatively
by social inequality situation within their society as following:Family income; the income of the family may be a factor that can
hinder the educational achievement of the students as the high income
family can afford all educational and academic requirements to help a
student to develop well in academic sphere and when the family does
not have enough income, this may lead to affected educational
development or academic development and from that it harm
educational achievement.
Social inequality also is determined by literate and illiterate people
within the society and this marks the contribution towards educational
achievement, from that matter, the parents level of literacy marks the
contribution to students educational achievement as the literate
parents will contribute positively to the childs academic development
for his or her future educational achievement through insisting their
children to interact with their teachers and motivates them in what

they do academically because they have successfully completed a

certain level of education, (Silbereisen et al. 2016).
The difference in areas of settlement among social members also is
termed as an obstacle whereby the rural settled societies are seen to
be serviced by low quality kind of education which results from low
efforts in teaching and learning processes and inadequate teaching
and learning resources to enhance students academic development
for future better achievement, while in urban societies, the students in
their schools they obtain quality education through the presence of
appropriate and effective teaching and learning processes, availability
of adequate teaching and learning materials and accessibility to many
educational centers and institutions that influence learning processes
through academic interactions and from that matter the students may
achieve educational success.
Therefore, socialization in education is an important issue for academic
and societal interactions among the social members although in
education sphere there are many social constraints that may influence
positively or negatively the academic development that may harm
educational achievement of the students.

Alarcon A. & Garzon L. (Ed). (2011). International Studies in Sociology
and Social Anthropology: Language, Migration and Social







Bryce T.G.K. & Humes W.M. (Ed). (2006). Scottish Education: Post
Devolution,Edinburgh University Press, Spain.
Hoffmann R. (2008). Socioeconomic Differences in Old Age Mortality,
Springer, Germany.
Livesey C. (2014). Cambridge International AS and A Level : Sociology
Coursebook, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.
Ravi S.S. (2011). A Comprehensive Study of Education, PHI Learning
Private Ltd, New Delhi, India.
Savaci A. (Ed). (2006). Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks : 14 th
Turkish Symposium, Springer, Germany.
Silbereisen R.K. et al. (Ed). (2016).The Challenges of Diaspora
Migration: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Israel and
Germany, Routledge, New York.

Taylor P.(2004).Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to

Reform, ISERS, Singapore.
Wallace S. (Ed). (2015). Dictionary of Education: Featuring Updated and
Expanded Entries across all Phases of Education, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.