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# 5.

## CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL SYSTEM

Aim:
To conduct the experiment on temperature control loop to study the response of P, PI, PID&
ON/OFF controller for step input.
Theory:
Proportional (P) Controller:
In P controller, the control algorithm generates a linear control output proportional to deviation.
In proportional action , the amount of change in the measured value is expressed in percent of span that
is required to cause the control output to change from 0 to100% is called the proportional band. The
controller output is given by,
Output = b + 100/PB * e
Where,
PB proportional band in %
b Bias value
E Error signal
If there is no biasing, output will become zero when error is zero. Hence bias value decides the
value of output when error is zero. The P controllers usually show some difference between the set
point and process variable called offset. The offset can be reduced by decreasing PB or by readjusting
the bias. With decrease in proportional band the process becomes oscillatory.
Proportional Integral (PI) Controller:
The offset in proportional controller can be overcome by adding integral action. The control
algorithm that applies changes in output as long as elevation exists, so as to bring the deviation to zero is
called integral action, output of PI

## Output = b + 100/PB{e + 1/Ti e.dt}

This is the time required to repeat proportional action.

## Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller:

A PID controller attempts to correct the error between measured pressure variable and desired set
point by calculating and then outputting a correcting action to adjust the process accordingly. Industry
commonly prefers PID based control as it has low offset and stabilizing time
The output of PID controller is given by,
Output = b + 100/PB{ e 1/Ti e.dt + Td.de/dt}
Where,
b is the bias
PB is the proportion band in %
e is the error signal
Ti is the integral time
Td is derivative time
Selection of proportional band, integral time and derivative time to achieve desired process response to
load changes is called tuning of controller.
Block Diagram:
The block diagram of the closed loop control system is shown in Figure-1.

## P&I Diagram of Temperature Control Loop:

The following Figure-2 shows P&I diagram of temperature control loop.

## Figure-2: P&I diagram of temperature control loop

Description of the set up:
Temperature control trainer is designed by understanding the basic temperature control principle.
The process setup consists of heating tank with control heaters for online heating of water.
The flow of water can be manipulated and measured by rotameter. The temperature sensor (RTD)
is used for sensing the temperature.
This process parameter is controlled by microprocessor based digital indicating controller which
manipulates heat input to the process.
These units along with necessary piping are fitted on support housing designed for table top for
mounting.
The controller can be connected to the computer through the USB port for monitoring the process

Procedure:
1. Switch on the Water supply and adjust the flow rate of 50 LPH.
2. Switch on the Heater
3. Switch on the main system.
4. Open the Modicon Modbus software
5. Open Intouch software and select the temperature control trainer.
6. Single click the run time mode and enter the process
7. Go to Change Mode and Select ON/OFF mode option
8. Change the set point and click data log ON for certain period and then click data log OFF.
9. Observe the data set and plot the graph between OP Vs Time.
10. Finally go to Change mode and then change to the default mode (PID Mode).
11. Now change to development mode and come out.

Tabulation:
P controller action:
Set point

Proportional band =
Time (sec)

Process variable

Control valve

(C)

Position (%)

PI controller action:
Set point

Proportional band =
Integral time
Time (sec)

## PID controller action:

Process variable

Control valve

(C)

Position (%)

Set point

Proportional band =

Time (sec)

Integral time

Derivative time

Process variable

Control valve

(C)

Position (%)

Result:
For the temperature process control, the performance of P, PI, PID & ON/OFF controllers are verified.