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Configure and Manage Virtual Networks

Module 5

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Importance

VMware ESXi networking features allow virtual machines to


communicate with other virtual and physical machines, allow
management of the ESXi host, and allow the VMkernel to access IPbased storage and perform VMware vSphere vMotion migrations.
Failure to properly configure ESXi networking can negatively affect
virtual machine management and storage operation.

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Module Lessons

Lesson 1:

Introduction to vNetwork Standard Switches

Lesson 2:

Configuring Standard Virtual Switch Policies

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Lesson 1:
Introduction to vNetwork Standard
Switches

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Define a virtual network.
Describe a virtual switch.
Describe the virtual switch connection types.
Describe the components of a vNetwork standard switch.
Create a vNetwork standard switch.

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What Is a Virtual Network? What Is a Virtual Switch?


A virtual network provides the networking for hosts and virtual
machines that use virtual switches.
A virtual switch:

Directs network traffic between


virtual machines and links to
external networks.

application

application

application

operating system

operating system

operating system

Virtual
NIC

Virtual
NIC

Virtual
NIC

Combines the bandwidth of


multiple network adapters and
balances traffic among them. It
can also handle physical network
interface card (NIC) failover.
Models a physical Ethernet
switch:

A virtual machines NIC can


connect to a port.

Each uplink adapter uses one


port.

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Physical NIC

Physical
Switch
Ports

External World

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Types of Virtual Switch Connections


A virtual switch allows the following connection types:
VMkernel port:

For example, for IP storage or vMotion migration


For the ESXi management network

One or more virtual machine port groups

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Virtual Switch Connection Examples


More than one network can coexist on the same virtual switch, or
networks can exist on separate virtual switches.

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Types of Virtual Switches

A virtual network supports two types of virtual switches:


vNetwork standard switches:

Virtual switch configuration for a single host


Discussed in this module

vNetwork distributed switches:

Virtual switches that provide a consistent network configuration for virtual


machines as they migrate across multiple hosts

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Standard Virtual Switch Components

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Default Standard Virtual Switch Configuration

Display standard
virtual switches.

Enable IPv6 on
ESXi host.

Delete the
virtual switch.

Display virtual
switch properties.

Display Cisco
Discovery Protocol
information.

Display port group


properties.

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Standard Virtual Switch Ports


You can change the number of ports on a standard virtual switch.

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Network Adapter Properties


For each physical adapter, speed and duplex can be changed.
You might need to set the speed and duplex for certain NIC and
switch combinations.

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VLANs
ESXi supports 802.1Q VLAN tagging.
Virtual switch tagging is one of three
tagging policies supported.
Packets from a virtual machine are
tagged as they exit the virtual switch.
Packets are untagged as they return
to the virtual machine.
Affect on performance is minimal.
ESXi provides VLAN support by
giving a port group a VLAN ID

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Lab 6

In this lab, you will create a standard virtual switch and port group.
1. View the current standard virtual switch configuration.
2. Create a standard virtual switch with a virtual machine port group.
3. Attach your virtual machine to a virtual switch port group.

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Define a virtual network.
Describe a virtual switch.
Describe the virtual switch connection types.
Describe the components of a vNetwork standard switch.
Create a vNetwork standard switch.

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Lesson 2:
Configuring Standard Virtual Switch
Policies

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe the security properties of a standard virtual switch port
group:

VLANs
Security, traffic-shaping, and NIC teaming policies

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Network Policies

Three network policies:


Security
Traffic shaping
NIC teaming
Policies are defined:
At the standard virtual switch level:

Default policies for all the ports on the standard virtual switch

At the port or port group level:

Effective policies: Policies defined at this level override the default policies
set at the standard virtual switch level.

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Security Policy
Administrators can configure layer 2 Ethernet security options at
the standard virtual switch and at the port groups.

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Traffic-Shaping Policy
Network traffic shaping is a mechanism for controlling a virtual
machines network bandwidth.
Average rate, peak rate, and burst size are configurable.

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Configuring Traffic Shaping

Traffic shaping is
disabled by default.
Parameters apply
to each virtual NIC
in the standard
virtual switch.
On a standard
switch, traffic
shaping controls
outbound traffic
only.

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NIC Teaming Policy

NIC Teaming
settings:
Load Balancing
(outbound only)
Network Failure
Detection
Notify Switches
Failback
Failover Order

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Load-Balancing Method: Originating Port ID

Virtual
switch

Virtual
NICs
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Physical
NICs
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Load-Balancing Method: Source MAC Hash

Internet

Physical
switch

Virtual
switch

Virtual
NICs

Physical
NICs

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Load-Balancing Method: IP-Hash

Internet

Physical
switch

Virtual
switch

Virtual
NICs

Physical
NICs

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Detecting and Handling Network Failure


Network failure is detected by the
VMkernel, which monitors:
Link state only
Link state plus beaconing
Switches can be notified whenever:
There is a failover event
A new virtual NIC is connected to the
virtual switch
Failover implemented by the VMkernel
based on configurable parameters:
Failback: How a physical adapter is
returned to active duty after recovering
from a failure
Load-balancing option: Use explicit
failover order. Always use the highest
order uplink from the list of active adapters
that pass failover detection criteria.
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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe the security properties of a standard virtual switch port
group:

VLANs
Security, traffic-shaping, and NIC teaming policies

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Key Points

There are two connection types on a virtual switch: virtual machine


and VMkernel.
A standard virtual switch is a virtual switch configuration for a single
host.
Network policies set at the standard virtual switch level can be
overridden at the port group level.

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