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Definition

FICTION
Fiction is the classification for any story, or element of a story, derived from imagination and not
based strictly on history or fact
Example:
Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carrol
Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll is a good example of fiction. The story narrates various
adventures of the main character, Alice, in a fictitious land full of incredible creatures and events.
Alice has to go through certain magical experiences in the wonderland. According to the story,
one day, while reading book, Alice grows bored, and notices a rabbit. She follows it when it goes
into a hole. When peeping through it, she loses her balance and falls into it. She floats down
slowly into the hole and observes everything around her. Then she enters the wonderland, and
witnesses a number of weird stuff. This entire magical detail is fabricated and imaginary, which
make it a good fiction to enjoy
SHORT STORY
A short story is a brief work of fiction, usually written in prose and running 1,600 to 20,000
words in length. The literary roots of the short story can be found in oral storytelling traditions,
such as anecdotes, fables, fairy tales, and parables
Example:
Canterbury Tales'
Geoffrey Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales' may very well be the first collection of short stories in
English literature. Composed in Middle-English verse or prose and written in the early 14th
century, Chaucer's collection revolves around a storytelling contest among pilgrims on their way
to Canterbury.

NOVEL
A novel can be identified as an extended work of fictional prose, typically between 60,000 and
200,000 words in length. As a whole, novels are representative of ongoing innovation in
literature; pushing the boundaries of literary experience is an often unspoken trait of the form
Example:
Don Quixote

Published in two parts between 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes is widely
considered the first modern novel. The realism in the satirical view of chivalric mentality is
Cervantes' response to the romanticized fiction that had been in-vogue throughout Spain and
Europe in the centuries prior. In this way, he develops a new literary form that is also unique in
that Don Quixote is actually two interlocking tales: the story of Don Quixote's adventures and the
story of the process of writing that story.

Fable
The word fable is derived from a Latin word fibula which means a story that is a derivative of
a word fari which means to speak. Fable is a literary device which can be defined as a concise
and brief story intended to provide a moral lesson at the end.
In literature, it is described as a didactic lesson given through some sort of animal story.
In prose and verse, a fable is described through plants, animals, forces of nature and inanimate
objects by giving them human attributes wherein they demonstrate a moral lesson at the end.

A crow was sitting on a branch of a tree with a piece of cheese in her beak when a fox observed
her and set his wits to work to discover some way of getting the cheese.
Coming and standing under the tree he looked up and said, What a noble bird I see above me!
Her beauty is without equal.. Down came the cheese and the fox, snatching it up, said, You
have a voice, madam, I see: what you want is wits.
(The Fox and the Crow from Aesops Fables)
Aesop is probably the most notable author of famous examples of fable. Aesopian fables put
emphasis on the social communications of human beings and hence the morals he draws deal
with the realities of life. In this excerpt, Aesop gives a moral lesson that flatterers must not be
trusted.

Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features folkloric fantasy characters, such
as dwarves, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, mermaids, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and
usually magic or enchantments. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such

as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) [1] and
explicitly moral tales, including beast fables. The term is mainly used for stories with origins in
European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children's literature.

Hans Christian Anderson


Hans Christian Anderson was a Danish author who published his fairy tales in the late 1800s.
Here are a few of his titles:
The Tinder-Box, The Princess and the Pea, Thumbelina, The Little Mermaid, The Emperors
New Clothes, The Staunch Tin Soldier, Willie Winkie, The Nightingale, The Ugly Duckling, The
Snow Queen. (Larsen)
Legend
a legend is a story or narrative that lies somewhere between myth and historical fact and
which, as a rule, is about a particular figure or person. Traditionally, a legend is a narrative,
which focuses on a historically or geographically specific figure and describes his
exploits.Similar to a myth, a legend can provide an etymological narrative often filling in
historical gaps. Legends are made up stories. Legends are stories about people and their actions
or deeds they perform to save their people or nations. The people mentioned in legends can be
the ones, who have lived in the recent times or in the known history. The legends are told to
serve a specific purpose, can be based on facts, but they are not completely true. People
mentioned in a legend might have not really done what the story of the legend relates. In some
cases, legends change the historical events.
Example:
According to the medieval histories, King Arthur was the British leader who was leading Britain
army against the invaders in the 5 th and 6th centuries. It is mainly the folklore, which led to the
composition of legendary King Arthurs story. Some literary inventions have been made in the
story, but historical existence of King Arthur has always been questioned. There exist a few
historical sources like the Annales Cambrige, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings
of Gildas which may be attributed to be the sources of the legend of King Arthur.
Myth
Myth is a legendary or a traditional story that usually concerns an event, or a hero, with or
without using factual or real explanations, particularly one concerning with demigods or deities,
and describes some rites, practices and natural phenomenon. Typically, a myth involves historical
events and supernatural beings. There are many types of myths such as classic myths, religious
myths, and modern myths etc. Myths are set in olden times, even in pre-historic times.
Example:
Roman and Greek myths, though originally have not been available in English, have deeply
influenced English works. During the times of ancient Greeks, they had a belief that some

invisible gods like Zeus had created this world. We read in such Greeks stories that passions for
humans controlled the gods, and hence gods fought for them. Likewise, Romans also had beliefs
in deities like Greeks. Due to mythological influences, many literary authors refer to the Greek
and Roman myths in order to add meanings to their works such as Shakespeare in his play,
Romeo and Juliet, uses Greek mythology when Juliet cries saying that, Gallop apace, you
fiery-footed steeds, / Towards Phoebus lodging. In Greek mythology, Phoebus was god of the
sun, and here Juliet urges that god to bring him home hurriedly, so that night could come, and she
may meet his lover Romeo.
Parable
Parable is a figure of speech, which presents a short story typically with a moral lesson at the
end. You often have heard stories from your elders such as The Boy Who Cried Wolf and All is
Vanity, etc. These are parables, because they teach you a certain moral lesson. Parable is, in fact,
a Greek word, parable, which means comparison. It is like a succinct narrative, or a universal
truth that uses symbolism, simile, and metaphor, to demonstrate the moral lesson intended to be
taught. Like analogy, we find the use of parables in verse, and prose form specifically in
religious texts such as the Upanishad or the Bible.
Example:
Jesus has mentioned a very popular parable related to Good Samaritan in the holy Bible. Gospel
of Luke (10:29-37) describes that there was a traveler (may be a Jew), whom some people had
robbed and beaten alongside the road and left him. A Levite and a priest passed through that way,
but both ignored that man. Eventually, a Samaritan reached there and helped the injured and
miserable man without thinking about his race or religious belief (generally, Samaritans despise
Jews). The moral of this parable is to help all those who are in need, without having prejudice for
anyone due to perceived differences.
Definition
Non Fiction Autobiography is one type of biography, which tells a life story of its author, meaning it is a
written record of the authors life. Rather than being written by somebody else, an autobiography
comes through the persons own pen, in his own words. Some autobiographies are written in the
form of a fictional tale; as novels or stories that closely mirror events from the authors real life.
Such stories include Charles Dickens David Copperfield, and J.D Salingers The Catcher in the
Rye. In writing about personal experience, one discovers himself. Therefore, it is not merely a
collection of anecdotes it is a revelation to the readers about authors self-discovery.
Example:
The Box: Tales from the Darkroom (by Gunter Grass)
A noble laureate and novelist, Gunter Grass, has shown a new perspective of self-examination by
mixing up his quilt of fictionalized approach in his autobiographical book, The Box: Tales from
the Darkroom. Adopting the individual point of view of each of his children, Grass narrates
what his children think about him as their father and a writer. Though it is really an experimental
approach, due to Grass linguistic creativity and dexterity, it gains an enthralling momentum.

A biography is simply a bio that gives an account or detailed description about the life of a
person. It entails basic facts such as childhood, education, career, relationships, family and death.
Biography is a literary genre that portrays the experiences of all these events occurred in the life
of a person mostly in a chronological order. Unlike a resume or profile, biography provides life
story of a subject, highlighting different aspects of his/her life. The person or the writer, who
writes biographies, is called as a biographer.
Example:
Shakespeare: A Life by Park Honan
It is the most accurate, up-to-date and complete narrative ever written about the life of
Shakespeare. Park Honan has used rich and fresh information about Shakespeare in order to
change the perceptions of the readers for the playwright and his role as a poet and actor. This
book completely differs from other biographies that imagine different roles for him, commenting
on his sexual relationships and colorful intrigues. Though detailed psychological theories and
imaginative reforms about him could be amusing, in fact, they damage credibility of the sources.
Therefore, many attempts have been made to know about him, which is not a new thing but this
one is a unique example.

A news article discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers)
or of a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news
websites). A news article can include accounts of eyewitnesses to the happening event. It can
contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls, debates on the
topic, etc. Headlines can be used to focus the readers attention on a particular (or main) part of
the article. The writer can also give facts and detailed information following answers to general
questions like who, what, when, where, why and how.
Example:
Children
at
Millions of children around the world must work for food and shelter

Work

Bonauli Simamora stands on a rickety fishing pier, staring at the waves slapping at the wooden
beams below. With the sun's rays beating down on his back, the 14-year-old hauls up a giant
fishing net, careful not to lose his balance and fall into the ocean.
For the past nine months, Bonauli has worked 7 days a week, 10 hours a day. From sunrise to
sunset, he labors on a pier that sits 10 miles off the coast of Indonesia.
"I work from 8 in the morning until 6 at night," says Bonauli. "Every morning, I wake up, sort
the fish, dry them, boil them, and put them into storage. Then I wait for the tide to go down and
do it again."
Bonauli is one of 120 million children worldwide, from ages 5 to 14, who work instead of going
to school. Each day, nearly 80 million of these children risk their health, safety, and often their
lives, to earn money.

A journal is a scholarly publication containing articles written by researchers, professors and


other experts. Journals focus on a specific discipline or field of study. Unlike newspapers and
magazines, journals are intended for an academic or technical audience, not general readers.
Most journal articles...
Are peer reviewed
Have original research
Focus on current developments
Cite other works and have bibliographies
Can be in print, online or both
Journals are published on a regular basis (monthly, quarterly, etc.) and are sequentially numbered
Sample Journal Entry
Below is a sample journal entry for a typical day in the life of a girl in the present. Follow this
same type of format to write your journal entries about the mid-1800s. Notice how the journal
entry describes everyday tasks and technologies about our present day. Your journal will need to
do the same while describing tasks and technologies from the past.

Saturday, October 6, 2007


What a busy day today! I never had a moments rest. The day started with
my alarm clock blaring at 7am. I had to be at the Smiths house by 8am to baby-sit.
I really didnt want to wake up so early on a Saturday, but Im saving money to buy
a new iPod and couldnt say no to an all-day babysitting job.
When I arrived at the Smiths house, both kids were already
awake. Madison was watching cartoons in living room and Jacob was playing with
his Legos in his bedroom. The kids were hungry so I made them some oatmeal in
the microwave and we all ate breakfast together.

We had to leave right after breakfast for Jacobs soccer practice. Luckily,
the Smiths only live a couple blocks from the soccer field so we just walked
there. It was a lot of fun watching Jacob play soccer. Hes very talented. I was
worried that Madisonmight be bored, but she stayed busy by playing her Gameboy
while Jacob practiced.
When practice was over, we went back to the house to make lunch. Its
always a breeze to make lunch for the Smith kids because they love chicken
nuggets and French fries. All I had to do was pull the food out of the freezer and
bake it in the oven.
After lunch, I planned a special surprise for the kids...I took them to see the
new Disney movie. The movie theater is a few miles away from their house so I
had to call my mom to pick us up in her car and drive us there. The kids loved the
movie; they couldnt stop laughing. I have to admit that I thought it was pretty
funny too. The only bad part was that the theater had the air conditioning cranked
up and it was freezing cold!
My mom picked us up again after the movie and took us back to the Smiths
house. We had only been back for a few minutes when Mrs. Smith came back
home. I didnt expect her home so soon, but she was back early because the power
went out at her office.
It worked out very well though because as soon as I left the Smiths,
Danielle called to see if I wanted to go to the mall. I checked in at home to make
sure it was ok and then met Danielle at her house.
While we were at the mall, we definitely shopped til we dropped. I
bought a t-shirt, a sweater, a pair of jeans, and some flip flops. I know that I wont
need the flip flops for much longer since its already October, but they were on
clearance and I couldnt pass them up.
Finally after all that shopping, we headed home because I was
exhausted. Today was a fun day, but I cant wait to sleep in tomorrow!

An essay is a short form of literary composition based on a single subject matter, and often gives
personal opinion of an author. A famous English essayist Aldous Huxley defines essays as, a
literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything. Oxford Dictionary describes
it as a short piece of writing on a particular subject. In simple words, we can define it as a
scholarly work in writing that provides the authors personal argument.
Literary essays are of four types:
Expository Essay In an expository essay, the writers give explanation of an
idea, theme or issue to the audience by giving their personal opinions. This essay is
presented through examples, definitions, comparison, and contrast.
Descriptive Essay As it sounds like, it gives description about a particular topic or
describes the traits and characteristics of something or a person in details. It allows
artistic freedom and creates images in the minds of readers through the use of five senses.

Narrative Essay Narrative essay is non-fiction, but describes a story with sensory
descriptions. The writers not only tell story, but also make a point by giving reasons.
Persuasive Essay In this type of essay, a writer tries to convince his readers to adopt
his position on a point of view or issue after he provides them solid reasoning in this
connection. It requires a lot of research to claim and defend an idea. It is also called an
argumentative essay.
Example:

As I passed through the gates I heard a squeaky voice. A diminutive middle-aged man
came out from behind the trees the caretaker. He worked a toothbrush-sized stick
around in his mouth, digging into the crevices between algaed stubs of teeth. He was
barefoot; he wore a blue batik shirt known as a buba, baggy purple trousers, and an
embroidered skullcap. I asked him if he would show me around the shrine. Motioning me
to follow, he spat out the results of his stick work and set off down the trail.

(From The Sacred Grove of Oshogbo by Jeffrey Tayler)

This is an example of a descriptive essay, as the author has used descriptive language to
paint a dramatic picture for his readers of an encounter with a stranger.

Definition
Poetry - Poetry is a type of literature based on the interplay of words and rhythm. It often
employs rhyme and meter (a set of rules governing the number and arrangement of syllables in
each line). In poetry, words are strung together to form sounds, images, and ideas that might be
too complex or abstract to describe directly.
Example 1
Of all creatures that breathe and move upon the earth,
nothing is bred that is weaker than man.
(Homer, The Odyssey)
The Greek poet Homer wrote some of the ancient worlds most famous literature. He wrote in
a stylecalled epic poetry, which deals with gods, heroes, monsters, and other large-scale epic
themes. Homers long poems tell stories of Greek heroes like Achilles and Odysseus, and have
inspired countless generations of poets, novelists, and philosophers alike.

Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically
spoken in the first person.[1] The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric,
which was defined by its musical accompaniment, usually on a stringed instrument known as
a lyre.[2] The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed
by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic and epic.
One type of lyric poem is the sonnet. Overall, sonnets have 14 lines usually written in iambic
pentameter, which is five pairs of stressed and unstressed syllables. This overall structure of
predetermined syllables and rhyme makes sonnets flow off your tongue in a similar way that a
song on the radio does.
Turn
back
the
Give
back
Leave
not
my
The
broken
But
wait,
be
Accept my love, live for today.

heart
youve
turned
your
kissing
love
as
you
have
hearts
of
still,
dont
lose
this

away
breath
left
yesterday
way

This is an example of a sonnet, using fourteen lines with a metrical pattern of iambic pentameter.
The poem is about feelings of love for a beloved. It tells how it is worth staying with one another
instead of leaving.
Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making use of the voices of a
narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse. Narrative
poems do not have to follow rhythmic patterns. The poems that make up this genre may be short
or long, and the story it relates to may be complex. It is normally dramatic, with objectives,
diverse characters, and metre.[1] Narrative poems include epics, ballads, idylls, and lays.
Example #2
Poetry written in the style of a narrative is known as narrative verse. Faerie Queen by Edmund
Spenser is an example of such poetry. It narrates the adventures of The Red-Cross Knight to
help Lady Una rescue her parents from the evil Dagon. On a symbolic level it narrates the
mission of the Holiness is to help the Truth, fight Evil, and thus regain its rightful place in human
hearts.
Concrete, pattern, or shape poetry is an arrangement of linguistic elements in which the
typographical effect is more important in conveying meaning than verbal significance. It is
sometimes referred to as visual poetry, a term that has now developed a distinct meaning of its
own. As such, concrete poetry relates more to the visual than to the verbal arts and there is a
considerable overlap in the kind of product to which it refers. Historically, however, concrete
poetry has developed from a long tradition of shaped poems in which the words are arranged in
such a way as to depict their subject.

Definition
Drama - is a mode of fictional representation through dialogue and performance. It is one of the
literary genres, which is an imitation of some action. Drama is also a type of a play written for
theaters, televisions, radios and films. In simple words, a drama is a composition
in verse or prose presenting a story in pantomime or dialogue, containing conflict of characters,
particularly the ones who perform in front of audience on the stage. The person who writes
drama for stage directions is known as a dramatist or playwright.

Comedy Comedies are lighter in tone than ordinary writers, and provide a happy
conclusion. The intention of dramatists in comedies is to make their audience laugh.
Hence, they use quaint circumstances, unusual characters and witty remarks.
Tragedy Tragic dramas use darker themes such as disaster, pain and death. Protagonists
often have a tragic flawa characteristic that leads them to their downfall.
Melodrama Melodrama is an exaggerated drama, which is sensational and appeals
directly to the senses of audience. Just like the farce, the characters are of single
dimension and simple, or may be stereotyped

Romance films (or romance movies) are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for
broadcast in theaters and on cinema that focus on passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic
involvement of the main characters and the journey that their genuinely strong, true and pure
romantic love takes them through dating, courtship or marriage. Romance films make the
romantic love story or the search for strong and pure love and romance the main plot focus.
Occasionally, romance lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms
of discrimination, psychological restraints or family that threaten to break their union of love. As
in all quite strong, deep, and close romantic relationships, tensions of day-to-day
life, temptations (of infidelity), and differences in compatibility enter into the plots of romantic
films.[1]

Comedy:
Much Ado About Nothing is the most frequently performed Shakespearian comedy. The play is
romantically funny in that love between Hero and Claudio is laughable, as they never even get a
single chance to communicate on-stage until they get married. Their relationship lacks
development and depth. They end up merely as caricatures, exemplifying what people face in life
when their relationships are internally weak. Love ove between Benedick and Beatrice is
amusing, as initially their communications are very sparky, and they hate each other. However,
they all of sudden make up, and start loving each other.
Example 2
Tragedy:
Sophocles mythical and immortal drama, Oedipus Rex, is thought to be his best classical
tragedy. Aristotle has adjudged this play as one of the greatest examples of tragic drama in his
book, Poetics by giving following reasons:

The play arouses emotions of pity and fear, and achieves the tragic katharsis.
It shows the downfall of an extraordinary man of high rank, Oedipus.
The central character suffers due to his tragic error called hamartia; as he murders his
real father, Laius, and then marries his real mother, Jocasta.
Hubris is the cause of Oedipus downfall.
Example 3
Farce:
Oscar Wildes play, The Importance of Being Earnest ,is a very popular example of Victorian
farce. In this play, a man uses two identities; one as a serious person Jack (his actual name) that
he uses for Cesily, his ward, and as a rogue named Ernest for his beloved woman, Gwendolyn.
Unluckily, Gwendolyn loves him partially because she loves the name Ernest. It is when Jack
and Earnest must come on-stage together for Cesily, then Algernon comes in to play Earnest
role, and ward immediately falls in love with another Ernest. Thus, two young women think that
they love the same man an occurrence that amuses the audience.
Example 4
Melodrama:
The Heiress is based on Henry James novel the Washington Square. Directed for stage
performance byWilliam Wyler, this play shows an ungraceful and homely daughter of a
domineering and rich doctor falling in love with a young man, Morris Townsend wishes to elope
with him, but he leaves her in lurch. Author creates melodrama towards the end, when Catherine
teaches a lesson to Morris and leaves him instead.

Examples
A
Short
Story
:
Advising
A
Fool
On a mango tree in a jungle, there lived many birds. They were happy in their small nests. Before
the onset of the rainy season, all the animal of the jungle repaired their homes. The birds also
made
their
homes
more
secure.
Many birds brought twigs and leaves and others wove their nests. We should also store some
food for our children," chirped one of the birds. And they collected food, until they had enough
to see them through the rainy season. They kept themselves busy preparing for the tough times.
Soon the rains came. It was followed by thunder and lighting. All the animals and birds stayed in
their
homes.
It continued raining for many days. One day, a monkey wet in the rain came into the forest. He
sat on a branch, shivering with cold, water dripping from its body.
The poor monkey tried his best to get shelter, but in vain. The leaves were not enough to save
him
from
the
rains.
Brrr!
It
is
so
cold!"
said
the
monkey.
The birds were watching all this. They felt sorry for the monkey but there was little they could do
for him. One of them said, Brother! Our small nests are not enough to give you shelter."
Another bird said, All of us prepared for the rainy season. If you had, you would not be in this
piteous
situation."
How dare you tell me what to do?" said the monkey, growling at the bird. The monkey angrily
pounced on the birds nest, tore it and threw it on the ground. The bird and her chicks were
helpless.
The poor bird thought, Fools never value good advice. It is better not to advise them."