Analysis of the torsional strength of hardened splined shafts

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Analysis of the torsional strength of hardened splined shafts

© All Rights Reserved

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

I. Barsoum a,, F. Khan a, Z. Barsoum b

a

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Department of Aeronautical & Vehicle Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 8, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 May 2013

Accepted 6 August 2013

Available online 17 August 2013

Keywords:

Induction hardening

Finite element modeling

Torsion strength

Splined shaft

a b s t r a c t

The current study presents a nite element modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of

hardened splined shafts by taking into account the detailed geometry of the involute spline and the material gradation due to the hardness prole. The aim is to select a spline geometry and hardness depth that

optimizes the static torsion strength. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness proles

including non-hardened and through-hardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the

torque causing yielding of induction hardened splined shafts is strongly dependent on the hardness depth

and the geometry of the spline teeth. The results from the model agree well with experimental results

found in the literature and reveal that an optimum hardness depth maximizing the torsional strength

can be achieved if shafts are hardened to half their radius.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

There is an increased demand on power handling capacity of

automotive transmission parts requiring high static and fatigue

strength. Especially in splined shafts transferring high torque commonly used in heavy trucks, the choice of spline geometry and heat

treatment process is crucial in obtaining an adequate strength of

the component. For such connections yielding or ultimate fracture

are potential modes of failure, particularly when overloads are involved. Since hardness of the material is strongly related to the

strength of the material a common method of heat treatment of

splined shafts is induction hardening, which increases the torque

capacity of the shaft. Along with the material aspects associated

with the heat treatment process, the strength of a spline connection is also dependent upon the geometrical design of the spline.

Involute splines are commonly used in automotive industry with

proles similar to those of involute gear teeth. In the past, several

studies [14] have focused on the failure analysis and failure prevention of splined or non-splined shafts; however none have attempted to quantify the simultaneous effect of the spline

geometry and the hardness prole and depth on the torsion

strength.

Several studies have focused on determining the fatigue behavior of splined shafts. In [5,6] the uniformity of load distribution on

the spline teeth is studied by means of a nite element model. The

model used accounts for the geometry of the splined shaft with the

sleeve, from which it is found that the fatigue life of the shaft can

be prolonged if a uniform load distribution can be assured. Deter Corresponding author. Tel.: +971 558006641.

E-mail address: ibarsoum@pi.ac.ae (I. Barsoum).

0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.08.020

mination of the residual stresses during induction hardening process of shafts is carried out in [6] by simulation and X-ray

measurements. Results indicate that hardening depth has an inuence on the residual stress level.

The objective in [7] is to improve the torsional fatigue life of a

steel power transmission shafts. By varying the carburization process parameters such as soaking temperature and time different

carburization depths are achieved. It is found that the carburization depth signicantly inuences the fatigue endurance limit under bending torsional loadings.

In [8] a numerical model was developed to simulate the induction hardening process of a steering pinion shaft by solving the

coupled electromagnetic-thermal problem. They study the effects

of induction parameters i.e. input AC current density, coil velocity

and coil stay time with the model. The computed hardness prole

curves show good agreement with the experimental data.

Similarly in [911] the authors studied experimentally the

effects of induction parameters such as frequency, coil shape and

applied current on nal microstructure, the hardness of the

work-pieces. Their investigation shows that the process parameters inuence the residual stress-state of hardened parts to a great

extent.

In [12] fatigue tests of induction hardened shafts are conducted

in which failure occurs mainly due to subsurface crack initiation.

Simulation results showed that the tensile residual stresses in

the core increase with increased hardness depth, which is detrimental for fatigue life and a reason for subsurface crack initiation.

The effect of torque overload on the fatigue life of barreled splined

areoengine mainshaft couplings is investigated experimentally and

numerically in [13,14]. A three dimensional nite element model is

developed, however it does not take into account the material

131

shaft. As reported in [15,16], engineering failure analysis and prevention of splined shaft failures is of great interest for the automotive industry when designing these components. However, none of

the studies has so far addressed the combined effect of the geometry of the splined shaft and the material gradation in strength

through the cross section of the shaft as a result of the induction

hardening process.

Recently Kang et al. [17] performed nite element simulation of

the induction hardening process of axle shafts with the objective to

study the effect of surface hardening depth and distribution of

residual stresses on the torsional strength of the shaft. The model

they utilized is highly sophisticated taking into account the thermo-mechanical and metallurgical phase transformation behavior

of the material during the induction hardening process. The shaft

geometry they considered is circular in cross section, disregarding

the effect of the spline design. Their results indicate that there is a

strong effect of the induction hardening depth on the torsional

strength. The importance of the hardening depth on the static

and fatigue strength of induction hardened shafts has also been

pointed out by Fett [18], where the relationship between induction

hardening depth and torsional strength and fatigue life is determined though an extensive experimental program on induction

hardened shafts of various material grades. Tortorella et al. [19]

also performed static torsion experiments on induction hardened

shafts and arrive upon the same conclusion as in [18] that the

induction hardening depth has a paramount effect on the static

strength.

Hence, the objective of this study is to develop a modeling

framework which addresses some of the shortcomings of the models used in the literature to model the strength of hardened splined

shafts. The analysis presented in this study aims to quantify the

torsional strength of splined shafts by taking into account the detailed effect of the geometry of the spline and the gradation in

material property, such as the hardness prole and hardness depth

resulting from the hardening process.

2. Geometry of the involute spline

There are various international standards in which a thorough

denition of the spline geometry can be found [2022]. Here the

geometry of the involute spline and the geometric quantities that

dene the spline will be briey described. The terminology of an

involute splined shaft is shown in Fig. 1. The pitch circle with radius rp is the theoretical circle upon which several geometric

parameters are dened such as the pressure angle a. The number

of spline teeth is denoted Z and together with rp denes the module

m of the spline as

Table 1

Chemical composition of SAE 4140 (42CrMoS4).

C (%)

Si (%)

Mn (%)

Cr (%)

Mo (%)

0.40

0.25

0.85

1.00

0.25

m 2rp =Z

which is an indication on the size of the spline tooth. The top and

bottom land of the tooth are dened by the addendum radius ra

and the dedendum radius rd, respectively.

In the present study six different spline geometries are considered comprising of two different pressure angles a = 30 and 45

and three different tooth numbers Z = 20, 30 and 40. Based on

the polar moment of inertia of a circular shaft the static torsional

yield strength scales with the cube of the spline dedendum radius

(rd3). Therefore the addendum radius ra of the spline has been kept

xed for all cases while the dedendum radius rd is varied by changing the module m. Consequently the pitch radius rp is given by Eq.

(1) once the module m is set. The values of the module considered

here are m = 1.5, 1.0 and 0.75 mm. These values for the module

along with number of teeth given above gives a constant value of

the pitch radius rp = 15 mm.

3. Mechanical properties of SAE 4140 steel

The material considered in the shaft is a medium-carbon steel

denoted SAE 4140 (42CrMoS4), which is commonly used in induction hardened transmission components and drive shafts in the

automotive industry [23,24]. The chemical composition of SAE

4140 is given in Table 1.

By varying the process parameters in the induction hardening

process various hardness depths and proles can be achieved.

Mechanical properties such as yield and ultimate strength are closely related to the hardness where the yield strength is approximately one third of the hardness in HV (Vickers hardness). In

order to establish a relation between stressstrain behavior and

the hardness the materials simulation software JMATpro [25] is

utilized. The software is based on thermodynamics modeling combined with theoretical materials models and properties databases

allowing for a quantitative calculation of wide range of thermophysical and mechanical quantities [26]. Given the chemical composition of a specic steel alloy, the stressstrain behavior can be

determined with JMATpro. In Fig. 2(a) the stressstrain curves

show that the work-hardening behavior as well as the yield and

ultimate strength strongly depend on the hardness level where

each stressstrain curve correspond to a hardness value. Also the

yield and ultimate strength for each hardness value can be

ra

rp

rd

132

(a)

(b)

Rm

R p 02

increasing

hardness

(c)

N

obtained as shown in Fig. 2(a). The stressstrain curves can be tted to the plasticity model given by

r rN

e

E

where E = 210 GPa is the elastic modulus, K the plastic modulus and

N the hardening exponent respectively. Hence, the yield strength

Rp02, the ultimate strength Rm and the plasticity model parameters

K and N can be obtained as function of Vickers hardness denoted

H here, as shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c). The plasticity model parameters K and N as function of hardness H are given by Eqs. (3) and (4).

N n0 en1 H

K k0 H k1

t to the data in Fig. 2(b)-(c) given by: n0 = 0.4911, n1 = 0.00232 1/

HV, k0 = 0.0034 MPa/HV and k1 = 0.3 MPa. Now, for a specic hardness value given in HV the stressstrain behavior can be determined from Eqs. (2)(4), which in combination with the

hardness prole of the induction hardened shaft gives the gradient

in mechanical behavior of the shaft, e.g. the stressstrain behavior.

This is in accordance with well established ndings in the litera-

(a)

ture [30]. The tensile yield strength Rp02 and tensile ultimate

strength Rm can also be tted to simple expression as function of

hardness H as

Rp02 J Rp Hn2

and Rm J m H

where n2 = 1.25, JRp = 0.56 and Jm = 3.15 based on the best t to data

in Fig. 2(b).

4. Hardness prole and depth

Fig. 3(a) shows a non-hardened splined shaft cut in half where

the surface and core are identied. In order to measure the hardness prole, transverse cuts of the hardened shafts where made,

which where molded and polished as shown in Fig. 3(b) before

the indentation testing was conducted.

Fig. 4(a) shows measured hardness H in Vickers hardness value

(HV) against depth below surface (c.f. Fig. 1) of an induction hardened shaft. It is notable that the hardness is highest at the outer

surface with a value of 630 HV and decreases towards the center

of the shaft reaching the value of the core hardness 230 HV. To

quantify the depth of the hardness most often an effective hardness depth is dened. Here the effective hardness depth DH is dened as the depth below the surface at which the hardness level

reaches a value of 400 HV. This is common practice used in the

automotive industry [18], where 400 HV corresponds to about 40

(b)

Fig. 3. A radial cut of the splined shaft.

133

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. (a) Measured hardness prole of a splined shaft; (b) hardness proles given by Eq. (5).

Fig. 4(a) DH = 5 mm, which is about 34% of the shaft radius. The

shaft radius refers to the pitch radius of the spline (rp = 15 mm).

The method used here to represent the hardness prole as a function of the depth below the surface is similar to the one used in

[27,28], which is given by the expression

Hr Hcase gr Hcore 1 gr

where Hcase and Hcore are the case and core hardness, respectively,

which are here given in Fig. 4(a) as Hcase = 630 HV, Hcore = 230 HV.

The function g(r) is given by

8

0

>

>

<

2

3

rr CS

CS

gr 1 c1 rr

c

2

r

r

CR

CR

>

>

:

1

r < r CR

rCR 6 r 6 r CS

r > r CS

g(rCS) = og(rCS)/@r = 0. However, additional conditions are imposed

on the function g(r) and H(r), which are

gr rCR

@gr r CR

0

@g

and

Hr r p DH 400

terms of rCS and rCR and Eq. (7) can be rewritten as

gr 1

r CS 2 r CS r CS r CS 2

for r CR 6 r 6 r CS

In Eqs. (7)(9), rCS and rCR are the size of the case and core respectively as indicated in Fig. 4(a). By using Eq. (9) and the second condition of Eq. (8) in Eq. (6) the entire hardness prole will be

controlled by the choice of the hardness depth DH and core size

rCR. Now, by varying the hardness depth DH different hardness proles can be achieved with Eqs. (6) and (7). As shown in Fig. 4(b) ve

different effective hardness depths are constructed and considered

with DH = 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 mm. Two additional hardness

depths values were considered, DH = 0 and DH = 1, corresponding

to a non-hardened shaft with a uniform hardness of 230 HV and

through-hardened shaft with a uniform hardness of 630 HV. These

representations of non-hardened and through hardened shafts are

rather ideal. However, they will here serve as the lower and upper

limits respectively on the effective hardness depth DH.

was built using the commercial package ABAQUS [29]. Since the

geometry and torsional loading exhibits cyclic symmetry, only

one tooth of the splined shaft along with the corresponding cyclic

symmetric segment of the hub was modeled as shown in Fig. 5. The

back faces of the hub as well as that of the spline are kinematically

coupled to reference points. The reference point of the hub is given

a xed displacement boundary condition were all six degrees of

freedom (3 displacements and 3 rotations) are set to zero. The reference point of the shaft is given a xed rotation about the x-axis

which will give rise to a reaction torque denoted T. The remaining

degrees of freedom at the reference point of the shaft are set to

zero. A contact denition is established between the hub and

spline surfaces which are in contact with a friction coefcient of

0.1 to mimic dry steel to steel contact. The nite element mesh

used consisted of about 26,000 eight-node continuum elements

(C3D8) and the analysis was ran using the ABAQUS/Standard solver. The hub is modeled as an elastic material (E = 210 GPa and

v = 0.3) whereas the spline is modeled as elasticplastic material

with isotropic hardening. The splined shaft is sliced into 13 different layers radially ranging from the non-hardened core layer at the

center and the case with highest hardness at the outer layer, which

includes the spline tooth. Each sub-surface layer had a thickness of

1 mm whereas the surface layer (case) including the tooth of the

spline had a thickness of 2.5 mm. Depending on the hardness

depth DH considered, each layer in Fig. 5 will have different hardness values due to the varying hardness, which depends on the

hardness depth DH (cf. Fig. 4(b)). Consequently, since the plastic

Hub

Cyclic

Symmetri

Layer 1

Axis of Cyclic

Symmetry

In order to determine the static strength in torsion of an induction hardened shaft accounting for the effect of spline geometry

Case

Layer 11

Core

T

Fig. 5. The cyclic symmetric FEM model.

134

Fig. 6. Torque T versus shear strain c for pressure angle a = 30, various spline teeth Z and hardness depth DH.

model will be assigned an elasticplastic true stressstrain curve

corresponding to its hardness value following the hardness prole

set by DH.

6. Results and discussion

The results from the nite element models are generated for six

different geometries of the spline on the shaft comprising of three

different number of teeth (Z = 20, 30, 40) and two different pressure angles (a = 30, 45) with seven different hardness depths values DH = 0, 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 1, summing up to a total of 42

different models. For each run the torque T and the end twist of the

shaft is monitored, from which the corresponding shear strain c

can be calculated. In Fig. 6 the torque T versus the shear strain c

is plotted, which pertains to results with a = 30, all Z and DH values. As the gure reveals the hardness depth has a strong effect on

the mechanical response T vs. c of the splined shaft. Also the number of spline teeth Z affects the level of static torque the shaft can

carry. It was found that the pressure angle a has a very minor inuence on the torsion strength and hence the results for a = 45 are

not reported here.

The torque value dening the torsional strength is here determined with the 0.2% offset method applied to Fig. 6 and is denoted

Tp02. In Fig. 7 the torsional strength Tp02 as function of the normalized hardening depth DH/rp and the number of spline teeth Z is

shown. Experimental results of torsion strength obtained from

[18] for two different steels, SAE 4140 and AISI 1040, are also

shown in Fig. 7. Although the static torsion tests in [18] are performed on round non-splined shafts with various hardness depths,

the agreement between the experiments and the FEM results are

reasonably well.

As evidenced from Fig. 7, the hardness depth has a large impact

on the increase in torsional strength. Especially in the range of

hardness depths 0 6 DH/rp 6 0.5 where the increase is most noted.

For depths larger than 50% of the pitch radius rp the torsional

strength increases marginally. In view of these results it seems that

a ratio of hardness depth over pitch radius (DH/rp) of about 50%

would generally give an optimum increase in torsional strength.

This optimum is closely associated with the transition in failure

mode of hardened shafts subjected to torsion load. The two failure

modes that can occur are either sub-surface failure or failure initiated at the surface both of which take place at the location where

Fig. 7. Torque T versus hardness depth DH and number of spline teeth Z = 20, 30 and

40.

the applied shear stress exceeds the shear strength. The torsional

yield strength can be obtained from Eq. (5) by the approximation

0.577 Rp02 whereas the shear stress is given by 2Tr=pr4p . These

two expressions are plotted in Fig. 8 for DH/rp = 0.26 and 0.63.

For DH/rp = 0.26 the stress (dashed line) exceeds the strength (solid

135

line) at the sub-surface whereas for DH/rp = 0.63 the stress exceeds

the strength at the surface. The transition between the two failure

modes occurs at the optimum hardness depths at about DH/rp = 0.5.

Increasing the hardness beyond this depth would generally not

give higher torsional strength since it is mainly controlled by the

hardness level of the surface. For DH/rp values lower than the optimum the torsional strength is a strong function of the hardness

depth but also the hardness level of the core.

It should however be pointed out that this analysis and its results are for a splined shaft loaded with a static torque. In the case

the shaft is exposed to dynamic loading the failure is controlled by

fatigue or wear of the splines for which shear stress and strength

are not suitable quantities. A similar analysis as in Fig. 8 can be

undertaken, however with stress measures in accordance with

e.g. the Findley criterion [31] or an equivalent multiaxial fatigue

stress measure [32].

As shown in Fig. 7 the number of spline teeth Z has also an inuence on the overall increase in torsion strength of the shaft. However, this is not as marked as in the inuence of hardness depth on

strength. An increased number of involute spline teeth Z, i.e. decrease gear module m, give an increase in torsion strength. The increase in strength with number of teeth is attributed to that the

torque is shared by a larger number of teeth also resulting in a

more uniform distribution of load. Nevertheless, the results from

this FEM model for an induction hardened shaft where the spline

geometry is accounted for suggests that the largest contribution

to the increase in strength is due to the material hardness depth.

In Fig. 9 contours of the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) through

the cross section shown for one spline and hardness depths of

DH = 5, 6, 7 and 8 mm. The contours represent the instant of initial

yielding corresponding to the torque at a 0.2% offset shear strain in

the torque versus shear strain diagram in Fig. 6. One can note that

the larger the hardness depth the lesser the extent of the plastic

zone and an increased resistance to yielding. With further increase

in the hardness depth, the extent of the plastic zone hardly changes

which is manifested in the minor increases in torsion strength for

hardness depth values larger than DH/rp = 0.5 as noticable in Fig. 7.

7. Conclusions

The current study presents a nite element modeling framework to obtain the torsion strength of a hardened splined shafts

and the material gradation in the model. It can be concluded that

increasing the number of teeth Z, which corresponds to increasing

the dedendum radius rd and keeping the addendum radius ra constant, increases the torsion strength of the shaft. This increase is

also attributed to that the torque is distributed over a larger number of spline teeth. It is also found that the pressure angle a has no

marketable effect on the strength. The largest contribution to the

increase in torsion strength is however due to the increase in hardness depth DH. The numerical results of this study and experimental results in [18] agree well and suggest that there is an optimum

hardness depth for hardened shafts, which is approximately half

the shaft radius. A hardness depth larger than this would not have

any higher inuence on the torsional strength.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Mr. Gregory A. Fett at Dana

Corporation in Maumee, Ohio, for sharing his thoughts on the

experimental results.

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ID

829620

Title

Analysis of the torsional strength of hardened splined shafts

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