Number Systems

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Number Systems

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You are on page 1of 5

Number

Systems

Here are only numbers

ratied.

William Shakespeare

arithmetic-geometrical

coordinate system, because

nature has all kinds of

models. What we experience

of nature is in models, and

all of natures models are so

beautiful.

It struck me that natures

system must be a real beauty,

because in chemistry we nd

that the associations are

always in beautiful whole

numbersthere are no

fractions.

Richard Buckminster Fuller

OBJECTIVES

In this appendix you will learn:

base, positional value and symbol value.

To understand how to work with numbers represented in

the binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems.

To abbreviate binary numbers as octal numbers or

hexadecimal numbers.

To convert octal numbers and hexadecimal numbers to

binary numbers.

To convert back and forth between decimal numbers and

their binary, octal and hexadecimal equivalents.

To understand binary arithmetic and how negative

binary numbers are represented using twos complement

notation.

2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

D.1

D.2

D.3

D.4

D.5

D.6

Introduction

Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers

Converting Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers to Binary Numbers

Converting from Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal to Decimal

Converting from Decimal to Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal

Negative Binary Numbers: Twos Complement Notation

Instructors Manual

Self-Review Exercises

D.1

The bases of the decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems are

,

and

respectively.

ANS: 10, 2, 8, 16.

D.2

In general, the decimal, octal and hexadecimal representations of a given binary number

contain (more/fewer) digits than the binary number contains.

ANS: Fewer.

D.3

(True/False) A popular reason for using the decimal number system is that it forms a convenient notation for abbreviating binary numbers simply by substituting one decimal digit per

group of four binary bits.

ANS: False. Hexadecimal does this.

D.4

The (octal / hexadecimal / decimal) representation of a large binary value is the most concise

(of the given alternatives).

ANS: Hexadecimal.

D.5

D.6

(True/False) The highest digit in any base is one more than the base.

ANS: False. The highest digit in any base is one less than the base.

(True/False) The lowest digit in any base is one less than the base.

D.7

The positional value of the rightmost digit of any number in either binary, octal, decimal

or hexadecimal is always

.

ANS: 1 (the base raised to the zero power).

D.8

The positional value of the digit to the left of the rightmost digit of any number in binary,

octal, decimal or hexadecimal is always equal to

.

ANS: The base of the number system.

D.9

Fill in the missing values in this chart of positional values for the rightmost four positions

in each of the indicated number systems:

decimal

hexadecimal

binary

octal

1000

...

...

512

100

256

...

...

10

...

...

8

1

...

...

...

ANS:

2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Self-Review Exercises

decimal

hexadecimal

binary

octal

D.10

D.11

D.12

1000

4096

8

512

100

256

4

64

10

16

2

8

1

1

1

1

ANS: Binary 111 011 001 110.

D.13 Convert hexadecimal 4FEC to octal. [Hint: First convert 4FEC to binary, then convert that

binary number to octal.]

ANS: Binary 0 100 111 111 101 100; Octal 47754.

D.14

D.15

D.16

D.17

ANS: Decimal 2+4+8+32+64=110.

Convert octal 317 to decimal.

to binary:

256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

(1*128)+(0*64)+(1*32)+(1*16)+(0*8)+(0*4)+(0*2)+(1*1)

10110001

to octal:

512 64 8 1

64 8 1

(2*64)+(6*8)+(1*1)

261

to hexadecimal:

256 16 1

16 1

(11*16)+(1*1)

(B*16)+(1*1)

B1

D.18 Show the binary representation of decimal 417. Then show the ones complement of 417

and the twos complement of 417.

ANS: Binary:

512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

(1*256)+(1*128)+(0*64)+(1*32)+(0*16)+(0*8)+(0*4)+(0*2)+(1*1)

110100001

2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Ones complement: 001011110

Twos complement: 001011111

Check: Original binary number + its twos complement

110100001

001011111

--------000000000

D.19

What is the result when a number and its twos complement are added to each other?

ANS: Zero.

Exercises

D.1

Some people argue that many of our calculations would be easier in the base 12 number

system because 12 is divisible by so many more numbers than 10 (for base 10). What is the lowest

digit in base 12? What would be the highest symbol for the digit in base 12? What are the positional

values of the rightmost four positions of any number in the base 12 number system?

ANS: The lowest digit is 1. The highest symbol is C. 1728, 144, 12, 1.

D.2

Complete the following chart of positional values for the rightmost four positions in each

of the indicated number systems:

decimal

base 6

base 13

base 3

1000

...

...

27

100

...

169

...

10

6

...

...

1

...

...

...

1000

216

2197

27

100

36

169

9

10

6

13

3

1

1

1

1

ANS:

decimal

base 6

base 13

base 3

D.3

D.4

ANS: 11101001111101.

D.5

Convert hexadecimal 765F to octal. [Hint: First convert 765F to binary, then convert that

binary number to octal.]

ANS: 73137.

D.6

D.7

D.8

D.9

ANS: 94.

ANS: 278.

ANS: 65535.

2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Exercises

D.10 Show the binary representation of decimal 779. Then show the ones complement of 779

and the twos complement of 779.

ANS: Binary

1100001011,

0011110101.

D.11

Ones

complement

0011110100,

Twos

complement

Show the twos complement of integer value 1 on a machine with 32-bit integers.

ANS: 00000000000000000000000000000001.

2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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