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Project Scheduling: Lagging,

Crashing, and Activity


Networks
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Chapter 10 Learning Objectives


After completing this chapter, students will be able to:
Apply lag relationships to project activities.
Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.
Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects,
including their benefits and drawbacks.
Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash
project activities.
Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow
techniques.
Understand the differences in AON and AOA and
recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each
technique.
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Lags in Precedence Relationships


The logical relationship between the start and
finish of one activity and the start and finish of
another activity.
Four logical relationships between tasks
1. Finish to Start
2. Finish to Finish
3. Start to Start
4. Start to Finish
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Finish to Start Lag


Most common type of sequencing
Shown on the line joining the modes
Added during forward pass
Subtracted during backward pass

0
A
6
Spec Design
6

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6
B
11
Design Check
5

Lag 4

15
C
22
Blueprinting
7

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Finish to Finish Lag


Two activities share a similar completion point
The mechanical inspection cannot happen until wiring,

plumbing, and HVAC installation are complete

15
D
Wiring
6

21

10
A
16
Plumbing
6

Lag 3

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16
B
HVAC
5

21

21
C
22
Inspection
1
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Start to Start Lag

30
D
Wiring
6

36

Lag 3

31
A
33
Plumbing
6
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33
B
HVAC
5

36

36
C
37
Inspection
1

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Start to Finish Lag


Least common type of lag relationship
Successors finish dependent on
predecessors start
30
D
Wiring
6

36

22
A
28
Plumbing
6
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Lag 3

28
B
HVAC
5

33

33
C
34
Inspection
1
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Gantt Charts
Establish a time-phased network

Can be used as a tracking tool

Benefits of Gantt charts


1. Easy to create and comprehend
2. Identify the schedule baseline network
3. Allow for updating and control
4. Identify resource needs

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Completed Gantt Chart for Project Delta

FIGURE 10.8
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Gantt Chart for Project Delta with


Critical Path Highlighted

FIGURE 10.9
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Gantt Chart with Resources Specified

FIGURE 10.10
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Gantt Chart with Lag Relationships

FIGURE 10.11
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Crashing
The process of accelerating a project

Principal methods for crashing


Improving existing resources productivity
Changing work methods
Compromise quality and/or reduce project scope
Institute fast-tracking
Work overtime
Increasing the quantity of resources
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10-13

Managerial Considerations
Determine activity fixed and variable costs
The crash point is the fully expedited activity

Optimize time-cost tradeoffs


Shorten activities on the critical path

Cease crashing when


the target completion time is reached
the crashing cost exceeds the penalty cost

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10-14

Project Activities and Costs


Normal

Crashed

Activity

Duration

5 days

$ 1,000

3 days

$ 1,500

7 days

700

6 days

1,000

3 days

2,500

2 days

4,000

5 days

1,500

5 days

1,500

9 days

3,750

6 days

9,000

4 days

1,600

3 days

2,500

6 days

2,400

4 days

3,000

8 days

9,000

5 days

15,000

Total costs

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Cost

$22,450

Duration

Cost

$37,500

Table 10.1

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FIGURE 10.14 TimeCost Trade-Offs for Crashing Activities


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FIGURE 10.15 Fully Crashed Project Activity Network


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FIGURE 10.16 Relationship Between Cost and Days Saved in a Crashed Project
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Activity on Arrow Networks


Activities represented by arrows
Widely used in construction
Event nodes easy to flag

Forward and backward pass logic similar to AON


Two activities may not begin and end at common

nodes
Dummy activities may be required
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Notation for Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)


Networks

FIGURE 10.18
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Sample Network Diagram Using AOA


Approach

FIGURE 10.19
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Representing Activities with Two or More


Immediate Successors(Wrong)

FIGURE 10.20A
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10-22

Alternative Way to Represent Activities


with Two or More Immediate Successors
(Wrong)

FIGURE 10.20B
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Representing Activities with Two or More


Immediate Successors Using Dummy
Activities (Better)

FIGURE 10.20C

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Partial Project Delta Network Using AOA


Notation

FIGURE 10.21
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Completed Project Delta AOA Network

FIGURE 10.22
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Project Delta Forward Pass Using AOA


Network

FIGURE 10.23

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Project Delta Backward Pass Using AOA


Network

FIGURE 10.24

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Controversies in the Use of Networks


Networks can be too complex
Poor network construction creates problems
Networks may be used inappropriately

When employing subcontractors


The master network must be available to them
All sub-networks must use common methods

Positive bias exists in PERT networks

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Summary
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Apply lag relationships to project activities.


Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.
Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects,
including their benefits and drawbacks.
Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to
crash project activities.
Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow
techniques.
Understand the differences in AON and AOA and
recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each
technique.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

10-30

Crashing Example 1

Crashing Example 1
Cost per time period is =

Crash cost- Normal cost


Normal time-crash time

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Crashing Example 1
Activity A$ 6,000 per week

Activity B$10,000 per week


Activity C$ 5,000 per week
Activity D$ 6,000 per week
Normal Project Duration is 18 weeks
Normal Project Costs is $ 200,000

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Crashing Example 1
Reduce Project duration to 17 weeks
Critical path ?
Lowest costs ?
Outcome
Project Duration = 17 weeks
Project Costs = $ 205,000

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Crashing Example 1
Reduce Project duration to 16 weeks
Critical path ?
Lowest costs ?
Outcome
Project Duration = 16 weeks
Project Costs = $ 211,000

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Crashing Example 1
Reduce Project duration to 15 weeks
Critical path ?
Lowest costs ?
Outcome
Project Duration = 15 weeks
Project Costs = $ 223,000

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Crashing Example 2
Calculate the minimum extra costs if the project is to be speeded up to 12 weeks

B
8

13
13

11

13

13

13
13

E
5

18
18

laluan kritikal

Rajah : Rangkaian dengan jangkamasa normal

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Crashing Example 2
Jadual 5
Aktiviti
A
B
C
D
E

Normal
Duration
5
8
6
4
5

Normal
Cost ($)
2000
2500
3000
2000
1000

Crash
Duration
3
2
4
4
3

Crash
Cost ($)
2400
4500
4500
2000
3500

Rate
$/week
200
333
750
1250

Mix
compression
(weeks)

2
6
2
2

Rate ($/week) = crash cost - normal cost


normal time-crash time

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Crashing Example 2
Ist compression
(crash A 1 minggu)
4

B
8

12
12

10

12

17

12

12

17

11

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12

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Crashing Example 2
(crash A 1 minggu)
3

B
8

11
11

11

D
7

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7
4

11
11

16

16

laluan kritikal

11

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Crashing Example 2
2nd compression
(crash B-1 minggu)
3

B
7

10
10

10

10

10

10

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E
5

15
15

laluan kritikal

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Crashing Example 2
(crash B-1 minggu)

B
6

9
9

14

14

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Crashing Example 2
3rd compression
(crash B-1 minggu dan C-1 minggu)

B
5

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E
5

13
13

laluan kritikal

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Crashing Example 2
(crash B-1 minggu dan C-1 minggu)
3

B
4

7
7

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E
5

12
12

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Crashing Example 2
Jadual 6

Pendekkan A
Pendekkan B
Pendekkan B, C
Jumlah

Jumlah kos ($)

Masa dijimat
(minggu)

Kos
tambahan/minggu

Duration
(minggu)

400
666
2166
3232

2
2
2

200
333
1083

16
14
12

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