UITM SEM4 Thermofluid lab

© All Rights Reserved

358 views

UITM SEM4 Thermofluid lab

© All Rights Reserved

- LS1 - Analysis of Air-Conditioning Processes
- DRAG FORCE REPORT
- Drag Force in Flow Over a Body
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)
- CNC Milling Lab Report
- Introduction metrology lab report
- Microstructure Study of Ferrous and Non Ferrous Alloys Under Various Compositions and Heat Treatment Conditions Lab Report
- LS2 - Variation in Refrigeration Coefficient of Performance at Various Operating Conditions
- Exp 3 Force Vibration (Finalized)
- Force convection experiment
- Profile Measurement
- lab 1 foundry..docx
- Screw Thread Report
- Flat plate boundary.docx
- Air Cndtoning
- Vacuum Casting
- Flow Past Cylinder
- Discussion Gmaw
- flat plate boundary layer
- Universiti Teknologi Mara Lab 1

You are on page 1of 11

OBJECTIVE

To measure the drag coefficient CD, over the range of velocities in the test section for

hemispherical (open end facing flow and open end facing down stream).

INTRODUCTION

The flow-related force vector acting on an immersed body can be divided into three

named components, a drag (drag force), which acts in the flow direction, a lift (lift force)

and a side force, all perpendicular to each other. The lift usually is in the direction so that

it does a useful job, for instance upwards for an airplane in horizontal flight or

downwards for inverted wings on race cars. In many cases the (time-mean) side force is

zero, for instance when there is flow symmetry about the plane of lift and drag, as for an

airplane flying in still air. Further, the components can be divided up with respect to their

origin, wall surface pressure and wall friction. The pressure component of the drag, the

pressure drag, is often referred to as the form drag since it is strongly dependent on the

body form (shape). The remaining part is the friction drag, which is due to shearing

viscous forces along the body surface. Flow similarity laws are crucial for model testing

experiments. For instance, the Reynolds similarity law says that for incompressible flow

about two geometrically similar bodies, without any effects of free surfaces, the flow

itself is similar, if tested at the same Reynolds number.

THEORY

Drag is the component of force on a body acting parallel to the direction of relative

motion. The drag force, FD, was written in the functional form FD = f1 (d, V, , ).

Application of the Buckingham Pi theorem resulted in two dimensionless parameters

that written in function form as

Vd

FD

1

V 2 d 2

2

f 2

Note that d2 is proportional to the cross-sectional area (A = d2/4) and therefore we could

write

FD

1

V 2 A

2

Vd

f 3 (Re)

f 3

Although Eq. 1.1 was obtained for sphere, the form of equation is valid for

incompressible flow over any body; the characteristic length used in the Reynolds

Number depends on body shape.

The drag coefficient, CD, any body defined as

CD

FD

1

V 2 A

2

APPARATUS

Wind tunnel and accessories

(Not Included in this Experiment)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

1. The diameter of hemispherical is measured. This measurement will be use to calculate

the Reynolds Number and projected area of hemisphere.

2. The hemispherical body is fitted to the balance arm, open end facing flow first then

open end facing downstream and finally airfoil body.

3. The inclined gage is set to zero, and the reading from drag scale is taken.

4. The blower fan is switch on and set the velocity to 8m/s.

5. The reading was taken from the drag scale.

6. The velocity is increased to 8, 10, 12, 14, 16; 18 and 20 m/s, and step 5 is repeated.

7. Then change the hemispherical body to open end facing downstream.

8. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken.

9. Finally change the end facing downstream to streamlined body. Repeat the same step.

10. After done the streamlined body experiment, then placed only the connecting rod into

wind tunnel.

11. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken.

12. Reynolds no. and coefficient of drag of streamline object and hemispherical are

calculated.

13. The Graph of Reynolds no. vs. drag coefficient is sketch for both hemispherical and

streamline object.

GRAPH

Graph 1 : upstream

Graph 2 : downstream

SAMPLE OF CALCULATION

Temperature in fluids laboratory is 20o C .

T = 20o C

1.204kg / m3

i.

(upstream)

At reading number 2

Net drag force, (upstream)=Drag force,

=0.30 0.02

=0.28 N

ii.

At reading number 2,

V= 10 m/s

= 0.28 N

FD

CD1

1

V 2 D 2

2

iii.

(downstream)

At reading number 2

Net drag force,

= 0.09 0.02

= 0.07 N

iv.

At reading number 2,

V= 10 m/s

= 0.07 N

v.

vi.

At reading number 2,

DISCUSSION

The drag coefficient values can be calculated after obtaining the drag force. The drag

force can be taken by the experiment. The Reynolds number, Re, also can be obtained

using a formula and the data from the experiment.

Re

Net

VD

object that has been plotted, we can see that the highest drag coefficient C D = 1.2532

occur at Re = 62846.7. At this point the velocity of air act to the body is 14 m/s. But then

the drag coefficient decrease dramatically to 0.7859 when the weight and drag force

increase. After the drag drop down the value of drag coefficient sometimes is increase

and sometimes is decrease.From the both graph we can conclude that the drag coefficient

CD increase when the Reynolds number decreasing from big to small numbers. After the

drag coefficient CD was increase the Reynolds number also increased. So its mean that

the value of drag is depend on their Reynolds number.The average of C D obtained from

experiment is 1.6307 for open end facing upstream 0.56 for open end facing downstream

and streamline body 0.2760. Compare to the theoretical value, the drag coefficient, C D for

open end facing upstream is 1.2 while for open end facing downstream is 0.4 and

streamline body is 0.04. The percentage of error of CD for the open end facing upstream is

26.4% then open end facing downstream is 28.5% and finally for streamline body is

85.50%. From the percentage of error calculated, it is not much differ than the theoretical

value.The error due to parallax error occurs in this experiment while taking the reading

and also the error because of apparatus itself such as the air goes out from the hole

around the holder that connected to the drag scale. Also the balancing of the hemisphere

body maybe unwell balanced.

CONCLUSION

The objective of the experiment achieved. The percentage of error between theoretical

value and experimental value is not much differing. There is no big difference between

velocity and Reynolds number and can be concluded similarly same. The parallax error

occur in this experiment is not constant thats make the reading become difficult. The

drag coefficient profile on the graph for open end facing flow and open end facing down

stream is differ from each other due to streamlines and bluntness of the air flowing

towards the hemisphere. It is also due to the laminar and turbulent flow that occur during

the process that takes place at different Reynolds numberFrom the experiment also it can

be concluded that the higher the drag coefficient the higher the drag force involves. For

103<Re<3105 the drag coefficient is approximately constant. In this range the entire rear

of the sphere has a low pressure turbulent wake and most of the drag is caused by the

front-rear pressure asymmetry.In summarize, the drag, which contains portions due to

friction (viscous) effects and pressure effects, is written in terms of dimensionless drag

coefficients, CD. It also shown that the drag coefficient, CD, is a function of shape and

Reynolds Number, Re.

REFERENCES

Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi

J.F Douglas, J.M Gaslorek, J.A Swaffield

Robert W. Fox, Alan T. Mcdonald, Philip J. Pritchard

- LS1 - Analysis of Air-Conditioning ProcessesUploaded byIzzu -Knight
- DRAG FORCE REPORTUploaded bywandee2393
- Drag Force in Flow Over a BodyUploaded byHazril Lifebooks
- GREEN SAND PREPARATION (Manufacturing Lab /Foundry)Uploaded byFakhrur Razi
- CNC Milling Lab ReportUploaded byMuhammad Iqmel
- Introduction metrology lab reportUploaded byMuhamad Hafiz
- Microstructure Study of Ferrous and Non Ferrous Alloys Under Various Compositions and Heat Treatment Conditions Lab ReportUploaded byzrro
- LS2 - Variation in Refrigeration Coefficient of Performance at Various Operating ConditionsUploaded byFaez Feakry
- Exp 3 Force Vibration (Finalized)Uploaded byFakhrur Razi
- Force convection experimentUploaded byseharis7
- Profile MeasurementUploaded bynajieyuya
- lab 1 foundry..docxUploaded byUsman Taib
- Screw Thread ReportUploaded bykittikhun_simlee
- Flat plate boundary.docxUploaded byHaikal Zulkifli
- Air CndtoningUploaded bysusanooabc
- Vacuum CastingUploaded bydeep55582
- Flow Past CylinderUploaded byKarthick Murugesan
- Discussion GmawUploaded byMuhamad Hafiz
- flat plate boundary layerUploaded byMuhammadKhalisBinKhalid
- Universiti Teknologi Mara Lab 1Uploaded byIlman Faiq
- HVAC 2015Uploaded byAman Redha
- Lab Report Bl2Uploaded byAhmad Hafizuddin
- Refrigeration Lab CompleteUploaded bySyahirzabidi
- ADVANCE MANU HADRAMI COMP.docxUploaded byHatim Dailaimi
- Lab Report Injection MoldingUploaded byArif Hussain
- RefrigerationUploaded bysayabudakcomey
- Assignment Thermal UiTMUploaded byAmirul 'Pit'
- flow past a cylinderUploaded byFiet Ghazali
- Experiment 3-Flow Past a Circular CylinderUploaded byNguyen Duy Thao
- Molding PreparationUploaded byJason Bullock

- Datasheet M 710iC 70Uploaded byDiego Camacho
- OC LV_P122Uploaded bysathiyaseelan
- ACS709Uploaded byanshscribd
- lect1Uploaded byKong DuiDui
- Weber & Kohlrausch - On the First Electromagnetic Measurement of the Velocity of ...Uploaded byshivnair
- Transformers for 1200 KV Testing Station at BinaUploaded byraghavendran raghu
- Pressure HeadUploaded bykraytos krieger
- Energy Harvesting by Using Piezoelectric Material Placed in FootwearUploaded byचारु कांडपाल
- Brymen BM 869s - User ManualUploaded bySilver Rooster
- Ohms Law AssignmentUploaded bykaushikmohanty
- 8.02pset9solUploaded byZyra Arcos
- Electromagnetism Motors and GeneratorsUploaded bydeemah
- Mathematical ModellingUploaded byMohd Fazli
- R 452.pdfUploaded byKhaleel Khan
- Ac Power Supply for Led Ldg LightUploaded byajaydce05
- E-44.pdfUploaded byMonarch J Parmar
- ASTM D 6111 – 03Uploaded byTONY
- Economy Force Sensor Manual CI 6746Uploaded byscrusn
- Question 1.docxUploaded bysksmech2012
- 1.Converter TransformerUploaded byOrcun Calay
- RAC LectureUploaded bySaurav Arikadoshikaru Das
- chapter8.pdfUploaded byVinayaka Prabhu
- psychrometricUploaded byShaik Tharik Ahamed
- U30D20A/U30D30A/U30D40A/U30D50A/U30D60AUploaded byAnonymous XQ97Fmj
- Metric UnitsUploaded byarielicawat
- IS CODES (1).docxUploaded byAnonymous WCew55q
- 147355172 Power Plant Technology by El WakilUploaded byMuhammad Yasar Javaid
- 4230 405 PVI M 402 03 InstrumentationCable Technicalspecification C2Uploaded byajju1378
- gold3.pdfUploaded byManula Pathirana
- Test on 110kV Power Cable After Installation (2)Uploaded byEngineer Nabeel Arif

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.