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Predgovor

JevtaJevtovi6

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PosrE, DRUGoc svETSKoc RATA,u okviru opSteg kulturnog poleta, naglo se


razvila mrei,a muzeja u Jugoslaviji. Danas gotovo da nema ni jednog ve6eg
gradau kome ne postoji neki muzej ili muzejska zbirka. Svi ti muzeji, narodito
oni zavidajnog, ili regionalnog znataja, savesnoduvaju, obraduju i prikazuju
razliiitu muzejskii gradu. Takav razvoj, podstaknut sistemom lokalnog
omogucio je, pored ostalog, odrLavaniJvelikog
samoupravljanjai filnansiranja,
brojaizloLbi na kojima je detaljno prikazana kulturna i umetnidka proilost
odredenog regiona, grada ili lokaliteta. Time je u naSoj zemlii zaokruLena iedna
znalajna etapa u istraZivanju i proudavanju kulturne baStine.
Medutim, u praksi rada svih muzeja izostao je rad na velikim izloLbama projektima od najiireg kulturnog i naudnog interesa. Misli se na onaj tip tzv.
jugoslovenskihizloLba (tematskih, studijskih, revijskih), koje predstavljaju_
sintezu svegalokalnog, koje to, pojedinaino, preuzimaiu, uopitavaju i podiZu
na vi5i i reprezentativniii nivo. LJpravo, to bi bio zahvalan zadatak z sve
ve6e i kompleksnije muzeje iz svih jugoslovenskih kulturnih centara,tiji je rad
od iireg kulturnog i nacionalnog znataja.
Polize6i od takvih predpostavki, pristupili smo koncipiranju izloLbe Antiibi
portret u Jwgoslaaiji. Ona moZe da znaii obnovu rada na jugoslovenskim
muzejskim projektima sa kojima seizlazi pred doma6u i inostranu javnost.
Takve izloLbe, po pravilu, predstavljajusloZenijestruine, organizacionei
finansijskepoduhuate.U jugoslovenskimokvirittt" on. t. -6gu priredivati
samo u zajedniiki planiranoj i izvedenoj saradnji mnogih samostalnih muzeja
i galerlja,ili, kako le to popularno kod nas kaZe, putem udruZivanja znania,
muzeiskih fondova i sredstava.
Ovoga puta, inicijativa za izloLbu Antiibi portet u Jugoslaoiji potekla je od
Narodnog muzeja,.izBeograda. Njoj su-se ra.do-odazvalii.pri4ruZili, kao
ravnopravni organizatori i finansijeri, Muzeji Makedonije iz Skopja,
Arheoloiki mu2ej iz Zagreba, Arheoloiki muzei iz Splita i Narodni muzei iz
Ljubljane. Zahvaljtjuti tim muzejima, njihovim rukovodiocima i strudnjacima,
kao i saradnji jo5 30 muzejaiz cele zemlje, nastala ie ovaizloLba. Ona je
kolektivno delo preko 20 jugoslovenskih autora, koji su nastojali i uspeli da
prikaLu najboljei najvredniji portrete grdke, rimske, kasnoantiIke
i ranovizanrijskeumetnosti sa3uvaneni tlu Jugoslaviie.IzloLba sadrLi 255
eksponata. Od taga su 105 portreta u kamenu i bronzi, a ostalo su Portretne
predstavena novCu, gemama,kamejama i sitnoj plastici. IzloLba 6e tokom
iggznA. godine biti [rikazana u Beogradu,Zagiebu, Splitu, Skopiu
i Ljubljani, a verovatno i u inostranstvu.
Na projektu izloLbe i ove knjige saradivaoje veliki broj specijalista,muzeja
i muzejskih'zbirki. Njihova imena navedenasu u ovoj publikaciii. Koristimo
priliku da im i na ovaj na6in zahvalimo za njihov nesebiian doprinos i na
uverenju da su ovakve izloLbe - Siroki sintezni pregledi - i neophodne
i korisne. I da 6e ih u budu6e. nadamo se, biti sve viSe i vi5e.

Preface
JevtaJevtovic

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AFTERvoRLD \yAR il the number of museumsin yugoslavia increasedsreatly


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as a result of a wide-spreadactivity in rhe field of culiure. Today there is
hardly a town which does not have a museum or a museum coliection. All
these,institutions,especiallymunicipal and-regional.museums,
."tt..i, rruay
axd drsplay varrousobJectsol importance for rhe history of culrure. This
developmenr,supp.orredby the sysremof local self-governmentand financing,
has made.rt.possiblero.organize a number of exhibiiions giving a detailed
picture oj.lhe cultural.history and developmentof a regio"n,,oirn or site.
These exhibitions marked an importr.rt rirg. in the exp"lorationand ,i"Jy of
the cultural heritageof Yugoslavia.
.one. type of projecrsthit has been rarely undertaken,although it is of great
cult.uraIrnterest,is the.organizationof large and comprehensiveixhibitioni.
Such exhibitions, basedon the material fr6m the who'leof yugoslavia,are
particularly valuablebecause.
they make ir possible_tostudy in"divid,r"iotj..t,
and dev.elopments,in
a broader conrexr and to reach more'reliableg...."[
conclusronsr.egardingthem. This task of integrating local material into
a synthetic picutre can be best performed by the laige museumsfrom the
m,aior YuBoslav cenrres,which have the neiess.aryre"sourcesand the activity of
whrch has a broader cultural and national sineificance.
Having this.in mind, we beganto plan the"presentexhibitions of the
,
classicalportrait in Yugoslavia.It is hoped thai this initiative may lead to a
of joint projectJ of Yugo.slavmuseums.Such exhibitions,'designedfor
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both the native and foreign.p-ublic,.repre.senr
as a rule rather complex"projects
from the organizationalind'financial points of view. They can bJ orginized
only on the basisof the well-plannedco-operation of ,rrr,n.rou, inde"pendent
museums.and galleries,or,.as it is usually iaid in yugoslavia, on the 6rri, oi
the assoclatlonof knowledge, museum collecrionsand funds.
The iniriative for the present exhibition came from Belgrade.It was readilv
r
to by the Museums of Macedoniain skopie, th"eArchaeological
fe;ronded
Museum
Museum in Split, and the Nati6nal
i"Vlg::F, the Arc_haeological
Museum.in.Ljubljana,which act rJco-o.ganizers and co-financiers.ve owe
thls exhlbltlon ro thesemuseums,their directors and experts,as well as to the
co-operationof
yugoslavia. It is
.thirty orher museumsfrom all over
a collective work of more that twenry Yugoslav aurhors-,whose aim has been
t!. present the best and most represenrativi works of Greek, Roman, Late
classical and Early Byzantine portraiture which have been found in the
territory of Yugoslavia.The exhibition consisrsof 255 exhibirs; 106 of them
are portraits in stone or bronze, while the others are representationson coins.
gms' cameosand small sculptures.During 1987/98the-exhibitionwill be
shown in Belgrade,Z.agreb,Split, Skopfe rnd I-,"blj"na, and probably abroad.
of specialistsand institutions have taken part in the preparation
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of this exhibition and its catalogue.Their namesare lisied in this
'Sfle
iubiication,
should like to expressour fratirude to them for rheir n.rr.rou',
contribution and foriheir belieTrhat exhibitions like this one - offering
a broad, synthetic picture of the cultural developmentsof the past - ar"eboth
useful and necessary,and that there will be more similar proiectsin the future.

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SVESTO INDIVIDUALNOSTIPOJEDINCAunutar jedne Sire druStvene zaiednice


nastaialaie verovatno zaiedno s dovekom kao misaonim bi6em. U likovnoj sferi
t" ,lr.rt je vodila stvaranjuportreta, lika odredeneosobe, koia ie prepoznatljiva
^po svoiim fiziikim i duhovnim karakteristikama.
IJ svom dugogodiSnjem razvoju portret doLivljava poseban usPon uPravo
u antiikom p"iio-du. Teoretska i likovna dostignu6a grdke i- rims.le
porrretistike, kao i naroda koji su doZiveli plodne uticaje tih civilizacija aktivna
iu baitina savremenekulture 6ove6anstva.IstraLivanje i poznavanje Portreta
kao umetniikog i dru5tvenog fenomena je veoma znaiaino za kulturu svakog
naroda.
Antiiki portret je utemeljen na iskustvima umetnosti toga doba i povezan je
sa opStim likovnim i umetni6kim stremljenjima. Anti6ki portretisti se rukovode
pot..b"-r druitva i pojedinaca. Stvarali su umetniike forme i osmiSljavali
teoretsko filozofske postavke koje su stalno bi]e oboga6ivane.
Portret je u anti6liom periodu imao svoju sluZbeno reprezentativnu
driavno-propagandnu, ali isto tako i privatno rePrezentativno-religijsku
sepulkralnuiurikciju. Posebnakategoiija su portreti istaknutih osoba iz
proSlosti(drzavnici, vojskovode,filozofi, pesnici,-oratorii d-rugi).Drustvena
ko-po.,..rt" portrera nije nista manje znatajna_odikonografske i umetniike.
Sbbziromda je naSa zemlja bila integralni deo antiEkog sveta pored
poznatih i znaiainih spomenika antiike civilizacije otkriveni su i veoma vredni
portreti. Prvi skromnipoieci su ve6 od arhajskogi klasiinog doba grike
umetnosti,preko razviieniiih oblika likovnog izrai'avaniau doba helenizma.
Rimski p.rioa karakteiiSepre svegarealistiif,o-fizionomskitretman individue
,. por.b^norn izrataino\cu) zatim istorijski i umetniiki nemiri III veka
n. i. i konadno do ikonidnosti i nepromenljivosti forme u ranoj vizantiiskoi
viziji ljudske figure i nestankaportreta u pravom smislu reii u doba ranog
srednjegveka.
Pore"dreprezentativnih portreta koji su uglavnom importovani iz ve6ih
centara kao^5to su Atina i iti-, izvesian brol ie rad doma6ih majstora
i radionica. Portret se najieS6ejavlja kao puna skluptura ili reljef u kamenu
i bronzi ali isto tako je prisutan na bronzanoj plastici, keremoplastici, gliptici,
kosti. 6ilibaru. narodito na novcu a rede na mozaicima i freskama. Antidki
po.t..ti koji potiiu sa jugoslovenskog tla nisu u dovoljnoj meri Prouieni
i njihova p.."i pr.r..ttacila u celini je-prilika za valorizaciju pravih kulturnih
vrednosti u naSoisavremenolkulturi.

Introduction

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TUE avraneNEss oF THE pERSoNALrDENTrry of an individual within


a broader social community grew probably parallel with the development of
m-anas a thinking being. In the sphere of art is led to the making oT portraits,
of representationi of pirticular p".ro.rs with recognizable physic"aland spiritual
traits.
The history of portraiture is long, but it had one of its great periods
precisely in the clalsical age.The th"eoreticand creative ach"ievements
of Greek
and Roman-portraiture,. and of the peoples that came under the fertilizing
i n f l u e n c eo f i h e c l a s s i c acl i v i l i z a t i o . , sr,i p r e s e n ta l i v i n g h e r i t a g eo f
contemporary culture. The study and knowledge of thi po.t.iit as an object of
a r t a n d a .s o c i a lp h e n o m e n o ni s v e r y i m p o r t a n t l o r t h e c u l t u r eo f e v e r y n a t i o n .
The classicalportrait is basedon the^outlook of its age and it is asiociated
with the general-tendenciesof the art of the time. Classicalportrait makers
responded to the needs of the society and the individual. They created art
forms reflecting the increasingly richer theoretic and philosophic views of their
age.
The portrait had various functions in the classicalperiod. It was primarily
an elementof political propaganda,but it was aiso used for sepulchial
mronumentsand for privare purposes. A distinct group of poriraits consisrs
of .representations
of eminent personsfrom the past - statesmen,generals,
p h i l o s o p h e r sp, o e r s ,o r a r o r sa n d o t h e r s .T h e s . o c i aal s p e c ro f t h e p o r t r a i t w a s
n o l e s si m _ p o r t a nt th a n i t s i c o n o g r a p h i co r a r t i s t i ca s p e c r s .
_ Since the territory of Yugoslavii was an integral part of the classicalworld,
the monuments of ciassicalIivilization discoverEdin it include very valuable
portraits..The earliest,_rarher_
modest examplesdate from the archaicperiod
and the classicalage of Greek art, but theri are also some more fully^developed
portraits from the-Hellenistic age. The portraits of the Roman period are
characterizedprimarily by striking expiessivenessand the realistic treatment of
the face. The portraiture of the 3rI ...tt.t.y A. D. reflects the historical
upheavalsof the time. The develop-".rt ..tdr with the iconic and immutable
forms of the Early Byzantine view of the human figure and with the
disappearanceof ihe portrait in the proper senseofthe word in the Early
Middie Aees.
The more representativeporrraits were mainly imported from the major
centres,such as Athens and Rome, but some were the works of local masters
and workshops.
The portraits are usually sculptured in the round or in relief
^bronze,
in stone and
but there are also po.t.aiis on coins and in other materials
such as clay, plaster, bone or amber. Mbsaic and fresco portraits are
comparattvely rare.
fhe. classicalportraits found in the territory of Yugoslavia have not been
studied thoroughly yet, 1_ndtheir presentation at a si""gleexhibition provides
an opportunity for a fuller appreciation and understanding of their real value.

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