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Perfect Knowledge of

Piping Engineering

A Practical Guide in Engineering Technique for Mechanical Engineering Degree/Diploma final year
student preparing for service interview. I do not claim that Perfect Knowledge of Piping
Engineering is the final word in Piping Engineering. I have tried my best to share the knowledge and
experience being common to more Engineers who came forward to co-operate in the field of
knowledge and pool their experience to make it better for the Mechanical Engineers whether final
year students or fresher in service or working as a junior Engineer in construction field and doing the
Piping Engineering job. It is easy to grasp the basic knowledge and principles of Piping Engineering
This book is devised and planned to be practical help and is made to be most valuable reference
book. I will feel myself proud that my efforts are rewarded, if this book contributes even to a small
group of students or fresher or working junior Engineer in acquiring and understanding of the subject.
I sincerely record my gratitude to Mr. Ram Babu Sao, experienced and versatile Mechanical Engineer
and friend of mine whose promise and unstinted labour in providing assistance to publish this book.
Otherwise this book could have not been published.
I acknowledge his contribution gratefully. I am extremely grateful to all those who have assisted me in
bringing out this edition of the book.
Mumbai

Sanjay Kumar Gupta

August 2015

Copyright: Author-2004
CAUTION

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy without permission in writing from the
publishers.

Disclaimer
The book Perfect Knowledge of Piping Engineering is not a writers whole & sole product. It is
a combination of the knowledge and expertise of the author and the Data collected from different
Codes, Standards and Books, specially researched to meet the objective and to enhance the
knowledge of piping engineers. Wherever necessary, the reference of the Codes, Standards or other
Books has been given in this book. The Data in this book provides only information, knowledge,
guidance and reference to engineers and shall not permit the engineers to use these Data for designing
any piping system.
ISBN-13: 978-1511561624
ISBN-10: 1511561629
First Edition: August, 2015
Publisher: Amazon

Preface
It gives me great pleasure and sense of deep satisfaction to publish this book of Perfect Knowledge
of Piping Engineering. This book has proved to be a friend and guide to many Engineering Students,
Engineers, Contractors, Construction Companies and Consultants. The total practical approach of this
book explodes the math that, even the piping engineering subject is tough and difficult to understand, a
general reader or beginners willing to know about the subject, will find the content very easy and
simple to follow. The excellence of the book will be appreciated by the readers from all parts of
India and abroad after publication of the First Edition.
There is so much strife and struggle in the present time as it was never before. This is a time of readymade food and fast food. Nobody has time to cook the food and then eat. Only this feeling motivated
me and necessitated in publishing this book. This is compact and full of all information at one place
in a simple language.
Today the eyes of the whole of the world are fixed on India for any kind of development.
The need for development has been felt for quite some time back that this book is written on piping
work which may contain all the aspect of piping with illustrations so that complete information is
conveyed in a simple language. I am confident that this book will help to all technicians, supervisors,
and engineers in achieving his object and success in every field of piping work.
I have given the gist of Indian and international books, standards, codes, and specifications on piping
work in this book. At the same time, I have tried to make you understand about what is the piping
work. These facts & figures are collected from various books, standards, and specifications and
incorporated here in this book for the first time for reference by the common technical men. Behind
all this, there is our exhaustive study and collections. More than the study is the presentation of the
subject matter and even much more than the presentation of the subject matter is long years of
experience and association with the piping work all over India and abroad while working with M/S
Engineers India Limited, an internationally reputed engineering consultancy organization. This adds
some kind of value to the book. A systematic, consistent, and clear presentation of concepts through
explanatory notes, figures, and examples are the main aspects of this book.
While publishing this book, I have constantly kept in mind the requirements of all engineering
professionals, and the various difficulties they face while performing their job. To make the book
really useful at all levels, it has been written in an easy style and in a simple manner, so that a
professional can grasp the subject independently by referring this book. Care has been taken to make
this book as self-explanatory as possible and within the technical ability of an average professional.

In short, it is earnestly hoped that this treatise will earn the appreciation of all technical professional
all over the world.

Contents
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
3.
3.1
3.2

Introduction
Measures & Weights Units
Conversion
Physics
Hydraulic engineering
Chemistry
Mathematics
Abbreviations
Definitions
List of Codes and Standards
List of Vendors and Manufacturers
Books Catalogues
Piping Materials
Materials Classification
Metallurgical Structure of Metal
Mechanical Properties
Factors Affecting Mechanical Properties
Temperature Affecting Mechanical Properties
Factors Affecting Service Feature
Elements affecting Alloy Steel
Selection of Piping Materials
Piping Materials for Specific Fluid Services
Piping Material-Identification
Corrosion of Piping Metal
Theory of Corrosion
Factors Affecting Corrosion

1-112
1-5
5-12
12-30
30-36
36-39
39-57
57-63
63-102
102-107
107-111
111-112
113-162
113-127
127-132
132-134
134-135
136-137
138-140
140-145
146-153
154-161
161-162
163-186
163-167
167-168

3.3
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
7.
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
8.

Corrosion Table
Piping Design
General
Design Requirements
Design Conditions
Piping Design Criteria- Part-1
Temperature-Pressure Rating Design Criteria
Stress Strain Design Criteria
Piping Design Criteria-Part-2
Pressure Integrity-Design
Pipe Wall Thickness (tm.)
Piping Design Criteria-Part-3

Sizing of Liquid Line-Single phase


Sizing of Gas Line-Single Phase
Sizing of Liquid / Gas Line-Two Phase
Pipe Sizing in Steam System
Piping Flexibility and Supports-Design
Piping Supports-Design
Piping Joints-Design
Design Engineering and Limitations
Piping Engineering Standard-Data
Plant Layout
Design Example 1
Piping Components
Pipe and Tube
Pipe Fittings
Flanges
Valves
Piping other Components
Piping Project Management
Project Introduction
Project Management
Network Analysis Package
Scheduling Technique
Project Monitoring System
Standard Man-hour for Piping
Piping Assembly
Applicable Codes and Standards
Piping Fabrication and Assembly
Piping Cutting
Piping Fabrication
Piping Welding

168-186
187-452
187-188
188-191
191-201
201-363
202-359
359-363
363-366
363-364
364-366
366-396
367-376
376-377
377-384
384-396
396-406
406-421
421-423
424-427
427-438
438-448
448-452
453-528
453-463
463-473
473-486
486-505
505-528
529-542
529-529
529-531
531-534
534-537
537-539
539-542
543-560
544-544
544-560
445-554
554-560
561-626

8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
9.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.21
9.22
9.23
9.24
10.
10.1
10.2
10.3
11.

Applicable Codes of Welding


Welding Symbols
Welding Joint Type
Weld Orientation
Welding Accessories
Typical Metal Welding
Welding of Dissimilar Metals
Estimation of Welding Cost
Welding Defects
Welding Distortion & Remedies
Welding Variables & Positions
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
Welding Procedure Qualification Records (PQR)
Welder Performance Qualifications (Certification)
WPS / PQR Qualification tests
Piping Inspection
General
Applicable Codes and Standards
Levels of certification
Destructive Examinations & Tests
Non-Destructive Test
N.D.T Examination Requirements
Weld Imperfections and Acceptance Limit
Inspection and Testing Instruments
Visual Inspection
Radiographic Inspection (RT)
Magnetic Particle Examination
Eddy current
Dye penetrant Test (DPT / LPT)
Ultrasonic Test (UT)
Hardness Test
Hydrostatic Test
Pneumatic Test
Hydrostatic-Pneumatic Test
Sensitive Leak Test
Gas and Bubble Solution Test
Vacuum Box Test
Alternative Leak Test
Repair of Weld
Documentation and Records
Piping Heat Tracing
General
Steam Tracing Applications
Inspection and Testing
Lined Piping

561-574
574-580
580-584
584-588
588-593
593-594
594-597
597-599
600-603
603-607
607-611
612-619
619-622
622-625
625-626
627-694
627-627
627-630
630-631
631-632
632-634
634-642
642-643
643-644
644-649
649-669
669-672
672-673
674-675
675-682
682-684
684-690
690-691
691-691
691-692
692-692
692-693
693-693
693-693
693-694
695-702
695-695
695-702
702-702
703-712

11.1
11.2
11.3
12.
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
13.
13.0
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
15.
16.
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
17.
17.1
17.2
17.3

General
Plastic Lined Piping Systems
Other Lined Piping Systems
Jacketed Piping
General
Piping Sizing
Jacketed Piping Systems
Leak Test
Piping Painting
General
Painting Applicable Codes
Paint Materials
Primer Paint Materials Selection
Finish Paint Materials Selection
Painting
Surface Preparation
Paint Application
Colour Coding
Painting Inspection
Piping Coating & Wrapping
General
Applicable Codes and Standards
Coating & Wrapping Materials
Surface Preparation
Application
Inspection
Cathode Protection
Piping Insulation
General
Applicable Codes
Properties of Thermal Insulation
Theory of Heat Loss
Theory of Heat transfer
Insulation Materials
Application of Cold Insulation
Application of Hot Insulation
Insulation Inspection
Non-Metallic Piping
Plastic Piping Systems
Rubber and Elastomeric Piping Systems
Thermo Set Piping Systems

703-706
706-712
712-712
713-722
713-719
719-720
720-720
720-722
723-736
723-723
723-724
724-725
725-726
726-728
728-729
729-731
731-733
733-734
734-736
737-742
737-737
737-737
737-739
739-740
740-741
741-742
743-746
747-762
747-747
747-747
748-753
753-753
753-754
754-758
758-760
761-762
762-762
763-784
763-771
771-777
777-784

1
Introduction
1.1

Measures & Weights Units

There are different unit of measures and weights being used in the world. This chapter is intended to
guide for expressing weight and measures, their units and symbols. The list of codes and standards of
weights and measures, their units and symbols are also given here for further reference:
1) ASTM E380
: Standard for Metric Practice.
2) ASTM E268
: Standard for Metric Practice
3) NIST SP-330
: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
4) American National Metric Council
: Metric Editorial Guide
5) ASME Guide S 1.1
: ASME Orientation Guide for use of SI (Metric) Units.
The International System of Units (SI) on Weights and Measures has the Base units along with the
Derived units. The Absolute units or Base units are seven, as given below.
Meter: The Meter is the unit of Length. The Meter is the length of the path travelled by light in
vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second. It follows that the speed of light in
vacuum is 299792458 meters per second, i.e. 299 792 458 m/s.
Kilogram: The kilogram is the unit of Mass. It is equal to the mass of the international prototype of
the kilogram; an artefact made of platinum-iridium and is kept at the BIPM.
Table: Absolute SI units
Base quantity

Name of Units

Length
Mass
Time
Electric current
Thermodynamic
temperature
Amount
of
substance
Luminous intensity

Meter
Kilogram
Second
Ampere
Degree Kelvin

Symbol
Quantity
m
kg
s
A
K

Mole

mol

Candela

cd

for

Second: The second is the unit of Time, precisely defined by the International Astronomical Union
based on a transition between two energy levels of an atom or a molecule, which is much more
accurate. The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the
transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom. This unit of

second is a very precise definition of the unit of time and is indispensable for science and technology.
Another definition of Second is the unit of time and is equal to the fraction 1/86400 of the Mean Solar
Day defined by the astronomers. But due to irregularities in the rotation of the Earth made, this
definition of Second is an unsatisfactory definition.
Ampere: Ampere is the unit for Current. The ampere is that constant current, which produce a force
equal to 2 x 107 Newton per meter of length between two straight parallel conductors of infinite
length and of negligible circular cross-section and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum. It follows that the
magnetic constant, 0, known as the permeability of free space, is exactly 4 x 107 henries per
meter, 0 = 4 x 107 H/m.
Temperature: The Kelvin and the degree Celsius are units of Temperature. Kelvin is the unit of
Thermodynamic Temperature, which is assigned to the temperature 273.16 K. The Kelvin is the
fraction 1/273.16 of the Thermodynamic Temperature of the triple point of water. The triple point of
water has the isotopic composition amount of substance ratios, e.g., 0.000 155 76 moles of 2H per
mole of 1H; and 0.000 379 9 mole of 17O per mole of 16O; and 0.002 005 2 mole of 18O per mole
of 16O. Thermodynamic Temperature is expressed as a symbol T, in terms of its difference from the
reference temperature T0 = 273.15 K, the ice point. This difference is called Celsius temperature,
symbol t, which is defined by the quantity equation: t = T T0. The unit of Celsius temperature is the
degree Celsius, symbol C, which is equal in magnitude to the Kelvin. A difference or interval of
temperature may be expressed in Kelvin or in degrees Celsius, the numerical value of the temperature
difference being the same. However, the numerical value of a Celsius temperature expressed in
degrees Celsius is related to the numerical value of the Thermodynamic Temperature expressed in
Kelvin by the relation: t/C = T/K 273.15.
Mole: The mole is the unit of an amount of a substance which contains as many elementary entities as
there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12 and its symbol is "mol". The molar mass of carbon 12
is exactly 12 grams per mole, M (12C) = 12 g/mol.
Gram-atom/Gram-molecule: "Gram-atom" and "Gram-molecule" is the Units of an amount of
chemical element or compound. These units have a direct connection with "atomic weights" and
"molecular weights", which are in fact relative masses. "Atomic weights" are referred to the atomic
weight of oxygen. Physicists separate the isotopes in a mass spectrometer and attribute the value 16 to
one of the isotopes of oxygen. Chemists attribute the same value to the mixture of isotopes 16, 17 and
18.
Candela: The candela is the unit of Luminous Intensity of Light in a given direction that emits
monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and has a radiant intensity in the same
direction of 1/683 watt per Steradian. It follows that the spectral luminous efficacy for
monochromatic radiation of frequency of 540 x 1012 hertz is exactly 683 lumens per watt, K = 683
lm/W = 683 cd sr/W.
Derived Units: Derived units are the units formed by combining Base Units based on the algebraic
relations linking to the Base Units. The dimensions of the Derived quantities are written as products
of powers of the dimensions of the Base quantities using the equations that relate the Derived
quantities to the Base quantities.
Nautical Mile: A Nautical Mile or Sea Mile is the distance on the earths surface at the sea level and
corresponds to approximately one minute of arc (1/60 of a degree) of longitude on the equator of the
earth.
Knot: Knot is a unit of speed of a ship or travel of a ship per hour and is equal to one U.K. Nautical
Mile per hour. The knot is a non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units (SI). It

is a speed of vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels one minute of geographic latitude in
one hour.
Parsec: The parsec (pc) is a unit of length used in astronomy. It is about 3.26 light-years, or just
under 31 trillion (3.11013) kilometres or about 19 trillion miles. A parsec is the distance from the
Sun to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arc second and is one of the oldest
methods for astronomers to calculate the distance.
Table: Derived units
Base
quantity
Area
Volume
Frequency
Density

Name of Units

square meter
cubic meter
hertz
kilogram
per
cubic meter
Velocity
meter
per
second
Angular
radian
per
Velocity
second
Acceleration meter
per
second squared
Angular
radian
per
Acceleration second squared
Angular
radian
per
Acceleration second squared
Force
Newton
Pressure or Newton
per
Stress
square meter or
Pascal
Kinematics
square
meter
Viscosity
per second
Dynamic
Newton-second
Viscosity
per
square
meter
Work
or joule
Energy
or
Quantity
of
heat
Power
watt
Quantity
of coulomb
Electricity
Electric
volt
Potential

Symbol

Units

m2
m3
Hz
kg/m3

[L]2
[L]3
1/s

m/s

[L][T]1

rad/s
m/s2
rad/s2

[L][T]2

rad/s2

[L][T]2

N
N/m2
or Pa

kg m/s2
[M] [T] [L]1

m2/s
N s/m2

Nm

W
C

J/s
A s

W/A

Difference
or
Electro
Motive
Force (EMF)
Electric
Resistance
magnetic
Field Strength
Magneto
Motive Force
Luminance
Plane Angle
Dynamic
Viscosity
Moment
of
Force
Surface
Tension
Heat
Capacity,
Entropy
Thermal
Conductivity
Energy
Density
Electric Field
Strength
Molar Energy
Exposure of X
Ray and
Gamma-Rays
Absorbed
Dose Rate
Molar
Entropy,
Molar Heat
Capacity
Radiant
Intensity

ohm
ampere
meter
ampere

V/A
per A/m
A

candela
per cd/m2
square meter
radian
rad
Pascal second Pa s

m1 kg s1

Newton meter

m2 kg s2

Newton
meter
joule
Kelvin

Nm

per N/m

kg s2

per J/K

m2 kg s2 K
1

watt per meter W/(m K)


Kelvin
joule per cubic J/m3
meter
volt per meter
V/m

m kg s3 K1

joule per mole

m2 kg s2
mol1
kg1 s A

coulomb
kilogram

J/mol

per C/kg

m1 kg s2
m kg s3 A1

gray per second Gy/s

m2 s3

joule per mole J/(mol K)


Kelvin

m2 kg s2 K
1 mol1

watt
steradian

m4 m2 kg s
3

per W/sr

1.2
Quantity
Length

Conversion
Unit
Parsec

Light Year
Pent meter
Tetra meter
Giga meter
Mega meter
Hector kilometre
Kilo meter
Hector meter
Decca meter
Meter
Decimetre
Centimetre
Millimetre
Micrometer (Micron)
Nanometre
(Mill micron)
Parsec
League (UK Nautical)
Nautical mile (US)
Nautical mile (UK)
International Nautical mile
Mile /Land Mile / Canal Mile

Cable Length
Cable (UK)
Furlong
Chain (Engineer)
Chain (Surveyor)

Rod / Pale / Perch


Fathom
Yard
Link (Engineer)
Link (Surveyor)
Span
Meter
Foot
Inch
Inch
Inch
Inch
Inch
Kilometre
cm
Foot
Meter
Yard
Meter
Micro-meter
Mil
Area

Volume

1 sq. cm
1 sq. in
1 sq. m
1 sq. yard
1 acre

1 sq. Mile
1 in3
1 ft3
1 fluid oz

1 Gallon
1 Litter

1 American Gallon

1 Imperial Gallon

1 American Barrel
1 Pint
1 quart
1 Kilo litter
1 Gram-molecule (a gas at 0 c and 760 mm of mercury pressure) volume

Mass / Weight

1 Ton (metric)

1 Ton (British)
1 Pound (lb)
1 Kg
1 Tola
1 Gram

1 Ounce
1 Metric carat

Pressure

1 Troy Ounce
1 Troy ounce
1 slug
1 ATM

/ Stress

1 bar

1 Kg / cm2
1 lbf / in2 (psi)

1 tore (mm Hg. at 00c)


1 lb. / ft2
1 lb. / ft2
1 lb / ft2
1 Pa (Pascal)
1 N / mm2
1 N / mm2

Power

1 in. Hg at 320 F
1 ton / in2
1 kg / mm2
1 ksi
1 lb/in2 (psi)
1 MN / m2
1 W / in2
1 Watt
1 Btu / s

1 Btu / min.
1 Btu / h
1 erg / s
1 ft. lbf / s
1 ft. lbf / min
1 ft. lbf / h
1 hp
1 hp (Metric)

1 hp (electric)

1
(w)

Angle
Torque
Bending
Moment

Current
Density

Electricity

Magnetism
Specific Heat

Temperature

Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal
Expansion
Energy
(Impact)

1 Horse Power (Boiler)


1 ton (Refrigeration)
1 Degree
1 lbf-in.
1 lbf-ft.
1 kgf-m
1 ozf-in.
1 lb. in / in.
1 lbf. ft / in
1 A / in. 2
1 A / in. 2
1 A / ft2
1 gauss
1 ohm-cm
1 Oersted
1 mho
1 Btu / lb. 0F
1 cal / g. 0C
1 0C
1 0F
1 0R
1 Btu / ft2. s. 0F
1 Btu / ft2. h. 0F
1 Cal / cm2. s. 0C
1 in / in. 0C
1 in / in. 0F
1 lb.ft.
1 Btu
1 kW. h

Flow Rate

1 Cal
1 W.h
1 Ft.3/h
1 ft3/min
1 gal. /h

1 gal. /min
1 ft3 / min
1 ft3 / s
1 in3 / min
1 lbf
Force
1 kip
1 kip
1 tonf
1 kgf
Force per unit 1 lbf / ft
length
1 lbf / in
1 Ksi / in
Fracture
Toughness
1 Btu / lb
Heat
content
1 Cal / g
1 ft / h
Velocity
1 ft / m
1 ft /s
1 km / h
1 mph
Velocity
of 1 rev / m (rpm)
Rotation
1 rev / s
Viscosity

Heat Input
Capacity
(Crude Oil)

1 poise
1 stokes
1 ft2/s
1 in2/s
1 J / in
1 KJ / in
1 ton/year
1 Barrel/day

Birmingham Wire Gauge: The wire thickness in Gauge Number and its conversion in decimal part

of an inch are given rather than as fraction or gage. When gauge numbers is given for a wire without
reference to a system, it means that it is Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG). Birmingham Wire Gauge is
also known as Stubs' Wire Gauge, used for drill rod and tool steel wire.
BI RMI NGHAM WI RE G AUGE (BWG) / S TUBS WI RE G AUGE (SWG)
SWG

Dimension
(mm)
00000 (5/0) 12.70
0000 (4/0) 11.53
000 (3/0)
10.80
00 (2/0)
9.65
0
8.64
1
7.65
2
7.01
3
6.40
4
5.89
5
5.39
6
4.88
7
4.47
8
4.06
9
3.66
10
3.25
11
2.95
12
2.64
13
2.34
14
2.03
15
1.83

SWG
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
--

Dimension
(mm)
1.63
1.42
1.22
1.02
0.914
0.813
0.711
0.559
0.457
0.406
0.356
0.330
0.305
0.254
0.229
0.203
0.178
0.127
0.102
--

LI GHT TRAVEL TI ME FOR


Distance
one foot
one meter
one kilometre
one statute mile
Geostationary orbit to Earth
Moon to Earth
Sun to Earth (1 AU)
Proximal Centauri to Earth
Alpha Centauri to Earth
Nearest Galaxy to Earth

A PARTI CULAR DI STANCE

Time
1.0 ns (Nanosecond)
3.3 ns (Nanosecond)
3.3 s (Microsecond)
5.4 s (Microsecond)
119 ms (Millisecond)
1.3 s (Second)
8.3 min (Minute)
4.24 years
4.37 years
25,000 years

Across the Milky Way


100,000 years
Andromeda Galaxy to Earth
2.5 million years
Furthest Observed Galaxy to 13 billion years
Earth

1.3

Physics

Physics is a natural science, which studies the matter, its motion and behaviour of the universe
through space, time and all related concepts including energy and force and is represented by, E =
mc2

N EWTON S THREE LAW OF M OTION


i)
Newtons of First Law Motion: Everybody continues in a state of rest or of uniform
motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by a force imposed on the body.
The First Law of Motion helps us to define a force.
ii)
Newtons Second Law of Motion: The acceleration of a given particle is
proportional to the imposed force and takes place in the direction of the straight line in which the
force is impressed. This law helps us to measure a force quantitatively. F = ma
iii)
Newtons Third Law of Motion: Every action has equal and opposite reaction. This
means that the force of action and reaction between two bodies are equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction.
Energy: Energy is the ability to do the work on other physical systems. Energy is always equivalent
to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature along a path of a certain length.
Work: Work is force acting through a distance.
Force: Force is the pull or push that causes a free body to undergo a change in speed, a change in
direction, or a change in shape and causes an object with mass to change its velocity or to move from
a state of rest, to accelerate, or to deform the flexible object. A force is a vector quantity and has both
magnitude and direction.
Power: Power is the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted. It is the average amount
of work done or energy converted per unit of time. If W is the amount of work performed during a
period of time of duration DT, the average power Pavg over that period is given by the formula:

In the case of constant power P, the amount of work performed during a period of duration T is given
by:

Units of Power: The dimension of power is energy divided by time. The unit of power is the watt
(W), which is equal to one joule per second.
Horsepower: Horsepower (HP) is the name of units of measurement of power. Horsepower was
originally defined to compare the output of steam engines draft horses power.
Mechanical power: In mechanics, the work done on an object is related to the forces acting on it by

Where, F is force, d is the displacement of the object.


The work is equal to the force acting on an object times its displacement. A force in the same
direction as motion produces positive work, and a force in an opposing direction of motion provides
negative work, while motion perpendicular to the force yields zero work. The power output of an
engine is equal to the force it exerts multiplied by its velocity. In rotational systems, power is related
to the torque () and angular velocity ():
or
In systems with fluid flow, power is related to pressure, p and volumetric flow rate, Q:

Where, p is pressure (in Pascal, or N/m2 in SI units), Q is volumetric flow rate (in m3/s in SI units)
Gravity: An initially stationary object which is allowed to fall freely under gravity drops a distance
which is proportional to the square of the elapsed time. Example: An image, during the first 1/20th of
a second, will drop one unit of distance (12 mm); during 2/20 of a second, it will drop 4 units (48
mm) and during 3/20 of a second, it will drop 9 units (108 mm) and so on. The force of gravity on an
object at the Earth's surface is directly proportional to the object's mass. An object that has a mass of
m will experience a force:

In free-fall, this force is unopposed and therefore the net force on the object is its weight. For objects
not in free-fall, the force of gravity is opposed by the reactions of their supports.
Newtons Law of Gravitation: Two particles are attracted towards each other along the line
connecting them with a force whose magnitude is proportional to the product of their masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Such as,
Where,
r is the distance
between two Masses; F is the force
between the masses, G is the
gravitational constant, m1 is the first
mass, m2 is the second mass
Assuming SI units, F is measured in Newtons (N), m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg), r in meters (m), and
the constant G is approximately equal to 6.6741011 N m2 kg2.
Centrifugal Force: Centrifugal Force acting on a concentrated mass = F,
F = (W v2) / (g R) lb or F = (W R n2)/ (2936) lb
Where, v = velocity on curve in feet per second. R = Radius of curvature in feet and W = Mass of the
body and n = Revolution per minute
Parallelogram Law of Force: If two forces acting at a point are represented in magnitude and
direction by the adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the diagonal of the parallelogram passing
through their point of intersection represent the resultant in both magnitude and direction.

Triangle Law of Force: If a triangle with its adjacent sides equal and parallel to the forces P and Q
is drawn, (head to tail) to a suitable scale, the closing side of the triangle taken in opposite direction
represents the resultant R in magnitude and direction.
Principle of Transmissibility of a Force: The condition of equilibrium or of motion of rigid body
will remain unchanged if the point of application of a force acing on the rigid body is transmitted to
act at any other point along its line of action.
Rectangular Components of a Force:Any force (F) can be resolved into two rectangular
components along the X-axis and the Y-axis, if it makes an angle of degree with the X-axis, then,
Fx = the component of force (F) in direction of X-axis = F Cos
Fy = the component of force (F) in direction of Y-axis = F Sin .
Equilibrium: Equilibrium occurs when the resultant force acting on a point particle is zero. In other
word, the vector sum of all forces is zero. There are two kinds of equilibrium, such as, Static
equilibrium and Dynamic equilibrium.
Static equilibrium: Objects which are at rest have zero net force acting on them. The simplest case of
static equilibrium occurs when two forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Example:
An object on a level surface is pulled (attracted) downward toward the centre of the Earth by the
force of gravity. At the same time, surface forces resist the downward force with equal upward force.
The situation is one of zero net force and no acceleration.
Dynamic equilibrium: The study of the causes of motion and changes in motion is dynamics. In other
words, the study of forces and motion is dynamics.
Special relativity: In the special theory of relativity mass and energy are equivalent as can be seen
by calculating the work required to accelerate an object. It thus requires more force to accelerate it
the same amount than it did at a lower velocity.

Light: Light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the
sense of sight. Light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm, with a
frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz. In physics, the term light sometimes refers to
electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible. Primary properties of light are
intensity, propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum, and polarisation and its speed in
a vacuum is 299,792,458 metres per second (about 300,000 kilometres per second) and is one of the
fundamental constants of nature. Light, which is emitted and absorbed in tiny "packets" is called
photons, exhibits properties of both waves and particles. This property is referred to as the wave
particle duality. The study of light is known as optics. Speed of light: The speed of light in a vacuum
is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approximately 186,282 miles per second).
Refractive Index: The refractive index of a substance is a measure of the speed of light in that
substance. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered
medium. The velocity at which light travels in vacuum is a physical constant, and is the fastest speed
at which energy or information can be transferred. However, light travels slower through any given
material. Mathematical description of the refractive index is as follows: n = c / v = velocity of light
in a vacuum / velocity of light in medium. The Refractive Index of water is 1.33. This means that light
travels in a vacuum is 1.33 times as fast as it does in water. The Refractive Index of glass is around

1.5, meaning that light in glass travels at c / 1.5 = 200,000 km/s; the refractive index of air for visible
light is about 1.0003. The light we see from stars left them many years ago.
Electricity: Electricity is a phenomena resulting from flow of electric charge. These include many
phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in electrical wires,
the electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction. Lightning is one of the most dramatic effects
of electricity. Electricity" refers to a number of physical effects and precise termed as:
Ohms Law: When an electric potential V is applied across a material, a current of magnitude I
flows. In most metals, at low values of V, the current is proportional to V, according to Ohm's law:
I = V/R
Where, R is the electrical resistance. R depends on the intrinsic Resistivity r of the material and on
the geometry (length l and area A through which the current passes). R = r l / A
Electrical Resistivity: Electrical resistivity is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the
flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of
electric charge. The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm metre (m). It is commonly represented
by the Greek letter (rho).
Electrical conductivity: Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal quantity,
and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the
Greek letter (sigma), but (in electrical engineering).
Table 1: Electrical Properties of Materials

Material
Air
Aluminium
Carbon
Carbon
(diamond)
Carbon
(graphite)
Copper
Drinking
water
Glass
Gold
Hard rubber
Iron
Lead

Electrical Properties of Materials


Resistivity
Conductivity
Temperature
[m] at 20
[S/m] at 20
coefficient
C
C
[K1]
1.31016
to
-3 to 8 1015
16
3.310
0.0039
2.8210-8
3.5107
0.0005
510-4 to 810-4 1.25 to 2103
11012
2.5e10-6
5.010-6
1.6810-8

to

2101 to 2103
101010
101014
2.4410-8
11013
1.010-7
2.210-7

to

~10-13

--

2 to 3105

--

5.96107

0.0039

510-4 to 510-2 -10-11 to 10-15

--

4.10107
10-14
1.00107
4.55106

0.0034
-0.005
0.0039

Mercury
Nickel
PET
Quartz
(fused)
Sea water
Silicon
Stainless
steel

9.810-7
6.9910-8
101020

1.02106
1.43107
10-21

0.0009
0.006
--

7.51017

1.310-18

--

210-1
6.40102

4.8
1.5610-3

-0.075

6.89710-7

1.450106

101022
101024
5.9010-8

Teflon
Zinc

to

10-25 to 10-23

--

1.69107

0.0037

Electric current: A movement or flow of electrically charge is known as an electric current, the
intensity of which is usually measured in amperes. Current can consist of any moving charged
particles; most commonly these are electrons, but any charge in motion constitutes a current. Ampere
is the unit of current, which is defined as that constant current, which, if maintained in each of the two
infinitely long straight parallel wires of negligible cross-section placed 1 metre apart, in vacuum,
which produce between the wires a force of 2x10-7 Newton per Mitre length., typically measured in
amperes.
Electric field: An influence produced by an electric charge on other charges in its vicinity.
Electrical power: Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric
circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt. The instantaneous electrical power P delivered to a
component is given by;

Where, P (t) is the instantaneous power, measured in watts (joules per second); V(t) is the potential
difference (or voltage drop) across the component, measured in volts; I(t) is the current through it,
measured in amperes.
Magnetic Field: The magnetic field is the magnetic force on an electric current at any point in space.
In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field is determined to be

,
Where, I is the magnitude of the hypothetical test current and is the length of hypothetical wire
through which the test current flows.
Heat: Heat is one of the fundamental processes of energy transfer from a high-temperature system to
a lower-temperature system due to difference in temperature between the physical entities.
Latent heat: Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a thermodynamic system during a change
of state that occurs without a change in temperature. Such a process may be a phase transition, such
as, the melting of ice or the boiling of water.

Specific heat: Specific heat is the amount of energy that has to be transferred to or from one unit of
mass (kilogram) or amount of substance (mole) to change the system temperature by one degree.
Specific heat is a physical property, which means that it depends on the substance under consideration
and its state as specified by its properties.
Entropy: Entropy is defined as quantities to facilitate the quantification and measurement of heat
flow through a thermodynamic boundary.
Temperature: The Units of Temperature includes Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin and Rankin.
Temperature (thermodynamic temperature) is a measure of the average kinetic energy of systems
particles. Temperature is the degree of "hotness" or "coldness", a measure of the heat intensity. When
two objects of different temperatures are in contact, the warmer object becomes colder while the
colder object becomes warmer. It means that heat flows from the warmer object to the colder one. A
thermometer can help us determine how cold or how hot a substance is. Temperatures are measured
and reported in degrees Celsius (0C) or degrees Fahrenheit (0F), Kelvin (K) and Degree Rankin (R).
The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales of the temperature at which ice melts or water freezes and the
temperature, at which water boils, are used as reference points. On the Celsius scale, the freezing
point of water is defined as 0 0C, and the boiling point of water is defined as 100 0C. On the
Fahrenheit scale, the water freezes at 32 0F and the water boils at 212 0F. On the Celsius scale there
are 100 degrees between freezing point and boiling point of water, compared to 180 degrees on the
Fahrenheit scale. This means that 1 0C = 1.8 0F. Thus the following formulas are used to convert
temperature between the two scales: t 0F = 1.8 t 0C + 32 = 9/5 t 0C + 32 and T 0C = 0.56 (t 0F - 32) =
5/9 (t 0F - 32). Where, t 0C = temperature (0C) and t 0F = temperature (0F).
Kelvin (K):. On the Kelvin or the Absolute Temperature Scale the coldest temperature possible is
-273 0C, and has a value of 0 Kelvin (0 K) and is called the absolute zero. Units on the Kelvin scale
are called Kelvin's (K) and no degree symbol is used.
There are no lower temperatures than 0 K on the Kelvin or the Absolute Temperature Scale. The
Kelvin scale does not have negative numbers. A Kelvin equal in size to a Celsius unit, such as 1 K =
1 0C. To calculate a Kelvin temperature, add 273 to the Celsius temperature: t K = t 0C + 273.16.
Example: 37 0C = 37 + 273.16 = 310.16 K.
Rankin (R): In the English system the absolute temperature is in degrees Rankin (R), not in
Fahrenheit. t R = t F + 459.67. Example: 37 0F = 37 + 459.67 = 496.67 R.
Thermal conductivity: Thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material's ability to conduct heat.
Heat transfer across materials of high thermal conductivity occurs at a faster rate than across
materials of low thermal conductivity. Materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal
insulation. Thermal conductivity of materials is temperature dependent. In general, materials become
more conductive to heat as the average temperature increases. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity
is thermal resistance.

Units of thermal conductivity:In the International System of Units (SI), thermal conductivity is
measured in watts per meter Kelvin {W/(mK)}. In the imperial system of measurement thermal
conductivity is measured in Btu/(hrft F). Where 1 Btu/(hrft F) = 1.730735 W/(mK). This is a
list of approximate values of thermal conductivity, k, for some common materials.

Table 2: Thermal conductivity of Materials


Material
Air
Wood
Rubber
Cement, Portland
Epoxy (silica-filled)
Water (liquid)
Thermal grease
Thermal epoxy
Glass
Soil
Concrete, stone
Ice
Sandstone
Mercury
Stainless steel
Lead
Aluminium
Gold
Copper
Silver
Diamond

Thermal
conductivity
[W/(mK)]
0.025
0.04 - 0.4
0.16
0.29
0.30
0.6
0.7 - 3
1-7
1.1
1.5
1.7
2
2.4
8.3
12.11 ~ 45.0
35.3
237 (pure) 120180 (alloys)
318
401
429
900 - 2320

Thermal Resistance: The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal resistance, usually measured
in Kelvin-meters per watt (KmW1).
Sound: A sound is produced when the membrane of the sounding instrument vibrates. Sound is a
mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas,
composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or
the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.
Propagation of sound: Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through
compressible media such as air or water. (Sound can propagate through solids as well, but there are
additional modes of propagation). During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or
attenuated by the medium.
Speed of sound: The speed of sound depends on the medium the waves pass through, and is a
fundamental property of the material. In general, the speed of sound is proportional to the square root
of the ratio of the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the medium to its density. Those physical properties
and the speed of sound change with ambient conditions. Example: The speed of sound in gases
depends on temperature. In 20 C (68 F) air at the sea level, the speed of sound is approximately
343 m/s (1,230 km/h; 767 mph) using the formula "v = (331 + 0.6 T) m/s". In fresh water, also at 20

C, the speed of sound is approximately 1,482 m/s (5,335 km/h; 3,315 mph). In steel, the speed of
sound is about 5,960 m/s (21,460 km/h; 13,330 mph).
Acoustics: Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical
waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. The
application of acoustics is the audio and noise control industries.
Noise: Noise is a term often used to refer to an unwanted sound. Noise is an undesirable component
that obscures a wanted signal.
Sound pressure level: Sound pressure level is the difference, in a given medium, between average
local pressure and the pressure in the sound wave. Example: 1 Pa RMS sound pressure (94 dBSPL)
in atmospheric air implies that the actual pressure in the sound wave oscillates between (1 atm
Pa) and (1 atm
Pa), that is between 101323.6 and 101326.4 Pa.
Sound frequency: An audio (Sound) frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is
characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human. It is the
property of sound that most determines pitch and is measured in hertz (Hz). The generally accepted
standard range of audible frequencies is 20 to 20,000 Hz,
Table 3: Sound Characteristic
Frequency (Hz)
16 to 32
32 to 512
512 to 2048
2048 to 8192

Octave
1st
2nd to 5th
6th to 7th
8th to 9th

8192 to 16384

10th

Description
human feeling level
Rhythm frequencies
Low speech
good speech
sounds of bells,
ringing of cymbals,
high speech
Table 4: Sound Characteristic

Symbol

Units

Pascal's

hertz

m, metres

c
v

m/s
m/s
kg/m3
W/m

Meaning
RMS
sound
pressure
frequency
particle
displacement
speed of sound
particle velocity
density of air
sound intensity

Sound intensity: The term "intensity" is used exclusively for the measurement of sound in watts per
unit area. Sound intensity or acoustic intensity (I) is defined as the sound power Pac per unit area A.
The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listener's location.

Acoustic intensity: The intensity is the product of the sound pressure and the particle velocity,
; Notice that both v and I are Vectors, which means that both have a direction as well as a
magnitude.
Elasticity: Elasticity is the physical property of a material due to which it returns to its original shape
after the stress or external forces is removed.
Stress: Stress is the measures of the average force per unit area of a surface on which internal forces
act.
Yield Strength: The yield strength of a material is the stress at which a material begins to deform
plastically.
Stressstrain curve: The stressstrain curve is a graphical representation of the relationship
between stress and strain, by measuring the deformation of the sample, i.e. elongation, compression,
or distortion.
Young's modulus: The slope of the stress-strain curve at any point is called the tangent modulus. The
tangent modulus of the initial, linear portion of a stress-strain curve is called Young's modulus, also
known as the tensile modulus. It is defined as the ratio of the unit-axial stress over the unit-axial strain
in the range of stress in which Hooke's Law holds. It is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic
material
Young's modulus Units: Young's modulus is the ratio of stress to strain and so Young's modulus has
units of pressure.
(Stress () is shown as a function of strain (). 1= True elastic limit; 2= Proportionality limit; 3=
Elastic limit and 4= Offset yield strength.)
Hooke's law: Hooke's law of elasticity states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion
with the load applied to it as long as the load does not exceed the material's elastic limit.
Mathematically, Hooke's law states that:

Where, x is the displacement of the spring; F is the restoring force exerted; and k is a constant called
the rate or spring constant.
Strain: The relative amount of deformation is called the strain.

Fig: Stressstrain curve for nonferrous alloys.

Physical Properties of Materials: Properties of common solid materials are divided into following
categories: (1) Physical Properties, such as, density, melting and boiling temperature; (2) Mechanical
Properties, such as, elastic modulus, shear modulus, poison's ratio, and mechanical strength, i.e.,
yielding stress, ultimate stress, elongation; (3) Thermal Properties, such as, coefficient of thermal
expansion, thermal conductivity; (4) Electric Properties, such as, electric resistivity and conductivity;
and (5) Acoustic Properties, such as, compression wave velocity, shear wave velocity, bar velocity.
Properties are given at 1 atm (1.01325105 Pa; 760 mmHg; 14.6959 psi) and at room temperature
25 C (77 F) unless specified otherwise.
Table 5: Physical Properties of Solid Materials
Material
Density
Melting Boiling
(Solid)
(1000
Point
Point
kg/m3)
(C)
(C)
Aluminium [Al]
2.71
660.3
2519
Brass
8.4 - 8.75 930.0
Carbon [C]
2.25
4492
3642
Copper [Cu]
8.94
1085
2562
Copper Alloy
8.23
925.0
Iron [Fe]
7.87
1538
2861
Iron (Cast)
7 - 7.4
Iron (Wrought)
7.4 - 7.8
Lead [Pb]
11.3
327.5
1749
Magnesium [Mg]
1.74
650.0
1090
Magnesium Alloy
1.77
1246
2061
Monel (67% Ni, 30% Cu) 8.84
1330
Nickel [Ni]
8.89
1455
2913
Nylon; Polyamide
1.1
Rubber
0.96 - 1.3 Silicon [Si]
2.33
1382
Steel
7.85
1425
Titanium [Ti]
4.54
1668
3287
Titanium Alloy
4.51
Tungsten [W]
19.3
3422
5555
Zinc [Zn]
7.14
419.5
907.0
Mercury [Hg] (20 C)
13.57904 -38.83
356.7
Water; Distilled [H2O] (20
0.998
0
100.0
C)
Water; Sea (13 C)
1.024
Air (25 C, dry)
0.001184 Argon [Ar] (0 C)
0.001784 -189.3
-185.8
Carbon Dioxide [CO2] (0
-56.57
C)

Helium [He] (0 C)
0.0001785
Hydrogen [H2] (0 C)
8.99
Nitrogen [N2] (0 C)
0.00125
Oxygen [O2] (0 C)
0.001429
Water; Steam [H2O] (100
0.6
C)

-259.3
-210.0
-218.8

-268.9
-252.9
-195.8
-182.9

Table 6: Mechanical Properties of Solid Materials


Elastic
Shear
Material
Poisson's
Modulus Modulus
(Solid)
Ratio
(GPa)
(GPa)
Aluminium Alloy
70 - 79
26 - 30
0.33
Brass
96 - 110
36 - 41
0.34
Carbon [C]
6.9
Copper Alloy
120
47
Iron (Cast)
83 - 170
32 - 69
0.2 - 0.3
Iron (Wrought)
190
75
0.3
Magnesium [Mg]
41
15
0.35
Monel (67% Ni,
170
66
0.32
30% Cu)
Nickel [Ni]
210
80
0.31
7.0 10-4 2.0 10-4 Rubber
0.45 - 0.5
- 4.0 10- 1.0 10-3
3

Titanium [Ti]
Zinc [Zn]

110
-

40 - 40
-

0.33
0.25

Table 7: Mechanical Properties of Solid Materials


Material
Yield
Ultimate
Elongation
(Solid)
Stress
Stress
(%)
(MPa)
(MPa)
Aluminium [Al]
20
70
60
Aluminium Alloy
35 - 500 100 - 550 1 - 45
Brass
70 - 550 200 - 620 4 - 60
Brass
170 - 410 410 - 590 15 - 50
Brass; Red (80% Cu,
90 - 470 300 - 590 4 - 50
20% Zn)
Bronze; Regular
82 - 690 200 - 830 5 - 60
Copper [Cu]
55 - 330 230 - 380 10 - 50
Copper Alloy
760
830
4
Iron (Cast)
120 - 290 69 - 480
0-1

Iron (Wrought)
Magnesium [Mg]
Magnesium Alloy
Monel (67% Ni,
30% Cu)
Nickel [Ni]
Rubber
Titanium [Ti]
Titanium Alloy

210
20 - 70
80 - 280
170
1100
140 - 620
1.0 - 7.0
-

Tungsten [W]

35
5 - 15
2 - 20

450 - 1200 2 - 50
310 - 760
7.0 - 20
500
900 - 970
1400
4000

2 - 50
100 - 800
25
10
0-4

Table 8: Properties of Solid Materials


Thermal
Density
Elastic
Heat
Poisson's
Conductivity (kg/m^3) Modulus
capacity ratio
(W/m C)
(Pa)
(J/kg C)

Material

Aluminium 2024T3
Aluminium 6061T6
Aluminium 7079T6
Copper - pure
Iron
MagnesiumHK3124
MagnesiumAZ3124
Molybdenum
Nickel
PTFE
Silver
Steel AISI304
Steel AISIC1020
Tantalum
Titanium
B120VCA
Tungsten

Material

340
100 - 170
140 - 340

190.40

2770

7.310E+10 963.00

0.3300

155.80

2700

7.310E+10 963.00

0.3300

121.10

2740

7.172E+10 963.00

0.3300

392.90
83.50

8900
7830

385.00
440.00

114.20

1790

4.414E+10 544.0

0.3500

95.19

1770

1047

0.3500

143.60
91.73
0.2400
417.10
16.27
46.73
53.65

1.030E+04
8900
1200
1.050E+04
8030
7850
1.660E+04

2.759E+11 293.0
2.207E+11
2453
7.241E+10 235.0
1.931E+11 503.0
2.034E+11 419.0
1.862E+11 126.0

0.3200

7.4420

4850

1.021E+11 544.0

0.3000

164.40

1.930E+04 3.448E+11 138.0

0.2800

0.3700
0.2900
0.2900
0.3500

Table 9: Acoustic Properties of Solid Materials


Longitudinal Shear
Wave Bar
Wave
Velocity
Velocity

(Solid)
Aluminium [Al] (Rolled)
Brass
Brick

Velocity
(m/s)
6420
4700
-

(m/s)

(m/s)

3040
2110
-

5000
3480
3650
3810 /
3750
500.0
1190 /
1210
1800
5200
3810
2730
4670 /
1260
3850

Copper [Cu] (Annealed/Rolled) 4760 / 5010

2325 / 2270

Cork

Lead [Pb] (Annealed/Rolled)

2160 / 1960

700.0 / 690.0

Nylon; Polyamide
Rubber
Steel
Stone; Marble
Tin [Sn]

2620
1550 - 1830
5960
3320

1070
3235
1670

Wood; Ash

Wood; Oak

Table 10: Mechanical Properties of Liquid & Gas Materials


Bulk
Kinematic
Viscosity
Material
Modulus
Viscosity
(Pa-s)
(GPa)
(m2/s)
Acetone [C3H6O] (20 C)
0.389 10-3 Alcohol; Ethanol [C2H5OH] (20
0.823
1.77 10-3
2.20 10-6
C)
Alcohol; Methanol [CH3OH] (20
0.902
0.817 10-3 1.01 10-6
C)
Mercury [Hg] (20 C)
25.3
1.55 10-3
0.114 10-6
Oil; Lubricating (20 C)
799 10-3
900 10-6
Water; Distilled [H2O] (20 C)
2.18
1.00 10-3
1.00 10-6
Water; Distilled [H2O] (25 C)
1.57 10-3
1.57 10-6
Water; Distilled [H2O] (4 C)
2.28
Water; Sea (13 C)
0.017 10-3 13.3 10-6
Air (0 C, dry)
0.0179 10-3 14.6 10-6
Carbon Dioxide [CO2] (0 C)
0.0138 10-3 Helium [He] (0 C)
0.0186 10-3 Hydrogen [H2] (0 C)
0.0084 10-3 Nitrogen [N2] (0 C)
0.0166 10-3 Oxygen [O2] (0 C)
0.0192 10-3 -

Table 11: Physical Properties of Liquid Materials


Density Melting Boiling
Material
(1000
Point
Point
(Liquid)
kg/m3)
(C)
(C)
Acetone [C3H6O] (20 C)
0.7899
-94.85 56.05
Alcohol; Ethanol [C2H5OH]
0.789
-114.2 78.29
(20 C)
Alcohol; Methanol [CH3OH] (20
0.792
-97.68 64.55
C)
Mercury [Hg] (20 C)
13.57904 -38.83 356.7
Oil; Mineral
0.92
Oil; Olive
0.92
-6.00
Oil; Petroleum
0.82
Water; Distilled [H2O] (20 C)
0.998
0
100.0
Water; Distilled [H2O] (25 C)
0.997
0
100.0
Water; Distilled [H2O] (4 C)
1
0
100.0
Water; Sea (13 C)
1.024
Table 12: Thermal Properties of Liquid
Thermal
Thermal
Expansion
Material
Conductivity
Coefficient
(W/mK)
(10-6/C)
Acetone [C3H6O] (20 C)
0.161
Alcohol; Ethanol [C2H5OH] (20
0.169
C)
Alcohol; Methanol [CH3OH] (20
0.200
C)
Mercury [Hg] (20 C)
182
8.25
Water; Distilled [H2O] (20 C)
207
Water; Distilled [H2O] (25 C)
0.607
Altitude and Air Pressure & Specific Volume Correction Factors: The air pressure varies with
altitude. The specific volume of standard air at a certain altitude can be calculated by multiplying
with the volume correction factor below:
Table 13: Altitude and Air Pressure & Specific Volume
Altitude Air
Volume
Altitude Air
Volume
(Meter) Pressure Correction (Meter) Pressure Correction
(psia)
Factor
(psia)
Factor

0
500
1000
1500
2000
3000

14.7
13.74
13.29
12.12
11.52
10.15

1.00
1.06
1.11
1.19
1.25
--

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

8.92
7.83
6.82
5.96
5.17
4.46

-------

Air: Air is a mixture of gases, such as 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen with traces of water vapour,
carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components as given in Table:
Table 14: Properties of Air
Ratio (%)
Molecular
(Volume)
Mass
(kg/kmol)
20.95
23.20
78.09
75.47
0.03
0.046

Gas

Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon
Dioxide
Hydrogen
Argon
Neon
Helium
Krypton
Xenon

0.00005
0.933
0.0018
0.0005
0.0001
9 10-6

~0
1.28
0.0012
0.00007
0.0003
0.00004

Chemical
Symbol
O2
N2
CO2
H2
Ar
Ne
He
Kr
Xe

Table 15: Physical Constants in SI units


Symbol
Value (SI Unit)

Quantity
Bohr
magnetron
Bohr radius
characteristic
impedance of
vacuum
classical
electron
radius
conductance
quantum
Coulomb's
constant
electric
constant

9.274 009 68 1024 JT1


5.291 772 1092 1011 m
376.730 313 461...

2.817 940 3267 1015 m


7.748 091 7346 105 S
8.987 551
NmC2

787...

109

(vacuum
permittivity)
electron
mass
elementary
charge
Fermi
coupling
constant
Harte energy
inverse
conductance
quantum
Josephson
constant
magnetic
constant
(vacuum
permeability)
magnetic flux
quantum
Newtonian
constant of
gravitation
nuclear
magnetron
Planck
constant
proton mass
quantum of
circulation
reduced
Planck
constant
Rydberg
constant
second
radiation
constant
speed of light
in vacuum
Stefan
Boltzmann

8.854 187 817... 1012 Fm1


9.109 382 91 1031 kg
1.602 176 565 1019 C
1.166 364 105 GeV2
4.359 744 34 1018 J
12 906.403 7217
4.835 978 70 1014 HzV1
4 107 NA2 = 1.256 637
061... 106 NA2
2.067 833 758 1015 Wb
6.67384(80)1011 m3kg1s2
5.050 783 53 1027 JT1
6.626 069 57(29) 1034 Js
1.672 621 777 1027 kg
3.636 947 5520 104 m s1
1.054 571 726(47) 1034 Js
10 973 731.568 539 m1
1.438 7770 102 mK
299 792 458 ms1
5.670 373 108 Wm2K4

constant
Thomson
cross section
von Klitzing
constant

6.652 458 734 1029 m


25 812.807 4434

Table 16: Astronomical constants in SI units


Acceleration Sea level
9.8067
m/s2
Luminosity
Sun
3.826E+26
J/s
Mass
Sun
1.989E+30
kg
Mass
Earth
5.976E+24
kg
Pressure
Sea level
1.013E+05
Pa
Radius
Earth
6.371E+06
m
Radius
Sun
6.970E+08
m
Velocity
Earth's orbital 2.978E+04
m/s

1.4

Hydraulic engineering

Hydraulics Engineering deals with the mechanical properties of liquids or fluid at rest. Fluids exert
pressure normal to any contacting surface. Fluids at rest indicate that there exists a force, known as
pressure that acts upon its surroundings. This pressure is not constant throughout the body of fluid.
Pressure, p, increases with an increase in depth. Where the upward force on a body acts on the base
and can be found by equation:
, Where h is the height of the liquid column; is liquid the
constant and g = specific gravity.
Archimedes Law of Buoyancy: Discovery of the principle of buoyancy is attributed to Archimedes.
When anybody of arbitrary shape is immersed, partly or fully, in a fluid, it will experience the action
of a net force in the opposite direction of the local pressure gradient. If this pressure gradient arises
from gravity, the net force is in the vertical direction opposite that of the gravitational force. This
vertical force is termed buoyancy or buoyant force and is equal in magnitude, but opposite in
direction, to the weight of the displaced fluid. Example: In the case of a ship, its weight is balanced
by shear force from the displaced water allowing it to float. If more cargo is loaded onto the ship, it
would sink more into the water displacing more water and thus receive a higher buoyant force to
balance the increased weight.
Properties of perfect gases (Ideal gas): A perfect gas (or an ideal gas) is a state of a substance,
whose evaporation from its liquid state is complete.
Laws of perfect gas: The physical properties of a gas are controlled by the following three
variables: (i) Pressure exerted by the gas. (ii) Volume occupied by the gas. (iii) Temperature of the
gas.
Avogadro's law: Avogadro's law is stated mathematically as:
Where, V is the volume of the gas. n is the amount
of substance of the gas. k is proportionality
constant.
Molar volume: Taking STP to be 101.325 kPa and 273.15 K, we can find the volume of one mole of
a gas:

For 100.000 kPa and 273.15 K, the molar volume of an ideal gas is 22.414 dm3 mol-1.
Boyle's law: Boyles law is relation to Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gases and states that at constant
temperature for a fixed mass, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely
proportional. The law can also be stated in a slightly different manner, that the product of absolute
pressure and volume is always constant. The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is:
1
P
P V = constant

OR;
or,
P1 V1 = P2 V2 = P3 V3 = k

Where, p denotes the pressure of the system; V denotes the volume of the gas; k is a constant value
representative of the pressure and volume of the system and 1, 2, 3 refer to the different sets of
conditions. Examples: The Change of Pressure in a Syringe, the popping of a Balloon, increase in
size of bubbles as they rise to the surface, death of deep sea creatures due to change in pressure and
popping of ears at high altitude are the examples.
Charles's law: Charles's law states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal
gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature on the absolute temperature scale
(i.e. the gas expands as the temperature increases). This can be written as,
Where V is the volume of the gas; and T is the absolute temperature. The law can also be usefully
expressed as follows:

The equation shows that as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas increases in
proportion at a constant pressure.
Relation to the ideal gas law: French physicist Emile Clapeyron combined Charles's law with
Boyle's law to produce a single equation which would become known as the ideal gas law:

Where, t is the Celsius temperature; and p0, V0 and t0 are the pressure, volume and temperature of a
sample of gas under some standard state. The figure of 267 came directly from Gay-Lussac's work.
The modern figure would be 273.15. For any given sample of gas, p0 V0 267+ t0 is a constant
(Clapeyron denoted this constant R, and it is closely related to the modern gas constant); if the
pressure is also constant, the equation simplifies to

The thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas law are:

Where, P is the pressure; V is the volume; n is the amount of substance of the gas (in moles); R is the
gas constant (8.314 JK1mol-1) and T is the absolute temperature
Absolute Zero: Charles's law appears to imply that the volume of a gas will descend to zero at a
certain temperature (266.66 C according to Gay-Lussac's figures) or -273C.
However, the "absolute zero" on the Kelvin temperature scale was originally defined in terms of the
second law of thermodynamics.
Relation to kinetic theory: Where, N is the number of molecules in the gas sample. If the pressure is
constant, the volume is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy and hence to the
temperature for any given gas sample. The kinetic theory of gases relates that the temperature being

proportional to the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules.


The kinetic theory
equivalent of the
ideal gas law relates
pV to the average
kinetic energy:
iii)
General Gas Equation: In order to deal with all practical cases, the Boyles law and
Charles law are combined together, which give us a general gas equation as below;
P1 V1
=
T1

P2 V2
P3 V3
= = . = Constant
T2
T3

Viscous Flow: A viscous fluid will deform continuously under a shear force, whereas an ideal fluid
doesn't deform. Both pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics fluid is
an easily compressible, such as, gas or air, while hydraulic fluid is relatively incompressible liquid
media such as water or oil. Most industrial applications of pneumatic fluid pressures are about 80 to
100 pounds per square inch (550 to 690 kPa). Hydraulics applications commonly use from 1,000 to
5,000 psi (6.9 to 34 MPa) with specialized applications up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa). Hydraulic
systems use an incompressible fluid, such as oil or water, to transmit forces from one location to
another within the fluid. Most aircraft use hydraulics in the braking systems and landing gear.
Pneumatic systems use compressible fluid, such as air, in their operation. Some aircraft utilize
pneumatic systems for their brakes, landing gear and movement of flaps.
Pascal's law: Pascal's law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined
fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container. There is an increase in pressure
as the length of the column of liquid increases, due to the increased mass of the fluid above. Pascal's
law allows forces to be multiplied.
Affinity laws: The affinity laws are used in hydraulics and HVAC to express the relationship
between variables involved in pump or fan and turbine performance, such as, head, flow rate, shaft
speed, and power. In rotary implements, the affinity laws apply both to centrifugal and axial flows.
The affinity laws are useful as they allow prediction of the head discharge characteristic of a pump or
fan from a known characteristic measured at a different speed or impeller diameter.
Quantity of Discharge through a pipe = Q = Cross
Section Area of Pipe x Velocity = A V, Where, V = C
rS
and, C =
2 g / ----------------------------------------------------(i)
= 0.01 (1+1 / 12 d) for old pipes. And,
= 0.005 (1+1 / 12
d) for new pipes. -----------(ii)
Where d is the inside diameter of pipe.
Pipe Friction:

h f= 4

L V2 / 2 g d; Where,

= 0.0056; and d = H. M. D. =Inside diameter of pipe ----(iii)

For old pipes


Velocity = V = 39
S
Inside Diameter = d =
0.2545 x 5 Q2 /g

For new pipes


d

Velocity = V = 55

S
Inside Diameter = d =
0.222 x 5 Q2 /g

Loss of head in pipe: Head loss is calculated with,

Where, hf is the head loss due to friction (SI units: m); L is the length of the pipe (m); D is the
hydraulic diameter of the pipe (for a pipe of circular section, this equals the internal diameter of the
pipe) (m); V is the average velocity of the fluid flow, equal to the volumetric flow rate per unit crosssectional wetted area (m/s); g is the local acceleration due to gravity (m/s2); f is a dimensionless
coefficient called the Darcy friction factor. It can be found from a Moody Diagram or more precisely
by solving the Colebrook Equation.
Pressure loss: The head loss hf expresses the pressure loss p as the height of a column of fluid,

Where is the density of the fluid, the DarcyWeisbach equation can also be written in terms of
pressure loss:

Where the pressure loss due to friction p (units: Pa or kg/ms2) is a function of: the ratio of the length
to diameter of the pipe, L/D; the density of the fluid, (kg/m3); the mean velocity of the flow, V
(m/s), as defined above; a (dimensionless) coefficient of laminar, or turbulent flow, f.
Components of hydraulic head: A mass free falling from an elevation (in a vacuum) will reach a
speed,

When
Where, g is the acceleration When arriving at elevation z =
0 or when we rearrange it as a
due to gravity.
head.
Head Loss due to Sudden

Head Loss due to Sudden

Enlargement

Contraction

Head Loss = (V1 - V2) 2 / 2g

Head Loss = 0.5 V22 / 2g

Head Loss due to


Obstruction

Head Loss due to Change of


direction

Head Loss = A / Cc (AQ) - 1


x V22 / 2g

Head Loss = K V22 / 2g; For 900


bend K = 1.
Where, K depends upon bend
type.

Bernoullis Theorem: For a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow, the sum of pressure,
potential and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point. A centrifugal pump converts the
input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device - an
impeller. The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The
energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The
faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is the higher will the velocity of the liquid
energy transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the Affinity Laws.
A special form of the Eulers equation derived along a fluid flow streamline is often called the
Bernoulli Equation:

Where, v = flow speed; p =


pressure; = density; g =
gravity; h = height.

H = h + V2 / 2g + P / W
Total energy = E pot + E kin + E press
Specific energy = Static energy + Kinetic energy.

Depth for minimum energy is called critical path.

E = d + V2 / 2g

V2= g x d; Frauds number = V/ g d

Kennedys Equation for Critical Velocity at top of channel = Vo = C x Dn ft/sec


Where, C = 0.84;
n = 0.64;
and
D = depth of channel.

1.5

Chemistry

Chemistry is the science of study of interaction of chemical substances, such as, the composition,
behaviour, reaction, structure, and properties of atoms, the subatomic particles, protons, electrons and
neutrons, molecules or crystals and the changes it undergoes. These include inorganic chemistry;
organic chemistry; biochemistry; physical chemistry; and analytical chemistry.
Chemical Substance: A chemical substance is a mixture of compounds, elements. Example: air,
alloys, biomass, etc.
Compound: A compound is a substance with a particular ratio of atoms of particular elements which
determines its composition, and chemical properties. Example: water is a compound containing
hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of two to one, with one oxygen atom between the two hydrogen
atoms. Compounds are formed by chemical reactions.
Inorganic Compound: Inorganic compounds are considered to be of a mineral with no biological
origin.
Organic compound: An organic compound is chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
Methane is one of the simplest organic compounds.
Molecule: A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its
unique set of chemical properties and its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with
other substances. Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds and
electrically neutral. All valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone
pairs. One of the main characteristic of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure.
Mole: Mole is a SI Unit to measure amount of substance (chemical amount). A mole is the amount of
a substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram (or 12
grams) of carbon-12, where the carbon-12 atoms are unbound, at rest and in their ground state.
Element: The element is a particle which is composed of a single atom and is associated by a
particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. It is known as the atomic number of the
element. Example: All atoms have 6 protons in their nuclei in the chemical element carbon, and all
atoms have 92 protons in their nuclei in the element uranium. Ninetyfour different chemical elements
exist naturally and another 18 have been recognized as existing artificially only. All the nuclei of all
atoms of one element will have the same number of protons, but they may not necessarily have the
same number of neutrons and such atoms are termed isotopes. In fact several isotopes of an element
may exist. Some Chemical Elements are given in the periodic table, which is grouped by atomic
number.
Atom: The atom is the smallest entity of the chemical substance that retains the chemical properties
of the element, such as electro negativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination
number, and types of bonds e.g. metallic, ionic or covalent. An atom is the basic unit of chemistry,
which consists of a positively charged core called the atomic nucleus, which contains protons and
neutrons, and maintains a number of electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus. The atoms
belonging to one element will have the same number of protons in all the particles of that Element, but
they may not necessarily have the same number of neutrons and thus are termed isotopes.
Atomic Number: The element is composed of a single atom with a particular number of protons in its
nuclei, which is called the Atomic Number of the Element. Example: carbon has 6 protons in nuclei
of their atoms of the element and thus the Atomic Number is 6. In an atom of neutral charge, the
number of electrons typically equals the atomic number.

Atomic mass unit: The atomic mass unit (amu) or unified atomic mass unit (u) or Dalton (Da), is a
small unit of mass used to express the atomic masses and molecular masses. It is defined to be 1/12 of
the mass of one atom of Carbon-12. Accordingly,
1 u = 1/NA gram = 1/(1000 NA) kg (where NA is Avogadro's number) = 1.66053886 x 10-27 kg
Pico metre: Pico metre (pm) is a measure of length that is commonly used in measuring the atomicscale distances or the atom diameters, which are in the range from approximately 30 to 600 pm. 1 pm
= 1 1012 metre. 1 pm = 1000 femtometre. 100 pm = 1 angstrom. 1000 pm = 1 nanometre. 1 nm =
1000.
Nucleus: The nucleus of most atoms consists of protons and neutrons. As exception, the Isotope of
Hydrogen consists of a single proton without any neutron. Outside the nucleus, neutrons are unstable
and have a mean lifetime of 886 seconds (15 minutes), decaying by emitting an electron and
antineutrino to become a proton. Neutrons in this unstable form are known as free neutrons. Particles
inside the nucleus are in resonances between neutrons and protons, which transform into one another
by the emission and absorption of Pions.
Proton: The Proton is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit
(1.602 1019 coulomb) and a mass of 938.3 MeV/c2 (1.6726 1027 kg, or about 1836 times the
mass of an electron). The proton is observed to be stable, with a lower limit on its half-life of about
1035 years, although some theories predict that the proton may decay. The nuclei of the atoms are
composed of protons and neutrons held together by the strong nuclear force. The number of protons in
the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom or the chemical element. Protons are
classified as Baryons and are composed of two up quarks and one down quark, which are also
held together by the strong nuclear force, mediated by Gluons. The proton's antimatter equivalent is
the antiproton, which has the same magnitude charge as the proton but the opposite sign.
Because the electromagnetic force magnitude is stronger than the gravitational force, the charge on the
Proton is equal and opposite of the charge on the Electron. Otherwise, the net repulsion of having an
excess of positive or negative charge would cause an expansion effect on the universe, and indeed
any gravitationally aggregated matter like planets or stars.
Neutron: The Neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939.6
MeV/c (kg, slightly more than a proton). Its spin is . A neutron is classified as a baryon and
consists of two down quarks and one up quark. The neutron's antimatter equivalent is the
antineutron.
Proton
Mass
938 MeV/c
Electric Charge 1.6 1019 C
Spin
1/2
Quark
1 Down, 2 Up
Composition

Neutron
Mass:
940 MeV/c
Electric charge: 0 C
Spin:

Quark
2 Down, 1 Up
composition:

Ions and Salts An ion is a charged atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons.
Positively charged cations (e.g. sodium cation Na+) and negatively charged anions (e.g. chloride
anion Cl) can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts (e.g. sodium chloride NaCl). The polyatomic
ions that do not split up during acid-base reactions are hydroxide (OH) and phosphate (PO43).
Ions in the gaseous phase are often known as plasma.

Acid and Base: An acid is a substance that produces hydronium ions when it is dissolved in water,
and a base is one that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Acids donate a positive
hydrogen ion to another substance in a chemical reaction. A base receives the hydrogen ion. An acid
is a substance which is capable of accepting a pair of electrons from another substance during the
process of bond formation, while a base can provide a pair of electrons to form a new bond.
Oxidants & Reductant: It is a concept related to the ability of atoms of various substances to lose or
gain electrons. Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative
and are known as oxidizing agents, oxidants or oxidizers. An oxidant removes electrons from another
substance. Similarly, substances that have the ability to reduce other substances are said to be
reductive and are known as reducing agents, reductants, or reducers. A reductant transfers electrons to
another substance, and is thus oxidized itself.
Chemical Equilibrium: Chemical Equilibrium is a stage of chemical reaction when the chemical
composition of the substance remains unchanged over time.
Chemical laws: Chemical reactions are governed by certain laws, which have become fundamental
concepts in chemistry. Some of them are: Avogadros law; Beer-Lambert law; Boyles law (relating
pressure and volume); Charless law (relating volume and temperature); Ficks law of diffusion; GayLussacs law (relating pressure and temperature); Le Chatelaines Principle; Henrys law; Hesss
Law; Law of conservation of energy; Law of conservation of mass; Law of definite composition;
Law of multiple proportions and Faults Law.
Conservation of energy: The law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in a
system remains constant over time. A consequence of this law is that energy can neither be created
nor destroyed. It can only be transformed from one state to another.
Einsteins theory of relativity: Albert Einsteins theory of relativity states that mass is a form of
energy and can transform one into another with the conservation of the total energy of a system to
other system of energy.
The first law of thermodynamics: Entropy is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the
possibility of conversion of that heat into work.
Conservation of mass: The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of a closed system will
remain constant over time because of a result of processes acting inside the system. The mass cannot
be created or destroyed, although it may be rearranged in space and changed into different types of
particles for any chemical process in a closed system. The mass of the reactants must be equal to the
mass of the products.
Biomass: Biomass is a renewable energy source and is a biological material from living or recently
living organisms, such as, wood, waste, hydrogen gas and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant
matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat.

1.6

Mathematics

Mathematics is the concepts of calculations of quantity, structure, space, changes and the academic
discipline that studies them. Mathematics is divided into smaller subcategories, such as, Geometry,
Trigonometry, Menstruation and Algebra.
Mathematics Constants: Log 10e= 0.434294; Log e10= 2.30259
e = Base of Natural Logarithms = 2.71828; Log 10N = Log eN x 0.4343; Log eN = Log 10N x 2.3026; I
radian = 570 17 45 = 57.29580; = 3.1416; Log e = 0.4972.

Table 1: Special Math Constants


Name
N
Name
13
3.60555
17
4.12311 e
19
4.35890 e
32
1.25992 e
33
1.44225 ee

Name

2
3

N
3.14159
2.71828
0.57722
1.41421
1.73205

N
1.77245
22.45916
23.14069
1.78107
15.15426
57.29578

(degree)
0.01745 32925 rad

2.23608

52

1.14870

1 rad

7
11

2.64575
3.31662

53
e

1.24573
1.64872

Greek
Name
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu

Table 2: Greek Alphabet


Greek Letter
Greek
Greek Letter
Name
Capital Small
Capital Small

Nu

Xi

Omicron

Pi

Rho

Sigma

&

Tau

Upsilon

Phi

Chi

Psi

Omega

Sigma & : There are two forms for the small letter Sigma. The form () is written at the end of a
word, called final sigma. If it occurs anywhere else, it is written like this: ().
Arithmetic: Arithmetic is the elementary branch and involves the study of the traditional operations of

addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with smaller values of numbers.

ALGEBRA
Algebra: Algebra is the branch of mathematics, which studies the rules of operations, relations,
constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic
structures. An equation is a mathematical statement that asserts the equality of two expressions.
Equations consist of the expressions that have to be equal on opposite sides of an equal sign, such as,
Cubic Function: In mathematics, a cubic function is a function of the form

Where, a is nonzero. The derivative of a cubic function is a quadratic function. The integral of a
cubic function is a quadratic function. The coefficients a, b, c, d are real numbers.
Elementary algebra: Equations involving linear or simple rational functions of a single real-valued
unknown, say x, such as can be solved using the methods of elementary algebra.

Linear equation: A linear equation is an algebraic equation in which each term is either a constant or
the product of a constant and the first power of a single variable. Linear equations can have one or
more variables. A common form of a linear equation in the two variables x and y is,

Where, m and b are designate constants.


Quadratic equation: In mathematics, a quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of the second
degree. The general form is

Where, x represents a variable, and a, b, and c, constants, with a 0. The constants a, b, and c, are
called respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant term or free term.
A quadratic equation with real or complex coefficients has two solutions, called roots. These two
solutions may or may not be distinct, and they may or may not be real. The roots are given by the
quadratic formula

Where, the symbol "" indicates that both are solutions of the quadratic equation. Followings are the
important formulas, which is frequently being used by an engineer.
Ratio:

When, = ; or a x d = b x c; or
b
d
a+b c+d
a -b
c - d
= ;
=
.
b
d
b
d
Cyclic
(a + b) 2 = a2 + b2 + 2 a ; (a - b) 2 = a2 + b2 - 2 a b;
Expression (a - b) 2 = a2 + b2 - 2 a b; a2 - b2 = (a + b) x (a - b).
a3 b3 = (a - b) (a2 + b2 + a b) ;
a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 + b2 - a b);
(a + b) 3 = a3 + b3 + 3 a b (a + b);
(a - b) 3 = a3 - b3 - 3 a b (a - b).

GEOMETRY
Geometry: Geometry is all about shapes and their properties. Geometry can be divided into two
parts.
Plane Geometry: Plane Geometry is about flat shapes like line, plane, triangle, Quadrilateral and
circles that can be drawn on a piece of paper
Triangle: Triangles are assumed to be two-dimensional plane figures. A triangle is one of the basic
shape of Geometry or a polygon with three corners or vertices and three sides or edges which are line
segments. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted ABC. The three angles always add to
180. A triangle that has all interior angles measuring less than 90 is an acute triangle or acuteangled triangle. A "triangle" with an interior angle of 180 and collinear vertices is degenerate.
Triangle
Shapes
Right Angle Triangle:
A right triangle has one
of its interior angles
measuring 90. The side
opposite to the right
angle is the hypotenuse;
it is the longest side of
the right triangle. The
other two sides are
called the legs of the
triangle.
Scalene
Triangle:
Scalene Triangle has no
equal sides and no equal
angles. Obtuse Triangle
has all three angles less
than 90.
Equilateral Triangle: In

an equilateral triangle,
all sides have the same
length. In equilateral
triangle is also a regular
polygon with all angles
measuring 60.
Isosceles
Triangle:
Isosceles triangle has
two sides equal in
length and two angles
opposite to the two
sides of the same length
have same measure.
Obtuse
Angle
Triangle: Obtuse Angle
Triangle has an angle
more than 90
Oblique
Triangles:
Triangles that has all
sides different and do
not have an angle that
measures 90 are called
oblique triangles.
In diagrams representing triangles above, "tick" marks are used to denote sides of equal lengths, such
as, the equilateral triangle has tick marks on all 3 sides, the isosceles on 2 sides. The scalene has
single, double, and triple tick marks, indicating that no sides are equal. Similarly, arcs on the inside
of the vertices are used to indicate equal angles. The equilateral triangle indicates all 3 angles are
equal; the isosceles shows 2 identical angles. The scalene indicates by 1, 2, and 3 arcs that no angles
are equal.
Area of Triangles: The area of a triangle can be demonstrated as half of the area of a parallelogram
which has the same base length and height. Simplest formula is:

Where b is the length of the base of the triangle, and h is the height or altitude of the triangle. The term
'base' denotes any side and 'height' denotes the length of a perpendicular from the vertex opposite the
side onto the line containing the side itself. The sides of the triangle are known as follows: The
hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle, or defined as the longest side of a right-angled
triangle, in this case h. The opposite side is the side opposite to the angle we are interested in, in this
case a. The adjacent side is the side that is in contact with the angle we are interested in.

Heron's formula: The shape of the triangle is determined by the lengths of the sides alone. Therefore
the area can also be derived from the lengths of the sides. By Heron's formula:

Where s = half of the triangle's perimeter. Three other way of finding the Triangle area by Heron's
formula is:

Quadrilaterals: Quadrilateral has a four-sided two-dimensional shape. The sides are straight and the
interior angles add up is equal to 360 degrees. There are many types of quadrilateral:

Rectangle: A rectangle is a four-sided shape where every angle is a right angle (90) and opposite
sides are parallel and of equal length.
Rhombus: A rhombus is a four-sided shape where all sides have equal length and opposite sides are
parallel and opposite angles are equal. The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.
The Square: A square has equal sides and every angle is a right angle (90) and opposite sides is
parallel.
The Parallelogram: Opposite sides are parallel and equal in length, and opposite angles are equal.
Note: Squares, Rectangles and Rhombuses are all Parallelograms.
Trapezoid: A trapezoid (a trapezium) has one pair of opposite sides parallel. It is called an isosceles
trapezoid if the sides that aren't parallel are equal in length and both angles coming from a parallel
side are equal.
Circle: Circle is the set of all points on a plane that are at a fixed distance from a centre. It is a round
figure.
Radius and Diameter of a Circle: The Radius is the distance from the centre to the edge of the
circle. The Diameter is the linear distance passing through the centre between two points on the
circle, which are opposite to each other. So the Diameter is twice the Radius: Diameter = 2 Radius.
Menstruation: Menstruation is the branch of geometry dealing with measurement of geometric
magnitudes such as length, area and volume.
Area of a Triangle: The area of a Triangle is half of the base times height. Area = b h Where, b =
base; & h = vertical height of a, b, c sides of triangle. Or,
Area = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c); where 2s = a + b + c

Area of Squire: Square Area = a x a = a2. Where, a = length of side of the Squire.
Rectangle
Area = w
h, Where,
w = width,
h = height.
Trapezoid
(Trapezium)
Area
=
(a+b) h,
h = vertical
height.
Ellipse
Area = a
b. Where, a
is longest
diameter
and b is the
shortest
diameter.

Parallelogram
Area = b h.
Where, b = base,
h = vertical height.
Circle Area = r2
Circumference=2r
=d Where, r =
radius, d=diameter
of the circle.

Sector
Area = r2
r = radius,
= angle
radians.

in

Perimeter of Ellipse: Perimeter of Ellipse = 2 {(a2 + b2)/2}


Area of the rectangle: = w h, Where w = width; h = height.
Area of a Circle: The area of a circle is times the Radius square or A = r2, or A = (/4) D2
Circle: A line that goes from one point to another point on the circle's circumference is called a
Chord. If that line passes through the centre it is called a Diameter. If a line "just touches" the circle
as it passes it is called a Tangent. And a part of the circumference is called an Arc. The slice made by
a chord is called a Segment. Quarter of a circle is called a Quadrant. Half a circle is called a
Semicircle.

SOLID GEOMETRY
Solid Geometry: Solid Geometry is the geometry of three-dimensional space, such as, cubes, prisms
and pyramids.
Cube: It has 6 faces. Each face has 4 edges, and is actually a square. It has 12 edges. It has 8 corner
points and at each vertex 3 edges meet. A cube is called a hexahedron because it is a polyhedron that
has 6 faces.
Cuboids: A cuboids is a box-shaped object having six flat sides and all angles are right angles. All of
its faces are rectangles. It is also a prism because it has the same cross-section along a length. In fact
it is a rectangular prism.
Prisms: A prism has the same cross section all along its length. A cross section is the shape you get

when cutting straight across an object. The cross section of this object is either a triangle or square. It
has the same cross section all along its length.
Pyramids: A pyramid is made by connecting a base to an apex. There are many types of Pyramids,
and they are named after the shape of their base.
Polyhedral and Non-Polyhedral: There are two main types of solids, "Polyhedral", and "NonPolyhedral". Polyhedral must have all faces flat. Non-Polyhedral does not have any surface flat.
Sphere

Torus

Cylinder

Cone

Square Pyramid:
Surface Area = A + 1/2 p x l. where p =
base Perimeter and l = Slant Length of
cone.
Volume of Square Pyramid = 1/3 A x h,
where A = [Base Area] and h = Height.
Cube: A cube of edge length a,
surface area
6a2
volume
a3
face diagonal
space diagonal
radius
of
circumscribed
sphere
radius of sphere
tangent to edges
radius of inscribed
sphere
angles
between
faces
Volume of a cuboids: Volume of a cuboids
= Height Width Length = V = h w l
Surface Area of cuboids = A = 2wl + 2lh +
2hw
Volume of Prisms: Volume of Prisms =
Area Length.

Triangular Pyramid: It has 4 Faces. The 3


Side Faces are Triangles. The Base is also
a Triangle. It has 4 Vertices (corner points).
It has 6 Edges.
Volume of Pyramid = 1/3 [Base Area]
Height.
Surface Area of Pyramid: = [Base Area] +
1/2 Perimeter [Side Length]. (When all
side faces are the same).
Pentagonal Pyramid: It has 6 Faces. The 5 Side Faces are Triangles. The Base is a Pentagon. It has
6 Vertices (corner points). It has 10 Edges.
Volume of Pentagonal Pyramid = 1/3 [Base Area] Height.
Surface of Area Pentagonal Pyramid = [Base Area] + 1/2 Perimeter [Side Length]. (When, all
side faces are the same).
Cylinder: It has a flat base and a flat top. The base is the same as the top, and also in-between. It has
one curved side. Because it has a curved surface it is not a polyhedron.
Surface Area of Cylinder = 2 r (r+h)
Surface Area of One End of Cylinder = r2
Surface Area of Side of Cylinder = 2 r h
Volume of Cylinder = multiply the area of the circle by the height of the cylinder = = r2 h.
Where, Area of the circle: r2 and Height = h
Cone: It has a flat base. It has one curved side because it has a curved surface it is not a polyhedron.
A Cone is a Rotated Triangle. A cone is made by rotating a triangle. The triangle has to be a rightangled triangle, and it gets rotated around one of its two short sides. The side it rotates around is the
axis of the cone.
Surface Area of Base of Cone = r2
Surface Area of Side of Cone = r s
Surface Area of Side of Cone = r (r2 +h2)
Volume of Cone = r2 (h/3)
Sphere: It is perfectly symmetrical. It has no edges or vertices (corners). It is not a polyhedron. All
points on the surface are the same distance from the centre.
Surface Area of Sphere = 4 r2
Volume of Sphere = (4/3) r3
Torus: It can be made by revolving a small circle along a line made by another circle. It has no edges
or vertices. It is not a polyhedron.
Surface Area of Torus = 4 2 R r
Volume of Torus = 2 2 R r2

TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometry: Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships
between their sides and the angles between sides.
The Pythagorean Theorem: Pythagorean Theorem states that in any right triangle, the square of the
length of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two other sides. If the
hypotenuse has length c, and the legs have lengths a and b, then the theorem states that
By the Pythagorean Theorem, the length of the hypotenuse is the length of a leg times 2. In a right
triangle with acute angles measuring 30 and 60 degrees, the hypotenuse is twice the length of the
shorter side, and the longer side is equal to the length of the shorter side times 3:
These ratios are given by the following trigonometric functions of the known angle A, where a, b and
c refer to the lengths of the sides in the accompanying figure.
In this right triangle: Sin A = a/c; Cos A = b/c; Tan A = a/b.

Sine: The sine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the hypotenuse.

Cosine: The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to the length of the
hypotenuse.

Tangent: The tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of the perpendicular height (Opposite Side)
to the length of the adjacent side (Base).

Cosecant: The cosecant of an angle is the reciprocal of Sin (A), i.e. the ratio of the length of the
hypotenuse to the length of the opposite side (perpendicular height):

Secant: The secant of an angle is the reciprocal of Cos (A), i.e. the ratio of the length of the
hypotenuse to the length of the adjacent side (base):

Cotangent: The cotangent of an angle is the reciprocal of Tan (A), i.e. the ratio of the length of the
adjacent side (base) to the length of the opposite side (perpendicular height):

Right Angle Triangle Equations: In a right angle triangle where hypotenuse length is c and the length
of other two sides are a and b, then,
The hypotenuse is the side opposite to the 90 degree angle in a right triangle; it is the longest side of
the triangle, and one of the two sides adjacent to angle A. The adjacent leg is the other side that is
adjacent to angle A. The opposite side is the side that is opposite to angle A. The terms perpendicular
and base are sometimes used for the opposite and adjacent sides respectively. The reciprocals of
these functions are named the Cosecant (Cosec), Secant (Sec), and Cotangent (Cot), respectively. The
inverse functions are called the arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent, respectively. There are arithmetic
relations between these functions, which are known as trigonometric identities. The cosine, cotangent,
and cosecant are so named because they are respectively the sine, tangent, and secant of the
complementary angle abbreviated to "co-".
Calculating trigonometric functions: Trigonometric functions are among the earliest uses for
mathematical tables. Such tables are incorporated into mathematics textbooks
Applications of trigonometry: Sextants are used to measure the angle of the sun or stars with respect
to the horizon. Using trigonometry and a marine chronometer, the position of the ship can be
determined from such measurements. There are an enormous number of uses of trigonometry and
trigonometric functions. For instance, the technique of triangulation is used in astronomy to measure
the distance to nearby stars, in geography to measure distances between landmarks, and in satellite
navigation systems. The sine and cosine functions are fundamental to the theory of periodic functions
such as those that describe sound and light waves.
Angle transformation formulae:

Law of sines: The law of sines (also known as the "sine rule") for an arbitrary triangle states:
Where R is the radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle:

Another law involving sines can be used to calculate the area of a triangle. Given two sides and the
angle between the sides, the Area of the triangle is:
Law of cosines: The law of cosines (known as the cosine formula, or the "cos rule") is an extension
of the Pythagorean Theorem to arbitrary triangles:
or

Law of tangents: The law of tangents:

Standard identities: Triangle with sides a, b, c and respectively opposite angles A, B, C. Certain
equations involving trigonometric functions are true for all angles and are known as trigonometric
identities. Identities are those equations that hold true for any value.

Trigonometric Functions: The trigonometric functions are summarized in the following table. The
angle is the angle between the hypotenuse and the adjacent line the angle at A in the accompanying
diagram.
Function

Identities (using radians)

Sin
Cos
Tan
Cot
Sec
Cosec

For any angle and any integer k:

Special values in trigonometric functions: There are some commonly used special values in
trigonometric functions, as shown in the following table.
Function
Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot
Sec

Cosec

Function
Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec
Cosec

0
2
1

Law of sines: The law of Sine states that for an a triangle with sides a, b, and c and angles opposite
those sides A, B and C and R is the triangle's circum radius: then,

Law of cosines: The law of Cosine in the same triangle is an extension of the Pythagorean Theorem:

Law of tangents: The law of Tangent in the same triangle are as follow:

Trigonometrically Ratio:
If two triangles are h1
h2
h3
similar, then the ratio of
= =;
any two sides of a b1
b2
h3
triangle is equal to the
ratio of corresponding
sides of the other
triangle. So
Sin A x Cosec A = Cos A x Sec A = Tan A x Cot A = 1
1 + Tan2 A = Sec2 A
1 + Cot2 A = Cosec2 A
Tan A
Tan A - Tan B
+ Tan B
Tan (A -B) =
Tan
(A
+
B)
=
1 + Tan A x Tan B
1 Tan A
x Tan B
Trigonometric Law of Cosines: In a triangle ABC, the
resultant is calculated by applying the following law of
cosines to the triangle ABC, R2 = P2 + Q2 2 P Q cos A
Where, A is the angle between the two forces represented
by two sides of the triangle.
2 Tan A
Sin 2A = 2 Sin A x Cos A =
1 + Tan2A
1 - Tan2A
Cos 2A = 1- 2 Sin2A =
1 + Tan2A
Cos 2A = Cos2 A - Sin2 A = 2 Cos2 A 1
2 Tan A
Tan 2A =
1 - Tan2A

TRIGONOMETRIC THEOREMS:
The measures of the interior angles of the triangle
always add up to 180 degrees.
An exterior angle of a triangle is an angle that is a
linear pair (supplementary) to an interior angle.
The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is

equal to the sum of the measures of the two interior


angles that are not adjacent to it; this is the exterior angle
theorem.
The sum of the measures of the three exterior angles
of any triangle is 360 degrees.
The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle
always exceeds the length of the third side, a principle
known as the triangle inequality.
Two triangles are said to be similar if every angle
of one triangle has the same measure as the
corresponding angle in the other triangle.
The corresponding sides of similar triangles have
lengths that are in the same proportion, and this property
is also sufficient to establish similarity.
If two corresponding internal angles of two
triangles have the same measure, the triangles are similar.
If two corresponding sides of two triangles are in
proportion, and their included angles have the same
measure, then the triangles are similar.
If three corresponding sides of two triangles are in
proportion, then the triangles are similar.
Two triangles that are congruent have exactly the
same size and shape and all pairs of corresponding
interior angles are equal in measure, and all pairs of
corresponding sides have the same length.
When two sides of a triangle have the same length
as two sides in the other triangle and the included angles
have the same measure (SAS Postulate), then these two
triangles are congruent.
When two interior angles and the included side in a
triangle have the same measure and length, respectively,
as those in the other triangle (ASA), then these two
triangles are congruent.
When each side of a triangle has the same length as
a corresponding side of the other triangle (SSS), then
these two triangles are congruent.
When two angles and a corresponding (nonincluded) side in a triangle have the same measure and
length, respectively, as those in the other triangle (AAS),
then these two triangles are congruent.
When the hypotenuse and a leg in a right triangle
have the same length as those in another right triangle
(RHS), then these two triangles are congruent.
When the hypotenuse and an acute angle in one right
triangle have the same length and measure as those in the

other right triangle (AAS), these two triangles are


congruent.

C ALCULUS
Calculus: In the case of a particle travelling in a straight line, its position, x, is given by x (t) where t
is time and x(t) means that x is a function of t. The derivative of this function is equal to the
infinitesimal change in quantity, dx, per infinitesimal change in time, dt. This change in displacement
per change in time is the velocity v of the particle. By Equation it is given as:
or

Theorem of Calculus: There are two parts to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, the first part
deals with the derivative of an anti-derivative, while the second part deals with the relationship
between anti-derivatives and definite integrals.
First part: Let, be a continuous real-valued function defined on a closed interval [a, b]. Let, F be
the function defined, for all x in [a, b], by,
Then, F is continuous on [a, b], differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and for all x in (a, b).
Second part: Let be a real-valued function defined on a closed interval [a, b] that admits an antiderivative g on [a, b]. That is, and g are functions such that for all x in [a, b],
If is integral on [a, b] then

Logarithm: The logarithm of a number y with respect to base b is the exponent to which b has to
be raised in order to yield y. In other words, the logarithm of y to base b is the solution x of the
equation:
The logarithm is denoted log b y (pronounced as "the logarithm of y to base b", or
"base-b logarithm of y"). In logarithm, the base b must be a positive real number not equal to 1 and y
must be a positive number. The graph of the logarithm to base 2 crosses the x-axis (horizontal axis) at
1 and passes through the points with coordinates (2, 1), (4, 2), and (8, 3). The logarithm of a number
is the exponent by which a fixed number, the base, has to be raised to produce that number. Example:
The logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 is 10 to the power 3. 1000 = three times 10 =
103 = 101010. More generally, if x = by, then y is the logarithm of x to base b, and is written
logb(x). So, log10 (1000) = 3. The logarithm relies on the fact that the logarithm of a product is the
sum of the logarithms of the factors:

The logarithm to base b = 10 is called the common logarithm and has many applications in
engineering. The base of the natural logarithm is the constant e (e = 2.718). It is widespread in pure
mathematics, and especially in calculus. The binary logarithm uses base b = 2 and is prominent in
computer science. Example 1: The decibel is a logarithmic unit quantifying sound pressure and
voltage ratios. In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic measure for the acidity of an aqueous solution.
Logarithms are common place in scientific formulas,
Example 2: log2 (16) = 4, since 4 times 2 = 2222 = 16. Logarithms can also be negative:
Since,
Example 3: log10 (150) is approximately 2.176, which lies between 2 and 3, just as 150 lies between
102 = 100 and 103 = 1000. Finally, for any base b, logb (b) = 1 and logb (1) = 0, since b1 = b and b0 = 1,
respectively.
Particular bases: Among all choices for the base b, three are particularly common. These are b = 10,
b = e (the irrational mathematical constant = 2.71828), and b = 2. In mathematical analysis, the
logarithm to base e is widespread because of its particular analytical properties. On the other hand,
base-10 logarithms are easy to use for manual calculations in the decimal number system:

1.7

Abbreviations

<
Less Than
AC
Air Cooled
>
Greater Than
AC
Alternating Current
=
Equal To
ACI
Alloy Casting Institute

Greater or Equal
ADI
Austempered Ductile Iron
ABS
AcrylonitrileISBL
Inside Battery Limit
butadiene-styrene
ISCC
Inter granular StressABS
American Bureau Corrosion Cracking
of Shipping
It
Steam Tracing Insulation
Ac 1
Temperature at
IT
Isothermal
which austenite
Transformation
Ac 3
Temperature at
ITP
Inspection Test Plan
which transformation of ferrite IW
Induction Welding
to austenite is completed on
J
Joule
heating
JIS
Japanese Industrial Standard
Ac cm
Temperature at K
Kelvin
which cementite completes
KG
Kilogram
solution in austenite
KG/CM2
Kilogram/ Square Centimetre
Ae cm, Ae 1, Ae 3
Km
Kilometre
Equilibrium Transformation
SWG
Stubs Wire Gauge/Swage Nipple
Temperatures in steels
T&G
Tongue & Groove
AI
Instrument Air
T&C
Threaded & Coupled
AK
Aluminium Killed T/T
Tangent to
Material
Tangent
Al
Aluminium
AMS
Aerospace
Material Specification
AP
Plant Air
LM
Large Male
Ar 1
Temperature at which transformation to LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas
Ferrite or cementite is completed on cooling
LO
Locked Open
Ar 3
Temperature at which transformation of LR
Large Radius
austenite to ferrite begins on cooling
LRL
Location Reference Line
AS
Alloy Steel
LT
Large Tongue
ATM
Atmosphere
LT
Level Transmitter
AWG
American Wire Gage
LTCS
Low Temperature Carbon Steel
BAS
Bell & Spigot
LW
Lap Weld
BBE
Bevel Both Ends
LWN
Long Welding Neck
BCC
Body-Centred Cubic
M&F
Male & Female
BCT
Body-Centred Tetragonal
MAINT
Maintenance
BD
Blow Down
MAX
Maximum
BDD
Dry Blow Down
MC
Mill Certificate
BDW
Wet Blow Down
Mg
Mega gram
BE
Bevel End
MH
Man Hole

BF
Blind Flange
BHN
Brinell hardness number
BID
Brinell Indentation Diameter
BIS
Bureau of Indian Standard
BL
Battery Limit
BLDG
Buildings
BLE
Bevel Large Ends
BLN
Blind
BOM
Bill of Material
BOP
Bottom of Pipe
BOT.F
Bottom Flat
BS
British Standards
BSE
Bevel Small Ends
BTL
Bottom Tangent Line
BTU
British thermal unit
Butyl
Butyl rubber GR-1 (IIR)
BV
Bureau Verities
BW
Butt Weld
BWG
Birmingham Wire
Gage
C to F
Centre to Face
CA
Corrosion Allowance
CAF
Compressed Asbestos Fibres
CAT
Catalyst
CAT`D`Category-D service
CC
Combined Carbon
CDA
Copper Development Association
CE
Carbon Equivalent
CF
Chemical Feed
CFM
Cubic Feet per Minute
CG
Centre of Gravity
CGA
Compressed Gas
Association
CH
Condensate High
pressure
CH. OP. Chain Operated
CI
Cast Iron/Corrosion Inspection
CL
Condensate Low pressure
CLR
Crack Length Ratio
CM
Condensate Medium pressure
COL
Column
CONC.
Concentric
CONN
Connection
CONT
Continued/Continuation
CP
Cathodes Protection

MI
Malleable Iron
MIN
Minimum
MIV
Material Issue Voucher
MK
Mark
MNF
Manufacturers
MOLY
Molybdenum
Mpa
Mega Pascal
MPH
Mile per Hour
MPT
Magnetic Particle Test
MR
Material Requisition
MRR
Material Receiving Report
MS
Mild Steel/Material Specification
MS
Millisecond
MSS
Manufacturers Standard Society
MTO
Material Take Off
MTR
Mitre
MW
Man Way
MWG
Mu
Gage
MWP
Maximum Working Pressure
N
Nitrogen
NA
Caustic Soda
NDE
Normally De-energized
NDT
Non Destructive Testing
Ni
Nickel
NIBR
Non Indian Boiler Regulation
NIL
Normal Interface Level
NIP
Nipple
Nitrile
Butadiene-acrylonitrile
NLL
Normal Liquid Level
NOM
Nominal
NOM.DIA.
Nominal Diameter
NPS
Nominal Pipe Size
NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head
NPSHa
Available Net Positive Suctio
NPT
National Pipe Thread
N-Rubber Natural rubber
OD
Outside Diameter
OFC
Oxyfuel Gas cutting
OFW
Oxyfuel Gas Welding
OS&Y
Oscillate, Swing and yoke
OSBL
Out Sid
Limit

CPLG
Coupling
CPVC
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
CQ
Commercial Quality
Cr
Chromium
CRYO
Cryogenic Service
CS
Carbon Steel
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
CSC
Car Sealed Closed
CSO
Car Sealed Open
CSR
Crack Sensitivity Ratio
C-to-C
Centre to Centre
CTR
Centre
CVH
Condensate Very High
pressure
CVN
Charpy V-notch
d
diameter
D
Drain/Diameter
D&T
Drill & Tap
dB
Decibel
DC
Direct Current
DCN
Design Change Notice
DEG. CENT. Degree Centigrade
DEG.
Degree
DEGN.
Design
DET.
Detail
DF
Drain
Funnel
DIA
Diameter
DIMN
Dimension
DIN
Deutsche Industrie
Norman
DIS
Ductile Iron Society
DISCH
Discharge
DIVN
Division
DNV
Dat Norse Verities
DO
Dry-Out
DP
Differential Pressure/Duel Phase
DpT
Differential Pressure Transmitter
DPT
Dye Penetration Test
DC
Drain Connection
DI
Ductile Iron
DWG
Drawing
E
Youngs
Modulus
E.Fs.W Electric Fusion Welding

OVHD
Overhead
OWS
Oil Water Sewer
OZ
Ounce
P&ID
Piping and Instrument Diagram
Pa
Pascal
PAW
Plasma Arc Welding
PE
Plain End
PFA
Perfluoroalkoxyalkane copolyme
PFI
Pipe Fabrication Institute
PG
Pressure Gauge
PI
Pressure Indicator
PLGD
Plugged
PLNG
Planning
PLTF
Platform
PMS
Piping Material Specification
PO
Order
POE
Plain One End
PP
Polypropylene
Ppb
Parts per Billion
PPI
Plastic Pipe Institute
PPM
Parts Per Million
PQR
Procedure Qualification Report
PRESS
Pressure
PS
Support
PSE
Plain Small End
PSI
Pounds per Square Inch
PSIG
Ponds per Square Inch Gauge
PSV
Pressure Safety Valve
PT
Pressure Transmitter
PTFE
Teflon/Poly tetra fluoro ethylen
PVA
Polyvinyl Alcohol
PVC
Polly Venial Chemical
PVDC
Polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF
Poly vinyl difluoride
PVP
Poly vinyl pyrolidone
PWHT
Post-Weld Heat Treatment
QA
Quality Assurance
QWB
Quench Water Blow down
R/L
Random Length
RAD/R
Radius/Radian
RECD
Received
REF
Reference

EAF
EBW
ECC
EGW
EL
ELB
ELC
EOL
EPDM
EPT
Eq
ERW
ESW
EW
EXH
FAB
FCAW
Welding
FCC
FCO
FDN
FEP
FF
FG
FH
FI
Fig
FKM
FL
FLD
FLG
FLGD
FLI
Flare
FLR
FLW
Flare
FN
FO
FQI
FRP
FRW
FS
FSD

Electric Arc Furnace


Electron Beam Welding
Eccentric
Electro Gas Welding
Elevation
Elbow
Extra-Low Carbon
Elbolet
Ethylene-propylene-diene
Ethylene-propylene terpolymer
Equation
Electric Resistance Welding
Electro Slag Welding
Eye Wash
Exhaust
Fabricated
Flux-Cored Arc
Face-Centred Cubic
Field Change Order
Foundation
Fluorethylenepropylene
Flat Face
Fuel Gas /Flow Glass
Fire Hydrant
Flow Indicator
Figure
Fluoroelastomer
Flare
Dry Flare
Flange
Flanged
Intermediate
Floor/Flare
Wet
Ferrite Number
Fuel Oil
Flow Quantity Indicator
Fibre Reinforced Polyethylene
Friction Welding
Forged Steel
Flat Side Down

REV
Revision
RF
Raised Face
RMS
Root Mean Squire
RPM
Revolutions per Minute
RSP
Resistance Spot Welding
RSW
Resistance Seam welding
RTJ
Ring Type Joint
S
Sample Connection
S/D
Shut Down
SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers
SAT
Saturated
SAW
Submerged Arc Welding
SBR
Styrene
Butadiene
SC
Sample Cooler
SCC
StressCracking
SCF
Stress Concentration Factor
SCH
Schedule
SCRD
Screwed
SDL
shutdown Level
SERR.FIN Serrated Finish
SG
Sight Glass
SGS
SGS Inspection Service
SH
Spring Hanger
SH
Steam (High Pressure)
SHT
Sheet
SI
Systeme International d`Unites
SL
Steam (Low Pressure)
SM
Steam (Medium Pressure)
SMAW
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding
SMLS
Seamless
SMTS
Specified Minimum Tensile
Strength
SMYS
Specified Minimum Yield
Strength
SO
Steam Out/Slip - On
SOL
Sockolet
SP
Special
SP. GR.
Gravity
SPCR
Spacer
SPEC
Specification
SPWD
Spiral Wound
SR
Short Radius

FSU
Ft
FTG
F-to-F
FZ
G
Gal
GALV
Gm
GMAW
GN
Gpa
GPM
GR
Gr
GTAW
HAZ
HB
HC
HCL
HD
HDPE
HDR
HEX
HH
HIC
HIL
HK
HLL
HOD
HOR
HP
HPP
HR
HS
HSE
HSLA
HSS
HTLA
HV
HVY
Hz
Ia

Flat Side Up
Foot
Fitting
Face To Face
Fusion Zone
Modulus of rigidity
Gallon
Galvanized
Gram
Gas Metal Arc Welding
General Notes
Giga Pascal
Gallons per minute
Grade
Graphite
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Heat Affected Zone
Brinell hardness
Hose Connection
Hydrochloric Acid
Hold Down
High-density polyethylene
Header
Hexagon
handhold
Hydrogen Induced Cracking
High Interface Level
Knoop Hardness
High Liquid Level
Head of Department
Horizontal
High Pressure/Horse Power
High Point Plinth
Rockwell hardness
Hose Station
Health Safety & Environment
High-Strength Low Alloy
High Speed Steel
Heat-Treatable Low Alloy
Vickers hardness
Heavy
Hertz
Noise Attenuation Insulation

SS
Stainless Steel
SSC
Sulphide Stress Cracking
ST
Steal
ST
Steam Trap
STA
Steam Trap Assembly
STAW
Spray Transfer Arc Welding
STD
Standard
STM
Steam
STN
Station
STR
Strainer
SV
Safety Vent/Steam Vent
SW
Socket Weld
TBE
Threaded Both Ends
TC
Total Carbon
TE
Threaded End
TEMP
Temperature
TEMP STR Temporary Strainer
THDD/THRD Threaded
THK
Thickness
THRU
Through
TI
Temperature Indicator
TIG
Tungsten Inert Gas (Welding)
TIR
Total
Reading
TL
Tangent Line
TLE
Threaded Large End
TOE
Threaded One End
TOL
Threadolet
TOS
Top of Sleeper /Top Of Steel
TSE
Threaded Small End
TSO
Tight Shut-Off
TYP
Typical
UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano di
Unificazione
UNS
Unified Numbering System
UT
Ultrasonic Testing
UTS
Ultimate Tensile Strength
V
Vent/Vapour/Volt
VAC
Vacuum
VC
Connection
VERT Vertical
VF
Vendor Furnished
VHN
Vickers Hardness Number

IBR
Indian Boiler Regulations
Ic
Cold Insulation
ID
Inside Diameter
INCH DIA. Inch Diameter
Ie
Electric Tracing Insulation
IFI
Industrial Fasteners Institute
Ih
Hot Insulation
IIW
International Institute of Welding
Ij
Jacketed Pipe Insulation
IM
Inch Meter
In
Inch
INS
Insulation/Insulated
INST
Instrument
INT
Interface
INV
Invert
INV.LEV.
Invert
Level
IOP
Integrated Offsite Piping
IS
Indian Standard
Is
Insulation for Safety
KN
Kilo Newton
KPa
Kilo Pascal
KSI
Kilo per Square Inch
Ksi
Kips (1000 lbf) per square inch
KV
Kilovolt
KW
Kilowatt
Lb
Pound
Lbf
Pound force
LC
Locked Close
LF
Large Female
LIL
Low Interface Level
LJ
Lap Joint
LLL
Low liquid Level
LLOYDS
Lloyds Register of Industrial
Service

VOL
Volume
W
Watt
WH
Ware House
WI
Work Instruction
WLD
Weld
WN
Weld Neck
WO
Wash Oil
WOL
Weldolet
WP
Working Pressure
WPS
Welding
Specification
WRC
Welding Research Council
WT
Weight
XH
Extra Heavy
XS
Extra Strong
XXH
Doub
Heavy
XXS
Double Extra Strong
YR
Year
YS
Yield Strength
Alloying Elements Symbol:
Ag
Silver
Al
Aluminium
Au
Gold
B
Boron
Be
Beryllium
C
Carbon
Co
Cobalt
Cr
Chromium
Cu
Copper
Fe
Iron
Mg
Magnesium
Mn
Manganese
Mo
Molybdenum
Ni
Nickel
P
Phosphorus
Pb
Lead
S
Sulphur
Si
Silicon
Sn
Tin
Ti
Titanium
U
Uranium
V
Vanadium
W
Tungsten
Zn
Zinc

Zr

Zirconium

1.8

Definitions

45 Degree Elbow: The change in direction required is 45. A 45 degree elbow is also called a "45
bend" or "45 ell".
90 Degree Elbow: The change in direction required is 90. A 90 degree elbow is also called a "90
bend" or "90 ell". It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the
direction of flow in the pipe. It used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a
"quarter bend".
Acid Embrittlement: It is a form of hydrogen Embrittlement that may be induced into some metals by
acid cleaning treatment.
Aging: Aging allows the alloying elements to diffuse through the microstructure and form intermetallic particles, which increases the strength of the alloy. Aluminium Alloys and some Stainless
Steel are hardened by aging.
Alloy Steel: The steel with added alloying elements with distinctive properties other than carbon is
called alloy steel. The alloying elements are added in the molten metal in the cradle in steel melting
shop and alloy steel ingot is cast.
Alloying Element: Chromium, nickel, vanadium and manganese are alloying elements added in the
furnace in steel melting shop to improve the quality of piping material before ingot is cast. These
elements are called alloying elements.
Alloys: Two or more metals mixed together in molten condition are called alloys.
Annealing: Annealing consists of heating ferrous alloys beyond the upper critical temperature and
cooling very slowly, resulting in the formation of pearlite. This will produce a refined microstructure
and soften a metal for cold working, improve machine ability, or enhance properties like electrical
conductivity. The slow cooling is done to allow full precipitation of the constituents to produce a
refined and a uniform microstructure. Annealing is used to remove the hardness caused by cold
working.
Anode: The electrode at which oxidation or corrosion occurs is known as anode
Anodic Polarization: It is a reduction from the initial potential resulting from current flow effects at
or near the anode surface. Potential becomes more active (negative) because of Anodic polarization.
Polarization of anode is the decrease in the initial anode potential resulting from current flow effects
at or near the anode surface. Potential becomes more noble (more positive) because of anode
polarization.
Arc Seam Weld: A seam weld made by an arc welding process is called arc seam weld.
Arc Strike: Any inadvertent change in the contour of the finished weld or base material resulting
from an arc generated by the passage of electric energy between the surface of the finished weld or
base material and a current source is called an arc strike
Arc Stud Welding: An arc welding process in which coalescence is produced by heating with an arc
drawn between a metal studs or similar part and the other work part, until the surfaces to be joined
are properly heated, when they are brought together under pressure.
Arc Welding: It is a welding process in which heat for welding is produced to fuse the metals for
joining together with an electric arc, with or without using any filler metal.
Austenitic Steel: It is a type of stainless steel containing austenite, a solid solution of carbon in iron.
The prominent properties of austenitic steels are that it cannot be hardened by heat treatment. It can be

hardened by cold working such as hammering & rolling etc.


Automatic Welding: It is a process of welding in which operator uses equipment to carry out the
welding operation without any manual control.
Back Gouging: It is the removal of the weld metal and base metal from other side of a partially
welded joint to ensure complete penetration upon subsequent welding from that side.
Back Pressure Valve: It is similar to the safety valve with a constant back pressure so that it relieves
any excess back pressure of fluid to atmosphere or elsewhere. It opens or closes automatically
relative to the backpressure setting.
Backing Ring: A metal strip used on the backside of the root of weld to prevent weld spatters at
bottom side of butt-welded joint. It ensures the complete penetration of the welded joint at root.
Back-Step Welding: It is a welding technique to minimize the distortion at welding joint. In this
technique the joint is welded with a series of short runs in a direction opposite to the general forward
direction of welding.
Ball Valve: Ball Valve has a spherical disc (ball) with a hole/port in the centre to control the flow
through it. When the port of the valve is in line with both ends of pipe, flow will occur. When the hole
is perpendicular to the axis of the pipe, the valve is closed and flow is blocked. The handle or lever
is in line with the port position indicates the valve's open position. Ball valves supporting pressures
is up to 1000 bars and temperatures up to 482F (250C).
Barb: A barb is a fitting and used to connect flexible hoses to pipes. A barb has a male-thread at one
end to mate with the female-threaded coupling to connect with pipe. The other end of the Barb has
either a single or multiple barbed tubes having a tapered stub with ridges which is inserted into the
flexible hose to secure it. An adjustable worm driver screw clamp helps to keep the hose from
slipping off the barbed tube.
Base Metal: Two metals which are to be welded together or cut is called base metals. It is also
called parent metals.
Bead: The metal deposited by a single run of welding is called the bead of welding.
Bevel Angle: The angle formed between two bevelled edges of the two metals welded together is
called bevel angle.
Bevel End: Pipe or fitting edge is finished inclined at certain angle to the longitudinal axis of the pipe
is called bevel end
Bimetallic Corrosion: This is corrosion resulting from dissimilar metal contact; i.e., it is a galvanic
corrosion
Bleeder: It is a small valve or check valve to discharge off fluid from inside of the piping system.
Blind flanges: This is a flange without any opening cut at the centre. It is used to close or to blind the
flanged end of the pipe. Blind flanges do not have a bore and is used to shut off a piping system or
vassal opening. Its design permits easy access to vassal or piping system for inspection purpose. It
can be supplied with or without hubs at the manufacturer's option.
Block Welding: It is a technique of welding in which the full joint is welded in sections. A short
section of the joint is completely welded to the full depth before proceeding to weld the next section
in the like manner. This is continued till the joint is welded completely
Bond: This is the junction surface of the base metal and the weld metal or of the paint and any
metallic surface.
Branch: It is a tapping taken from the main line header in between inlet point and outlet point of the
piping system to tap the fluid from that point.

Brazing: Brazing is a thermal joining process of joining two pieces of the base metal with a molten
brazing filler metal; which is allowed to be drawn into a capillary gap between them. Brazing filler
metals have very high melting points, but always below the melting point of the metals being joined.
Successfully brazed joints are as strong as the parent metal pieces being joined and are strong and
ductile.
Breaking Load: This is the maximum load at which the fracture of the material takes place. In case of
small diameter wire or other material, it is very difficult to distinguish between the breaking load and
the maximum load applied before rapture, the maximum load is taken as the breaking load of the
material.
Brinell hardness Test: It is a test for determining the hardness of a material by forcing a hard ball of
specified diameter into the metal under a specified load. This hardness test provides some measure of
mechanical properties. It the comparative hardness obtained by measuring the diameter of the indent
made by a steel ball forced into the test piece under a known load.
Brittle Fracture: It is a fracture of a metal with little or no plastic deformation.
Brittleness: It is a property of a material, which leads to the propagation of a fracture without
appreciable deformation.
Butt Weld Joint: It is a weld joint of two metals joined together end to end without any overlap. On
the contrary, there is a gap of 1.2 mm, minimum between two edges at the root. Butt weld is either
bevelled or square butt weld type.
Butt Welded Pipe: Butt Welded pipe is defined as pipe having one longitudinal seam formed by
mechanical pressure to make the welded junction, the edge being furnace heated to the welding
temperature prior to welding.
Butterfly valve: Butterfly Valves stop, regulate, and allow the fluid flow easily and quickly by a 90
degree rotation of the handle. The disc impinges against a resilient liner and provides bubble
tightness with very low operating torque. Butterfly valves are limited to low-pressure, lowtemperature (200 psig, 150 0F) water service. The Butterfly valve uses a flat plate to plate to open
and close the pipe system and to control the flow of water.
Buttering: Deposition of weld layers on faces of the joint prior to groove preparation for welding. It
is done to provide a suitable transition weld deposit for the subsequent completion of the joint.
Bypass: It is a method of discharging a small quantity of fluid through a small another passage (pipe)
around a large valve without operating a large valve for operational requirement of the piping system.
Cap: It is a pipe fitting, usually used in liquid or gas pipe to cover the end of a pipe. A cap is used
like plug, except that the pipe caps screws or attaches on the male thread of a pipe or a nipple.
Carbon Electrode: It is a non-filler material electrode used in arc welding or cutting, consisting of a
carbon or graphite rod.
Carbon Equivalent: It is a figure arrived by calculating the total content of carbon with the help of
following formula, (CE=C + Mn / 6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu) / 15).
Carbon Pick-up: While welding the carbon content in weld metal is increased due to fusion with
parent metal is called carbon pick-up. Due to this, the carbon content in weld is higher.
Carbon Steel: A steel having chiefly carbon as a distinctive element to control the properties of the
steel as distinguished from the other elements
Cathode Polarization: It is a reduction from the initial potential resulting from current flow effects at
or near the cathode surface. Potential becomes more active (negative) because of cathode
polarization.

Cathode Protection: It is a process of reduction or elimination of corrosion by making the metal a


cathode by means of an impressed d-c current or attachment to a sacrificial anode (usually Mg, Al, or
Zn)
Cathode: The electrode where the reduction (practically no corrosion) occurs is known as Cathode.
Caustic Embrittlement: It is a cracking as a result of the combined action of tensile stresses and
corrosion in alkaline solution.
Cavitations Corrosion: It is a corrosion damage resulting from cavitations and corrosion. Metal
corrodes; pressure develops from collapse of cavity and removes corrosion product, exposing bare
metal to repeated corrosion. Deterioration of a surface caused by cavitations (sudden formation and
collapse of cavities in a liquid)
Cavitations: Sudden formation and sudden collapse of vapour bubbles in a liquid, usually resulting
from local low pressures, as on the trailing edge of a propeller; this develops momentary high local
pressure which can mechanically destroy a portion of a surface on which the bubbles collapse.
Cementation Coating: A coating developed on a metal surface by a high temperature diffusion
process (e.g., as carbonisation, colorizing or chromizing).
Central vacuum system inlet fittings are intentionally designed with a tighter radius of curvature than
any other bends in the system. This is done to insure that if any vacuumed debris becomes stuck, it
will jam right at the inlet, where it is easiest to discover and to remove.
Chalking: It is a development of a loose, chalky, removable powder on or beneath a coating layer.
Chamfering: It is a method of pipe end preparation in an angle for groove butt-welding of the
members.
Check Valve: It is an automatic stop valve provided with a disc or ball, which operates
automatically. It allows the fluid to flow in one direction only. It does not allow the fluid to flow in
opposite direction by automatic closing the disc of the valve. It is used to prevent the backflow in the
pipeline to stop the backpressure on the pumps or compressors.
Chemical Composition: Chemical Composition is the details of content of element present in the
metal. Certain elements are objected in the piping material and its upper limit of content or presence
is specified for better selection of material.
Chloride Stress Cracking: Process streams, which contain water with chlorides over approximately
100 PPM under conditions of concentration and temperature high enough, may cause chloride stress
cracking under stress condition in susceptible materials, especially when oxygen is present and
temperature is over 140 0F. This is called Chloride stress cracking.
Choke: It is a device specially intended to restrict the flow rate of fluids.
Classification Society: It is an authoritative inspecting body, which is setting a standard for materials
and workmanship.
Close joint: When two joints are such that their edges are touching each other, are called close joints.
Coalescence: It is a process of melting and joining together into one body of the materials being
welded.
Coated Electrode: The coated electrode is a metal core wire surrounded by a thick coating applied
by extrusion, winding, or other process. The success of the welding depends on the composition of
the coating, which varies to suit the different conditions and metals.
Codes: Codes define a set of general rules or systematic procedures for Design, Fabrication,
Installation and Inspection methods, prepared in such a manner that is adopted by legal jurisdiction
and make into a law.

Cold Bending: Cold bending is the bending of pipe at atmospheric or around atmospheric
temperature below the specified phase-change temperature or transformation temperature of the
metal.
Combustible Liquids: Combustible Liquids are liquids that have flash points at or above 37.80C.
Companion flange: Flange perfectly suited in all respect to connect with another flange or valve
flange is called companion flange.
Complete fusion: While welding, when both the surfaces of parent metals to be welded together gets
melted completely and gets united, it is called complete fusion.
Composite Electrode: It is multi component filler metal electrodes in various physical forms, such
as stranded wires or tubes.
Compressed Fibre Gasket: This is a Non-Metallic Gasket, which has the ability to withstand high
compressive loads and seal the flange joint..
Compressive strength: The maximum value of stress in compression, which the material is capable
of sustaining without going to plastic phase of materials, is known as compressive strength.
Compressive stress: It is a stress, which resists any force tending to press to crush or squeeze the
body. It acts normal / perpendicular to the cross sectional plane towards the plane.
Connection types: Much of the work of installing a piping or plumbing system involves making leak
proof, reliable connections. Depending on the technology used, basic skills may be required or
specialized skills and professional licensure may be required.
Consumable Insert: The filler metal placed in the root of the weld to be completely fused with
parent metals is called the consumable insert.
Consumable: IT is an electrode or filler metal used for welding. It melts and gets mixed in parent
metals and thus is consumed in welding.
Contact Tube: It is a device, which transfers the current to the electrode continuously.
Continuous Weld: When the welding of any joint is done continuously without leaving any space in
between throughout the length is called continuous weld.
Contract: It is an agreement document between the owner and the contractor to execute the work as
per specification, code, and terms and conditions.
Controlled Cooling: Cooling from a higher temperature to a lower temperature in a predetermined
rate of cooling to avoid hardening or cracking of metal and to achieve a desire metallurgical
microstructure. This is done with covering the heated metal with insulation.
Corner joint: It is a weld joint between two members to be welded together and is located
approximately at right angle to each other.
Corrosion Fatigue Limit: The maximum cyclic stress value that a metal can withstand for a specified
number of cycles or length of time in a given corrosive environment.
Corrosion Rate: The speed with which the corrosion progresses is called Corrosion Rate. It is
expressed in the unit of mdd (Milligrams per square decimetre per day) for weight change or
mpy (mils per year) or Microns per year for thickness change.
Corrosion Resistance: Material of same group, such as carbon steel, alloy steel and stainless steel,
varies in respect of their chemicals composition and its ratio and also on their micro / macro
structures, manufacturing process, and heat treatment and inspection methods followed during
manufacturing. Different materials are used for construction of pipes and tubes. These are Carbon
Steel, Iron, Non Ferrous, Plastic, Glass, and Lined metal.
Corrosion: Corrosion is a mechanism by means of which metal and oxygen react to reach to the

equilibrium. It is a process of oxidizing of metal in presence of oxygen and moisture because moisture
increases the rate of oxidization. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal or its properties because of
a reaction with the environment
Corrosion-Erosion: The phenomenon of a protective film of corrosion product being eroded away by
the erosive action of the process fluid, exposing fresh metal which then corrodes. The presence of
suspended particles greatly accelerates the abrasive action.
Corrosive Gas: A gas which is dissolved in water or liquid causes metal attack, usually included is
hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), Carbon dioxide (CO2), and Oxygen (O2).
Corrosive Hydrocarbon Service: It is a process stream, which contains water or Brine and carbon
dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), Oxygen (O2) or other corrosive agents under conditions,
which cause metal loss.
Corrugated Gaskets: The Corrugated Gaskets are constant seating gaskets, which have two
components; a solid carrier ring of stainless steel and sealing elements of some compressible
material installed within two opposing channels, one channel on either side of the carrier ring. The
sealing elements are typically made from an expanded graphite, expanded poly-tetra-flouro-ethylene
(PTFE), vermiculite, suitable to the process fluid and application. The constant seating stress gaskets
provide the flange perfect sealing surfaces.
Coupling: Coupling is used to connect two pipes either by thread or by weld joint. If the size of the
pipe is not the same, the fitting may be called a reducing coupling or reducer, or an adapter.
Covered Electrode: It is a filler metal electrode consisting of a core of a bare metal wire covered
with flux materials to provide sufficient covering to the weld with inert gas during welding and a slag
covering to the weld.
Crack: It is a discontinuity in the welded metal or a fracture in weld metal. A sharp tip and high ratio
of length and width to displacement characterize it.
Cracking: Fracture of a metal in a brittle manner along a single or branched path is called cracking.
Crater: The depression left at the end of the final welding surface is called the crater.
Creep and Stress-rupture: When a load is applied to a metal at an elevated temperature over a
prolonged period of time, the metal may undergo continuous plastic deformation. It may experience a
progressive change in its dimensions. The amount of gradual deformation depends on the
composition, the process temperature and heat treatment of the material and the shape of the section.
Creep at elevated temperatures may terminate in fracture even at load considerably below the shorttime tensile strength. Such high-temperature fractures are commonly referred to as Creep or stressrupture failures. Long-time tests, generally under constant load, carried out to fracture are called
stress-to-rupture tests or Creep test.
Creep Strength: It is the stress which, when applied to a material at a specific elevated temperature,
will cause a specified amount of elongation. Creep strength of a material indicates the rate of
deformation of a material at elevated temperatures, under a given load, with respect to time.
Creep: It is a phase when all metals flow under stress to a sufficient high temperature i.e. a phase of
plastic flow of metals. The higher the temperature and stress, the greater is the tendency to creep i, e
to plastic flow of any metal.
Creep-test Data: The conventional creep test represents a precise measurement of the deformation
of a tensile specimen exposed under a constant load at a particular elevated temperature. The tests are
performed with very close temperature control and they are usually conducted for periods of from
1,000 to 10,000 or 20,000 hr. The elongation is read at more or less regular time intervals.

Crevice Corrosion: Localized corrosion resulting from the formation of a concentration cell in a
crevice formed between a metal and a non-metal, or between two metal surfaces is called crevice
corrosion.
Critical Humidity: A humidity level above which corrosion in air increases sharply are called
Critical Humidity.
Cross: Cross is a fitting used to branch the piping in 4-ways. A cross has one inlet and three outlets,
or vice versa. Cross fittings can generate a huge amount of stress on pipe as temperature changes,
because they are at the centre of four connection points. Cross is common in fire sprinkler systems,
but not in piping.
Current Density: It is the current per unit area, generally expressed as amps per square feet or
milliamps per square feet, or milliamps per square centimetre.
Cutting Torch: It is a device to flow acetylene gas for burning and heating the metal and then oxygen
jet at a controlled pressure is discharged to cut the metal.
Deactivation: The process of removing active constituents from a corroding medium, e.g., removal
of dissolved oxygen from water.
De-alloying: The selective corrosion (removal) of a metallic constituent from an alloy, usually in the
form of ions is called de-alloying
Deep Penetration Electrode: These are electrodes designed especially for a technique for making
joint by fusing together a considerable amount of the parent metal with the addition of comparatively
little filler metal to provide the deep penetration
Defect: Any discontinuity in the weld metal in the form of porosity, slag or crack etc. of the nature
not acceptable with reference to standard or specification is called defect.
Demineralisation: It is a process of removal of dissolved mineral matter, generally from water.
Deposited Metal: It is a process of laying down by fusion of an electrode or filler metal. Any metal
in the form of wire is melted and added to the parent metal during welding is called deposited metal.
Depth of fusion: The depth of fusion is the height or distance from the surface that fusion extends into
the parent metal during welding.
Design Conditions: The design conditions are the conditions which include the coincident pressure,
temperature, imposed end displacements, thermal expansion of the expansion joint itself and any other
possible variations of pressure and temperature, or both, above operating level for cycles during
operation. The cycles mean the start-up, shutdown and any abnormal operation.
Design Pressure: The pressure in the most severe condition of coincident internal or external
pressure at design temperature expected during operation in the pipe is called design pressure. It the
maximum allowable working pressure at the design temperature.
Design Temperature: The design temperature is the metal temperature of pipe representing in the
most severe condition of coincident pressure and temperature expected in normal operation.
Diaphragm valve: It is used for isolation as well as throttling.
Double Extra Strong: This is a designation to the weight or the thickness of pipe .It is more than the
standard thickness of the pipe.
Double Welded joint: It is a joint where the welding is done from both sides surfaces of the joint.
Drain Piping: Drains operate at low pressure and rely on gravity to move fluids. The Drain piping is
designed to be as smooth as possible on their interior surfaces. Drain Pipe elbows are usually long
radius to reduce flow resistance and solids deposition when the direction of flow is changed.
Ductile: It is a property of a metal, which indicate the stretching or bending capacity of the metal.

Ductility: This is the ability of a material to withstand significant plastic deformation prior to
fracture. This is measured in term of elongation in the length or reduction in the cross-sectional area
of a body during a tensile test of the specimen. It is measured as the percentage of elongation of the
fractured test sample over an initial length.
Dwell: It is a time during which the electrode rests at any point in each oscillating swing or traverse
electrode.
Edge Preparation: Edge preparation is a process of gas cutting, filling, grinding or machining of the
profile of the end of pipe to make groove for welding.
Elastic Deformation: The changes in dimension of a material upon the application of a stress within
the elastic range. The material will return to its original dimensions without any permanent
deformation after release of the elastic stress.
Elastic Limit: The greatest stress to which a material is subjected without retention of any permanent
deformation after the stress is removed is called Elastic Limit. In other word, it is the greatest stress
that a material can endure without taking up some permanent set is called elastic limit. It is the value
of the greatest stress, which a material is capable of sustaining without any permanent change in size
or dimension, and retains its original shape & size after release of the complete stress.
Elasticity: It is the property of a material, which allows it to recover its original dimensions
following deformation by a stress below its elastic limit. In other word, it is the property of a
material by virtue of which deformation caused by applied load disappears upon removal of the load.
Elbow: An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change
of direction, usually a 90 or 45 angle or 22.5. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called
a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.
Electric Current: An electric current is caused by the flow of electrons. However, the electric
current flows in a direction opposite to the flow of electrons. (This is the positive current concept.)
Electric Resistant Welded (ERW): Electric Resistance Welded pipe is defined as a pipe having one
longitudinal seam formed by electric resistance welding, electric flash welding, or electric induction
welding without the addition of extraneous metal.
Electric Welding: Electric Welding is a process of welding in which an arc is produced for
coalescence of metal. The arc is produced with the help of an electrode between the work pieces.
Electro Slag Welding: It is a welding process where coalescence of metals is produced with molten
slag which melts the filler metals and the surface of the work to be welded. The process is initiated
with an arc, which heats the slag. The arc is then extinguished and the conductive slag is maintained
in a molten condition by its resistance to electric current passing between the electrode and the work.
Electrode Negative: It is a welding process in which the electrode is connected to the negative pole
of D.C. supplies during welding.
Electrode Positive: It is a welding process where the electrode is connected to positive pole of
supply during welding.
Electrode: It is a metallic wire covered with flux. It completes welding circuit through which current
is passed between the electrode and work piece during welding. The flux coating of the electrode
burn and provide an inert gas covering and slag covering to the weld metal.
Electrolysis: The chemical changes in an electrolyte caused by an electrical current are called
Electrolysis. The use of this term to mean corrosion by stray currents is discouraged.
Electron Beam Welding: It is a welding process, which produces coalescence of metals with the
heat obtained from a concentrated beam composed primarily of high velocity electrons impinging

upon the surfaces to be welded together.


Elongation: The increase in the gauge length of the bar, during tensile test, is called the elongation. It
is measured as the percentage of the increase in the length over the original gauge length of the
specimen. In the tensile testing, the percent increase in the gage length of a specimen after fracture has
occurred is called Elongation.
Embrittlement: The severe loss of ductility of a metal is called embrittlement.
Endurance Limit: The maximum cyclic stress levels a metal can withstand without a fatigue failure
is called the Endurance Limit.
Equal Tee: When the size of the branch is same as header pipes, equal tee is used.
Erosion: Deterioration of a surface by the abrasive action of moving fluids is called the Erosion. This
is accelerated by the presence of solid particles or gas bubbles in suspension. When deterioration is
further increased by corrosion, the term Erosion-Corrosion is used.
Essential Variable: Essential variables affect the mechanical properties of the weld by change during
welding, as described in the specific variables, and are required re-qualification of the WPS.
Expansion Bellows: It is a corrugated piping device designed for absorbing expansion and
contraction.
Expansion Joint: It is piping configuration designed to absorb expansion and contraction.
Extra heavy: It is a designation used to designate any pipe, flange, end fitting suitable for a high
working pressure.
Extra Strong: It is a designation to indicate the thickness or weight per meter of a pipe or fitting.
Face: It is the exposed surface on the outside of the piece where either welding or serrated finishing
on the surface has been done for seating gasket or closures.
Fastener: A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects
together. Usually the stud bolts are used with full threading and with two heavy hexagonal nuts. The
following are the type of fasteners commonly used: Stud bolt with nut; Machine bolt with nut;
Fatigue Strength: The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specific number of stresses cycles
without failure under fatigue loading is fatigue strength. Corrosive environments have deleterious
effects on fatigue life.
Fatigue: It is process leading to fracture resulting from repeated stress cycles well below the normal
tensile strength. Such failure starts as tiny cracks, which grows to cause total failure.
Ferrite Number: It is an arbitrary, standardized value designating the ferrite content of an austenitic
stainless steel weld metal.
Ferritic: It is pertaining to the body-centred cubic crystal structure (BCC) of many ferrous (Ironbase) metals.
Ferrous: It is a material, which contains iron as one of the main constituents.
Filler Metal: The metal in the form of wire used for adding or depositing metal to the base metal
during welding is called the filler metal.
Fillet Weld: It is a weld of triangular cross section for joining two base metals placed on each other
like ones surface to other edge or on surface to surface contact with overlap.
Film: It is a thin surface layer that may or may not be visible.
Fire Protection Device: Fire protection devices consist of monitoring safety equipments such as
flame and smoke detectors, sprinkler systems, fire alarms and enunciators.
Fittings: Fittings are used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to
different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow. Many

types of fittings are used widely in piping systems.


Flame Arrester: Flame Arresters is a safety device that stops fuel combustion by extinguishing the
flame. Detonation Flame Arresters prevents propagation of detonations in gas or vapour mixtures in
piping system or a pipeline with a significant distance between the ignition sources.
Flame detectors: Flame detectors monitor and analyze incoming radiation at selected wavelengths.
Flame detectors have optical sensors working at specific spectral ranges to record the incoming
radiation at the selected wavelengths.
Flammable Gases: Flammable gases are gases that have a flash point blow 37.8 0C.
Flammable Liquids: Flammable Liquids are the liquids that have a flash point below 37.80C and a
vapour pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch absolute at 37.80C.
Flange joint: When the pipes are connected together with the help of flanges welded to each pipe and
gaskets in between the flanges with the help of bolts, is called flange joint.
Flange: Flanges are generally used to connect two pips length or to pipe and valve, or valve to valve,
in-line instrument and/or connection to equipment nozzles. Flange is generally pressing tightly two
surfaces to be joined together by means of bolts. A gasket, packing, or an O-ring is always installed
between the flanges to prevent leakage
Flat Position: It is position of welding in which welding is performed from upper side of the joint
and tip of the electrode down below and face of the weld is in horizontal level below the electrode.
Fluid: A fluid is a substance, which cannot sustain a shear stress in a combination of the static
equilibrium and does not offer any resistance to the distortion of its form. The fluid yields
continuously to the tangential forces; even the force is negligible or small in nature. Generally, the
gases and the liquids, including vapour, are known as the fluids.
Flux, active: It is a flux from which some amount of elements is deposited in the weld metal.
Flux, Neutral: It is a flux, which will not cause a significant change in the weld metal composition.
Flux: It is a fusible mineral material, which is melted by the welding arc. Flux may be granular or
solid coating. Flux stabilizes the welding arc, shield all or the part of the molten weld pool from
atmosphere.
Flux-Cored Electrode: It is a composite filler metal electrode consisting of a metal tube or other
hollow configuration containing ingredients to provide such functions as shielding atmosphere,
deoxidisation, and arc stabilization and slag formation.
Forehand Welding: It is a welding technique where the welding torch or gun is directed towards the
progress of welding.
Forged Weld: It is a method of joining two base metals by heating and hammering or pressing against
each other to get united together.
Frequency: It is the completed number of cycles, which the oscillating current makes in one minute.
Friction Welding: It is a solid state welding process, which produces coalescence of materials by the
heat obtained from a mechanically induced sliding motion between rubbing surfaces. The work parts
are held together under pressure.
Fuel Gas: Hydrocarbon gases usually used with oxygen for heating, such as acetylene, natural gas,
propane, methyl acetylene etc. are called fuel gas.
Full Annealing: It is the heat treatment method where metal is heated to a temperature above
transformation range and kept for some time. Then it is cooled in controlled way so that maximum
softness of the metal is achieved.
Full Fillet Weld: It is a fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner member to be

welded.
Furnace Annealing: When the annealing of the product metal is done in the furnace to achieve the
maximum required properties of the metal, it is called furnace annealing.
Furnace Weld: It is a process of welding to manufacture pipe in which pipe both ends and filler
metal are kept in the furnace for melting and fusion together.
Fusion Line: In a weld, the interface between weld metal and base metal or between the base metal
parts when filler metals are not used is called fusion line.
Fusion Zone: The area of the base metals where filler metals and base metals have melted and joined
together is called the area of fusion zone.
Fusion: The melting of the base metals and filler metal or only base metals to join together are called
fusion.
Galvanic: It an effect caused by a cell; whenever dissimilar metals come in contact, it results in
electrolyte potential.
Galvanizing: This is a process in which zinc is deposited on the clean surface of iron or steel to
avoid rust. In this process, the surface is cleaned by acid and then rinsing, drying & after pouring the
cleaned and dried steel members to a tub of molten zinc.
Gas: A gas is a fluid, which tends to expand to fill completely the inside space of the container in
which it is kept. Any change in the temperature or pressure of the gas is accompanied by the change in
the volume of the gas.
Gasket: A gasket is a sealing material made to fit between two flanges of pipe. A gasket is a
mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent
leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.
Gasket Type: Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials,
and features. There are many standards in gasket for flanges of pipes. The gaskets for flanges can be
divided in major 4 different categories:
Gate valve: Gate Valves have a gate or wedge that moves perpendicular to flow of the service. Stem
in the up position, the valve is open and stem in the down position, the valve is closed. The distinct
feature of a gate valve is the sealing of passages by the gate / wedge and seats.
Globe Valve: Globe Valves are two-port valves openings in the body for fluid flowing in or out
vertical to the flow stream in pipe. A Globe Valve is used for regulating flow, which consists of a
movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a body. This has an opening that forms a seat
onto which a movable disc connected to a stem which is operated by screw action in manual valves.
Grain: It is a portion of a solid metal in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern. The
irregular junction of two adjacent grains is known as a grain boundary
Graphitisation: It is a graphitic Corrosion. Corrosion of grey cast iron in which the metallic
constituents are converted to corrosion products, leaving the graphite flakes intact. Graphitisation is
also used in a metallurgical sense to mean the decomposition of iron carbide to form iron and
graphite.
Groove: The gap or profile of the surfaces at the end of two base metals to be welded together is
called groove.
Groove angle: The total angle included in between the two surfaces of the end of the metals to be
welded together is called groove angle.
Groove Face: The surface profile at the end of the two metals to be welded together is groove face.
Groove weld: It is a type of welding joint in which two base metals are welded together end to end

by chamfering the ends at a certain angle or keeping gap between two ends of base metals. The
standard types of groove weld are as follows: Square groove; Single-V groove; Single-bevel groove;
Single U groove; Single-J groove; Single-Flare-Bevel groove; Single-Flare-Vee groove; Double-V
groove; Double-bevel groove; Double-U groove; Double-J groove; Double-Fare-bevel groove; and
Double-Flare-Vee groove
Geysering: It is an effect that occurs in piping handling fluids at or near their boiling temperatures.
Under this condition, due to rapid evaluation of vapour within the vertical piping causes rapid
expulsion of liquid and a pressure surge is generated that may be destructive to the piping. It may
occur in inclined piping also.
Hammer weld: While manufacturing pipes of the large diameter 20 and above, the plate is rolled
longitudinally and ends are overlapped. The longitudinal overlapped joint is heated to the fusion
temperature of the metal and hammered or pressed with power hammer to fuse together to form a
pipe.
Hard Facing: It is a process of a surfacing variation in which surfacing metal is deposited to reduce
the wear of the metal at the surface.
Hardness: Hardness is the properties of the metal, which enable them to resist indentation, scratching
and abrasion on the surface of the metal. Hardness is the resisting type of the materials property due
to which it resists indention, scratching and abrasion.
Heat Affected Zone: The portion of the base metals near weld Joints, which are not melted but got,
heated up above transformation temperature and thus mechanical properties or microstructures have
been changed by welding heat is called heat affected zone. This generally affects corrosion
behaviour.
Heat Treatment: Heat treatment is a process used to alter the physical and chemical properties of a
material. Heat treatment involves the use of heating and cooling, normally to extreme temperatures, to
achieve a desired quality of material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening,
precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching.
Holiday: It is a discontinuity (hole or gap) in a protective coating.
Holiday Detector: It is an instrument to detect discontinuity (hole or gap) in a protective coating.
Hooks Law: The Hooks law governs the relation between stress and strain of a material within its
elastic region and states that stress is proportional to strain and independent of time.
Horizontal Butt weld: It is a position of welding of pipe or plate in which the pipe axis or plate
plane is approximately horizontal or the welding is done on pipe by rotating the pipe.
Horizontal Fillet Weld: When the weld joint is approximately in horizontal plane and welding is
done in down hand position is called horizontal fillet weld.
Hot Bending: The pipe is heated up to the high temperature and bent to predetermined ratios. The
pipe is filled with sand before heating to avoid wrinkling and flatness near the bend.
Hot Shortness: Hot shortness causes insufficient ductility, which may lead to failure during hot
forming. The rupture occur during hot bending of pipe through an angle of approximately less than
22.5 deg. Hot- tensile tests confirms that the steel is hot short and does not possess sufficient or
normal ductility at the temperatures at which hot bending or hot forging of steel is generally, done.
Hot Working: The plastic deformation of metal at higher temperature so that strains hardening does
not occur. Example: The extruding or swaging of pipe around temperature 1200 F to 2000 F.
Hydraulic head: Hydraulic head is measured in a column of water using a standpipe piezometer by
measuring the height of the water surface in the tube relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head

can be used to determine a hydraulic gradient between two or more points.


Hydrogen Blistering: Hydrogen blistering is the presence of atomic hydrogen in specific contaminant
(e.g., sulphides, selenides, arsenides, antimony compounds, cyanides.). When the atomic hydrogen
enters the metal structures, non-metallic inclusions catalyse the formation of molecular hydrogen
within the metal lattice, generating tremendous internal pressures and causing splits, fissures, and
even blisters on the metal surface. The tendency to blister can be combated to some extent by using
steels of the same grain size and cleanliness as is specified for low-temperature service.
Hydrogen Disintegration: It is a deep internal crack in a metal caused by hydrogen.
Hydrogen Embrittlement: Martensitic stainless steels have a tendency to pick up hydrogen in its
structure and it results hydrogen during the melting process, from the heat-treating atmosphere, or
during chemical and electrochemical processes such as pickling and electroplating. Therefore,
precautions must be taken with martensitic stainless steels, so that they do not come in contact with
hydrogen atmospheres. Hydrogen Embrittlement is less acute in ferritic steels and unknown in
austenitic steels. Embrittlement of a metal caused by hydrogen; sometimes observed in catholically
protected steel, electroplated parts, pickled steel.
Hydrogen Induced Cracking: Hydrogen Induced Cracking occurs in hardened or otherwise highly
stressed steels, and is similar in many respects to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). However, cathode
protection aggravates the cracking. A large number of hardened steels, martensitic stainless steels,
cold-worked austenitic stainless steels, precipitation hardening stainless alloys, etc. are susceptible
to hydrogen-induced cracking. Even copper and nickel alloys and cold-worked nickel-chromiummolybdenum alloys at high strength are susceptible, particularly in galvanic couple with a less noble
material.
Hydrogen piping: Hydrogen piping is a system of pipes used to move hydrogen. Due to issues with
hydrogen embrittlement, and corrosion, materials for hydrogen pipes must be carefully selected.
Hydrogen has an active electron, and therefore behaves somewhat like a Halogen. The problem is
compounded because hydrogen can easily migrate into the crystal structure of most metals.
Impact Strength: The amount of energy required fracturing a material under an impact load. The type
of specimen, the test conditions, and temperature affects the values and therefore it should be
specified in impact test.
Incomplete Fusion: While welding, sometimes, the filler and base metals do not melt completely and
hence the weld metal does not mix up with parent metal throughout the surface of parent metal
completely. The incomplete mixing is called incomplete fusion.
Induction Heating: It is a process of heating the pipe joint after welding for heat treatment. The
heating is done by placing induction coils around the pipe joint and passing current at high voltage
through the coil.
Induction Welding: It is a process of welding which produces coalescence of metals through the heat
obtained from resistance of the work to induced electric current, with or without the application of
pressure.
Inhibitor: A substance, which sharply reduces corrosion when, added to water, acid, or other liquid
in small amounts.
Insulation: It is the process of application of materials of bad conductor of heat on the pipe,
equipment or tanks to avoid the heat loss from the fluid contained inside it or to protect the burning of
a human.
Inter granular corrosion: The corrosion, which occurs preferentially at grain boundaries.

International Standard Atmosphere (ISA): Defined to 101.325 kPa, 15 deg C and 0% humidity.
Inter pass Temperature: This is the highest temperature in the weld joint in the section of the
previously welded base metals immediately before the next pass of weld is started.
Interrupted Welding: Sometimes the welding on carbon steel and chrome-molly alloy steel pipe is
required to be done by giving interruption in welding so that the welded area is cooled down to
required low temperature to maintain the granular structures of the metal to the requirement.
Joint geometry: The shape, size and dimensions of a weld joint in cross section are called joint
geometry.
Joint Penetration: It is the minimum depth of the groove weld extends from its face into a joint at the
root of weld.
Joint: It is the junction of the members, which are to be joined or have been joined together.
Keyhole: It is a technique of welding in which a concentrated heat source penetrates completely
through a work piece, forming a hole at the leading edge of the molten weld metal. . As the heat
source progresses, the molten metal fills in behind the hole to form the weld bead.
Knife-Line Attack (KLA): It is a form of weld decay sometimes observed on stabilized stainless
steel. The zone of attack is very narrow and very close to or in the weld.
Lap Joint flange: Lap Joint flange is again similar to a slip flange, but it has radius at the intersection
of the bore and the flange face to accommodate a lap stub end. The face on the stub end forms the
gasket face of the flange. Its applications are where sections of piping systems need to be dismantled
quickly and easily for inspection or replacement.
Lap Joint: It is a type of a flange joint where a small flange of the area of the gasket is welded to the
pipe being the same material and a carbon steel ring having holes for the bolts is sided over the pipe
for bolting connection with another item.
Lightly Coated Electrode: It is a filler metal electrode consisting of a metal wire with a light
coating applied subsequent to the drawing operation, primarily for stabilizing the arc.
Liquid: A liquid is a fluid, which occupies a definite (fixed) volume but the same shape of the
container in which it is kept. The liquid has the great resistance to the compression. There is a slight
variation in the volume with a considerable pressure applied to the liquid. This is the reason that the
liquid is frequently used for hydrostatic testing of the piping.
Long Radius (LR) Elbows: The radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter
Low Hydrogen Electrode: Presence of hydrogen in the weld metal is one of the causes of weld
cracking. To reduce this tendency, the electrodes are available with coverings designed specially to
reduce the amount of diffusible hydrogen. These are known as low hydrogen electrode.
Low Pressure Safety Relief Valve: Pressure Safety Relief Valve is a device for relieving excess
pressure or vacuum which remains tightly closed up to the set pressure, which is lower than for
standard safety relief valves. However, the low pressure safety relief valves fulfil the equivalent
quality requirements as standard safety valves.
Machine Weld: It is a process of a weld in which the welding is performed with the help of machine
under the observation and control of the operator of the machine.
Malleable Iron: The cast iron, which is heat-treated in an oven to relieve its brittleness and to
improve its tensile strength to enable the material to stretch to an extent without breaking.
Manual Welding: It is a process of welding wherein the entire welding operation is performed and
controlled by a hand of the welder.
Mass: It is the amount of matter contained in a given body, and does not vary with the change in its

position on the earths surface. The mass of the body is measured by direct comparison with a
standard mass by using a lever balance and hence diluting the effect of gravitational force of the earth
Melt-in Welding: It is a technique of welding in which the intensity of a concentrated heat source is
so adjusted that a weld pass is produced from filler metal added to the leading edge of the molten
weld metal by a machine.
Metal Dusting: It is a unique form of high-temperature corrosion, which forms a dust-like corrosion
product and sometimes develops hemispherical pits on a susceptible metal surface.
Metal electrode: It is a filler or no filler electrode, used in arc welding or arc cutting, consisting of a
metal wire or rod that has been manufactured by any method and that is either bared or covered with a
suitable covering or coating.
Mill Length: It is the standard length of pipe manufacture and cut in the mill. The length of the pipe in
the mill is maintained to 6.0 meters or sometimes it is 10 to 12 meters.
Mill Scale: The heavy oxide layer formed during heat treatment or hot working of metals is called
mill scale. It is always referred to steel forming magnetic oxide (magnetite).
Modulus of Elasticity: It is a measure of the stiffness or rigidity of a material. It is actually the ratio
of stress to corresponding strain in the elastic region of a material, i.e. below the Proportional Limit.
It is determined by the tension or compression test. It is also called Youngs Modulus or the
Coefficient of the elasticity. This is the value of the stress where the stress-strain relationship is
changed to a curve rather than linear on the stress-strain Diagram of the material.
Modulus of Elasticity: The ratio of stress to the corresponding strain below the proportional limit is
called the modulus of elasticity.
Moralizing: It is a process of coating a surface with a layer of metal by spraying, vacuum deposition,
dipping, plasma jet or cementation etc.
Needle Valve: The needle valves are used for operating the instruments like flow meter, sample
point, pressure and temperature gage in line service because it provides very accurate throttling. It is
also, preferably, used in high pressure and high temperature line.
Net Positive Suction Head: NPSH stands for "Net Positive Suction Head". It is defined as the
suction gage reading in feet absolute taken on the suction nozzle corrected to pump centreline, minus
the vapour pressure in feet absolute corresponding to the temperature of the liquid, plus velocity head
at this point. When boiling liquids are being pumped from a closed vessel NPSH is the static liquid
head in the vessel above the pump centreline minus entrance and friction losses. Net Positive Suction
Head is the static liquid head in the vessel above the pump centreline minus entrance and friction
losses.
Nipple: It is a length of pipe less than 12 inch long, forged and both ends are prepared either
threading or finished for fillet weld. The diameter of the pipe (nipple) is less than 1.5 inch.
Noble Metal: A metal that is not very reactive, e.g., silver, gold or copper and may be found
naturally in metallic form on earth.
Nominal Pipe Size: Pipe sizes are specified by a number of national and international standards.
There are two common methods for designating pipe outside diameter (OD). One is the North
American method is called NPS (nominal Pipe Size), which is based on inches and is frequently
referred to as NB ("Nominal Bore")). Other is the European version is called DN ("Diameter
Nominal" / "Nominal Diameter") and is based on millimetres. For pipe sizes less than NPS 14 inch
(DN 350), both methods give a nominal value for the OD, which is not the same as the actual OD. For
pipe sizes of NPS 14 inch (DN 350) and greater the NPS size is the actual diameter in inches and the

DN size is equal to NPS times 25 (not 25.4) rounded to a convenient multiple of 50.
Nominal Size: The term nominal size denotes the approximate inside or outside diameter of pipe in
inch depending on the size. Nominal Size identifies the size of all pipes, which is seldom equal to
the true bore (internal diameter) of the pipe. 350 mm NB and larger pipes have outside diameter
equal to nominal pipe size.
Nonessential Variables: Nonessential variables are those in which a change may be made during
welding or in WPS without re-qualification of WPS and this change does not affect the properties of
the weld.
Non-Return Valve: It is an automatic stop valve provided with a disc which operates automatically
and alloy to flow the fluid only in one direction i.e. in the predetermined direction. It does not alloy
the fluid to flow in opposite direction by automatic closing the valve.
Normalizing: Normalizing is a process used to provide uniformity in grain size and composition of
an alloy. The ferrous alloys are heated above the upper critical temperature and held for 1 hour per
inch wall thickness and then is cooled subsequently in still air to room temperature to give harder and
stronger steel, but with less ductile for same composition.
Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP): This is defined as 20 0C or 293.15 K or 68 0F
temperature and 1 atm or (101.325 kN/m2 or 101.325 kPa or 14.7 psia or 0 psig or 29.92 in Hg or
760 torr) pressure and Density is at 1.204 kg/m3 or (0.075 pounds per cubic foot).
Nozzle: It is usually a flange connection of a pipe with the vessel, tank or any equipment. It consists
of a short length of pipe welded to the vessel at one end and other end of the pipe is welded to the
flange.
Olets: Whenever branch connections are required in size where reducing tees are not available
and/or when the branch connections are of smaller size as compared to header size, olets are
generally used. They are Flanged Olet; Socket-Weld; Threaded Olet; Lateral & Elbow Olets; Nipple
Olet and Butt-Weld Olet.
O-Ring gaskets: Ring gaskets are also known as RTJ. They are mostly used under extremely high
pressure. They are solid rings of metal in different cross sections like oval, round, octagonal.
Sometimes they come with hole in centre for pressure equalization. These gaskets are of higher level
of metal quality than sheet gaskets and can withstand much higher temperatures and pressures. The
key downside is that a solid metal must be greatly compressed in order to become flush with the
flange head and prevent leakage.
Overhead Position Welding: It is a position of welding of pipe or plate in which welding is
performed from the underside of work piece keeping the pipe or plate joint above the welder.
Oxidation Resistance: Oxidation resistance of a material at elevated temperature is dependent on the
nature of the oxide scale, which forms on the surface of the material. If the scale is loose and porous,
the oxidation will continue and the scale becomes thicker until the complete section of metal is
oxidized. If on the other hand, the oxide scale is adherent and non-porous, the thin oxide film on the
surface will act as a protection to the underlying metal. Carbon steels have a poor oxidation
resistance. It can be improved by the addition of chromium, aluminium and silicon. On heating these
elements form sense oxide films on the surface of steels and protect the base metal against oxidation.
An addition of 5 to 8 percent chromium raises the scale resistance to 700-750 0C, a chromium content
of 15-17 percent will prevent scaling up to 950-11000C, and 25 percent chromium will prevent
scaling up to 11000C. Oxidation resistance depends upon the composition and chromium content in the
steel. It is not much affected by the structure of the steel.

Oxidation: Oxidation is a loss of electrons. When a metal goes from the metallic state to the
corroded state (opposite of reduction) there is a loss of electrons. When a metal reacts with oxygen,
sulphur, etc., to form a compound as oxide, sulphide, etc., it is oxidized.
Oxy-fuel Gas Cutting: It is a metal cutting process used to cut the metals by means of a chemical
reaction of oxygen with base metal at elevated temperatures. The necessary temperature is maintained
by means of gas flames obtained from the combustion of a specified fuel gas and oxygen.
Oxy-fuel Gas Welding: It is a welding process in which coalescence is produced by heating
materials with an oxy-fuel gas flame, with or without the use of filler metal.
Pass: It is a welding operation nomenclature .A single longitudinal progression of welding operation
along the weld length is called a pass. One pass gives one weld bead.
Passivation: It is a reduction of the anodic reaction rate of an electrode involves in electrochemical
action such as corrosion.
Patina: It is a green coating, which is slowly developed on copper and some copper alloys
consisting mainly of copper sulphates, carbonates and chlorides after long term exposure to
atmosphere.
Peaning: It is a process of mechanical working of a metal by means of a hammer blows.
Performance Qualification Record: It is a record of all the welding variables used during the
welding and the test result of the test carried out on the test coupon for each welding process used
during the welding of the test coupon. All these parameters are recorded on a paper.
Performance Qualification: It the demonstration of a welders or welding operators ability to
produce welds meeting the prescribed standards or specification.
pH Value: It is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution A value of seven is neutral; low
number is acid, large number are alkaline.
Pickle (Pickling): It is a process of removal of oxides from the surface of the weld joints or any
metals generated during welding or storing of metals. This is a kind of chemical or electrochemical
cleaning process. Pipes or metals are pickled in order to remove mill scale, oxide layers or weld
discolorations.
Pipe: Tubular products are termed as pipe. Nominal Pipe Size identifies pipe with wall thickness
defined by schedule number, API designations or weights. Non-standard pipes are specified by
nominal size and wall thickness. The principal uses for pipes are Petroleum, Petrochemical and
Chemical industries.
Piping Components: These are mechanical elements suitable for joining or assembling into a
pressure tight fluid containing piping system. Components include pipes, tubes, fittings, flanges,
gaskets, bolt-nuts, valves, expansion joints, compensators, hose pipes, traps, strainers, separators,
control valves, safety valves, blind flanges, spectacle blinds and drip rings etc.
Piping Elements: Any material or work required to plan and install a piping system is called piping
elements. Piping elements include design, specifications, materials, components, supports,
fabrication, inspection and testing etc.
Piping: It is an assembly of piping components, which is used for conveyance of fluids flow with
pressure, temperature and hazardous materials in specialized applications. Piping includes piping
components and supports but does not include supporting structures, building frame, foundations or
equipment.
Pitting and Crevice Corrosion: Pitting and crevice corrosion is covered under metallurgical, which
may occur in stainless steel piping even though the general corrosion resistance of the material is

excellent. Both result from a highly localized breakdown in the passive film, followed by
electrochemical action. The presence of chloride salts, even in minute quantities, can lead to pitting
and crevice corrosion of stainless steel, and precaution should be taken in using stainless steel for
handling solutions containing chlorides, even though if short-time corrosion tests indicate immunity to
this type of attack. Collection or accumulation of solids on surfaces is also conductive to pitting and
should be avoided. In general, the molybdenum bearing stainless steels (e.g., types of 316 and 317)
are more resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion than the non-molybdenum steels, and their added
costs are frequently justified over the latter for this reason.
Pitting Factor: It is the Depth of the deepest pit divided by the average penetration as calculated
from weight loss.
Plain End: This is used to connect or insert into the Socket end of the connecting pipe. This
represents the end length of increased diameter into which a pipe end can be fitted.
Plasticity: The plasticity of a material is the ability of a material to undergo some degree of
deformation permanently without fracture or rupture or failure.
Plug Valve: The plug valve also called cock valve, primarily, starts or stops the flow. In service, it
takes only quarter turn either to fully open or to completely close the flow, i.e. for quick shut-off. It is,
also, not used where regulation or throttling of the flow is required because accurate control is not
possible. There is very small pressure drop between the valve ends in this type of valve too. It is
used for isolation only.
Plug: A plug closes off the end of a pipe. It is similar to a cap but it fits inside the fitting it is mated
to. In a threaded iron pipe plumbing system, plugs have male threads. Some of the popular types of
plugs are: Mechanical pipe plug; Pneumatic disk pipe plug; Single size pneumatic all rubber pipe
plug; Multi-size pneumatic pipe plug; Multi-size flow-through pipe plug and High pressure pipe plug.
Plumbing: The plumbing is generally used to describe conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in
ordinary domestic or commercial environments.
Poissons Ratio: The Poissons Ratio is an important elastic constant, which expresses the
relationship existing between lateral strain and axial strain. The value of Poissons Ratio varies with
different materials.
Polarity: The direction of flow of welding during welding with respect to the electrode and the work
piece is called polarity. It is of two kinds such as Positive Polarity and Negative Polarity
Polarization: The shift in electrode potential resulting from the effects of current flow, measure with
respect to the zero-flow (reversible) potential; i.e., the counter-emf Caused by the products formed or
concentration changes in the electrolyte.
Porosity: It is a kind of defect in the weld or casting. The presence of gas pockets voids in the weld
or casting is called porosity.
Positive Polarity: It is the arrangement of direct current arc welding in which the work piece is
connected to the negative pole and the electrode is the positive pole of the welding arc. It is also
called Reverse Polarity.
Post Heating: It is the application of heat to a fabricated product, weld or weld subsequent to the
fabrication, welding or cutting operation to reduce the hardness of the metal or to stress relieve. The
post heating is done either by induction heating coil or in a furnace.
Post Weld Heat Treatment: It is a standard procedure of heating of the weld or the fabricated
product by the use of induction coil or in a furnace to avert or stress relieve to reduce the hardness the
detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients inherent in welding of the

weld or the fabricated products. The heating is done to the required temperature and the temperature
is maintained minimum for two hours. Then it is cooled under the controlled rate of cooling up to the
atmospheric temperature.
Preheat temperature: It is the minimum temperature of heating of the weld joint prepared
immediately prior to the welding of the joint. In case of multiple passes welding, it is the minimum
temperature of heating in the section of the previously deposited weld metal, immediately prior to the
welding of subsequent welding.
Preheating: It is the application of heat to a weld joint or the work pieces to be welded just before
the welding. It is used to minimize the detrimental effect of high temperature and severe thermal
gradients inherent in welding.
Pressure and Vacuum Relief Valves: These are special devices that function as an end-of-line
valve to protect against pressure and vacuum. The valves are connected to a vent header to process
vapours. Pressure/Vacuum relief valves are used as inbreathing and out breathing valves and for
venting tanks and equipment when an unallowable vacuum or pressure is exceeded. These devices
are direct acting weight or spring loaded in-line valves, pallet type and is used to protect plant
equipment (tanks, vessels, process piping).
Pressure: The pressure is defined as a force per unit area. The value of the atmospheric pressure is
taken as 1.033 kg/cm2 or 1.01 bars absolute at sea level. All the pressure gauges read the difference
between the actual pressure in any system and the atmospheric pressure. There are two measures of
the pressure, such as;
Gauge Pressure: The reading of the pressure gauge is known as Gauge Pressure.
Absolute Pressure: The actual pressure is known as the Absolute Pressure.
Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure.
Pressure and Temperature Ratings: Temperature and Pressure are the two important factors
determining the safe and effective working of any industrial pipe fitting. The range of temperature and
pressure depends on the final application, the material being used etc. There are various standards
that are laid down in reference to the temperature and pressure parameters. These are as follows:
Pressure Relief Valve: The pressure relief valve or pressure safety valve is used in the operating
line system to prevent the line over pressurized by releasing the pressure of the line through pop-up of
spring loaded valve-seat or ball. Thus, it protects the piping system or the connected equipments from
failure.
Prime Coat: The first coat of paint applied to inhibit corrosion or improve adherence of the next coat
is called prime coat.
Proof Strength: This is the tensile stress at which there is a plastic deformation or a permanent set
or an elongation of 0.0005 in overall dimension of the body while testing the material in testing
machine. It is considered for design of the bolts. The load required producing a permanent setting in
the material or an elongation of 0.0005 in overall length, under axial stress in a tensile testing
machine, is called the proof strength.
Proportional Limit: The maximum stress at which the material or body is capable of sustaining the
force without deformation from its original shape is called the proportional limit. It is also said that a
material maintains a perfectly uniform rate of strain to stress within the Proportional Limit.
Purging: The displacement of any fluid or air from inside of the pipe or underneath and around the
welding joint of the pipe by an inert gas, natural gas or any suitable media to clean the inside of pipe
or to avoid oxidation or contamination of the pipe or weld material is called purging.

Quenching: Quenching is a process of heating the metal above the upper critical temperature and then
cooling very quickly in water, oil or brine at atmospheric Temperature. In ferrous alloys, quenching is
most often done to produce a martensite transformation to produce a harder metal, while non-ferrous
alloys will usually become softer than normal.
Ratings: Ratings are the maximum allowable gage pressures at the corresponding temperature shown
in the rating table.
Recommended Practice: Good Engineering Practices but which are optional for which procedure
documents are prepared by a professional group or committee.
Reducer: A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the
system, or to adapt to existing piping of a different size. Reducers are usually concentric but eccentric
reducers are used when required to maintain the same top- or bottom-of-pipe level.
Reduction: It is the gain of electrons, when copper is electroplated on steel from a copper sulphate
solution (opposite of oxidation).
Reinforcement of Weld: It is the weld metal on the face or root of the groove weld in excess of the
metal surface. This is done for the specified weld size and to provide extra strength at the weld joint.
Relative Humidity: The ratio of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what it could hold if
saturated at the temperature involved.
Relief Valve: (Pressure Safety Valve): It is a spring loaded valve arranged and set to provide an
automatic release or blow off the excess pressure in the piping system. This is a device to safe guard
the piping system from unwanted excess pressure damage.
Residual Stress: Stress present in the material, which is free from external forces, is called residual
stress. These stresses may be due to some prior mechanical deformation, phase transformation, or to
no uniform cooling.
Resilience: Resilience is the ability of material to resist the wear and tear due to continuous rubbing
of the material with other materials. It plays very important role in resisting erosion, abrasion and
scratching of the materials surfaces. Resilience is the capacity of a material to absorb energy
elastically and the energy stored is given off exactly as in a spring when the load is removed.
Resistance Spot Welding: It is a kind of resistance welding which produce coalescence at the facing
surface in one spot by the heat obtained from the resistance to the electric current through the work
parts held together under pressure by electrodes. Primarily the size and contour of the electrodes limit
the size and shape of the individually formed welds.
Resistance Stud Welding: It is a resistance welding process wherein coalescence is produced by the
heat obtained from resistance to electric current at the interface between the stud and the work piece,
until the surfaces to be joined are properly heated, when they are brought together under pressure.
Resistance Welding: It is a kind of welding process in which coalescence is produced by the heat
obtained from resistance of the work to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the work is a
part, and by the application of pressure.
Retainers: The metallic or non-metallic, consumable or no consumable material (Excluding gas),
which is used to contain or shape the molten weld metal, is called retainer.
Reverse Polarity: It is an arrangement of direct current arc welding where the work piece is
connected to negative pole and the electrode to the positive pole.
Reynolds Number: The Reynolds number is a dimensionless group used in fluid mechanics
calculations. It is expressed as the product of density, velocity and diameter divided by the viscosity
of the fluid.

Ring Joint Gaskets: Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges. A very high
surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a
flange. This leads to plastic deformation of this gasket. Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less
than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e. bringing two metal surfaces of different
hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape
and finish.
Rockwell Hardness Test: It is a common test for determining the hardness of a material based on the
depth of penetration of a shaped indenture under a specified load.
Root Edge: It is a root face in which the width of face is zero.
Root Face: The vertical height of the portion of groove weld face at the root of the joint is called
root face.
Root Opening: The minimum gap of separation at the bottom of the weld joint of two base metals is
called root opening.
Root Penetration: The depth by which a weld metal extends into the base metals at the root of a joint
as measured at the centre line of root cross section is called root penetration.
Root: The bottom portion of the groove weld joint where the two base metals are very near to each
other and where the first pass of welding of the joint is done is called root.
Run: It the portion of the welding done continuously throughout the length of the work pieces in a
single pass.
Rusting: It is the corrosion of iron or iron-base alloy to form a reddish brown product of hydrated
ferric oxide.
Sacrificial Protection: It is a process of reduction or protection of corrosion of a metal in an
electrolyte by galvanic ally coupling it to a more anodic metal.
Scaling: It is high-temperature corrosion resulting in formation of thick corrosion product layers or
deposition of in soluble materials on metal surface, usually inside water boilers or heat exchanger
tube.
Schedule Number: The schedule number indicates approximate value of the expression 1000 x P/S
where P is the service pressure and S is the allowable stress, both expressed in pounds per square
inch.
Seal weld: It is a thin weld on the threaded joints or between stitches welded joints of structure
primarily to obtain leak proof joint or to avoid corrosion of inside surfaces of the members.
Seam Weld: It is a continuous weld made between two members in edge to edge contact or upon two
overlapping members.
Seamless Pipe: Pipe manufactured by piercing and rolling solid billets or by cupping from a plate is
called seamless pipe. It is a wrought steel tubular product made without a welded seam.
Season Cracking: It is a cracking caused by the combined action of corrosion and internal tensile
stresses; it is usually applied to the stress corrosion cracking of brass.
Semi Automatic Welding: This is an arc welding process with equipment where the equipment
controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of the welding is controlled manually
Shear Strength: This is the greatest shear stress at which the material is good enough to sustain the
force without plastic deformation of the body. It is calculated by dividing the greatest load applied
during the shear or tortional test of the material to rapture it by the original cross sectional area (area
before application of the test load) of the body.
Shear Stress: It is a stress, which resists any force tending to slide one part of the body across

another layer of the same body. It acts tangentially / parallel to the plane of the body. Shear Stress is
the maximum value of stress in shear, which a material is capable to sustain without going to plastic
phase of material.
Sheet gaskets: Sheet gaskets are simple; they are cut to size either with bolt holes or without holes
for standard sizes with various thickness and material suitable to media and temperature pressure of
pipeline. This is Non-Metallic Gaskets. Non-Metallic Gaskets are used with flat face or raised face
flanges This leads to a very crude, fast and cheap gasket, such as compressed asbestos, a fibrous
material such as graphite.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW): It is an arc welding process in which coalescence is
produced by heating with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the work piece. The
shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering and filling is obtained from the
consumable electrode.
Short Radius (SR) Elbows: The radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter
Shot Blasting: It is a mechanical removal of metal oxides and scale from the metal surfaces by the
abrasive impingement of small steel pellets.
Size of Weld: For groove weld, it is the depth of the Groove joint plus the thickness of penetration at
root. For fillet weld, it is the leg length of the largest isosceles right triangle, which can be inscribed
within the fillet weld cross section.
Skelp: It is a piece of plate prepared by forming and bending and ready for making a butt-welded
pipe.
Slag Inclusion: It is a weld defect. While welding a non-metallic solid material (slag) are entrapped
in the weld metal or between weld metal and parent metal.
S.I. Units: The 11th General conference of Weights and Measures has recommended a unified and
systematically constituted system of fundamental and derived units for international use. This system
of units is now being used in all most all countries including India. In S.I. Units system, the
fundamental unit of length, mass and time are Meter, Kilogram and Second respectively. But there is a
slight variation in the derived units. India has adopted S.I. Units for all purposes. The international
meter, kilogram and second is defined here below:
Slip-On flanges: Slip On flanges are slipped over the pipe and then welded from both inside and
outside to provide sufficient strength and prevent leakage. This flange is used instead of weld necks
by many users because of its lower cost and also the fact that it requires less accuracy when cutting
pipe to length.
Slushing Compound: Non-drying oil, grease, or wax is known as slushing compound, which is
applied on the metal surface to protect from temporary corrosion.
Socket Weld Flanges: Socket Weld Flanges are similar to a slip on flanges in outline, but the bore is
counter-bored to accept pipe. The diameter of the remaining bore is same as the inside diameter of
the pipe. A fillet weld around the hub of the flange attaches the flange to the pipe. An optional interval
weld may be applied in high stress applications. Its biggest use is in high pressure system such as
hydraulic and steam lines.
Socket Weld: It is a fillet weld of two base metals placed on each other with an overlapped position.
Soldering: Soldering is a process of connecting two parts together with the help of chemical flux
application to the inner sleeve of a joint, and the pipe is inserted and with the use of open flames for
heating joints. The joint is then heated using a propane torch or Gas torch, solder is applied to the
heated joint, and the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes. A

degree of skill is needed to make soldered joints.


Solvent welding: A solvent is applied to PVC, CPVC, ABS, or other plastic piping, to partially
dissolve and fuse the adjacent surfaces of piping and fitting. Solvent welding is usually used with a
sleeve-type joint, to connect pipe and fittings made of the same (or closely compatible) material.
Solvents typically used for plastics are usually toxic, may be carcinogenic, and may also be
flammable, requiring adequate ventilation.
Spatter Loss: It is the difference in weight between the amount of electrode consumed and amounts
of weld deposited. It is a loss of electrode metal during welding due to spatter.
Spatter: It is the metal particles expelled and spread over the surface during the arc and gas-welding
.IT does not form a part of the weld.
Specific Heat: The specific heat of a substance is broadly defined as the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of one unit mass of that substance water through 10 temperatures.
Specific gravity: Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of any volume to the weight of an equal
volume of some other substance taken as a standard at stated temperatures. For solids or liquids, the
standard is usually water, and for gasses the standard is air or hydrogen.
Specification: Few Companies also develop their own Specifications and Guides in order to have
consistency in the documentation while executing the job at site by different engineers. These cover
various engineering methods, which are considered good practices, with specific recommendations
or requirements noted down from the Code and Standards. Codes and Standards, besides being
regulations, might also be considered as design aids since they provide guidance from experts.
Specimen: It is a sample of the welded piece for a specific test to be carried out on it. The specimen
may be a bend test, tension test, impact test, chemical analysis, macro test, hardness test, radiography
test etc.
Spilling: It is the separation of a surface caused by thermal or mechanical stresses (e.g., cooling,
bending etc.)
Spiral welded Pipe: It is a pipe manufactured by coiling a plate into a helix and fusion welding of the
overlapped or abutted edges.
Spiral-Wound Gaskets: Spiral-Wound Gaskets are made with stainless steel outer and inner rings
and a centre filled with spirally wound stainless steel tape wound together with graphite and Teflon,
formed in V shape. Spiral-Wound Gaskets are used with raised face flanges. Spiral wound gaskets
are also used in high pressure pipelines. Internal pressure acts upon the faces of the V, forcing the
gasket to seal against the flange faces. These gaskets have proven to be reliable in most applications,
and allow lower clamping forces than solid gaskets, albeit with a higher cost.
Spot Weld: It is a weld made between or upon overlapping members in which coalescence is
produced on spots of the facing surfaces. The weld cross section is approximately circular.
Squire Groove Weld: It is a groove weld in which the edges of the pipe or plate is not chamfered but
remain as plain end. The squire groove weld is generally done on piping or plate of wall thickness
not greater than 3.5 mm.
Stabilized Steel: It is a stainless steel, which has been alloys with a carbide- forming element (e.g.,
Cb, Ti, or Ta) which makes it less or not susceptible to carbide precipitation
Stainless Steel: It is alloy steel having unusual corrosion resistance properties due to having
elements like Chromium and Nickel in greater percentage.
Standard Weight: It is a schedule of weights of pipes to be used by different users
Standards: It is a document having standard dimensions of piping components approved by the

competent authority for use by the different users. Standard Documents are prepared by a Professional
group or Committee in a proper Engineering Practices that are believed to be good and contain
mandatory requirement.
Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP): This refers to temperature at 25 deg C
(298.15 K) and pressure of 101 kPa.
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP): This is commonly used to define standard conditions
for temperature and pressure. These are important for the measurements and documentation of
chemical and physical processes.
Static Head: Static head is the vertical distance between the free level of the source of supply and
the point of free discharge, or to the level of the free surface of the discharged liquid.
Stress Corrosion Cracking: It is an anodic process, electrochemical in nature. There is a thin film of
electrolyte on the metal surface and that both anodic and cathode area exists on the surface covered
by the liquid film. A very thin oxide film form almost instantaneously on the surface of all metals
exposed to moisture. This oxide-covered surface is much less chemically active than a bare or
unveiled surface, and it will be the cathode in an electrolyte. Stress corrosion cracking has been
commonly observed under the following conditions:
a. When repeated dripping of water takes place on one area of hot stainless steel.
b. When migration of water takes place through porous lagging on a steel surface and concentrates
salts at that surface.
c. A crevice in a heat transfer surface is in ideal hot spot for stress corrosion cracking.
Stiffness: The resistance of a material to elastic deformation or deflection is called Stiffness or
Rigidity.
Stop Valve: It is a Non-return or check valve.
Straight Polarity: It is the arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the work is
connected to the positive pole and the electrode to the negative pole of the welding arc.
Strain: Strain is the behaviour of the material due to which there is a change in size, shape and
dimension of the body due to any external force acting on it. Strain is a non-dimensional quantity but
its unit of measurement is length per unit of length e.g. centimetre per centimetre. The material
subjected to a load may deform, yield or break, depending upon the magnitude of the load, nature of
material and its cross-sectional dimension. The resultant deformation expressed as a fractional
change in dimension due to all the elementary inter-atomic forces or internal resistances, is called
Strain. It is a measured of a change in dimensions of a material when loaded compared to its original
size or shape. Linear strain would be the change in length of a part compared to its original length. It
is usually expressed as a percentage.
Strainers: Strainers are placed in-line with process piping to remove large solid contaminants from
the flow. Strainers filter particles and contaminants from fluids. They provide a high degree of
resistance to corrosive substances such as acids and solvents and other toxic fluids. Strainers can be
cleaned and reused.
Strength: The Strength of a material is its capacity to withstand destruction under the action of
external loads. It is the ability of a material to withstand stress without failure. The strength of a
material is defined using the following properties, such as modulus of elasticity; yield strength, and
ultimate tensile strength.
Stress analysis: Stress analysis is method where process piping and power piping are typically
checked by Pipe Stress Engineers to verify that the routing, nozzle loads, hangers, and supports are

properly placed and selected such that allowable pipe stress is not exceeded under different situation
such as sustain, operating or hydro test as per the ASME or any other legislative code and local
government standards. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the piping under
regular loads (internal pressure and thermal stresses) as well under occasional and intermittent
loading cases such as earthquake, high wind or special vibration, and water hammer. This evaluation
is usually performed with the assistance of a specialized pipe stress analysis computer program.
Stress Corrosion: The corrosion caused by tensile stress is called stress corrosion.
Stress Relieving: It is the uniform heating of a fabricated or welded product to a sufficiently high
temperature below the critical range, holding, and cooling at the controlled rate of cooling to
atmosphere temperature. It is done to relieve the major portion of residual stresses during welding,
cold or hot bending, or cutting operation etc.
Stress relieving: Stress relieving is done to remove or to reduce the internal stresses created in a
metal during cold working, such as welding. The stresses are caused in a number of ways, ranging
from cold working to non-uniform cooling. Stress relieving is usually accomplished by heating a
metal below the lower critical temperature and then cooling uniformly but slowly.
Stress: It is behaviour of the material due to which it tends to resist any external force acting on it. It
is the intensity of internal force or component of forces acting at a point in a place in the body. It is
expressed in force per unit area of cross section of the body in that place. There are different types of
stress e.g. tensile stress, compressive stress, and shear stress and torsion stress. Load or force per
unit area of the cross section through which the load is acting is called stress.
String Bead: It is a type of weld bead made by moving the electrode in a direction essentially
parallel to the axis of the bead. There is no appreciable transverse oscillation of the electrode during
welding.
Stud Welding: It is a procedure to join two base metals with the help of joining a metal stud to a
work piece. Arc, resistance, friction or other suitable method with or without external gas shielding
accomplishes the welding.
Submerged Arc Welded (SAW) Pipe: Submerged Arc Welded pipe is defined as pipe having one
longitudinal seam formed by submerged arc welding.
Submerged Arc Welding: It is an arc-welding process in which coalescence is produced by heating
with an electric arc between a bare metal electrode and the work piece. A blanket of granular fusible
material poured on the work piece shields the welding.
Suction head: Suction head (sometimes called head of suction) exists when the pressure measured at
the suction nozzle and corrected to the centreline of the pump is above atmospheric pressure. Static
suction head is the vertical distance from the free level of the source of supply to centreline of pump.
Dynamic suction head is the vertical distance from the source of supply, when pumping at required
capacity, to centreline of pump, minus velocity head, entrance, friction, but not minus internal pump
losses. Dynamic suction head, as determined on test, is the reading of a gage connected to suction
nozzle of pump, minus vertical distance from centre of gage to centre line of pump. Suction head, after
deducting the various losses, many be a negative quantity, in which case a condition equivalent to
suction lift will prevail.
Suction Lift: Suction lift exists when the suction measured at the pump nozzle and corrected to the
centreline of the pump is below atmospheric pressure. Static suction lift is the vertical distance from
the free level of the source of supply to centreline of pump. Dynamic suction lift is the vertical
distance from the source of supply when pumping at required capacity, to centreline of pump, plus

velocity head, entrance and friction loss, but not including internal pump losses, where static suction
head exists but where the losses exceed the static suction head the dynamic suction lift is the sum of
the velocity head, entrance, friction, minus the static suction head, but not including internal pump
losses. Dynamic suction lift as determined on test is the reading of the mercury column connected to
suction nozzle of pump, plus vertical distance between point of attachment of mercury column to
centreline of pump, plus bead of water resting on mercury column, if any.
Sulphide Stress Cracking: It is a Hydrogen-induced cracking of a metal in an environment containing
hydrogen sulphide. Process stream containing water and hydrogen sulphide may cause sulphide stress
cracking of susceptible materials. This phenomenon is affected by a complex interaction of
parameters including metal chemical composition and hardness, heat treatment, microstructure, pH,
hydrogen sulphide concentration, stress and temperature.
Surfacing: It is a process of depositing layers of material to another surface by welding, brazing or
thermal spraying to obtain desired properties or dimensions.
Swage Nipples: A short stub of pipe usually threaded steel, brass, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) or copper; occasionally just bare copper. A nipple is defined as being a short stub of pipe
which has a male pipe thread at each end, for connecting two other fittings. Nipples are commonly
used for plumbing and hoses, and second as valves for funnels and pipes
Swaging: It is a method of reducing the end of the pipe with rotating dies, which are pressed
intermittently against the pipe end.
Tack Weld: It is a small length of weld made to hold two parts of a weld in proper alignment till the
final weld is made.
Tee: Tee is the most common pipe fittings. It is used to either combine or split a fluid flow. It is a
type of pipe fitting which is T-shaped having two outlets, at 90 to the connection to the main line. It
is a short piece of pipe with a lateral outlet.
Tee Joint: It is the joining two members located approximately at right angles to each other in a form
of tee with the help of welding.
Temperature: The temperature is defined as the degree of hotness or the level of heat intensity of a
body. A hot body is said to be at higher temperature and the cold body is said to be at lower
temperature. The thermometer in the scale of Centigrade or Celsius and Fahrenheit measures the
temperature.
Tempering: It is a process of heating normalized or quench-hardened steel to a temperature below
the transformation temperature (the lower critical temperature, (400 to 1105 F or 205 to 595 C) and
cooling at the desired rate up to a specific temperature, which is above the martensite start
temperature, and then holding it there until pure bainite can form or internal stresses can be relieved
to impart some toughen or the atmospheric temperature. It is also called stress relieving.
Tensile strength: The maximum value of stress in tension, which a material is capable to sustain
before start of plastic phase of material is known as tensile strength. This is the greatest tensile stress
at which the material is good enough to sustain the force without plastic deformation of the body. It is
calculated by dividing the greatest load applied during the tensile test of the material to rapture it by
the original cross sectional area (area before application of the test load) of the body.
Tensile Stress: It is a stress, which resists any force tending to pull a body apart. It acts normal /
perpendicular to the cross sectional plane out ward direction. Thus, in the design of piping, it is
necessary to know the effects of the three independent variables, such as, stress, time and temperature
on the plastic properties and fracture strength of the materials from which the piping to be

constructed. Such information is obtained from creep tests.


Test Coupon: It is a piece of sample of plate; pipe or tube either fillet welded or butt-welded
material for procedure or performance qualification testing.
Test Specimen: It is a sample piece of any material for specific test such as bend test, tension test,
impact test, chemical analysis, macro test, or radiography test etc.
Thermal Capacity: The thermal capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of whole mass of the substance through 10 temperatures.
Thermal conductivity: The thermal conductivity is defined as the rate of heat transfer from the higher
gradient to the lower gradient in unit area of the surface, one degree of temperature difference and
through one unit of thickness in unit time.
Threaded Joint: Pipes are threaded at the end and are connected together with the help of coupling is
called the threaded joint.
Threaded pipe: Steel pipe is often joined using threaded connections, where tapered threads are cut
into the end of the tubing segment, sealant is applied in the form of thread sealing compound or thread
seal tape (PTFE or Teflon tape), and it is then threaded into a corresponding threaded fitting using a
pipe wrench.
Throat of Fillet Weld: It is the perpendicular distance from the root of the fillet weld to the
hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
Toe of Weld: It is the junction between the face of the weld and the base metal.
Tortional Stress: It is a kind of shear stress, which resists any force tending to twist the body. It acts
along the circular path of the cross section of the body in the plane of cross section.
TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD: Total dynamic head is the vertical distance between source of supply and
point of discharge when pumping at required capacity, plus velocity head friction, entrance and exit
losses. Total dynamic head as determined on test where suction lift exists, is the reading of the
mercury column connected to the suction nozzle of the pump, plus reading of a pressure gage
connected to discharge nozzle of pump, plus vertical distance between point of attachment of mercury
column and centre of gage, plus excess, if any, of velocity head of discharge over velocity head of
suction, as measured at points where the instruments are attached, plus head of water resting on
mercury column, if any. Total dynamic head, as determined on tests where suction head exists, is the
reading of the gage attached to the discharge nozzle of pump, minus the reading of a gage connected to
the suction nozzle of pump, plus or minus vertical distance between centres of gages (depending upon
whether suction gage is below or above discharge gage), plus excess, if any, of the velocity head of
discharge over velocity head of suction as measured at points where instruments are attached. Total
dynamic discharge head is the total dynamic head minus dynamic suction lift, of plus dynamic suction
head.
Toughness: The ability of a material to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing is
called Toughness. Toughness is a measure of the amount of energy a material can absorb before actual
fracture or failure takes place. The ability of any material to resist the external shock or impact, or to
withstand the repeated and reversing nature of stress, or to absorb the energy developed due to
overstressing of the material beyond the elastic limit is called toughness of the material. This property
of the material is very much desirable in piping because of the nature of piping requirement to absorb
the shock due to water hammer and similar form of surge. This is measure by the impact testing of the
material I the laboratory. The toughness of a material is dependent upon both strength and ductility.
Traps: The traps are used in the steam line to discharge the condensate from the steam in steam piping

without allowing steam to escape from the line.


Trepanning: It is the removal of a small portion of weld of pipe or plate welded together for
evaluation of weld and base metal soundness. This operation is generally performed with a whole
saw.
Tube: Tubular products are termed as tube. Tube is specified by outside diameter and wall thickness,
expressed in inch or in mm. The principal uses for tube are in heat exchangers, instrument lines, and
inter-connections on equipments such as compressors, boilers, and refrigerators.
Tubing: The tubing is used for lighter-weight piping, especially types that are flexible enough to be
supplied in coiled form.
Tungsten electrode: It is a tungsten wire, other than the filler metal and consumable, used in an inert
gas arc welding process.
Turbnizing: It is a process of mechanically removal of scales from the inside of pipe by means of airdriven centrifugal rotating cleaners. This operation is performed on steel pipe bends after hot bending
to remove loose scales and sand.
Ultimate Strength: The maximum stress that a material can sustain is called the Ultimate Strength.
Under Bead Crack: It is a crack in the heat-affected zone or in previously welded weld metal
Paralleling the underside contour of the deposited weld bead and usually not extending to the surface.
Undercut: It is the unfilled groove made by the melting of base metal adjacent to the toe of a weld.
Underground piping: Underground piping systems for drainage, or disposal of storm water or
groundwater, use gravity flow at low pressure, often with entrained solids. Piping fittings used for
these systems shall be designed to be as smooth as possible on their interior surfaces. When high peak
flow volumes are involved, the design and construction of these systems are closely inter-related to
sewer design.
Unequal Tee: When the branch size is less than that of header size, reduced tee is used. Most
common are tees with the same inlet and outlet sizes. Some of the industrial tees are Straight Tee,
Reducing Tee, Double Branch Tee, Double Branch Reducing Tee, Conical Tee, Double Branch
Conical Tee, Bullhead Tee, Conical Reducing Tee, Double Branch Conical Reducing Tee, Tangential
Tee, and Double Branch Tangential Tee.
Union: A union is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenient
disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement. A union provides a simple transition,
allowing easy connection or disconnection at any future time. A standard union pipe is made in three
parts consisting of a nut, a female end, and a male end. When the female and male ends are joined, the
nuts then provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint. Since the mating ends of the union are
interchangeable, changing of a valve or other device can be achieved with a minimum loss of time.
Pipe unions are essentially a type of flange connector, as discussed further below.
Units: The measurement of physical quantities is one of the most important operations in engineering.
Every quantity is measured in terms of some arbitrary, but internationally accepted units. There are
four systems of Units, which are internationally accepted and commonly used. These are as follow:
C.G.S. Units: In C.G.S. Units system, the fundamental unit of length, mass and time are
Centimetre, Gram and Second respectively. The C.G.S. units are known as Absolute Units or
Physicists Units.
F.P.S. Units: In F.P.S. Units system, the fundamental unit of length, mass and time are
Foot, Pound and Second respectively.
M.K.S. Units: In M.K.S. Units system, the fundamental unit of length, mass and time are

Meter, Kilogram and Second respectively. The M.K.S. units are known as Engineers Units.
India has adopted M.K.S Units for all purposes.
Upper Transformation: It is the temperature at which transformation of the ferrite to austenite is
completed during heating.
Vacuum Systems Piping: Vacuum Systems are very thinner and lighter construction since the weight
of the materials conveyed through the system is much less. Vacuum system shall be designed to be as
smooth as possible on their interior surfaces. The fittings may be "belled" or expanded slightly in
diameter, or otherwise shaped to accommodate insertion of pipe without forming a sharp interior
ridge and by eliminating internal ridges, burrs, sharp turns, or other obstructions to smooth flow that
might cause build-up of material into pipe blockages.
Valves: Valve is equipment designed to stop or regulate flow of any fluid (liquid, gas, condensate,
stem, slurry etc.) in its path. Valves are categorized depending on their applications like isolation,
throttling and non-return. It is installed in the piping system based on its requirement. Various types of
valves are available depending upon the type of construction as follows:
Velocity Head: The velocity head (sometimes called "head due to velocity") of water moving with a
given velocity, is the equivalent head through which it would have to fall to acquire the same
velocity: or the head necessary merely to accelerate the water. Knowing the velocity, we can readily
figure the velocity head from the simple formula:
Vertical Position: It is a welding position in which the axis of the pipe is vertical with the welding
being performed in the horizontal position .The pipe may or may not be rotated during welding.
Viscosity: Viscosity is the internal friction of a liquid tending to reduce flow. Viscosity is the internal
friction of a liquid tending to reduce flow. Viscosity is ascertained by an instrument termed a
Viscosimeter, of which there are several makes, viz. Saybolt Universal; Tangliabue; Engler (used
chiefly in Continental countries); Redwood (used in British Isles and Colonies). In the United States
the Saybolt and Tangliabue instruments are in general use Viscosity is expressed as the number of
seconds required for a definite volume of fluid under a arbitrary head to flow through a standardized
aperture at constant temperature.
Voids: It is a term generally applied to indicate the defects in paint, or welds.
Water Equivalent: The water equivalent of a substance is defined as the quantity of water, which
requires the same amount of heat required to raise the temperature of whole substance through 10
temperatures.
Water Hammer: Whenever the discharge valve at the delivery end is suddenly closed or the running
pump is closed due to power failure in a pipeline supplying water to a long distance point, the
moving column of water is brought to a stop at the valve or a vacuum is created at the pump end of the
line. Then the kinetic energy, equal to 1/2 MV2, contained in the column of water must be brought to
the equilibrium stage. Hence to maintain the equilibrium the column of water compresses back and the
pressure rises near the valve. From higher pressure point to the lower pressure point water rushes
and acts upon the pipe wall and gives a hammer effect on the pipe repeatedly till equilibrium is
reached. This hammer effect is called Water Hammer.
Weave Bead: It is a type of a welding technology in which welding is done with oscillation of the
electrode transverse to the axis of the weld. It is called a weave bead welding.
Weight: It is the amount of pull, which the earth exerts upon a given body and it varies with the
distance of the body from the centre of the earth. Thus the weight of the body varies with its position
on the earth surface and thus, it is a force.

Weld ability: It is the ability of the metals to get welded under the specific condition of welding
parameters.
Weld Bead: It is the weld metal deposited during welding.
Weld Decay: It is a term applied to areas adjacent to welds of a certain alloys, which have been
subjected to inter-granular corrosion because of metallurgical changes in the alloys.
Weld Metal Area: It is the area of the weld metal as measured on the cross section of a weld.
Weld Metal: It is the portion of the weld, which is melted during welding either by melting of the
electrode, filler wire, base metal or both.
Weld Neck Flanges: Weld Neck Flanges are designed to be joined to a piping system by butt
welding. They are expensive because of its long neck, but are preferred for high stresses to the pipe,
reducing stress applications. The neck, or hub, transmits stress concentration at the base of the flange.
The gradual transition of thickness from the base of the hub to the wall thickness at the butt weld
provides important reinforcement of the flange. Turbulence and erosion are reduced due to the
matching bore size of the pipe and flange.
Welded Joint: It is a localized union of two or more members produced by the application of a
welding process. Welder: He is a man who is capable of performing a manual or semiautomatic
welding operation.
Welder Qualification: This is the acceptance test determining the ability of a welder to make a
satisfactory weld of the metals in the specified position of welding as per requirement of the codes.
Welding Accessories: These are the tools, machines or other items used to achieve the weld, such as
Electrode holder, Flexible power cable, Leather hand gloves, apron, Wire brush, chisel, hammer,
Electrode holder etc.
Welding current: The current, which flows through the electrical welding circuit during the making
of the weld is called welding current.
Welding Fit-up: It is a process of gas cutting, grinding, cleaning, and joining the two members to be
welded together with tack welds after alignment and maintaining the welding joint design correctly.
Welding Generator: It is the electrical current generator, which generates the D.C. power for
welding.
Welding Gloves: Welding gloves are specialized, highly-protective hand wear worn during material
joining (welding) applications. They protect the welder's hands from high heat, molten metal, and
flame while allowing for manual dexterity and movement of the fingers. Most welding gloves are
made of heavy, thermally-insulating materials such as canvas, cotton, leather, metal and metal mesh,
or wool.
Welding Machine: The electrical or mechanical equipment used for welding is called welding
machine.
Welding Operator: He is a man who operates the welding machine.
Welding Procedure qualification: It is a written qualified welding procedure with all of the
essential, nonessential and supplementary essential variables, prepared to provide direction to the
welder or welding operator for making production welds to codes requirements.
Welding Procedure: It is a detailed document of methods and practices involved in the production of
a weld, which includes the joint design, filler metals used, specification of metals to be welded,
thickness of members and other parameters as per code requirements.
Welding Process: It is a type of method of welding in, which describes how to produce the
coalescence of the two members to be welded together.

Welding Rod: It is a rod or wire, consumable or no consumable, used for welding of the metals.
Welding Sequence: It is the order or process of making a weld of the metals.
Welding: Welding is a process where the material of the pipe or tube is itself partially melted in a
carefully controlled manner to get the metals directly fused together.
Wrought Iron: It is a refined iron in plastic state in a pudding furnace in which 3 percent of slag
irregularities and 0.5 percent of carbon are mixed together with pure iron and other elements.
Yield Point: This is the point of the first value of stress, in the stress-strain diagram, less than the
maximum stress, at which the strain increase without any increase in the value of the stress. In other
word, this is the point of the first value of stress at which the material cease offering resistance to a
force and starts flowing in a permanent set without a noticeable increase in load. The value of the
maximum first stress in a material having less unique yielding phenomenon than the maximum
attainable stress at which any increase in strain occurs without any increase in the stress value.
Yield stress: It is a value of the stress at which the material exhibits a permanent change in shape,
size or dimension. The maximum stress at which the body exhibits a specified (limited) deviation
from its original form or shape is called the Yield Stress.

1.9

List of Codes and Standards

Committees of leading engineering societies and standardization groups prepare various Codes and
Standards, applicable to Design, fabrication and welding of piping systems. These are, generally,
written with authenticity to establish the minimum requirements of quality and safety. Its main
objective is to have Standardization and Safety. Periodic review of the standards by the committee is
done and these are revised to incorporate the modified features based on the research and feedback
from industry. Codes and Standards are essential Documents for Design, Engineering, Construction,
Inspection and proper selection of Material of Piping Systems. It reduces cost, confusion and
inconvenience. It is, hence, necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards be referred
for the design.
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI): These specify the material by its Chemical and Physical
properties. ANSI Standards can identify the material when specific model of manufacture of the
element is not specified.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI): The American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards
for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. ANSI has five founding
Engineering Societies, such as, American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE); American Society
of Mechanical Engineers (ASME); American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE); American Institute
of Mining Engineers (AIME); and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). All
Dimension Standards are covered under ANSI. The American National Standards Institute's standards
used in the design of the Piping Systems are:
ANSI A13.1
:
Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems
ANSI A58.1
:
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ANSI B31.1
:
Code for Power project piping
ANSI B31.2
:
Industrial Gas and Fuel Gas Piping
ANSI B31.3
:
Code for petroleum refinery piping
ANSI B31.4
:
Code for Liquid petroleum transportation piping
system
ANSI B31.5
:
Refrigeration Piping.
ANSI B31.6
:
Chemical Industry Process Piping
ANSI B31.8
:
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.
ANSI B 31.9
:
Building Services Piping
ANSI B 31.11
:
Slurry Transportation Piping System
ANSI B 31.G
:
Manual for determining the remaining strength of
corroded piping a Supplement to ANSI B31
American Petroleum Institute (API): API produces standards, recommended practices,
specifications, codes and technical publications, reports. Different API standards promote the use of
safe, interchangeable equipment and operations through the use of proven, sound engineering
practices and are listed as below:
API RP14E:
Recommended practice for offshore piping.
API RP14C:
Recommended practices for concerning required Safety
devices for process components.
API RP520:
Recommended practice for design and installation of

Pressure Relieving Systems in Refineries, Part-I and Part-II.


API RP521:
Guide for Pressure Relief and Depressurising System.
API 1102:
Recommended practice for liquid petroleum cross-country
pipeline, rail roads and highways
API 1104:
Specification for welding of cross-country pipeline and related
facilities.
API 1105:
Bulletin on construction practices for oil and its producers
pipelines
API 1107:
Recommended practice for maintenance of welding of
pipelines
American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME): ASME has adapted most of ANSI and
ASTM Standards. This code covers piping connected to Boilers (Section I) to Pressures Vessels
(section VIII), and to Nuclear Power Plant Components (Section-xi), which is frequently used by
piping engineers and are listed below:
SECTION-I;
Rule for construction of Power Boiler
SECTION-II;
Material
Part A
Ferrous Material Specifications
Part B
Nonferrous Material Specifications
Part C
Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes and Filler Metals
Part D
Properties
SECTION-III:
General Requirements for Nuclear Vessels: Division 1
and
Division 2.
SECTION IV:
Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
SECTION V:
Non-destructive Examination
SECTION VI:
Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation Heating
Boilers
SECTION VII:
Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
SECTION VIII:
Unfired Pressure Vessels: Rules for Construction of
Pressure
Vessels
Division 1
Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessel
Division 2
Alternative Rules
Division 3
Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessel
SECTION IX:
Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing
Procedure,
Welders, Brazers and Operators Qualifications
SECTION X:
Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
SECTION XI:
Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant
Components
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM): All Material Standards are covered under
ASTM, which consists of 16 sections on definitions and classifications of Materials of Construction
and Test methods. Most of the ASTM Standards are adapted by ASME and are specified in ASME
Section II. ASME Section II covers the various materials such as plates, castings, Pipe and tubes. The
specification number has an Alphabetical prefix, "A" for ferrous and "B" for non-ferrous materials

and so on. ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metal and alloys as Unified
Numbering System. Unified Numbering System (UNS) establishes 18 series numbers of metals and
alloys. Each UNS number consists of a single letter prefix followed by 5 digits. In most cases the
alphabet is suggestive of the family of the metal identified.
American Welding Society (AWS): These standards provide information on the welding
fundamentals; weld design, welder's training qualifications, testing and inspection of the welds and
guidance on the application and use of welds.
American Water Works Association (AWWA): These standards refer to the piping elements
required for low-pressure water services. These are less stringent than other standards. Valves and
Flanges required for large diameter water pipelines are covered under this standard and are referred
rarely by piping engineers.
British Standard (BS): British Standard may be substitutes for American Standards.
Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V. (DIN): This is a German Institute for Standardization. German
Institute for Standardization is the German national organization for standardization and is that
country's ISO member body. DIN is a Registered German Association (e.V.).
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS): This specifies the standards used for industrial activities in
Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and
published through Japanese Standards Association.
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA): It is the Authority on Expansion Joints. The
EJMA Standards are the authority on the proper selection and application of metallic bellows type
expansion joints for safe and reliable piping and vessel installation. EJMA Standards is intended to
provide users with a basic understanding of expansion joints and Heat Exchangers. It will also assist
the user in communicating design requirements to the manufacturers and to properly install and
maintain the expansion joint in service.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS): Bureau of Indian Standards has so far not developed an Indian
Standard for the design of Piping Systems. Indian Standards do not cover dimensions and material
specifications under the same standard number. There are no groupings based on branch of
engineering. So in India, we adopt only the American Standards.
Indian Boilers & Regulation (IBR): This is an Indian Standard for design, fabrication and erection
and Inspection of Boiler Piping.
Manufacturers Standardization Society-Standard Practices (MSS-SP): It is Manufacturers
Standardization Society. It develops Standard Practices of Valves and Fitting. These are published as
advisory standards and are widely followed by manufacturers.
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE): NACE International is a professional
organization for the corrosion control industry. NACE International is involved in every industry and
area of corrosion prevention and control, from chemical processing and water systems, to
transportation and infrastructure protection. NACE's main focus of activities includes cathode
protection, coatings for industry and material selection for specific chemical resistance. NACE
standards specify the pipe materials for sour and corrosive services of industries and these material
grades are associated with ASME Sec. 2A standards also.
NACE:
Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic
Material for oil field (MR-01-75) Equipment
NACE:
Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulphide Stress
Cracking at ambient (MR-01-77) Temperature

NACE RP-0286: Electrical Isolation of Catholically Protected Pipelines


National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): This is Code, Standard and Recommended Practice
for proper design of the Fire piping system. These Standards and specifications are very authentic and
are frequently being used in piping industries for different purposes. It is, hence, necessary that the
latest editions of the Codes and Standards shall be referred for the design.
NFPA 70
: National Electric Code
National Fire Code Volume 6
: Sprinklers, Fire Pumps, and Water Tank.
National Fire Code Volume 8
: Portable and Manual Fire Control Equipment.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Organization for
Standardization develops International Standards on a variety of subjects and many ISO standards are
published every year. The full range of technical fields can be seen from the listing International
Standards.
European Committee for Standardization (CEN): The European Committee for Standardization
(CEN) is a business facilitator in Europe, removing trade barriers for European industry and
consumers. CEN is a major provider of European Standards and Technical Specifications.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA): The Canadian Standards Association is an association
serving business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. They
work in Canada and around the world to develop standards that address real needs, such as enhancing
public safety and health and advancing the quality of life and helping to preserve the environment.
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE): SAE International is a global association of engineers and
technical experts in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries.
United States Military Standard (A-A): A United States Defence Standard, often called a military
standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization
objectives by the U.S. Department of Defence. Standardization is beneficial in achieving
interoperability; ensuring products meet certain requirements, commonality, reliability, total cost of
ownership, compatibility with logistics systems, and similar defence-related objectives.

1.10

VENDORS AND M ANUFACTURER


PIPES :

Ameron International,
Geldermalsen, Netherlands.
Anderson Hydraulics,
Aberdeen, UK,
British Steel Tubes &
Pipes, Northamptonshire, UK.
British Steel Tubular
Supply
Services,
Northamptonshire, UK.
Dalamine, Italy, Fax:
0031 345 574903
Itochu, Japan.
Kawasaki Steel, Japan
Mannesmann Rohren
Works, Germany.

Marubeni, Japan.
Mitsui, Japan
NIPPON Steel, Japan
NKK, Japan
NSC, Japan.
Sidereca, Argentina
Sumitomo
Corporation, Japan.
Thyssen Stahlunion,
GmbH (Germany)
Vallource &
Mannesmann, Germany

FLANGE:
Anderson Hydraulics,
Aberdeen, UK.
Ani Aurora PLC,
Yorkshire, UK.
Austin Stround, U.K.
BG Technomarine System
Ltd, UK.
BSL Tubes et Raccords
sa, France.
Corposider, Italy.
Echjay Industries Ltd.,
India.
Galperti, Itali
London Forged Fittings,
UK.

Melesi, Italy
Metal Forging, India
MGI, France
Nicola Galperi,
Italy.
Paramount Forging,
India
Punjab steeal, India
Schulz Export, W.
Germany.
Sumitomo, Japan
Technofine, India

FITTINGS :
Anderson Hydraulics,
Aberdeen, UK.
Ani Aurora PLC,
Yorkshire, UK.
BG Technomarine System
Ltd, UK.
British Steel Tubular
Supply
Services,
Northamptonshire, UK
BSL Tubes et Raccords
sa, France.
Corposider, Italy.
Fittinox, Italy
Gam Raccordi, Italy
Igwara, India
Corposider spa, Italy.

IHF, India
Mega, spa. Italy
Schulz Export, GmbH
Germany,
Trauvey & Cauvin,
France.
Nichimen, Japan
Pipeline
International, U.K.
Raccordi Forgaiti,
Italy
Schulz Germany,
UK.
Sumitomo, Japan
Techno Forged, U.K.
Benken, Japan

VALVES :
Akay, Hubly
ANDERSON G REENWOOD ,
UK.
Anderson Hydraulics,
Aberdeen, UK.
Ani Aurora PLC,
Yorkshire, UK.
B.D.K Marketing, Hubly
Babcock Flow Controls
Balon Corporation
BALON, USA
Bately Valvve Co Ltd,
West Yorkshire, UK.
BI Thornton Ltd.,

KTM, JAPAN
L&T AUDCO,
MADRAS
LB Bentley Ltd.
Gloucester shire, UK.
MAPEGAZ,
FRANCE
OMB, ITALY.
RONA,
T K VALVES,
ABUDHABI.
OMB SPA, ITALI
OMS SALERI,
ITALY

Yorkshire, UK.

ORION, ITALI
PERAIR, ITAALI
PETROL VALVES,

Bifold Co
Ltd,

(Manufacturing)
Manchester, UK.
Blakeborough Control
V.aves, Yorkshire UK.
Breda Energia-Sesto
Industria, Milano, ITALY.
BVUK Ltd, Leicester,
UK.
FLOW CONTROL,
CANADA
GROOVE ITALIA, SPA
GROVE, ITALY
KITZ, JAPAN

PLATES

ITALI
PRECISION
ENGG.,NASIK
PROCEEP,
AHMEDABAD
ROBERT CORT, UK
RONA VALVES,
BELGIUM
SAKHI ENGRS,
MUMBAI
T.K. VALVES,
ABUDABI
VALVINOX
VITAS, ITALI
WALTHER WEIR,
SPAIN
ZUMOX, MUMBAI

FOR PRESSURE VESSELS :

BRITISH STEEL
DILLINGER,
PREUSSAY GmbH
IEC PIPING, ITALI
IISCO, INDIA
INCO ALLOYS, UK
KOBE STEELS LTD.,
JAPAN
MAHER ALLOYS LTD.,
SINGAPORE

M/S DALMINE,
ITALY.
MITSUBISHI
METAL, JAPAN
PHILIP CARNES
SAIL, INDIA
THYSSEN,
FRANCE
TISCO, INDIA
VDM, GERMANY

GASKET:
ACORN SEALS LTD,
DALGETY BAY , UK.
Advanced Products (Seals
& Gasket), UK.
IGP LTD.

Madras Industrial
Products,
MOORSIDE, UK
SEVAL, ITALI

N UTS & BOLTS :


BEA, ITALI
BOLT MASTER (I) LTD.,
INDIA
HARDWIN FASTENERS

OME, ITALI
SANDEEP ENGG.
INDIA
SYNDICATE
ENGG. INDIA

I NSULATION M ATERIAL:
AARON SEALS, Cambridge shire UK.
Anderson Hydraulics, Aberdeen, UK.
ARMSTRONG INSULATION PRODUCTS, UK.
BRITISH STEEL TUBULAR SUPPLY SERVICES , NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, UK
FLAME ARRESTOR:
BSL TUBES ET RACCORDS SA, Cedex, France,

H OSE:
AARON SEALS, Huntington, Cambridge shire UK.,
Anderson Hydraulics, Aberdeen, UK.
BAND-IT CO LTD, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, UK.,
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING:
ABBOT GROUP PLC, ABERDEEN UK.,
ACIERIES HACHETTE & DRIOUT, Saint-Dizzier, France.,
AEA SONOMATIC, Aberdeen UK.,
AGFA GEVAERT INDIA LTD., Marine Lines, Mumbai,
BG TECNOMARINE SYSTEM LTD, Arbroath, UK,
BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTER, Trombay, Mumbai
BLUE STAR LTD, Prabhadevi, Mumbai-400025
C.Z. INSTRUMENTS INDIA LTD., Sir V. Thakeray Marg, Mumbai-400020

H EAT TREATMENT:
ABBOT GROUP PLC, Aberdeen UK.,
ACIERIES HACHETTE & DRIOUT, Saint-Dizzier, France.
Industrial Marine & oil field Service, Ambal Doshi Marg, Mumai-400023
Mathbin Scientifics, 301/10-A, Ranjit Nagar Complex, New Delhi-110 008
Metallurgical Services, Ghatkopar, Mumbai-400 086, TEL: 585241
NDT Appliances Pvt. Ltd., 59, Suren Sarkar Road, Calcutta-700 010
Pioneer Equipment Co. Pvt. Ltd., 432, Padra Road, Broda-390 005
Pradeep Metal Treatment Chemical Pvt. Ltd., Wagle Estate Thane-400 604
Relsonics, Khatani Textile Industries Compound, Kurla, Mumbai.
SGS India Pvt. Ltd., SGS House, Nauroji Furdosji Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400039
Southern Dynamics, Ramaswami Street, Manady, Madras-600 001
Test Equipment, 102,Chittaranjan Park, New Delhi-110 019

Vibtronics Pvt. Ltd., Nasyani Estate, Halav Bridge, Kurla, Mumbai-400 070
X-ray Associates Mfg. Co., 124, S.V. Road, Jogeshwari, Mumbai-400 060
X-Ray Engg. Co. (P) Ltd., Off Vidyanagari Marg,, Kalina, Mumbai-400 098

NDT EQUIPMENTS SERVICES :


ANDREX RADIATION PRODUCTS AS, COPENHAGEN S, DENMARK
East west Enterprises Ltd., 33, Brabourne Road, Calcutta-700 001, India
Industrial Testing Ltd., Belington Road, Leighton Buzzard, Bedford Shire.
Industrial X-Ray System, Hum berg 68, West Germany
Magnafield Controls, By Lane, Deccan Gymkhana, POOna-411 004, India
Magnaflux Ltd., South Dorcan Industrial Estate, Swindon SN3 5HE-U.K
Philips GmbH Werll Fur Messtechrik
Radiation Product Division, 40, North Avenue, Burlington, Mass-01803
Vito Sonics Ltd., Marsh gab Drive Hertford, Herts, England

I NSTRUMENTS & C ONTROLS :


ABB-KENT TAYLOR,
INDIA
Able Instruments &
Controls Ltd, UK.,
Agema Infrared Systems
Ltd, Bedfordshire UK.,
AMETEK PMT,
Feasterville, USA,
ANDERSON, USA
ASCHROFT, USA
AUDCO, INDIA
BAKER CAC, USA
BELLS, INDIA
BLAKEBOROUGH, UK
BOPP & REUTHER,
GERMANY
BOURDEN SEDOME
CCI, USA
DANFOSS, INDIA
DANIEL USA
DELTA CONTROLS, UK

EUROTHEMCHESSEL,
INDIA
FISHER
ROSEMOUNT, INDIA
FISHER,
USA/FRANCE
FOXBORO, INDIA
GALPERTI, ITALI
GMA, USA
HONEYWELL,
INDIA
ITT BARTON, UK
FMC, INDIA
MASONEILAN,
USA/FRANCE
MELESI, ITALI
SWITZER, INDIA
SWTZER, INDIA
COOPERCAMERON,
USA.,
WIKA, GERMANY
YOKOGAWA
BLUE STAR, INDIA

1.11

Book References

ADSCO Manufacturing LLC, Expansion Joints Catalogue 1196, Buffalo, New York.
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Manual of Steel Construction, 8th Edition,
Chicago, Illinois.
Asahi/ America, Inc., Piping Systems Product Bulletin P-97/A, Malden, Massachusetts.
ASHRAE Handbook, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning, SYSTEMS AND
EQUIPT, Atlanta, Georgia.
Assini, John, Welded Fittings and Flanges, Southern Engg.
Cameron Hydraulic Data Handbook, Ingersoll-Rand Company.
Can ham, W.G., and Hagerman, JR, Reduce Piping connection Costs, Hydrocarbon
Processing.
Chemical Engineering Desk book Issue, Valves.
Chemical Resistance Tables, Modern Plastics Encyclopedia, McGraw-Hill, New York.
CMB Industries, FEBCO Backflow Prevention Service Information Model 765
Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Catalog, Fresno, California.
Compass Corrosion Guide, La Mesa, California, 1983.
Corrosion Data Survey, Metals Section, 6th Edition, National Association of Corrosion
Engineers, Houston, Texas.
Corrosion Data Survey, Non-metals Section, 5th Edition, National Association of
Corrosion Engineers, Houston, Texas.
Crane Company, Flow of fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, Technical Paper
No. 410.
Crane Company, Cast Steel Valves, Crane Valve Catalog, Joliet, Illinois.
Crane Company, Flow of Fluids, Technical Paper 410, Joliet, Illinois.
Crane Valves, Cast Steel Valves,
Crane Valves, Engineering Data,
Crane/Resistoflex, Plastic Lined Piping Products Engineering Manual.
Design of Machine Elements, by Spotts, M.F.- for U-Loop Compensator Formula.
Dresser Industries, Inc., Style 38 Dresse r Couplings for Steel Pipe Sizes, Sizes and
Specifications, Form 877-0C, Bradford, Pennsylvania.
Ernest F. Braler and Horace W. King, Handbook of Hydraulics, 6th Ed for Water
hammer.
Evans, Frank L. Special Report on valves, Hydrocarbon Processing Volume 40.No.7
Fike Metal Products, Rupture Discs & Explosion Protection,
Fluid Controls Institute, Bulletin FCI 62-1
Handbook of PVC Pipe, 3rd Edition, Uni-Bell Plastic Pipe Association, Dallas, Texas.
Hugely, Dale, Acceleration Effect is Major Factor in pump Feed System, Petroleum
Equipment and Services.
Hydraulic Institute Engineering Data Book, Hydraulic Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.
Hydraulic Institute Standards, 14th Edition, Hydraulic Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.
Loudon, D.E., Requirements for Safe Discharge of Hydrocarbons to Atmosphere. API
Proceedings, Vol. 43 (III) (1963) Pages 418 433.
Miller, J.E, Experimental Investigation of Plunger Pump Suction Requirements,
Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference, Los Angles, California, September.

Phillip A. Schweitzer, Corrosion, and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Marcel Dekker,


Inc., New York.
Piping Design and Engineering, 5th Ed., ITT Grinnell Industrial Piping, Providence,
Rhode Island, for Expansion Loops
Products Engineering Manual, Marion, North Carolina.
RMA, "The Hose Handbook,"
Schweitzer, Corrosion-Resistant Piping Systems.
Tube Turns Corporation, Line Expansion and Flexibility, Bulletin TT 809.
Tube Turns division of Chemetron Corporation Piping Engineering Handbook.
Tuttle, R.N. Selection of Materials Designed for Use in a Sour Gas Environment,
Material Protection, Volume 9 No. 4.
Tyler & Hick s, Editor in Chief, Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations, 3rd
Ed. for Water hammer.

2
Piping Materials
Materials science investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or
molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It deals with fundamental properties and
characteristics of materials. Process piping systems include pipe and appurtenances. Materials
selection is an optimization process, and the material selected for an application must be chosen for
the sum of its properties. Considerations include quality, cost, availability, and joining. Key material
evaluation factors are strength, ductility, toughness, and corrosion resistance. Selection of material for
any given application depends on service conditions, environmental conditions, corrosion resistance,
and stress cracking resistance, scaling, thermal or mechanical fatigue, creep, notch, toughness and
metallurgical instability at low, normal or elevated temperature. These characteristics, taken together
and related through the laws of thermodynamics, govern a materials microstructure, and thus its
properties.

2.1

Materials Classification

The materials are classified into following categories, such as, Iron, Iron alloys, Carbon steel, Alloy
Steel, Stainless Steel, Polymers, Ceramics, Glass, and Refractory based.
(1) Iron: It is also called Ferrite (Alpha iron) or (-Fe). Ferrite (Alpha iron) or (-Fe) is a material
termed for pure Iron or a solid solution with iron as the main constituent. It is the component which
gives steel and cast iron their magnetic properties, and is the classic example of a ferromagnetic
material and is considered a pure iron. It has strength of 280 N/mm2 and a hardness of approximately
80 Brinell. Properties of iron are greatly dependent on the quantity of carbon available in iron. When
the carbon content is very low, the iron is soft and when carbon quantity is more the iron is very hard,
brittle, and strong. So carbon content is taken as basis for classification of iron. It is classified mainly
in three groups, such as, Pure Irons; Commercial Irons and Wrought Irons.
(i) Pure Irons: Pure irons contain 99.99% of iron. The carbon is always present in irons. Pure
iron is the purest form of iron in iron carbon alloys. The carbon contents in irons are very
negligible and have negligible effect on properties. It is very costly to produce the purest form of
irons. Carbonyl iron and electrolytic irons are the pure form of Irons. They are used especially
where very high magnetic permeability is required such as transformer cores and in research. In
pure iron, ferrite is stable below 910 C (1,670 F) and above 910 C, the austenite (gamma-iron),
the face- centre cubic form of iron, is stable above 1,390 C (2,530 F) up to the melting point at
1,539 C (2,802 F). Ferrite above the critical temperature A2, the curie temperature of 771 C
(1,044 K; 1,420 F), is paramagnetic rather than ferromagnetic, is beta ferrite or beta iron (-Fe).
The term beta iron is rarely used because it is identical to -Fe. A very small amount of carbon
can be dissolved in ferrite; the maximum solubility is about 0.02 by wt % at 723 C (1,333 F) and
0.005% carbon at 0 C (32 F). This is because carbon dissolves in iron interstitially, with the
carbon atoms being about twice the diameter of the interstitial "holes", so that each carbon atom is
surrounded by a strong local strain bond. The structure for low carbon content steel is stabilized.
723 C (1,333 F) is the minimum temperature where iron-carbon austenite (0.8 wt % C) is stable
and at this temperature there is a eutectoid reaction between ferrite, austenite and cementite.
Ferrite (Alpha iron) (-Fe): Ferrite (Alpha iron) (-Fe) is a material termed for Iron or a solid
solution with Iron as the main constituent; with a body centre cubic crystal. It is expensive type of
iron. It is used in special purpose where superior ductility, corrosion resistance, electrical
conductivity, or Magnetic permeability is required. Ingot irons are the commercial irons. It is used
in deep drawn parts and embedded wires where high formability is required
(ii) Wrought Irons (Cast Iron): Wrought irons are also the purest form of irons. But contain 3%
of slag particles distributed in an Iron Matrix. Slag consists of oxides and silicates of calcium,
magnesium, manganese, and iron. The slag fibres improve strength, fatigue resistance, and
corrosion resistance of iron. It is mainly used for oil, water, LP and steam pipelines.
(iii) Iron Alloy (Carbon Steel/Alloy Steel): An Iron alloy is a mixture of two or more elements in
solid solution of iron in which the major component is Iron as base metal. Combining different
ratios of alloying metals as alloys modifies the properties of pure metals to produce desirable
characteristics. The aim of making alloys is generally to make them less brittle, harder, and
resistant to corrosion. The alloys of iron alloy are cast iron, carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy
steel and tool steel. Iron alloy with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon
steels. Increase of carbon levels reduces the ductility and toughness. The addition of more silicon

will produce cast irons, while the addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum (more than 10%)
results in stainless steels. Other significant Iron alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper
and magnesium. The Iron alloys of aluminium, titanium and magnesium are valued for their high
strength-to-weight ratios; magnesium can also provide electromagnetic shielding. These materials
are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratio is more important than material cost.
(2) Carbon Steel: Carbon Steel is an iron alloy whose major component is iron with carbon content
between 0.02% and 2.14% by mass. Carbon Steel is that iron with the main interstitial alloying
constituent carbon. The Carbon Steel pipe is strong, ductile, weld able, machine able, reasonably
durable and is cheaper than pipe made from other alloying materials. Carbon steels temper readily
and have poor creep resistance above 350 0C. If carbon steel pipe meet the requirements of pressure,
temperature, corrosion resistance and hygiene, it is best choice. It is the most common and
economical metal used in piping industry. It will readily rust (corrode) in ambient atmospheres.
Hardness and strength increase with increasing carbon content. Coefficient of Expansion of Carbon
Steel is 0.1182 inch per 0C and Melting Point is 1530 0C. Any combination of hardness, strength and
ductility can be obtained in steels by suitably controlling the carbon content, alloying elements and
head treatment. Steels can be subjected to all kinds of fabrication processes such as chinning,
forming, cold rolling, hot working, casting, cutting and welding. It will also become brittle with
prolonged contact with alkaline or strong caustic fluids and contact with acid accelerates corrosion. It
may react directly with hydrogen sulphide gas.
Classification of Carbon Steel: Carbon Steel is most useful material in piping industry. Iron carbon
alloys containing up to 2 % of carbon are called carbon steels. In addition, carbon steels also contain
small amount of sulphur, phosphorus, silicon, and manganese. The carbon content as well as alloying
elements mainly determines mechanical properties of steels. Carbon Steels have some drawbacks
such as poor scaling resistance, low corrosion resistance, high specific gravity, low electrical
conductivity, and low magnetic permeability. Based on carbon content, the steels have been classified
into three groups, such as, Low carbon steels; Medium carbon steels and High carbon steels.
(i) Low Carbon Steels (Mild Steel): Low Carbon Steels contains approximately 0.05% to 0.3%
carbon by weight and suffer from yield-point run-out where the material has two yield points. The
first yield point (upper yield point) is higher than the second and it drops dramatically after the upper
yield point. They possess low strength, good machine ability, high ductility, high formability, and high
welding suitability. Mild Steel is the most common form of steel which provides material properties
that are acceptable for many applications. Mild Steel contains 0.16% to 0.29% carbon and consists
mostly of ferrite, with increasing amounts of pearlite, i. e. a fine lamellar structure of ferrite and
cementite as the carbon content is increased. Therefore, it is neither brittle nor ductile. Mild steel has
a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable and surface hardness can be increased
through carburizing. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or
0.284 lb/in3) and the Young's modulus is 210 GPa (30,000,000 psi).
(ii)
Medium Carbon Steels (Carbon Steel): Medium Carbon Steels (Ductile
Iron) contain 0.3 to 0.6 % carbons by weight, which balances ductility and strength and has good
wear resistance. These steels have high strength after heat treatment. But they are less ductile, low
machine ability and low welding ability as compared to low carbon steels. It is also called carbon
steel or ductile iron, which is a slightly hard, non-malleable ferrous metal that must be moulded
into the various component shapes easily. It is used for piping applications requiring strength,
shock resistance, and machining and also used for large parts, forging and automotive components.

It has good resistance to general corrosion, but reacts readily with hydrogen sulphide. Ductile Iron
pipe is also seldom employed now days. Mainly carbon is responsible for the mechanical
properties of steels. Manganese provides a minimum hardness and strength after working. Silicon
is present in steels when the steel is oxidized and provides temperature resistance property to
steel. Sulphur and phosphorus are always present in steels of impurities.
(iii) High Carbon Steels: High carbon steels contain carbon more than 0.6% by weight.
So carbon content between 0.6 to 2.0% comes in these groups. They possess high hardness and
high wear resistance after heat treatment. They are less ductile and more brittle as compared to
low carbon steels. High Carbon Steels can successfully undergo heat-treatment. Trace amounts of
sulphur (0.05%) in steel make it red-short. High Carbon Steels is very strong, used for springs and
high-strength wires. It is also called Ultra-High Carbon Steel and it can be tempered to great
hardness. It is used for special non-industrial purposes like knives, axles or punches.
(iv) Cast Iron (Wrought Iron): The steel with carbon content above 2.0% is considered
cast iron. It is brittle and has less strength. Wrought Iron is made from cast-iron and ductile iron.
The principal uses are for water, gas and sewage lines piping that are laid underground in the
Public Health Engineering Department. Wrought iron pipe is seldom employed now days.
Table: Composition range of Carbon Steels
Serial No.

Element

Percent by weight

1
2
3

Carbon

4
5

Silicon

0.3 to 0.6
0.30
1.00
0.0 to 0.30
0.04 max
0.04 max
Balance

Manganese

Sulphur
phosphorus

to

Iron
(3) Alloy Steel: Alloy steels are defined as a carbon steels to which one or more alloying elements
are added to get some beneficial property of the alloy steel. The commonly added alloying elements
are chromium nickel, manganese, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, tungsten, copper, aluminium and
boron. Alloy steels possess the improved properties over carbon steels due to presence of the
alloying element. Alloy steels can have higher hardness, strength, and toughness as compared to plain
Carbon Steels. Alloy steels can have higher hardened ability, which plays significant role in heat
treatment. Alloy steels have higher temper ability and they retain cheer hardness and strength at
elevated temperatures (deep strength) as compared to carbon steels. Alloy steels possess high
hardness (red hardness) of temperature up to 600 0C due to the presence of alloy carbides. Alloy
steels have higher corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance. Different alloying elements have
different functions to perform when added to steel. Therefore, alloy steels containing different
alloying elements are used for different applications. Alloy Steel is used for its strong resistance to

certain corrosive chemicals and higher service temperature. Alloy Steel, more commonly, prescribed
are ASTM A335, Gr. P5, P9, P11, and P22 and are used for applications above 315 0C. Corrosion
resistances are the same for Alloy Steel and Carbon Steel. As the alloy content increases, the heat
treatment plays an important effect on microstructure and mechanical properties. However, the effect
of cooling rate (method of cooling) in heat treatment varies significantly on the hardness &
microstructure of the materials.
(4) Stainless Steel (Nickel and Nickel Alloys): Stainless steel is the product of steel alloyed with
chromium and to a lesser extent nickel. Other elements such as molybdenum, copper, manganese and
silicon are included in different proportions as part of the alloy for various steel types. Chromium is
the primary additive that makes steel stainless. Stainless steels containing higher amounts of
chromium and nickel provide good scaling, oxidation and corrosion resistance at high temperatures.
Nickel is used for its strong resistance to certain corrosive chemicals. Nickel-base alloys have high
strength and corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 750 0C. Typical alloys of this group are
Nichrome, Kanthol, Hastelloy, and Inconel. In addition to creep strength, high nickel-chromium alloys
possess excellent thermal shock resistance and high electrical resistance.
The most common types of stainless steel used for liquid process applications are A 304, A 304L, A
312 and A 316. Stainless steel is not totally corrosion resistant as chemicals such as sodium bisulphide, ferric chloride, ozone, and hydrochloric acid attack stainless steel successfully. The
formation of chromium carbide along the grain boundaries leads to instability and is known as intergranular carbide precipitation. Whenever common Austenitic Stainless Steels are exposed to a higher
temperature range from 900 0F to 15000 F, the carbon tends to defuse to the grain boundaries and
combine with chromium to form chromium carbide particles. Precipitation of chromium carbide
particles at the grain boundaries reduces the resistance of the stainless steel to certain corrosion
substance and hence it got corroded at the grain boundaries known as inter-granular corrosion. This
process of chromium carbide formation is applicable to the heat-affected zone of the welds due to
tremendous heat developed during welding. Some type of Stainless Steel such, as A 301 & A 302 are
more susceptible to inter-granular corrosion than A 304 because they have 0.15% maximum carbon.
A 304 have 0.08% maximum carbon. Inter-granular corrosion is slightly restarted by increasing the
percentage composition of chromium or molybdenum content as in case of A 309, A 310 & A 316.
Inter-granular corrosion may be prevented by adding columbium, columbium and tantalum as in case
of A 318, A 347 & A 348 and also by adding titanium as in case of A 321. Suitable annealing heat
treatment between 18500 F and 20500 F and quenching in water or water spray after the final
fabrication of the piping components may also prevent inter-granular corrosion. Stainless steel with
0.03 percent maximum carbon content is called extra low carbon grade stainless steels but the rate of
chromium carbide formation is very slow and amount is in decimal. However the mechanical
properties of all these stainless steel are not impaired due to chromium carbide precipitation. To
avoid inter-granular corrosion, some precautions shall be taken during welding so that much heat is
not developed and weld is cooled very fast. The theory is achieved by (1) use of small diameter
electrode (2) use of low welding current (3) by stringer-bead welding (not weaving welding) (4) use
of chill bars in the fixtures for welding (5) Immediate fast cooling of the weld by blowing air or
spraying water (6) by using extra-low carbon content grade electrodes or filler (i.e., 0.03% maximum
carbon content). Stainless steels are most versatile materials used for piping. The greatest advantage
of stainless steel over plain carbon steel and alloy steels is that it provides high resistance to
corrosion in most of the environments and fluid service.
The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is derived from the presence of oxide films on the surface.

These oxide films are very thin, stable, and continuous to be attacked by the corrosion. The most
important constituent of this film is Chromium oxide (Cr2 O3), which is obtained from the Chromium
element present in the alloy more than 12%. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel increases with
increase in the Chromium content. Nickel present in stainless steel improves ductility and impact
strength. Nickel also increases the corrosion resistance against Neutral chloride solution and weak
oxidizing acids. Nickel may be added up to 20% to stainless steel. Molybdenum present in stainless
steel improves their resistance to sulphuric, sulphurous, and organic acids. It also increases corrosion
resistance to halogen salts and resistance to pitting to salt water. Manganese content up to 1 to 2 % in
stainless steel is beneficial to increase the hot workability. Carbon is kept low in stainless steel and
does not exceed 0.2%.
Types of Stainless Steels: Various alloying elements such as Chromium and Nickel determine the
structure of stainless steel. Based on the structures of stainless steel, it is differentiated in three types
as below:
(1) Ferritic Stainless Steel: Ferritic stainless steel contains Chromium between 12 to 14% and
Carbon between 0.08 to 0.2%. The structure of this steel is of ferritic phase, which cannot be
hardened by heat treatment. High chromium ferritic stainless steel has high corrosion and scaling
resistance. They are widely used as furnace parts. AISI 430 group of stainless steel is ferritic
stainless steel. This type of steel is consumed maximum in the industry.
(2) Martensitic Stainless steels: Martensitic stainless steels contain Chromium 12 to 14% and
Carbon 0.1 to 1.2%. The microstructure of the martensitic stainless steel is hard-martensitic phase
after hardening. The most common martensitic stainless steel of this group is A 410, 416 and 403.
Stainless steel containing 12 to 14% Chromium and 0.3% carbon are widely used for table cutlery,
tools and equipment. Stainless steel containing carbon more than 0.2% and Chromium between 16 to
18% is used as springs, ball bearings, valves and instruments under high temperature service and
corrosive condition.
(3) Austenitic Stainless Steel: Austenitic stainless steels contain Chromium 16 to 24% and Nickel
between 8 to 22% Carbon less than 0.2%. The most common Austenitic stainless steel of this group is
A 303F, 304,304L, 302, 316, 321, 347, 348, and 403. Stainless steel containing 18% Chromium, 8%
Nickel and 0.2% carbon are widely used in piping in the industry. In 18/8 stainless steel carbons
content vary according to the requirements and are classified accordingly as below:
(4) Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel: Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels possesses
very high strength at room temperature as well as at 540 0 C. High strength is obtained due to
precipitation of copper, Aluminium, Nitrogen and Columbium by a suitable heat treatment. These
steels are used as a material of skins, nibs, bulkheads, and other structural components in aircraft and
missile industries.
Advantage of Stainless Steel: Stainless Steels are widely used due to their high corrosion
resistance wide range of mechanical properties such as high hardness, high strength, good fatiguestrength, excellent notch-sensitivity, and high ductility. Some of the properties are described below:
Forming: Stainless steels have very high forming characteristic.
Welding: The welding of stainless steel is more difficult as compared to other steels because of
possible reaction of Chromium with carbon and oxygen at welding temperature. Oxy-acetylene gas
welding is not advisable for stainless steels because of the above reaction. Tungsten-Inert Gas
welding or suitable electrode welding is used for welding of stainless steels.
Plasma or Electron Beam welding is suitable for fully ferritic high chromium stainless steels.

Oxidation Resistance: In oxidizing atmosphere, chromium of stainless steel is exposed to the oxygen
and gets oxidized to form Cr2 O3. This process depletes chromium and hence higher amount of
chromium is required to maintain this film.
Cryogenic-Temperature Behaviour: It has been seen that many metals, which are ductile at room
temperature, fail by brittleness at low temperature. Austenitic stainless steels are most suitable for
use at low temperature (cryogenic Temperature) up to 2500 C. Type A 304, 304 L, 310 and 347
grades are most suitable.
Corrosion Resistance: Stainless steel develops a film of Chromium Oxide on its surface due to
reaction of chromium with oxygen. Also the passivity of the chromium oxide film increases with the
addition of Nickel to the Iron. Chromium alloy addition of nickel increases the resistance of
corrosion in presence of Neutral chloride solution and weak oxidizing acids. Corrosion resistance
to chemical attack can be considerably increases by addition of 2 to 4 % Molybdenum. It also
increases the corrosion resistance against the Organic Acids and vapours and also to Halogen
Compounds. The different grades of stainless steels possess different corrosion resistance in different
media as given in the Table:
Table: Application of Stainless Steels in different fluid service
S. Stainless
Fluids
Cost of
No.
Steel
Material
Grades
1
A 410 & Rural Atmosphere, Fresh Cheap
430
Water, Inorganic Acid,
2

A 316 & Chloride


Contamination, Costly
317
Marine Atmosphere, Salt
Water, Soils, Sulphuric Acid
(concentration less than 20%
and greater than 85%),
Hydrochloric acid (cold up
to
2%
concentration),
Sulphuric acid flue gas
containing sulphur dioxide,
Sulphide pulps, Organic
Acid (At higher temp.),
Cleaner product (at room
temp.)Acid salts, Strong
Sodium chloride (3N) (at
temp. above 70 0C)
A 302 & Marine
Atmosphere, Costly
304
Sulphuric acid & Ferric
Sulphate, Soils, Nitric Acid
(up to 65% concentration &
110 0C), Organic acid (at

room temp.), Neutral &


Alkaline
salts,
Strong
Sodium Chloride (3N) at
temperature up to 520C
Table: Composition, Properties, and uses of Stainless Steels
COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES AND USES OF
STAINLESS STEELS
S. AISI
Composition Percent General
No Type C Mn Si Cr Ni Oth. Properties
and uses
Max Max Max
1 2
3
4
5
6 7 8
9
A- Martensitic
1

403

0.15 1

0.5 12- 13

410

0.15 1

1214

414

0.15 1

1214

416

0.15 1.2 1

1214

420

>.15 1

1214

Used for highly


stressed parts.
Turbine
and
compressor
blades.
- Low
price,
general
purpose, high
strength
and
abrasion
resistance.
1-2 Better
corrosion
resistance than
Type 410, used
in springs, knife
blades etc.
- 0.15S Free machining
min
grade
0.15Se
min
- Higher carbon
to
provide
greater
hardness
to
cutlery, surgical
Instruments,
valves
ball

431

0.2 1

440A 0.65 1

440B 0.85 1

440C 1.1 1

bearings, etc.
15- 1-2 Increased
17
corrosion
resistance and
high strength.
16- - 0.75Mo --18
16- - 0.75 High
carbon
18
Mo
content
and
harden-ability.
High hardness.
16- - 0.75 Toughness,
18
Mo
surgical
instruments,
cutlery,
bearings
valves.

B-Ferritic
10 405

0.08 1

12- 14

11 430

0.12 1

14- 18

12 430F 0.12 1.2 1

14- 18

13 442

18- 23

0.2 1

0.1- Fully ferritic,


0.3 non-hardening
A1
Greatest
tonnage,
produced used
mostly
in
automotive
trim,
high
resistance
to
nitric acid and
other
highly
oxidizing maid.
0.15 Free machining
S
grade
min
0.15
S
min
High
temperature
service in high
sulphur
atmosphere

14 446

0.2 1.5 1

23- 27

0.25 High corrosion


N and
scaling
max resistance up to
1100 C

C-Austenitic
15 201

0.15 5-7 1

16 202

0.15 7-10 1

17 301

0.15 2

18 302

0.15 2

16- 3-5 0.25 N A portion of


18
max
nickel has been
replaced
by
manganese and
nitrogen.
17- 4-6 0.25 N A portion of
19
max
nickel has been
replaced
by
manganese and
nitrogen.
16- 6-8 High strength
18
after
cold
work.
17- 8- 19 10

19 302B 0.15 2

2-3 17- 8- 19 10

20 303F 0.15 2

1719

21 304

1820

0.8 2

18:8 generally
utility, easily
worked, lower
rate of work
hardening than
type 301

Higher silicon
increases
resistance to
Scaling at high
temperatures
8- 0.15 S Free machining
10 min
grade
0.15 Se
min
8- General
12
corrosion
resistance
in
chemical
industry
requiring

welded
Fabrication;
susceptible to
inter-granular
corrosion.
22 304 L 0.03 2

18- 8- 20 12

23 305

0.12 2

17- 10- 19 13

24 308

0.08 2

19- 10- 21 12

25 309

0.2 2

22- 12- 24 15

26 309 S 0.08 2

22- 15- 24 15

27 310

1-5 24- 19- 26 22

0.25 2

Extra
lowcarbon,
no
danger of intergranular
corrosion
during
Service,
welding
or
stress-relieving
when
used
below 430C.
Low rate of
work
hardening,
favourable to
severe
cold
forming such as
spinning.
Used
as
welding rods
for
welding
other stainless
steels.
Greater strength
and
scaling
resistance
at
high
temperatures up
to 1050C.
Less danger of
carbide
precipitation in
welding.
Increased
strength
and
oxidation
resistance
at
elevated
Temperatures

28 314

0.25 2

1-3 23- 19- 26 22

29 316

0.08 2

than Type 309.


Greater
oxidation
resistance than
Type 310.

16- 10- 2.3 Mo Best corrosion


18 14
resistance
in
phosphoric,
acetic
and
dilutes
sulphuric acid,
sulphurous and
halogen
salt
water
and
against pitting
corrosion.
30 316 L 0.03 2
1
16- 10- 2.3 Mo Extra
low18 14
carbon,
no
danger of intergranular
corrosion when
used
below
430C.
31 317 0.08 2
1
18- 11- 3-4 Mo Increased
20 15
corrosion
resistance than
Type 316.
32 321 0.08 2
1
17- 9- Ti min Stabilized 18:8,
19 12 5 times virtually free
C
from
intergranular attack
in
corrosive
media up to
810 C
33 347 0.08. 2
1
17- 9- Cb-Ta Stabilized 18:8,
19 13 min 10 better than Type
times C 321
34 348 0.08 2
1
17- 9- Cb min Stabilized 18:8.
19 13 10
times
C;
0.1 Ta
min
D-Precipitation Hardening

35 17- 4 0.04 1
PH

17 4

2.75 Possess
high
Cu strength
at
temperatures up
to 540C.

36 17- 7 0.07 0.6 0.4 17 7


PH
37 PH15- 0.09 1
1
15 7
7Mc

1.15
AI
2.5 Used in aircraft
Mo and
missile
1.0 industries.
AI
2.75
Mo
0.1
N
2.75
Mo
0.1
N

38 AM- 0.1 0.8 0.3 17 4


350

39 AM- 0.13 1
355

0.3 16 4

(5) Aluminium Alloys: Aluminium piping resists corrosion well by forming a protective aluminium
oxide film. It is very resistant to sulphur compounds and most organics, including halogen organic
compounds. Aluminium is highly ductile, but has relatively low strength. Its high strength-to-weight
ratio results in the extensive use of aluminium alloys. Alloy 6063 is most widely used due to cost,
good corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties. Alloys 3003 and 5052 are best used for
extremely low temperatures. Alloy 5052 has the best corrosion resistance for slightly alkaline
solutions. Aluminium should not, however, directly contact concrete because alkalis in the concrete
will attack the aluminium. Aluminium has poor resistance to contaminants such as chloride.
Aluminium piping is not compatible with most inorganic acids, bases, and salts beyond a pH range of
approximately 4 to 9. In addition, nearly all dry acids, alcohols, and phenols near their boiling points
can cause excessive aluminium corrosion.
(6) Hastelloy: Hastelloy, a nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy, offers excellent resistance to wet
chlorine, hypochlorite bleach, ferric chloride, and nitric acid. Hastelloy, and related alloys, can be
seamless or welded pipe. Seamless pipe is manufactured pursuant to ASTM B 622 and ASTM B 829,
and welded pipe in pursuant to ASTM B 619 and ASTM B 775. The material class is specified as
class 1 or 2. Class 1 pipe is welded and solution annealed, and class 2 is welded, cold-worked, and
then solution annealed. Class 1 pipe may have sunken welds up to 15% of the wall thickness, while
class 2 pipes do not have sunken welds.
(7) Monel: Monel, a nickel-copper alloy, combines high strength with high ductility as well as
excellent general corrosion resistance. It is specified particularly when seawater or high temperatures
may accompany industrial chemicals. It must not be exposed to sulphur or molten metals when it is

hot. Monel is provided either seamless or welded. Seamless, cold-worked pipe is made in pursuant
to ASTM B 165 and ASTM B 829. Welded Monel, intended for general corrosive service, is
manufactured in accordance with ASTM B 725 and ASTM B 775, and is readily available in nominal
pipe sizes 6 mm (1/8 in.) to 750 mm (30 in.), dimensioned as schedules 5S, 10S, and 40S. The pipe
material conditioning, either annealed or stress relieved should be specified.
(8) Inconel: Inconel, a nickel-chromium-iron alloy, is noted for having high temperature strength,
while maintaining excellent corrosion resistance. Similar to all the nickel and nickel alloy piping
systems, Inconel pipe can be provided either seamless or welded. Seamless Inconel pipe is available
in nominal pipe sizes 8 mm (1/4 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.), dimensioned to schedule 5, 10, 40, or 80. It is
manufactured pursuant to ASTM B 167 and ASTM B 829. The material conditioning should be
specified; hot-worked, hot worked annealed or cold-worked annealed. The conditioning determines
tensile strength; for example, the tensile strength of a 150 mm (6 in.) seamless Inconel pipe is 515
MPa (75,000 psi) for hot-worked and hot-worked annealed tempering and is 550 MPa (80,000 psi)
for cold-worked annealed tempering. Welded Inconel pipe, intended for general corrosive and heat
resisting applications, is produced in accordance with ASTM B 517 and ASTM B 775.
Manufacturers will have to be contacted to confirm available sizes and schedules.
(9) Cupronickel: Cupronickel (Copper Alloy) is very ductile and malleable metal and does not
corrode easily in normal wet/dry environments. Being a noble metal, it does not normally displace
hydrogen from a solution containing hydrogen ions. However, copper corrodes rapidly when exposed
to oxidizing agents such as chlorine, ozone, hydrogen sulphide, nitric acid, and chromic acid. It is
very susceptible to galvanic action, and this demands that padded pipe hangers are used and that
attention is paid to contact with dissimilar metals. Seamless copper pipe is made pursuant to ASME
B 42. Various alloys and tempers may be selected. The copper alloys vary based upon the oxygen and
phosphorus contents, and temper is selected based on required tensile strength. It is available in
nominal pipe sizes range from 6 mm (1/8 in.) to 300 mm (12 in.), in three wall thickness: light,
regular, and extra strong.
(10) Cobalt-base Alloys (Stellite): Cobaltbase alloys containing chromium, nickel, molybdenum
and tungsten have excellent high temperature strength, corrosion resistance and red hardness. Typical
alloys of this group are Stellite 21 (Vitallium), Stellite 31 (X-40). Super Alloys such as S-816 and 73
J are precipitation-hardening alloys and contain columbium and tantalum additions.
(11) Lined Steel Pipe: Lined carbon steel pipe with a material able to withstand chemical attack are
used to carry corrosive fluids. Full length of lined pipes with flanges, fittings, elbows, and tees etc,
are available readily. Lining like rubber can be applied after fabricating the pipe, but pipe is often
pre-lined. Lining of various rubbers, plastics, metals and vitreous material is available. Lining is
made from Plastics like Polypropylene, Polyethylene, Poly-butylenes, Poly-vinyl chloride, Acryl
nitride Butadiene Styrene, Poly-olefins, and Polyesters. Carbon Steel pipe coated with zinc, by
immersion into molten zinc, i.e. hot-dip galvanized is used for conveying drinking water, instrument
air and various other fluids. Rubber and Basalt lining is often used to handle abrasive fluids.
(12) Plastic Pipes: Polymers are organic substances and is derived of carbon and hydrogen. They are

also known as plastic. They are light in weight and are soft as compared to metals. They possess high
corrosion resistance and can be moulded in to various forms or shapes by the application of heat and
pressure.
These are used for transporting actively corrosive fluids, and are especially useful for handling
corrosive or hazardous gases and dilute mineral acids. Plastics are used in three ways as all plastic
pipe, as filled plastic materials (Glass fibre reinforced, carbon filled, etc.), and as lining or coating
material. Plastic pipe is made from Polypropylene, Polyethylene, Poly butylenes, Poly vinyl chloride,
Acryl nitride, Butadiene Styrene, Cellulose Acetate-butyrate, Polyolefin, and Polyesters. Pipe made
from Polyester and Epoxy resins is frequently glass fibre reinforced (FRP) and commercial product
of this type has good resistance to wear and chemical attack.
(13) Ceramics: Ceramic is defined as calcinations of one of metal with a non-metallic element.
Hence metal sulphide, metal carbides, metal nitrides, and metal borides, metal silicates are
considered as ceramics.
(14) Ceramics Alloys (Cremates): It has been found that ceramic materials such as pure Alumna,
Beryllium, and Zirconium have better high temperature strength characteristics than metals at
temperatures above 1000 0C. But they have poor thermal conductivity and shock resistance. The poor
thermal conductivity of ceramics can be improved in newly developed materials called cremate.
Cremates are combinations of refractory, metals and ceramics in a ductile matrix.
(15) Refractory -base Alloys: Refractory alloys containing molybdenum, tungsten, chromium have
good creep resistance at temperature above 800 0C. Their use is limited due to their excessive
brittleness at room temperature.
(16) Glass: Generally, Borosilicate glass is used for pipes and fittings. All glass piping is used for
its chemical resistance, cleanliness and transparency. Glass pipe is not subject to crazing, often found
in glass-lined pipes and vessels subjected to repeated thermal stresses. Pipes, fittings and hardware
are available both for process piping and for drainage. Process lines of 25, 40, 50, 80, 100 and 150
mm NB are readily available, with 200 Deg C as the maximum operating temperature. The pressure
range are up to 4 kg / sq. cm. for 25 to 80 mm NB, 3.5 kg / sq. cm. for 100 mm NB and 2.5 kg / sq.
cm. for 150 mm NB.

2.2

Metallurgical Structure of Metals

The atom of metal in solid state is orderly arranged in space lattice structures. There are fourteen
possible types of space lattice structures found in metals, but three space lattice structures are of
primary useful which are available in piping materials. These are:
BCC: Body centred cubic space lattice.
FCC: Face centred cubic space lattice.
HCP: Hexagonal close packed space lattice.
Few metals like Iron, Titanium, Cobalt and Tin differ in all these space lattice structures. When these
metals are heated at above specific temperature, they change from one type of lattice structure to
another type of lattice structure. Similarly, they change their lattice structure when they are cooled
below specific temperature. This behaviour is the main reason for the importance of heat treatment of
the metals. By heat treatment many variety of the properties are achieved.
Similarly, adding of the foreign atoms (Alloying elements) to a pure metal also has various effects.
They occupy an interstitial position by locating themselves in between existing atom of the lattice.
Sometimes they replace the atom of the pure metal in the lattice structure. Thus the minute percentage
of any added elements produce major changes in the mechanical, physical and metallurgical
properties of the metal. This is the main reason of alloying of any metal for piping. BCC space lattice
contains two atoms per cell, FCC space lattice contains four atoms per cell and HCP space lattice
contains two atoms per unit cell. Other atoms surround each atom of the crystal structure and all the
atoms have identical surroundings. The number of nearest surrounding neighbours of any atom is
called the Coordination number. More closely packed atoms in the lattice will have higher
coordination number. This number varies with the type of the crystal structure as mentioned below:
Table: Coordination numbers for different crystal structures
S. No.

Crystal Structure

1.
2.
3.

BCC
FCC
HCP

Coordination
Number
8
12
12

Micro Structure: The metal is composed of the atoms. The orderly arrangement of the atoms of a
material in the solid state is called the structure of the material. The appearance of the structure of a
material under microscope is called microstructure. Microstructure examination of material is done to
reveal the structural defects or impurities of a large area. The method requires polishing and chemical
etching of the surfaces to be examined.
Equilibrium Diagram: The atoms of the same element or different elements combine to form crystals.
The crystal can be of different phases such as solid phase, liquid phase or vapour phase, depending
upon the pressure and temperature. A chart, a map or a diagram known as Equilibrium Diagram
represents the existence of these different phases in an alloy system. It is also called phase diagram or

a constitution diagram. Thus an equilibrium diagram is a representation of the existence or changes of


various phases in an alloy system, with changing temperature and composition. Pressure is assumed
to be constant of one atmospheric value. There are many equilibrium diagram illustrated for different
materials. But the most commonly used diagram is the "iron carbon" diagram which gives the heating
and cooling rate and absorption temperature for heat treatment of alloy steel for piping. It also shows
the presence of many phase and micro constituents such as ferrite, austenite, pearlite and ledebrite.
At room temperature, the iron atoms are arranged in BCC (Body Centred Cubic) lattice and are called
alpha iron arrangement. It is the purest form of iron containing only 0.006 % carbon. It is called
Ferrite. It is magnetic, soft and ductile. It can go extensive cold working. When temperature reaches
at 7270 C, pure iron transforms from BCC to FCC (Face Centred Cubic) lattice, which is known as
gamma iron. It is called austenite. It is non-magnetic but it is also soft and ductile. The
temperature at which alpha iron changes to gamma iron is known as the Transformation or critical
point or Critical temperature. This is called lower critical temperature. The A3 (lower critical)
temperature varies from 7270 C to 9120 C depending upon the carbon content. At temperature 13900 C,
the FCC lattice structure changes back to BCC arrangement and called Delta ferrite. Such changes
are called allotropic modification.
The addition of carbon in the material lowers the A3 transformation temperature. Until the carbon
content reaches to 0.85 %, when alpha iron (ferrite) transforms austenite, the iron carbides (F3C) go
into the solution. It is a magnetic phase at room temperature. It is called cementite phase. It contains
6.67 % of carbon. It is extremely hard and brittle phase. It becomes paramagnetic at 2900 C. This
transformation is called A1 transformation. This transformation is reversible. However, there is a log
in attaining the equilibrium condition transformation temperature while heating and cooling. On
heating the transformation starts at AC1 and is completed at AC3point. While on cooling the
transformation starts at Ar3 critical point and is completed at Ar1 point. When austenite phase is
cooled slowly below 7270 C pearlite phase is obtained. It is a mixture of ferrite and cementite.
Pearlite contains 88.5% ferrite and 11.5 % cementite. Pearlite has a variable hardness from 20 Rc to
30 Rc. When liquid alloy containing 4.3 % carbon is cooled below 11480 C, ledebarite is obtained.
There are three important phase transformation temperatures.
A1, Ae1, A3 & Ae3 mean equilibrium temperature.
AC1, AC3 & Aecm means heating and rising temperature.
Ar1 & Ar3 means cooling (decreasing) temperature.
Increasing in carbon content of alloy increases the amount of pearlite present. When we see with
microscope, the pearlite looks black, ferrite looks white and cementite looks white too when etched
with Nitric Acid. However, the presence of cementite can be identified by a special etching
technique, which etches cementite black and pearlite white.
In pipe fabrication, hot forming on piping shall be done between A1 & A3 point. Normalizing must be
done above the AC3 temperatures. Stress relieving or tempering shall be done below the AC1
temperature.
Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformation: An equilibrium diagram shows various phase of
transformation, which takes place in an alloy system under equilibrium condition of heating and
cooling. But when an alloy is either heated or cooled at faster rates, some other phase of
transformations occur which is not shown in equilibrium diagram. This is true for iron carbon alloys,

when high temperature phase of iron carbon alloys i.e. austenite, is cooled rapidly or transformed
thermally at some intermediate temperature, it result in the formation of new phases, called
Martensite or Bainite respectively. These phases will have better mechanical properties than
equilibrium phases of iron carbon alloys.
Transition Temperature: The temperature range, which influences the transition phase of steel, is
known as Transition Temperature. These are elaborated below:
a) Effect of composition on transition Temperature: Carbon and nitrogen are considered the most
important elements, which raise the Transition Temperature of the steels. Oxygen and phosphorus in
quantity greater than tolerable and silicon quantity greater than required for oxidation also raise the
Transition Temperature of the steels. Generally, most conditions made to steel raise the transition
temperature. Nickel in general and under certain condition manganese lower the transition
temperature.
b) Effect of workmanship & procedure for fabrication on transition Temperature: By limiting the
extent of surface defect of under out, porosity and by controlling welding i.e., by faster rate of
electrode travel reached the width of heat affected zone, the transition temperature can be reduced.
Transition temperature tends to rise, as the heat-affected zone becomes wide. Similarly preheat and
inter pass temperature during welding also effect transition temperature.
c) Effect of Grain size on transition Temperature: The transition temperature will be lower if the
ferrite grain size is smaller. And if the steel is rolled at low final rolling temperature, solely as if
cold rolled, and cooled at high rate of cooling the ferrite grain size will be smaller and so the
transition temper will be low. Aluminium and Silicon addition during final deoxidisation also
provide fine (small) grain.
d) Effect of straining on Transition Temperature: Cold deformation and straining generally raises
the transition temperature of steel.
e) Effect of Creep to Piping Design: The allowable stress value to use for a given material at a
given temperature is given by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code under which the piping is
to be built. The subcommittee on Stress Allowance for ferrous materials of the ASME-BPV Code
Committee establishes the values for designed stresses for steels. This subcommittee collects all
variable data and establishes tables of maximum allowable design stress value.
At temperatures below the creep range, allowable stress values are established at the lowest value of
stress obtained from, using 25 per cent of the specified minimum ultimate strength at room
temperature, or 25 per cent of the minimum expected ultimate strength at temperature, or 62 per cent
of the minimum expected yield strength for 0.2 per cent offset, at temperature. For bolting material,
the stress values are based on 20 per cent of the minimum tensile strength, or 25 per cent of the yield
strength for 0.2 per cent offset, whichever is lower? It is recognized that bolts are always expected to
function at stresses above the design value as distinguished from other parts.
TABLE: MINIMUM IMPACT- TESTING TEMPERATURES

FOR

VARIOUS LOW- TEMPERATURE STEELS

Material

Grade

Carbon steel
3 Ni-steel
Cr-Cu-Nisteel
4 Ni steel

1
3
4

Temperature
F.
-50
-150
-150

-150

min.

Low-temperature Limitations from Various Piping Materials:


Low
Temperature Suitable Material and ASTM
Limit
designation
Zero
Mild steel (A53, A120, A135)
-29 C
Mild steel (A53, A 135)
-45 C
Killed steel (A333, Gr-1)
-101 C
3 % Ni-steel (A333, GR-3)
-198 C
Austenitic stainless steel (A312 Gr
TP 304, 316 etc.)
No limit
Nonferrous copper, brass, aluminium
Low temperature limitations for various piping materials are given in above table.
Low alloy steel (A333 Gr 1&3) shall be used at temperature below -20 C. They should have at
least 15 ft. lb. impact value in V-Charpy impact test.
Austenitic stainless steel (A312 Gr 304 & 316 etc.) shall be used for low temperature provided as
shown in the above table.

2.3

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties generally tend to change with the change in metallurgical characteristics.
Thus to obtain desired mechanical properties in metal, sometimes metallurgical characteristics is to
be changed by changing the microstructures by accomplishing operations like heat treatment, hot
working, cold reduction or expansion. Mechanical properties are very important in selecting the
materials for any purpose. However other physical properties such as workability, weld ability,
toughness, modulus of elasticity, creep strength, coefficient of expansion, hot shortness and others
have an important bearing on selection of piping materials. The mechanical properties of the
materials are hardness, tensile strength; yield strength and elongation, wear toughness, resilience,
youngs modules, brittleness, fatigue strength, modulus of elasticity and creep strength in general.
Table: Mechanical Properties of Various Materials
Material

Ingot-iron

Composition

Malleable
Iron

Elongation
%
40-60

140-160

40-50

35

0.5 C

190-210

65-75

20

0.5 C

170

0.8 C

240

90-93

10

1.1 C

180

350-550

150-320

15.40

<1

170-300

38-80

2-17

140-285

28.70

3-14

-50-90
-140-200

-17-30
-3-15

99.9
Fe
Steel 0.2 C

Mild
(Normalized)
Medium
Carbon
Steel (Normalized)
Medium Carbon Steel
(Hardened)
Eutectoid
Steel
(Normalized)
Hyper Eutectoid Steel
(Hardened)
White Cast Iron (0.41.0 Si)
Gray Cast Iron.
Modular
Iron

Mechanical properties
Hardness UTS
(BHN)
(kg / cm2)
60-100
20-25

2.5-3.5
C,
0.5-4.0 C,
1.0-3.0 Si,
Cast - 4.1 C,
1.0 - 2.8Si,
< 0.1 Mg.
Cast 2.0 - 3.0 C,
0.9 - 1.65
Si

Martensitic S.S.
Annealed
Harden & Tampered

-0.15-1.1C, 1- 150-260
1.2Mn,
-0.5-1.0Si, 12- 390-580

18Cr
-(AISI
403, 180-260
410,414,
416,420,440)
Ferritic (Annealed)
0.08-0.2C, 1- 150-170
A 501, 401, 430, 405, 1.5Mn 5-17Cr
442 & 446.
Austenitic S. S.
(Annealed) A 304, 0.15-0.8C, 2- 140-180
316, 321 & 347.
10Mn,
-(Cold Worked) A 201, 1-3Si,
14- 200-400
202, 301,
26Cr, 8Ni
Nickel
97-99%
-Monel
65 Ni, 35Cu -Constantan
40-60 Ni, 40- -60 Cu
Hastelloy
(5- 50-85Ni, 15- -25Fe)
35Mo
Inconel
40-50Ni, 20- -30Co,
1530Cr
(a)Cupronickel
70Cu, 30Ni
-(b)Germen Silver
65Cu, 23Zn,
12Ni
Yellow Brass
65Cu, 35Zn
-Red Brass
85Cu, 15Zn
-Naval Brasse
60Cu,
25- -29Zn, 0.75Sn
Bronze/Gun Metal
88-95Cu, 5- -10Sn, 0-0.2P
Aluminium Bronze
86Cu, 0.5Al, -3.5F
Beryllium
98Cu, 1.7Be, -Bronze
0.3Co
Nimonic
70-75Ni, 15- -20Cr, 2-3Ti
Titanium
99Ti
-Magnesium
90-95Mn, 1- -Alloy
3Zn
Aluminium Alloy
90-98Al, 1- -64.5Cu,
1-5 Mg, 0.50.6 Si
up to 300 0 C
up to 700 0 C

-65-90

-20-30

55-60

20-30

55-80
-80-130

40-60
-4-25

30-40
55-130
45-70

20-40
10-30
5-35

--

--

100-150

20-40

35
40

50
42

32-37
27-31
38

55-65
42-48
47

28-46

30-64

70

12

120

100-130

20-40

60-80
25-35

25
5-20

30-50

20-30

2.4
Mechanical

Factors affecting

Properties
(i) Heat Treatment: Heat treatment is important mainly because of the effect on the structure of the
metal. By increasing the grain size larger by heat treatment techniques, the creep and stress-to-rupture
properties of steel are improved at elevated temperature.
Hence, normalized and tempered steel is often better and superior in quality than to the normal steel
in fully annealed condition at elevated temperature of service.
But some commercial heat-treating producers do not provide and control the uniform temperature,
cooling rate etc. and hence do not give the better grain structure in steel.
Stainless Steel grade TP 304 exhibits good resistance to atmospheric corrosion and oxidation. Type
SS 309 & SS 310 exhibit greater resistance to oxidation because of their higher chromium & Nickel
content. SS 310 is specially preferred in the case of a service where intermittent heating and cooling
are faced by the material.
(ii) Notches: The sudden brittle failure is generally ascribed to notch sensitivity of steel at the
operating temperatures to which it was exposed. They may consist of minute surface of subsurface
cracks, surface laps or scabs, visible scratches, abrupt shape changes such as sharp corners, tool
marks, grooves from drawing dies, edges, etc., or fabrication defects, such as from arc strikes or
similar causes.
The condition is accentuated as the thickness of the steel increases. Notches also are stress raisers.
The greater the sharpness of the notch, the greater will be the degree of restraint, the more severe will
be the stresses as to both, tri-axially and magnitude and the higher will be the transition temperature.
The fact of notches of varying severity on the brittle behaviour is tested with Charpy test specimens.
In other words, steel, which contains extremely severe notches, will fail in a brittle manner at higher
ambient temperatures than if less severe notches were present.
(iii) Dissimilar metals: When dissimilar metals are welded together, the significant metallurgical
effect takes place known as (1) Dilution of weld metal and (2) Diffusion across the dissimilar metals
joint as a result of heat treatment or of high temperature service condition at a temperature exceeding
8000 F. Dilution is the mixing of molten filler metal with base metals. The amount of dilution varies
with the different welding process & welding conditions. The undesirable effect of this dilution may
be minimized by careful selection of electrode, preheat and post heat treatment. Diffusion is the
process of movement or migration of atoms of dissimilar metals at the joint across the bond. In steels
of dissimilar metals, the carbon atoms migrate across the bond. This is called carbon migration and
depends on time and temperature. Below 8000 F, the carbon migration is not effective over after a
long service. But above 8500 F, the carbon migration is effective after 5 to 10 years. The
Embrittlement may become significant at 5500 F in one year. It would be very effective to produce
some degree of Embrittlement at 12000 F. The time factor may be reduced to days. So in general, the
use of carbon steels is limited to service below 7500 F and use of carbon molybdenum steels is

limited to service below 8000 F.


The carbon migration depends on the degree of dissimilarity i.e., increases with the increase of
alloying element percentage. More precisely the carbon atoms migrate towards the steel containing
the stronger carbide forming elements or the greater quantity of them.

2.5
Temperature Affecting Mechanical
Properties
(i) Low Temperature: Steel is generally considered to be a ductile material. When it is overloaded,
it usually gives warning by bulging, stretching, bending, or necking before rupturing. However, steels
sometimes rupture without prior evidence of distress. This is due to brittleness of steel at low
temperature. Brittle failure is accompanied by little plastic information and the energy required to
propagate the fracture is quite low. Under such conditions, steel shatters like glass. This extreme
behaviour generally occurs only at low temperatures. The three conditions, which propagate this
tendency for steel to behave in a brittle fashion, are;
1)
High stress concentrations i.e. notches, nicks, scratches, internal
flaws or sharp changes in geometry.
2)
High rate of straining.
3)
Low temperature.
The transition temperature for any steel is the temperature above, which the steel behaves in a ductile
manner and below which it behaves in a brittle manner. Steel with a high transition temperature is
more likely to behave in a brittle manner during fabrication or in service. It follows that steel with a
low transition temperature is more likely to behave in a ductile manner and therefore, steels with low
transition temperatures are generally preferred for service involving severe stress concentrations,
impact loading and low temperatures or combinations of the three.
Metallurgical factors, such as deoxidisation, chemical composition, rolling, forging or extruding and
heat treatment influence the transition temperature of steel. In carbon-steel piping materials, under the
worst conditions, the transition temperature may be above 93 C or, under the best conditions,
below minus 93 C Steels treated in accordance with most favourable deoxidisation practice are
those which are fully killed. In pipe steels deoxidisation is generally accomplished with sufficient
silicon to provide about 0.10 to 0.20 percent of silicon in the steel. Carbon influences unfavourably
the transition temperature. The upper limit in plain carbon steels is accepted as about 0.25 percent
and in low alloy steels as about 0.20 percent or even lower. Nickel lowers appreciably the transition
temperature of carbon steel. Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel and some high-nickel steel
show no transition at temperatures lower than minus 163 C. Steels, which have been fully
annealed, are in the poorest condition to resist Embrittlement. Normalizing offers improvement.
Frequently further benefit is derived from tempering or stress relieving after welding. The
conventional static tensile and bend test do not differentiate between steels of varying susceptibilities
to brittle behaviour. This is because they measure the mechanical properties of steel under the
particular conditions and not its behaviour in an actual structure as influenced by many factors as
design, workmanship, surface notches, and welding quality and stress distribution. The determination
of the temperature at which steel becomes susceptible to brittle failure under certain conditions is
based on the three testing categories, such as, Impact energy; Notch ductility and Fracture appearance
Under this test, the transition temperature is obtained. These are the only value which assures the steel
which shows the low transition temperature is less likely to behave in a brittle manner that the steel
showing high transition temperature.

(ii) High Temperature:


a) Tensile Strength: While selecting piping materials for higher temperature service, mechanical &
physical properties of material must be considered. The important mechanical properties are tensile
strength, proportional limit, thermal fatigue (shock resistance), mechanical fatigue, tortional elastic
limit, toughness etc. The tensile strength of some pipe materials tends to increase with respect to
corresponding value at ambient temperature for a few hundred degrees. After further rise in
temperature, tensile strength falls of rapidly. Many materials show a continuous decrease in strength
with increase in temperature.
b) Ductility: Ductility of material is also of great importance. For 5 diameters hot bending radius, the
piping materials should exhibit a ductility of at least 20% over a temperature range of which hot
bending is done. For the extrusion of outlets or swaging of reducing ends, a ductility of 25 to 30% is
desirable at the forming temperature.
Less ductility leads to failure of the piping product during hot forming.
c) Creep Strength: The heat treatment generally improves the creep and stress-to-rupture properties
of steels and alloy steels at more elevated temperatures.
d) Composition: Composition of the material is the most important variable, which affects the high
temperature strength of the materials. But all elements do not help in getting higher strength. Similarly,
certain quantity of the alloying element helps in getting good strength. The correctness of element and
its quantity is highly important because the excessive temperature may affect the grain growth causing
coarsening. The cold or hot working on the material tends to break up the original grains and produce
refinement, particularly, under effect of high temperature.

2.6
Features

Factors affecting Service

Piping in operation fails by cracking, corrosion or sometimes by combination of the two due to the
following reasons:
a)
Non-Flexibility: While designing, provision of insufficient flexibility leads to cracking
failure of steam line or any hotline. While in shut down, if gets cooled and contract and during
operation it gets heated up and expands. This thermal contraction and expansion in the line lead to
service failure if sufficient flexibility in all direction is not provided.
b)
Notches: When heavy wall with higher thickness is designed and welded with a pipe
of light wall thickness, a sharp corner or sudden change in section occurs in the line. Also in
socket weld design a sudden change in section occurs in the line. In case of design of
reinforcement pads or rings where the weld does not blend gradually into the piping wall, a
sudden change in section occurs. The sudden change in sections or thickness work as a notch at
that location and cracking take place due to thermal or mechanical figure.
c)
Weld Defect: The location of shop weld joint and field weld joints with respect to
accessibility for NDT inspection to find out the defects and space to attend the repair, if any. If the
defects exist, it affects service features. Sometimes the wrong design of type of weld such as butt
weld with groove angle or socket weld or slip-on weld joint is also the cause of system failure by
crack.
d)
Material: The selection of material based on their use with upper temperature, lower
temperature and transition temperature is also reason for cracking in the heat-affected zone near
the weld due to graphitization.
e)
Weld Metals:Improper selection of the weld filter metal or electrode, specially, when
temperature exceeds 800 F, has caused the crack across the interface zone of the weld metal and
base metal.
f)
Base-Metal Defects: Mechanical defects such as laminations. Laps, scabs & tears, if
it is perpendicular to the pipe surface or diagonal to the pipe surface, acts as a very critical
notches and cause cracking failure near the weld joints.
g)
Hardness (Metallurgical notches): The hardness of steel varies with its chemical
composition variation & heat treatment of the steel. When the difference in hardness value exceeds
70 to 100 points Brinnel in thermal & mechanical fatigue condition then the junction point or line
between two different hardness materials behave like a notch and a crack takes place. This is
known as metallurgical notches. For example:
Area
Brinnel hardness value
Base metal
180
Heat affected Zone
232
Heat affected zone near the 280
weld
Weld deposit
179

i)
Carbonization during Hot Forming: Hot forming into plate, pipe and fitting, during
manufacturing, by conventional method, is done by heating by means of gas burner to a temperature
of 1500 to 1850 F with commercial gas (not a natural gas). Then the steel surface, most likely, gets
carbonized. This carbonized surface, after welding, fails in service due to severe stresses caused
due to pipe movement.
Such type of failure takes place in service after fabrication and all blame goes to the fabricator &
inspector but not to the manufacturer who has carbonized the pipe or elbow surface while making
elbow by gas heating.
However, such carbonization can be detected only by weld ability test, particularly by bend test
because it will develop crack in the parent metal. It can be detected by photomicrographs of the
surface. It is very costly affair.
j)
Incorrect Material: Generally, painting technique is applied during storing the
different material in fabrication shop. But in long time, the paint goes away and it is very difficult
to identify carbon steel & alloy steel piping components. Vary often, by mistake, Alloy Steel pipe
is welded with carbon steel pipe or fittings or vice versa. Hence it becomes a case of
metallurgical notch and fail in service in severe condition of thermal mechanical fatigue. A number
of service failures take place in steam power plant due to material identification mistake before
welding together.
k)
Fabrication Mistake: Fabrication mistake such as deep cut during gas cutting or
machining for end preparation and fit up, or welding defects at root pass such as lack of
penetration, slag inclusion etc. work as a notch and hence joint fails in service during severe
thermal & mechanical fatigue condition. That is the reason; the root pass is done always by inert
gas tungsten arc welding in a high temperature high pressure piping system.
l)
Heat Treatment: Some carbon-steel pipe is furnished in the hot finished condition. Hot
finishing is generally performed between 1600 and 2200 F and is followed by air-cooling. Under
these conditions these steels can be compared to normalized steels, although it should be
recognized that the temperature of finishing is an important factor. When piping materials are cold
worked, their strength and hardness are increased and ductility is decreased. That is why cold
expansion while bending of pipe or cold working is done intentionally to obtain the higher strength
value in A106 or some API grade material. However, the effects of cold work can be removed by
heat treatment.
m)
Multi-axial stress: Multi-axial tensile stresses raise the transition temperature. This is
particularly true at the base of a notch or crack where multi-axial tensile stresses of considerable
magnitude may develop.
n)
Section Size: If the section size is increased without other changes in geometry, the
transition temperature will also be increased.
o)
Design: Design based upon conventional tensile-test data gives no assurance that
piping will not fail in a brittle manner. Nor can such assurance be obtained by simply increasing
the section size with the intent of increasing the factor of safety. In the presence of notches,
increase in section size will most likely increase restraint and may even lead to failure at lower
applied loads.

Table: Limitation of temperature & pressure on Materials

Material

Max. Pressure Application


& temperature
Cast
grey 250 psi, 2500 F
Pipe, valves &
Irons
250 psi, 4500 F fitting
(A 278)
-DOMalleable
Cast 300 psi, 500
F Pipe, valves &
Irons
fitting
Carbon steels
775
F
Pipe, valves &
fitting
1 Cr- Mo 950 to
Boiler piping & steam
steels
1000 F
piping.
1060

Steam & power plant


piping

1500
1500
1500

F
F
F

Refinery Piping
Refinery Piping
Refinery Piping

Cr-1 Mo steels
5Cr- Mo Steel
7Cr- Mo Steel
9Cr-1 Mo Steel

2.7

Elements affecting Alloy Steel

There are four most important elements, which are added to piping steel materials such as Carbon,
Chromium, Nickel, and Manganese. Other commonly added elements are Silicon, Molybdenum,
Tungsten, Vanadium, Copper, Boron, and Aluminium. The main constituents of plain carbon steel are
iron and carbon. The properties of carbon steels are directly related to the percentage of carbon
present. In addition to carbon, plain carbon steels also contain other elements such as Manganese,
Silicon, Sulphur, and Phosphorus in amount shown below:
S. NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Elements
Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Sulphur
Phosphorus
Iron

By weight
0.04 TO 1.20 %
0.30 TO 7.00 %
0 TO 0.30 %
0.04 Max %
0.04 Max %
Balance %

Alloying elements: Any alloying element, when added to steel, performs different effect depending
upon their characteristic and amount. Some alloying element effects are described below:
Carbon: Carbon is responsible for the required hardness and strength in the steel. Accordingly this
grade of material gives good and desirable response to heat treatment and more tensile strength at
elevated temperature and hence mostly used in steam services.
Chromium: Chromium is one of the important alloying elements being added to piping material to
enhance the inbuilt properties of the material such as alloy steel or stainless steels. The combination
of iron and chromium form a continuous series of solid solutions. A small amount of chromium
lowers Ac3 point of steel where as larger percentage of chromium raises Ac3point. It also lowers the
austenite to Delta-ferrite transformation temperature. When an alloy containing 11 to 12 % of
chromium is heated, the ferrite begins to transform to austenite at about 815 C. This continues with
increasing temperature till alloy is fully austenite. On the other hand, the alloy with 18 percent of
chromium is not subject to these phase transformations and hence remains in its ferrite structure.
Hence the alloy with 18 percent chromium cannot be hardened when quenched from elevated
temperature. Chromium also increases the desired properties of steels or has the following effects,
such as, Increases harden ability; It forms carbides having high hardness and wear resistance; It
provides strength, wear and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures; It provides corrosion
resistance if added in higher amount and it provides heat resistance to alloy. This characteristic of
Iron-Chromium alloy has resulted in two types of major groups of stainless steels, such as, a)
Martensite stainless steel; b) Ferrite stainless steel.
Nickel: Nickel is the second important alloying elements being added to piping material to enhance
the inbuilt properties of the material such as alloy steel or stainless steels. The combination of iron
and nickel form a continuous series of austenite range. The addition of Nickel to alloy steel (0.1
percent carbon with 18 percent chromium) progressively extends the austenite range until the alloy
becomes completely austenitic even at room temperature. This property of Nickel has resulted in the
development of very important group of austenitic stainless steel. It has the following property when
added in alloy.

Nickel dissolves in Ferrite and increases hardness, strength, and toughness without sacrificing the
ductility. It is added up to 5% for the parts subjected to high static and impact stresses in service,
such as, It increases harden ability of steel; It increases impact resistance of steel at very low
temperature. Hence it is added to a low temperature steel pipe service. Higher amount of Nickel (8
percent or more) is added to increase corrosion resistance of high Chromium steels. Nickel steels are
used in large engineering structures such as armour plates, highly stressed bridge members, shafts etc.
Nickel gives higher mechanical properties after annealing and normalizing. Therefore these steels are
used for large forging & castings, which cannot be reacting, while quenched.
Manganese: Manganese is present to provide a minimum harden ability and strength after working.
Manganese tends to shift the curve to the left in carbon steel. It also has the properties, such as, it
dissolves in ferrite and increases hardness and strength; it increases harden ability to a great extent; it
takes care of Sulphur present in the steel by forming manganese-sulphide if it is added in the quantity
3 to 8 times that of sulphur in the steel; it is added to free cutting steels up to a maximum limit of 1.6
percent; and it is added about 12 to 14 percent in steel to produce an extremely tough, wear resistant.
Manganese is one of the least expensive alloying elements and is always present in steels.
Molybdenum: Molybdenum acts as a ferrite stabilizer. It tends to shift the curve to the right along
which the chromium Nickel alloy steel becomes fully austenitic. It also has the properties, such as, it
increases the harden ability to a greater extent; it forms carbides having high red hardness and wear
resistant; it enhances the effects of other alloying elements such as chromium, Nickel & Manganese
when added 0.15 to 0.30 percent of molybdenum to steel; it eliminates the temper brittleness in steel;
it resists softening of steel during tempering and heating; it acts as a grain growth inhibitor when steel
is heated to high temperature and it is an expensive alloying element and plays a great importance in
high-speed steels. It is also added to carbonizing steels and heat resisting steels.
Silicon: Silicon acts as stabilizer in ferrite steel. It tends to shift the curve to right along which the
Chromium Nickel alloy steel becomes fully austenitic. Silicon is present only when steel is dioxide. It
has some more properties, which are described here. Silicon dissolves in ferrite increasing strength
and hardness without lowering the ductility. It is added as a deoxidizer during casting of ingots. It
forms SiO2 with Oxygen present in steels with a quantity of silicon between 0.1 to 0.3 percent.
Silicon between 0.3 to 0.5 percent is added for soundness of castings. It increases the permeability of
steels and reduces iron losses in electrical use. Hence it is added up to 5 percent in magnetic
materials to be used in electrical such as transformers, motors, and generators. Silicon is present in
almost all steels; it is important alloying element for transformer, motor and generator steels and
generator steels and also springs steels, chiselled steels & punch steels to increase their toughness.
Vanadium: Vanadium inhibits grain growth when steel is heated at high temperatures. It increases the
harden ability of steels. Vanadium is strong carbide former. Vanadium carbides possess highest
hardness and wear resistance. Vanadium improves fatigue resistance and generally used in tool steels
& carburizing steels.
Tungsten: Tungsten performs similar function as molybdenum but it is an expensive alloying element.
Generally it is not used for alloying.
Sulphur: Sulphur phosphorus is present as unwanted impurities. Sulphur is always present in steel as
inclusions of iron sulphide (FeS) and as manganese sulphide (MnS. In piping material, sulphur is
undesirable element and hence it is removed by open hearth and electric furnace method of steel
production. Maximum sulphur presence is limited up to 0.04 percent is pipe material. Sulphur is
added up to 0.33 percent as on alloying element in certain free cutting steels to increase the machine
ability. Sulphur content in steel is undesirable because it has a strong tendency to form films and fine

particles at the grain boundaries. Iron sulphide (FeS) inclusion softens the steels and may melt at
lower temperature. Sometimes it melts at lower temperature. Sometimes it causes disintegration by
cracking in the rods or under the hammer. It is called hot shortness or Hot Embrittlement.
Phosphorus: Like sulphur, phosphorus is also always present in steels as an inclusion. It is desirable
alloying element and its amount is controlled maximum up to 0.05% by open hearth or Electric
furnace method. Phosphorus dissolves in ferrite increasing strength hardness and improving the
resistance to corrosion. It is added to improve the machine ability to certain grade of free cutting
steels to 0.12 percent. On the other hand it is an undesirable element because it has tendency to
segregate in steels and is responsible for brittleness in steels, which is called Cold-Shortness.
Cold-shortness is the reduction in impact strength at low temperature.
Titanium: Titanium is strongest carbide former. Titanium is used to fix carbon in stainless steels and
thus prevents the precipitation of chromium carbides.
Copper: Copper increases atmospheric corrosion hardening resistance when added to steels between
0.01 to 0.4 percent. 0.6 percent copper is used for precipitation.
Aluminium: Aluminium is added to the steels between 0.01 to 0.06 percent during solid fabrication
of castings to get Fine grained steels. 1 to 3 percent of aluminium is found in nitriding steels to form
aluminium nitride.
Boron: It increases harden ability to the great extent even it is added between 0.001 to 0.005 percent.
It is used as inoculators to obtain fine grain size. Boron is added to the surface of steel during case
hardening treatment called boriding
Lead: Lead is not desirable alloying element for steel. But sometime it is added maximum up to 0.35
percent to improve machine ability of steels. It is the cheapest element. However, the important
functions of all the above alloying elements are summarized here below in table.

Table: Summarized Functions of Alloying Elements in Steel


Sl.
No
1

Alloying
Element
Sulphur

Typical
Range
<0.33

Phosphorus

<0.12

3
4

Lead
Silicon

<0.35
0.2-2.5

Manganese

0.2-2.0

Nickel

0.3-5.0

Principal Function
Improves machine ability.
Reduces weld ability and
ductility
Improves machine ability.
Reduces impact strength at
low temperature
Improves machine ability
Removes oxygen in steel
making. Improves toughness.
Increases hardness ability
Increases harden ability.
Combines with sulphur to
reduce its adverse effects.
Increases harden ability.
Improves
toughness.

Chromium

0.3-4.0

Molybdenum 0.1-0.5
or Tungsten

Vanadium

0.1-0.3

10

Aluminium

<2.0

11

Copper

0.2-0.5

12

Boron

0.005

13

Titanium

1.0

Increases impact strength at


low temperature. Promotes
an austenite structure.
Increases Resistance to
corrosion and oxidation.
Increases harden ability.
Combines with carbon to
form hard
and
wear
resistance
carbides.
Increases high temperature
strength.
Inhibits grain grow that high
temperature.
Increases
harden
ability.
Forms
carbides having high red
hardness
and
wear
resistance. Enhances the
effects of other alloying
elements. Eliminate temper
brittleness
in
steels.
Increases high temperature
strength.
Inhibits grain growth at high
temperature.
Increases
harden
ability.
Forms
carbides having high red
hardness
and
wear
resistance. Improves fatigue
resistance.
Forms nitride in nitriding
steels. Produces fine grain
size in casting. Removes
oxygen in steel melting.
Improves
atmospheric
corrosion resistance.
Increases harden ability.
Produces fine grain size.
Strongest carbide former.
Added to stainless steels to
prevent precipitation of
chromium carbide.

Effects on Alloy Steel: Alloy steel is defined as carbon steel to which one or more elements as
described above are added to get some beneficial effects as required by piping specifications. Due to

presence of alloying elements, the alloy steels are best piping materials to be used at higher
temperature as well as at lower temperature. Alloying elements can affect the carbon steel
constituent, characteristics, & behaviour in many ways. Some of the major effects of alloying
elements are 1) strengthening of ferrite 2) formation of special carbides and compounds 3) shifting of
critical temperatures and compositions and 4) lowering of the critical cooling rate. Their effects are
described in detail below:
Strengthening of Ferrite: The alloying elements are soluble in ferrite to a certain extent. When it is
dissolved in Ferrite, it increases hardness and strength due to formation of solid solution. Silicon,
Manganese and Nickel have a greater influence on harness and strength.
Formation of Carbides: The alloying elements combine with carbon in steel and result in the
formation of alloy carbides. These alloy carbides are hard and brittle. It provides resistance to
softening at elevated temperatures. Chromium and vanadium carbides have maximum hardness and
wear resistance.
Shifting of critical temperatures and compositions: The alloying elements sometimes lower or
raise the transformation temperatures of steel. Nickel and Manganese lower the temperature of
austenite formation, while other elements raise the austenite formation temperature. Also, most of the
alloying elements shift the eutectoids composition to lower carbon values.
Lowering of critical cooling Rate: Most of the alloying elements shift the Isothermal Transformation
Temperature (ITT) curve to the right hand side and hence result in decreasing the critical cooling rate
required for the formation of complete marten site. This is a very useful effect and increases the
harden ability of alloy steels. These elements are Mn; Cr; Ni & Molybdenum. Understanding the
characteristics of these alloying elements phase relation is very important in forming and working of
the piping materials.
The presence of some ferrite in the microstructure increases significantly the tensile and yields
strength of the material. However the material with over 10 percent Ferrite may develop crack when
it is severely hot worked e.g. hot extrusion of outlets, in capping or in swaging operation.
A fully austenitic material, the structure is more susceptible to cracking. This is true with stainless
steel grade A 347 and A 348 type.

2.8

Selection of Piping Materials

The materials that are used for manufacturing pipes include: Carbon Steel (CS); Alloy Steel, Low
Temperature Service Carbon Steel (LTCS); Stainless Steel (SS); Non Ferrous Metals like Inconel,
Incoloy, Cupro-nickel and Non Metallic like GRE, PVC, HDPE, and Tempered Glass. The remaining
materials are evaluated for advantages and disadvantages such as material costs, fabrication and
installation costs; support system complexity; compatibility to handle thermal cycling; and cathode
protection requirements. The highest ranked material of construction is then selected accordingly. The
design proceeds with pipe sizing, pressure integrity calculations, and stress analyses. If the selected
piping material does not meet those requirements, then the second ranked material is not used. Most
failures of process piping systems occur at or within interconnect points, i.e. weld joint, flanges,
valves, fittings. It is, therefore, vital to select interconnecting piping, equipment and other materials
that are compatible with each other and the expected environment. Each material has its inherent
properties and its use in pressure piping is subject to the qualification of (i) requirements, (ii)
limitations and (iii) working conditions. Pipes and piping components are used in various plants such
as power plant, refinery, petrochemicals, chemical plant, paper mills, gas transmission and nuclear
plant to handle various fluids of different toxic nature. Pipes and piping components material varies
accordingly. Basically carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminium alloy, cupro-nickel, nickel
alloys, Monel, Hastelloy, tantalum, N resist, HDPE, FEP or lined pipes and piping components are
used in piping work of above plants.
Table: Materials Working Limit of Temperature Ranges
Material
Carbon Steel
Low Temperature
Steel (LTCS)
Alloy Steel
304 Stainless Steel
316 Stainless Steel
321 Stainless Steel
347 Stainless Steel
Aluminium
Nickel 200
Inconel 600
Inconel 625
Monel 400
Incoloy 800
Incoloy 825

Acceptable Temperature
Range
-290 to 4260C
Carbon -800C to 800C
-290C to 5370C
-2500C to 5370C
-290C to 5370C
-290C to 5370C
-2500C to 5370C
-1980C to 2040C
-1560C to 3150C
-1560C to 6490C
-1560C to 6490C
-1560C to 8150C
-1560C to 8150C
-1560C to 5370C

(i) Requirements:
The possibility of the exposure of the piping to fire, melting point, degradation
temperature, loss of strength at elevated temperature and combustibility of the piping materials
under such exposure.
The susceptibility to brittle failure or failure from thermal sock when exposed to fire or
the fire fighting measures and possible hazards from fragmentation of materials in the event of
failure.
The ability of thermal insulation to protect piping against failure under fire exposure,
such as, its stability, fire resistance and ability to remain in place during a fire.
The susceptibility of piping material to receive corrosion under backing ring, in
threaded joints, in socket-welded joints and in other stagnant and confined area.
The possibility of adverse electrolytic effects of the metal is subject to contact with
dissimilar metal.
The compatibility of lubricants or sealant, which is used on threads with the fluid
service.
The compatibility of packing seals and B-rings, which is used with the fluid service.
The compatibility of materials such as cement, solvents, solders, brazing materials, with
the fluid service.
The Chilling effect of sudden loss of pressure on highly volatile fluids, such as a factor
in determining the lowest expected service temperature.
The possibility of pipe support failure resulting from exposure to low temperature,
which may embrittle the supports or high temperature, which may weaken them.
The compatibility of materials, including sealant, gaskets, lubricants, and insulation
used in strong oxidizer fluid of service (e.g. Oxygen or Fluorine).
The primarily important consideration is the ability of the materials to withstand the
continuous load acting in service of the piping for a long periods or long duration without failure
such as distortion or undue plastic flow.
The excellent mechanical properties at higher temperature of the materials are not only
the selection criteria of the material, but the scaling and the oxidation are also the factors
deciding the selection of piping the materials.
The ductility is also the important factor in selection of the materials. This is the
important requirement of the piping material to have the ductility minimum 20% to a temperature
of hot bending for hot bending of the component to a radius of 5 times the diameter and a
ductility of 30% at the temperature of hot working or the extrusion of outlets or the swaging of
reducing ends.
(ii) Limitations:
The lack of ductility and their sensitivity to thermal and mechanical sock (such as cast
iron malleable iron, high silicon, (14.5 %), is taken into consideration. In addition, the
followings are also considered:
The possibility of embrittlement where handling alkaline or strong caustic fluids.
Possibility of conversion of carbides to graphite during long time exposure to
temperatures above 427 C (800 f) of carbon steels, plain nickel steel, carbon manganese
steel, manganese vanadium steel and carbon silicon steel.
The possible conversion of carbides to graphite during long time exposure to

temperature above 468 C (875 F) of carbon-molybdenum steel, manganese- MolybdenumVanadium steel and chromium Vanadium steel.
The advantages of silicon killed carbon steel (0.1 % silicon minimum) for temperature
above 482 C (900 F)
The possibility of damage due to hydrogen exposure at elevated temperature above
200 C (See API RPI 941), hydrogen damage (blistering) may occur at lower temperature
under exposure to aqueous acid solutions.
The possibility of stress corrosion cracking when exposed to cyanide, acids, acid salts,
or wet hydrogen sulphide, a maximum hardness limit is usually specified in NACE; MR-0-175
& RP-047-2.
The possibility of sulphidation in presence of hydrogen sulphide at elevated
temperature.
IS 1239 and IS 3589 Gr. 330 pipes should not be used above the maximum temperature
0
65 C and maximum pressure 13.0 Kg / cm2.
Ball valves and plug valves can be used on any line up to a maximum temperature 200
0
C due to soft (Teflon) seat.
Carbon steel pipe and piping components are permitted for prolonged use up to 426 0C.
It is not permitted for prolonged use above 426 0C because the carbide phase of carbon steel
may be converted to graphite.
Low Alloy Steels (C-1/2 Mo) is not permitted for prolonged exposure above 450 0C
because of carbide phase of carbon Molybdenum Steel may be converted to graphite. However,
it should not be used above 537 0C.
Any grade of steel material carrying hydrogen or hydrogen with hydrocarbons (A
flammable, toxic/non-toxic but no lethal) have the limitation for use up to maximum temperature
limit 260 0C and a maximum pressure limit of 5.60 Kg/cm2 due to hydrogen cracking and
sulphide stress cracking. When materials are exposed to wet hydrogen sulphide, further
deterioration (Sulphidation) in the presence of hydrogen sulphide at temperature above 260 0C
takes place.
ASTM A335 grades, such as P11, P12, and P22, Alloy Steel piping, components are not
permitted to be used for prolonged above 593 0C due to susceptibility of grain boundary attack.
This material should be normalized and tempered condition.
All Austenitic Stainless Steels grade A312, TP 304, TP 316, and TP 321 are not
permitted for prolonged use above 537 0C due to susceptibility to inter granular corrosion of
Austenitic Stainless Steels. However, a stabilized and high carbon (0.04% or higher) grade,
Austenitic stainless steels are permitted for use above up to 537 0C up to 871 0C such as TP
304H, TP 316H, TP 321H, TP 347H, and TP 348H. However, Austenitic Stainless Steels A312
grade TP 304L, TP 316L are not permitted for prolonged use above 426 0C.
Nickel and nickel base alloy steels, not containing chromium, piping components are not
permitted for use above 316 0C due to the grain boundary attack susceptibility in presence of
sulphur.
Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy pipes and piping components are not permitted for use
above due to inter granular attack and low melting point.
Pipes and piping components of other materials, which are given below, are not
permitted for use above the temperature as mentioned against each material:

a) Titanium and Titanium Alloys


maximum 3160 C.
b) Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys
maximum 3160 C.
c) Tantalum
maximum 2990 C.
(iii) Materials Condition:
Ductile, Cast, wrought irons, Malleable irons or Nodular irons, as a general rule, are not used for
piping and piping components in refinery or petrochemicals plant for toxic, hydrocarbons and
flammable service. Cast irons are not permitted for use in piping for volatile, flammable, toxic or
refrigerant services.
(a) Ductile Irons: Ductile irons, such as ASTM A571 are not used for pressure containing parts at a
temperature below 290C and above 3400C, except austenitic ductile irons. Austenitic ductile irons
are used at a temperature below 290C down up to a temperature of Impact Test temperature but not
below 1960C.
(b) Cast Irons: Cast irons are not used in any pressure underground piping or in above ground, nonpressure piping for hydrocarbons, and toxic or flammable fluid service. Cast irons are not used above
1490C and not at gage pressure above 150 psi (1030 kpa). In other location and category D fluid
service, it can be used up to 400 psi (2760 kpa).
(c) Malleable Irons: Malleable irons are not used in any fluid service at a temperature below 290C
or above 3430C. It is not used in hydrocarbon, toxic or flammable fluid service above 1490C or at a
gauge pressure above 400 psi (2760 kpa).
(d) Carbon Steel: ASTM A-53 grade pipe does not have specific limits on carbon content. It is used
for low pressure piping work. API 5L grades pipes have closer control over the carbon content and
hence produce more identical microstructures. So, it is used for high pressure, but at low temperature
range piping work. ASTM A 106 grade pipes have closer control over carbon content, i.e. between
0.18 % to 0.25%) and also contain silicon, which produce a more identical microstructures. So, it is
used for high pressure and high temperature range of piping like steam line.
(e) Stainless Steels: The possibility of stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels
exposed to media such as chlorides and other halides either internally or externally, the latter can
result from improper selection or application of thermal insulation. The susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels sensitised by exposure to temperatures between
427 C and 871 C (800 F and 1600 F); as an example, stress corrosion cracking of
sensitised metal at room temperature by polyphonic acid (reaction of utilizable sulphur compound,
water and air); stabilized or low carbon grades may provide improved resistance (see NACF RP
0170). The susceptibility to inter-crystalline attack of Austenitic stainless steels on contact with
liquid metals (including aluminium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gallium, lead, magnesium, tin, and
zinc) or their compounds. The brittleness of ferritic stainless steels at room temperature after service
at temperature above 371 C (700 F). Piping which is operated continuously or intermittently at a
temperature above 8000 F and also exposed to corrosive environment, are generally made of
stabilized stainless steel grade 321, 347 and 348.
(f) Alloys Steel:The susceptibility to grain boundary attack of nickel and nickel base alloys not
containing chromium when exposed to small quantities of sulphur at temperatures above 316 C
(600 F). The susceptibility to grain boundary attack of nickel base alloys containing chromium at
temperatures above 593 C (1100 F) under reducing conditions and above 760 C (1400
F)
under oxidizing conditions. The possibility of stress corrosion cracking of nickel-copper Alloy 400 in
hydrofluoric acid vapour in the presence of air, if the alloy is highly stressed (including residual

stresses from forming or welding).


(g) Aluminium Alloys:The compatibility with aluminium of thread compounds used in aluminium
threaded joints to prevent seizing and galling. The possibility of corrosion from concrete, mortar,
lime, plasters or other alkaline materials used in buildings or structures. The susceptibility of Alloy
Nos. 5083, 5086, 5154 and 5456 to exfoliation or inter-granular attack; and the upper temperature
limit 66 C (150
F) shown in Appendix A to avoid such deterioration. The possibility of fire
hazard zone or in flammable services due to their low melting point.
(h) Copper Alloys: The possibility of dezincification of brass alloys; The susceptibility to stresscorrosion cracking of copper-based alloys exposed to fluids such as ammonia or ammonium
compounds; The possibility of unstable acetylates formation when exposed to acetylene. The
possibility of fire hazard zone or in flammable services due to their low melting point.
(i) Titanium Alloys: The possibility of deterioration of titanium and its alloys above 316 C
(600
F).
(j) Zirconium Alloys: The possibility of deterioration of zirconium or zirconium alloys above
316 C (600
F).
(k) Tantalum Alloys: The possibility of reactivity of tantalum with all gases except the inert gases,
below 299
C, the possibility of embrittlement of tantalum by nascent (monatomic) hydrogen (but
not molecular hydrogen) nascent hydrogen is produced by galvanic action or as a product of
corrosion by certain chemicals.
(l) Welded Pipe: Furnace Welded, Furnace Butt-Welded, Special Welded and Fusion welded ferrous
pipes made to ASTM A134, A1339, A120 and API 5LX are not permitted for hydrocarbons,
flammable and Toxic fluid service in refineries and petrochemicals. Butt-Welded Carbon Steels or
wrought Irons are not permitted for use in refrigerant liquid service of any service.
(m) Acid Bessemer Process Steels Pipe: Pipe made of Acid Bessemer process steels are not
permitted for use in piping work. Steel pipes made by open-hearth, electric furnace and basic-oxygen
process are used in piping work.
(n) Lead and Tin Alloy Pipe: Lead and Tin and their alloys are not used in flammable, hydrocarbon
& toxic fluid service.
(o) High Silicon Iron Pipe: High Silicon Irons (14.5% Si) is not permitted in flammable, toxic or
hydrocarbon fluid service.
(p) Low Allowable Stress Pipe: The listed materials, in the Allowable Stress List of ANSI B31.3,
are not permitted for use at the design temperature higher than the maximum temperature for which
stress value is shown or marked with double bar (II) symbols adjacent to it. Similarly, the materials
are not permitted for use at a design temperature lower than the temperature for which the stress value
is shown or marked with a double bar (II) symbols.
(iv) Cost Factor Considerations
Selection of materials has to be done on a compromise between the cost and the required properties
of the materials. Designer always recommend Stainless steel in place of other steels because of
corrosion resistance. The Relative Cost of various materials is given in the Table below which shows
those Carbon Steels are about 5 to 10 times cheaper than the stainless steels.
Table: Relative Cost of Various Materials
S.No. Type of Materials
1
A312 Gr. 410,403,430

Relative Cost (Factor)


1.0

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

A312 Gr. 405,201,202


A312 Gr. 301, 302,403, 305
A312 Gr. 321
A312 Gr. 446
A312 Gr. 347, 309,316
A312 Gr. 310
17-7 PH, AM-350
Carbon Steel
Low Alloy Steel
Tool Steel

1.2
1.3-1.4
1.6
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.2-2.7
0.12-0.20
0.3-0.8
0.8-5.0

Selection of Materials Exercise 1: Assume a recovered material process line that handles nearly
100% ethyl benzene at 1.20 Pa (174 psig) and 250C (770F) is required to be installed above ground.
Solution: The piping material is selected as follows:
Step 1: Above ground handling of a flammable liquid by thermoplastic piping is not allowed by
ASME B31.3.
Step 2: Review of the Fluid/Material Corrosion Table Book for ethyl benzene at 250C (770F)
indicates that aluminium, Hastelloy C, Monel, TP316 stainless steel, reinforced furan resin Thermoset
and FEP lined pipe are acceptable for use.
Step 3: Reinforced furan resin piping is available to a system pressure rating of 689 kPa (100 psig).
Therefore, this material is eliminated from consideration. The remainders of the materials have
available system pressure ratings and material allowable stresses greater than the design pressure.
Step 4: FEP lined piping is not readily available commercially. Since other material options exist,
FEP lined piping is eliminated from consideration.
Step 5: The site-specific environmental conditions are now evaluated to determine whether any of
the remaining materials out of aluminium, Hastelloy C, Monel or TP316 stainless steel should be
eliminated prior to ranking. The material is then selected based on site-specific considerations and
cost.
(v) Code Restrictions
Pipe dimensions should be in accordance with ANSI B36.10, IS 3589 and IS 1239 for
Wrought Steel and Wrought Iron pipe. It should be as per ANSI B36.19 for Stainless Steel pipe.
Pipe manufactured by Acid Bessemer process should not be used. The pipe
manufactured by Open Hearth, Electric Furnace or Basic Oxygen process should be used in
piping work.
Any pipe material subjected to stress due to pressure should confirm to API,
ASME/ANSI B31.3, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or IBR. The listed materials only should
be used.
The materials should not be used until the test certificate, having physical properties,
chemical compositions and heat treatment or impact test and other requirements are reviewed
and found in conformation with as required by the specifications.
Pipes made of steels manufactured by Acid Bessemer process are not used.
All austenitic stainless steel pipes should be solution-annealed condition. It should be
tested for inter-granular corrosion test as per A262, Practice B. The corrosion rate should not
exceed 40-mils/ year.

All pipes going to be used in Low Temperature Cryogenic Service (LTCS) should be
impact tested at a temperature - 450C, -1010C, and -1960C for Carbon Steels, 3-0.5 Nickel Steel
and all Austenitic Stainless Steel respectively.
IBR Inspector should certify all IBR piping materials before use. The carbon Equivalent
of all materials should be 0.25%.
All pipes should be hydrostatically tested in the mill and should accompany by
hydrostatic test certificate. IS 1239, IS 3589, API 5L Gr B, A106 Gr B are recommended.
All pipes to be used in IBR, CRYO and NACE services should be painted
longitudinally throughout the length of pipe in Red, Light Purple Brown and Canary Yellow strip
respectively for easy identification during fabrication, erection and assembly. The paint should
not contain Zinc, Lead, Copper metal or metallic salts as they cause corrosion attack on heating.
(vi) Piping materials:
a) Carbon Steel Pipe: API 5L, Grade A or B, seamless; API 5L, Grade A or B, SAW, straight seam,
where Ej 0.95; API 5L, Grade X 42, Seamless; API 5L, Grade X 46, Seamless; API 5L, Grade X
52, seamless; API 5L, Grade X 56, Seamless; API 5L, Grade X 60, Seamless; ASTM A 53,
Seamless; ASTM A 106, Seamless; ASTM A 333, Seamless
ASTM A 369; ASTM A 381, where Ej 0.90; ASTM A 524; ASTM A 671, where Ej 0.90;
ASTM A 672, where Ej 0.90; and ASTM A 691, where Ej
0.90.
b) Alloy Steel Pipe:ASTM A 333, seamless; ASTM A 335, Seamless; ASTM A 369; ASTM A 426,
where Ej 0.90; ASTM A 671, where Ej 0.90; ASTM A 672, where Ej 0.90; and ASTM A
691, where Ej
0.90.
c) Stainless Steel pipe: ASTM A 268, seamless; ASTM A 312, seamless; ASTM A 358, where
Ej 0.90; ASTM A 376; ASTM A 430; and ASTM A 451, where Ej
0.90.
d) Copper and Copper Alloy pipe: ASTM B 42; and ASTM B 466.
e) Nickel and Nickel Alloy pipe: ASTM B 161; ASTM B 165; ASTM B 167; and ASTM B 407.
f) Aluminium Alloy Pipe: ASTM B 210, Tempers O and H112; and ASTM B 241, Tempers O and
H112.

2.9
Piping Materials for Specific
Fluid Services
Types of Services: As per ANSI B 31.3, the fluid services have been classified in five different
categories for sake of safe operation based on design conditions, design criteria, design consideration
& design limitations. However, practically, the different fluid services are as mentioned below:
( I ) UTI LI TI ES S ERVI CE: COMMERCIAL CARBON STEEL PIPE SUCH AS IS 1239 IS COMMONLY USED IN
UTILITY SERVICE. T HE STEEL PIPE WHICH IS OF A TYPE OR GRADE NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR HYDROCARBON
SERVICE, SOME DEFINITE MARKING SYSTEM SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED TO PREVENT SUCH PIPE FROM
ACCIDENTALLY BEING USED IN HYDROCARBON SERVICE. O NE WAY TO ACCOMPLISH THIS WOULD BE TO
HAVE ALL SUCH PIPE GALVANIZED OR PAINTED IN STRIP TO FULL LENGTH OF PIPE.
(ii) Category-D fluid: The fluid which design pressure is 150 psi or less with design temperature
between 29C and 166C and do not damage to the human tissue or otherwise on exposure.
Category-D Fluid is non-toxic and non-flammable. Piping is designed as per ANSI B 31.3, chapter I
to VI for metallic and chapter vii for non-metallic and lined piping. The following carbon steel pipe
can be used. ASTM A 53 GR F, ASTM A734 made from other than ASTM A 215 plate, API 5L GR B
(Furnace Butt-welded), ASTM A 211 and ASTM A134 made from other than ASTM A285 plate.
(iii) Category-M Fluid: The fluid service which operating pressure is not high. It is flammable or
non-flammable, but toxic. It causes, by leakage to a very small quantity of the fluid, irreversible harm
to the human on a single exposure. It cannot be designed under code or under chapter VII sufficiently
to protect personnel from exposure to a very small quantity of the fluid in environment. Category-M
fluid service piping is designed by chapter VIII rules of ANSI B 31.3. Sufficient safeguarding shall be
provided to the piping for category-M fluid service. Category-M fluid service piping shall not be
designed or used under severe cyclic conditions and high-pressure piping. Category-M fluid service
piping shall be avoided with dynamic effects such as impact caused by external or internal conditions
(e.g., change in flow rate, hydraulic shock, and liquid or solid slugging, flushing and geysering) and
also vibrations, which may arise from pressure pulsation, resonance in compressor or wind loads.
ASTM A 134 and ASTM A 139 pipe shall not be used. Fittings confirming to MSS SP-43 and
proprietary Type C lap-joint stub end butt-welding fittings shall not be used in category-M fluid
service. Creased or corrugated bends shall not be used. Threaded or sockets welding outlet branch
connections are not permitted to be used. Flat closures (blanks) shall not be used. Valves having
threaded bonnet joints shall not be used. Valve bonnet or cover plate closures shall be flanged,
secured by at least four bolts with proper gaskets to stop the stem leakage to the environment. Singlewelded slip-on flanges, Expanded joint flanges, Lap joint flanges and threaded flanges shall not be
used. Socket welded joints greater than 1 size shall not be used. Expansion joints shall not be
used.
(iv) Normal fluid service:This is a fluid, which is not at high pressure but whose design pressure or
design temperature is not limited to 150 psi or between 29 C to 166 C respectively. This is
toxic or non-toxic, flammable and damage to the human tissue on exposure or irreversible damage on
single exposure. It is designed and constructed per chapter I to VI for metallic piping, per chapter VII
for non-metallic and lined piping to sufficiently protect personnel from exposure to very small
quantities of the fluid in the environment. Any pipe and piping components listed in codes &
specifications may be used in Normal Fluid Service. Unlisted piping component material may be
used only after qualifying the design conditions and criteria and other design parameters.

(v) Severe Cyclic Condition Fluid service: The fluids, which do not have very high pressure but
toxic, non-flammable and produce a serious irreversible harm on a single and very small quantity
exposure. Fluid comes under Category-M fluid but can be designed and constructed in severe
cyclic conditions to prevent occurrence of it as per Chapter VIII rule, is called severe cyclic
condition fluids. This fluid service cannot be designed on experience, service conditions & location
involved, as per base code or chapter VII sufficiently to protect personnel from exposure to very
small quantities of the fluid in the environment. The following pipe may be used under severe cyclic
condition fluid service.
(vi) High Pressure Fluid service: High pressure is considered to be pressure in excess of that
allowed by the ASME B16.5 PN 20 (class 2500) rating for the specified design temperature and
material group. Non-metallic or metallic lined piping components are not permitted for use in high
pressure piping category. There is no provision for category-M fluid service in high-pressure piping.
The design of High Pressure piping should be done as per following considerations:
Mitre bend shall not be used in high-pressure piping.
Pipe to pipe cut & welded branch connections shall not be used in high-pressure piping.
All welded pipes or cast-forged fittings shall have joint quality or cast quality factor not less than
1.0.
(vii) Steam Tracing (NIBR): Certain process lines, tanks, vessels, are required to be heated up
constantly to prevent the fluid passing through the lines, stored tank or vessel from freezing. Heating
keeps the temperature high enough for free flows of fluid and proper pumping ability. Heating is done
with the help of steam tracing or electrical tracing. Steam tracing is done by running one, two, or three
lines parallel along the process line at equal distance on periphery of the lines and touching the line
or inside the tank or vessels to be heated up. Process lines shall be indicated to be traced in the line
list system. Steam supplies for tracing are obtained from process steam lines or independent steam
supplies line, exhaust bleed steam or from other continuous source of steam supply lines. Steam
supply shall be always available even if other unit or steam lines are under shutdown or out of
operation. Minimum steam pressure for tracing shall be 1.5 kg / cm2 and maximum steam pressure
shall be 3.5 kg / cm2. The minimum steam temperature shall be the saturation temperature at the given
pressure. The size of steam supply header shall be 3 Dia. (80 mm) Maximum for header and Dia.
for steam tracing line, running along the process line. The number of tracers along the process lines
for heating shall be as per design calculation by the designer. However, under normal condition of
heating the number of tracers lines shall be mentioned below:
Tracer line size
4 NB and smaller
6 NB to 16 NB
18 NB and larger

Number of Dia. Tracers


1
2
3

The useful length of tracer line in a single run at a steam pressure of 3.5 Kg /cm2 shall be maximum as
mentioned below:
1. Open system of tracing
2. Closed system of tracing

- 40 meter max. (With no recovery).


- 25 meter max (With condensate recovery).

The tracer loops shall start at the highest point and terminate at lowest point in the system, in general.
But sometimes there is an unavoidable pocket in the tracers. The sum of all pockets in a loop of tracer
shall be proportionate to the differential steam pressure in the tracer (i.e., maximum 3.5 Kg /cm2) to
max total sum of vertical depth of pocket (i.e., max. 3000 mm). Example: The total depth of pockets
in above diagram is A + B + C. Every tracer shall be provided with a separate steam trap at the end
at lowest point.
(viii) Non-Corrosive Hydrocarbon Service: The most commonly used types of pipe are ASTM
A106, Grade B, and API 5 L, Grade B. ASTM A106 is only manufactured in Seamless while API 5
L is available in Seamless, Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) and Submerged Arc Welded (SAW).
When API 5L, Grade B, pipe requires excessive wall thickness, higher strength pipe such as API
5LX, Grade X52, may be used. However, special welding procedures and close supervision are
necessary when using API 5LX, Grade X46 or higher. ANSI B 31.3 specifically excludes the
following types or grades of pipe from hydrocarbon service:
All grades of ASTM A 120.
Furnace lap weld and furnace butt weld.
Fusion welds per ASTM A 134 and A 139.
Spiral weld, except API 5LS.
(ix) Corrosive Hydrocarbon Service: Design for corrosive hydrocarbon service should provide for
one or more of the following corrosion mitigating practices: 1) Chemical treatment; 2) Corrosion
resistant alloys; 3) Protective coatings. Chemical treatment of the fluid in contact with carbon steels
is by far the most common practice and is generally adopted. Corrosion resistant alloys, which have
proven successful, may be used. If such alloys are used, careful consideration should be given to
welding procedures and the possibility of sulphide and chloride stress cracking. Adequate
provisions should be made for corrosion monitoring (coupons, probes, spools etc.,) and chemical
treating. API 5L GR B, A106 GR B, A312 GR TP 304, TP 316, TP 316L are recommended.
(x) Sulphide Stress Cracking Service: The following guidelines should be used when selecting
pipe if sulphide stress corrosion cracking is anticipated;
Only seamless pipe should be used.
Cold expanded pipe should be used only after normalizing, quenching and tempering, or heat
treatment.
Carbon steels, alloy steels and other materials which meet the property, hardness, heat treatment
and other requirement of NACE: MR- 01-75 is acceptable for use in sulphide stress cracking
service.
The most commonly used pipe grades which will meet the above guidelines are: ASTM A106, Grade
B; ASTM A333, Grade 6 and API 5L, Grade B, seamless and API 5LX is also acceptable. Welding
of this grade material presents special problems. To enhance toughness and reduce brittle fracture
tendencies, API 5L and 5LX should be normalized for service temperatures below 30 F. ASTM
A333, Grade 6, is a cold service piping material and should have adequate notch toughness in the
temperature range (- 20 to 650
F).
(xi) Steam (IBR) Service: Central Boiler Board in India exercises the material, design and
construction of a boiler steam pipe, economizers, or super heaters. The representative of Central
Boiler Board is the Chief Inspector of Boiler in the state of India. To exercise the power to supervise
the job, the Central Boiler Board has made Regulations, which control the materials, design,
construction, and inspection of the work. This Regulation is called Indian Boiler Regulation-1950
or IBR.

The chief inspector will register the work under boiler regulation, subject to the following
conditions:
(i) Boilers: When a closed vessel, exceeding 22.75 litres (five gallons) in capacity, and which
is used expressly for generating steam under pressure and include any mountings and fittings is
called Boiler and comes under Indian Boiler Regulation.
(ii) Economizer: When a feed pipe, wholly or partly exposed to the action of flue gases for the
purpose of recovery of waste heat is called Economizer and comes under Indian Boiler
Regulation.
(iii) Steam Pipe: When a pipe through which steam passes from boiler to a prime mover or other
users or both, and, if, satisfy the following conditions, (a) the pressure at which steam passes
through such pipe, exceeds 3.5 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure, or (b) the internal diameter
of the steam pipe exceeds 254 mm, it is called a Steam Pipe and comes under Indian Boiler
Regulation.
In any industry, if there is a boiler, economizer, and steam pipe or all of them, then the design,
materials, fabrication, the Chief Inspector of Boiler does erection and hydrostatic testing. The total
package of above nature of work has to be offered to the Chief inspector of Boiler for approval of the
package including materials, fabrication, and erection and testing. A completion certificate has to be
obtained by the manufacturer from the office of the Chief Inspector of Boiler as per IBR code
requirements.
Limitations on selection of IBR materials: IBR Inspector of the Central Boiler Board of India
should certify all IBR piping materials in the form III before use.
Carbon Equivalent (CE): The Carbon Steel IBR piping materials should have Carbon Equivalent
Maximum 0.25%.
(xii) Sour Service: Sour service is the hydrocarbon service containing hydrogen sulphide. The
presence of Hydrogen sulphides causes Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) of metallic material in wet
conditions. The standard NACE MR-01-75 defines the sour service and recommends materials,
which will not fail in wet sour service fluid conditions. The following recommended materials
minimize SSC but also HIC (Hydrogen Induced Cracking), Step-Wise cracking or Hydrogen
Blistering. All materials should be quenched & tempered or normalized condition or normalized &
tempered condition.
Pipes:
API 5L Grade B (seamless) & SAW (Longitudinal); A 106
Grade B (seamless), A 333 Grade 6 (seamless); A 671 Grade CC 70 CL 32- SAW
(Longitudinal); A672 Grade CC 70 CL 32- SAW (Longitudinal); API 5L Gr. X 52, X60,
SAW (Longitudinal);
Studs/Nuts:
A 193 Gr. B7M; A 194 Gr. 2HM; A 320 Gr. L7M; A 194
Gr. 7M; Studs should be fully threaded with two nuts. HIC test and SSC test are not
required for studs and nuts.
Castings:
A216 Gr. WCB;
A217 Gr. WC6; A351 Gr. CF3M
Fittings:
A 234 Gr. WPB (SMLS); A420 Gr. WPL6 (SMLS); A105
(Forged); SS-SP-75 Gr. WPH452 (Welded); A 234 Gr. WPBW / WPCW (Welded); A350
Gr. LF2 (Forged); MSS-SP-75 Gr. WPH460 (Welded).
Gaskets: Spiral wound gaskets of SS 316 L with Compressed Asbestos (CA)
filler should be used. In case of RTJ type, the gasket should be Soft Iron with
maximum hardness 90 BHN. HIC & SSC tests are not required.

Flanges:

A694 Gr. F52; MSS-SP-44 Gr. F60; A105; ASTM 350 Gr.

LF2;
Valves:
Valve body should be cast or forged steel. Other
component and TRIM materials should be SS 316 with maximum hardness RC 22 and hard
faced with Stellite hardness up to maximum RC 43. All part of the valve should be stress
relieved. A105 (Forged); A216 Gr. WCB (Casting); A352 Gr. LF2 (Forged); A352 Gr.
LCB (Casting)
Limitation for Material Metallurgy Sour Service:
All steel should be fully killed and fine-grained and should have high resistance to hydrogen
sulphide attack such as HIC & SSC.
All steels should be produced either by basic oxygen or Electric Furnace process only.
All steels should have following treatment during steel making process:
Steel should be treated to have low sulphur and low Phosphorus and should be vacuum
degassed.
Steels should be calcium treated for morphology control. Steels should be treated to avoid
inclusions like metallic oxide clusters, silicates, magnesium sulphide etc.
Steels should be rolled and heat treatment should do so as to eliminate low temperature
transformation of microstructures associated with segregation, such as binate Band or Islets
or Martensite in order to reduce the propagation of HIC.
Carbon Equivalent (C.E): Carbon Equivalent (C.E) and Pcm should be as per Table indicated
below and should be computed by following formulas:
If c = < 0.12;

The weld ability based on a range of CE values can be defined as follows:


Carbon equivalent (CE)
Up to 0.35
0.360.40
0.410.45
0.460.50
Over 0.50

Weld ability
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor

Material Test Requirement Sour Service: The manufacturer should carry out all the following test
duly witnessed by Third party inspection agency and shall conform to the requirement given in
following table:
Chemical compositions as given in table below.
Mechanical properties such as UTS & ratio of Yield to Tensile Strength and following should be
acceptable.
UTS = 77000 PSI (max.)

Ratio of Yield to Tensile Strength should not exceed 0.8.


Hardness should be maximum RC 22 or 248 HVs or 237 BHN for each heat.
Longitudinal weld seam should be 100% radiographic. Repair welds should not be permitted of
any size. All valves casting should be 100% radiograph and acceptance limit should be as per
B16.34, Annexure-B.
Seamless pipe for Sour Service: Maximum sulphur and phosphorus content should be 0.01% and
0.02% respectively. If the sulphur and Phosphorus content is more than the above limit specified, the
HIC testing should be carried out on pipe where the content exceeds the above value.
Welded pipe for Sour Service: HIC should be compulsorily carried out for each welded pipe
irrespective of sulphur and phosphorus content value. The acceptance criteria should be as follows:
i. CSR =< 0.00%
ii. CLR =< 10.00%
SSC Test for Sour Service: SSC test is not required, but when the sulphur and phosphorous contents
exceeds 0.020% and 0.010 % (for seamless) or 0.003% (for welded) respectively then SSC test
should be compulsorily carried out for acceptance of the pipe for every heat. Similarly, when UTS is
greater than 77000 psi (54 Kg/mm2), SSC test is compulsorily for acceptance of the pipe for every
heat. The acceptance criteria should be as follows:
AT 72% of SMYS, Time to failure, should not be less than 720 hrs.
Corrosion Tests for Sour Service: The corrosion tests should be carried out compulsorily for the
material.
Table: Chemical Composition of Materials for Sour Service
Sl.no Item

Mn Si
P Ni S
% % % %
%
%
Pipe
0.23
1.35 0.10 .02 0.2 0.010
to
SMLS
0.25
0.003
Weld
Fitting 0.23
1.35 0.10 .02 0.2 0.10
to
SMLS
0.35
0.003
Weld
Flange 0.23
1.35 0.10 .02 0.2 0.01
to
0.35
Valve 0.23% 1.35 0.10 .02 0.2 0.01
to
0.35
Soft
0.24
1.35 0.35 .02 .24 0.01
iron
Ring
gasket

Pcm CE
% %
0.21 0.40

0.25 0.40

0.25 0.40

0.25 0.4

(xiii) Cryogenic Service: The Cryogenic Service has been defined for proper piping design handling
the material at cold temperature. The temperature level, for a cryogenic fluid service, starts at 100 0
F to absolute zero, i.e. 459.7 0 F. There are many factors being encountered while handling the
cryogenic fluid because they are cold. The cryogenic fluids include the liquefied gases like oxygen,
nitrogen, helium, methane, and carbon dioxide, Argon and to make certain metals super conductive.
Cryogenic fluids are used to cool any product to produce physical changes i.e. to liquefy gases and to
manufacture gases such as Oxygen, Nitrogen, Helium and Methane and to make certain metal super
conductive. Cryogenic system handles following fluids at low temperature. It absorbs heat from
outside source and tends to vaporize or saturated vapour gets superheated. This increases the
pressure in the vessel. Cryogenic fluids are very limited, such as, Acetylene; Air and Argon. In
general, the following table shows the materials commonly used in low temperature Cryogenic
service:
Temperature Range, 0F
Material
0 to 20
Carbon Steel ASTM A333 Gr.3, Gr. 6, API 5L Gr.B
-20 to 50
Carbon Steel (Aluminium Killed), ASTM A333 Gr.6
-50 to 150
Alloy Steels, ASTM A333 Gr.3
-150 to 320
Alloy Steels or Non-Ferrous, ASTM A312 Gr.TP304
Below 320
Non-Ferrous, ASTM A312 Gr.TP304

2.10

Pipe Material Identification

Pipes in exposed areas and in accessible pipe spaces shall be provided with colour band and titles
adjacent to all valves at not more than 12 m (40 ft) spacing on straight pipe runs, adjacent to
directional changes, and on both sides where pipes pass through wall or floors. Piping Material
identification is specified based on CEGS 09900, which provides additional details and should be a
part of the contract documents. Table 3-6 is a summary of the requirements
Table: Colour Codes for Marking Pipe
MATERIAL

BAND and ARROW


LETTERS

LEGEND

Cold Water (potable)

Green

White

Fire Protection Water

Red

White

Hot Water (domestic)


Hot
Water
recirculation
(domestic)
High Temp. Water
Supply
High Temp. Water
Return
Boiler Feed Water
Low Temp. Water
Supply (heating)
Low Temp. Water
Return (heating)
Condenser
Water
Supply
Condenser
Water
Return
Chilled Water Supply
Chilled Water Return
Treated Water
Chemical Feed
Compressed Air
Natural Gas
Freon
Fuel Oil
Steam

Green
Green

White
White

POTABLE
WATER
FIRE
PR.
WATER
H. W.
H. W. R.

Yellow

Black

H. T. W. S

Yellow

Black

H.T.W.R.

Yellow
Yellow

Black
Black

B. F.
L.T.W.S.

Yellow

Black

L.T.W.R.

Green

White

COND. W.S.

Green

White

COND. W.R.

Green
Green
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blue
Blue
Yellow
Yellow

White
White
Black
Black
Black
White
White
Black
Black

C.H.W.S.
C.H.W.R.
TR. WATER
CH. FEED
COMP. AIR
NAT. GAS
FREON
FUEL OIL
STM.

Condensate

Yellow

Black

COND.

3
Corrosion of Metal

3.1

Theory of Corrosion

According to the modern theory, there are three major factors, such as, Chemical, Electrochemical
and Physical. All this differs according to the degree of involvement of the ions, electrons, and
atoms. For example, There is a common representation of the corrosion reaction and is expressed
with respect to iron, water, and oxygen in the chemical reaction:
Fe
+
H2O +
O2
---Fe (OH) 2
Cause of Corrosion: There are ten most common causes of corrosion of metals, such as, (a) General
corrosion, (b) Galvanic corrosion, (c) Electro-chemical corrosion, (d) Concentration Cell Corrosion,
(e) Pitting Corrosion, (f) Inter-granular Corrosion, (g) Stress corrosion cracking, (h) De-alloying
Corrosion, (i) Erosion Corrosion, and (j) Microbial Induced Corrosion(k) Crevice corrosion, (l)
Graphitic Corrosion, and (m) Graphitic Corrosion.
(b) Galvanic Corrosion: Galvanic corrosion can occur when two electrochemically-dissimilar
metals or alloys are metallically connected and exposed to a corrosive environment. The less noble
material (anode) suffers accelerated attack and the more noble material (cathode) is protected by the
galvanic current. In order to have a galvanic cell, only a metallic path for electron flow is needed;
this is provided when the two dissimilar materials are metallically connected. Example: Zinc is often
used as a sacrificial anode for steel structures or piping. Galvanic corrosion is of major interest to the
marine industry (sea water) and also anywhere in salt water with contacts of pipes or metal
structures.
(c) Electro-chemical corrosion: Corrosion occurs by an electrochemical process. Basically, an
anode (negative electrode), a cathode (positive electrode), electrolyte (corrosive environment), and a
metallic circuit connecting the anode and the cathode are required for this type of corrosion to occur.
Dissolution of metal occurs at the anode where the corrosion current enters the electrolyte and flows
to the cathode. Examination of this basic reaction reveals that a loss of electrons, or oxidation, occurs
at the anode. Electrons lost at the anode flow through the metallic circuit to the cathode and permit a
cathode reaction to occur. Practically all corrosion problems and failures encountered in service can
be associated with one or more of the following basic forms of corrosion.
(d) Concentration Cell Corrosion: Electrochemical attack of a metal or alloy because is called
concentration cell corrosion. Concentration Cell Corrosion occurs where the surface is exposed to an
electrolytic environment due to the concentration of the corrosive fluid or the dissolved oxygen
varies. This is often combined with stagnant fluid or low fluid velocity. There are at least five types
of concentration cells. Of these, the oxygen and metal ion cell are most commonly considered in
the technical literature.
(e) Pitting corrosion: Pitting Corrosion occurs due to stagnant fluid or low fluid velocity. The metal
loss is randomly located on the metal surface. Certain conditions, such as low concentrations of
oxygen or high concentrations of species such as chloride which complete as anions, can interfere
with a given alloy's ability to re-form a passivation film. In the worst case, almost all of the surface
will remain protected, but tiny local fluctuations will degrade the oxide film in a few critical points.
Corrosion at these points will be greatly amplified, and can cause corrosion pits of several types,
depending upon conditions. These problems are especially dangerous because they are difficult to
detect before a part or structure fails. Pitting is similar to concentration cell-corrosion in many
respects. Many grades of stainless steel are particularly susceptible to pitting corrosion when

exposed to saline environments. Alloying elements in a stainless steel, however, greatly affect its
resistance to pitting attack; the tendency to pit decreases as the content in nickel, chromium, and
molybdenum increases. In sea water, austenitic stainless steels containing 18% chromium and a 2-3%
molybdenum addition (e.g., Type 316 stainless steel) exhibit much better pitting-corrosion resistance
than similar alloys which contain no molybdenum (e.g., Type 302 stainless steel).
(f) Inter-granular Corrosion: Inter-granular corrosion is the localized attack, which occurs at or in
narrow zones immediately adjacent to the grain boundaries of an alloy. Severe inter-granular attack
usually occurs without appreciable corrosion of the grains; eventually, the alloy disintegrates or loses
a significant amount of its load-bearing capability. Although a number of alloy systems are
susceptible to inter-granular attack, most of the problems encountered in service involve austenitic
stainless steels and the 2xxx and 7xxx series aluminium alloys. Welding, stress-relief annealing,
improper heat-treating, or overheating in service generally establish the microscopic, compositional
in-homogeneities which make a material susceptible to inter-granular corrosion. Several grades of
austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to inter-granular corrosion after they have been heated into
the temperature range of about 4250C to 7900C. It reveals that inter-granular corrosion can occur in
many environments where austenitic stainless steels normally exhibit excellent corrosion resistance.
(g) Stress-Corrosion Cracking: Stress-corrosion cracking, i.e. environmentally-induced Delayed
failure, describes the deleterious phenomena, which can occur when many alloys are subjected to
static, surface tensile stresses and exposed to certain corrosive environments. Cracks are initiated
and propagated by the combined effect of a surface tensile stress and the environment. When stresscorrosion cracking occurs, the tensile stress involved is often much less than the yield strength of the
material; the environment is generally one in which the material exhibits good resistance to general
corrosion. For example, various steels have good general corrosion resistance to anhydrous liquid
ammonia. Steel tanks are widely and successfully used for the storage and transport of this liquefied
gas. Stress-corrosion cracking failures have occurred in some large-diameter liquid ammonia tanks,
however, probably because the high residual tensile stresses introduced during fabrication were not
removed by stress-relief annealing. Several of the alloy/susceptible environment combinations where
stress-corrosion cracking can occur.
(h) De-alloying Corrosion: De-alloying is a corrosion process wherein one element is preferentially
removed from an alloy. The affected areas become brittle, weak, and porous but the overall
dimensions of the component do not change appreciably. The two most important examples of dealloying are the preferential removal of zinc from copper-zinc alloys (dezincification) and the
preferential removal of iron from gray-cast iron (graphitic corrosion). Other cases of de-alloying
include the preferential removal of aluminium, nickel, and tin from copper-base alloys and cobalt
from a Co-W-Cr alloy. Dezincification commonly occurs when yellow brass (67Cu-33Zn) is exposed
to waters having a high chloride content, low temporary hardness, and pH above 8. For severe
applications, it may be necessary to use Cupro-nickel alloys (90Cu-10Ni), which contains a small
amount of iron.
(i) Erosion Corrosion: Most metals and alloys depend upon a protective surface-film for corrosion
resistance. When the protective film or corrosion products have poor adherence, an acceleration or
increase in the rate of localized corrosion can occur because of relative movement between the liquid
and the metal. Many metallic materials are susceptible to erosion corrosion at sufficiently high flow
rates or excessive turbulence. Some of the piping components where erosion-corrosion damage
frequently occurs include: elbows, tees, bends, and pump impellers, valves, and propellers, orifices
of measuring devices, nozzles, heat-exchanger tubes, and turbine blades. Cavitations corrosion is a

special form of erosion corrosion. The process is basically the result of gas bubbles forming at low
pressure and collapsing under high pressure at or near the liquid-metal interface. Bubble collapse,
which produces very high-localized pressures (shock waves), destroys the metals protective film.
Alternately, formation and destruction of the film on a localized basis results in severe damage of the
metal. Cavitations corrosion damaged surfaces are characterized by their deeply pitted and spongy
appearance.
(j) Microbial corrosion: Microbiological activity can induce corrosion as a result of by-products
such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, and acids. In some instances micro organisms
may also consume metal. Biological activity can be reduced through the use of biocides, inhibitor
and/or occasional pH variations. Microbial corrosion, or commonly known as microbiologically
influenced corrosion (MIC), is a corrosion caused or promoted by micro organisms, usually
chemoautotrophy. It can apply to both metallic and non-metallic materials, in the presence or absence
of oxygen. Sulphate-reducing bacteria are active in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic); they produce
hydrogen sulphide, causing sulphide stress cracking. In the presence of oxygen (aerobic), some
bacteria may directly oxidize iron to iron oxides and hydroxides, other bacteria oxidize sulphur and
produce sulphuric acid causing biogenic sulphide corrosion. Accelerated Low Water Corrosion
(ALWC) is a particularly aggressive form of MIC that affects steel piles in seawater near the low
water tide mark. Corrosion rates can be very high and design corrosion allowances can soon be
exceeded leading to premature failure of the steel pile. Piles that have been coating and have cathode
protection installed at the time of construction are not susceptible to ALWC. For unprotected piles,
sacrificial anodes can be installed local to the affected areas to inhibit the corrosion or a complete
retrofitted sacrificial anode system can be installed.
(k) Crevice corrosion: Crevice corrosion creates pits similar to pitting corrosion. Crevice corrosion
is a localized form of corrosion occurring in confined spaces (crevices) to which the access of the
working fluid from the environment is limited and a differential aeration cell is set up, leading to the
active corrosion inside the crevices. This form of corrosion is sometimes referred to as
Concentration Cell Corrosion. Examples of crevices are gaps and contact areas between parts,
under gaskets or seals, inside cracks and seams, spaces filled with deposits and under sludge piles.
The susceptibility to crevice corrosion can be evaluated with ASTM standard procedures. A critical
crevice corrosion temperature (CCT) is commonly used to rank a material's resistance to crevice
corrosion. Crevice Corrosion occurs at places with gaskets, bolts and lap joints.
(l) Graphitic Corrosion: Graphitic Corrosion is a process of Cast iron loosing iron in salt water or
acids, which leaves the graphite in place, resulting in a soft weak metal.
(m) Weld decay and knife line attack Corrosion: Stainless steel can pose special corrosion
challenges, since its passivation behaviour relies on the presence of a major alloying component
(Chromium, at least 11.5%). Due to the elevated temperatures of welding or during improper heat
treatment, chromium carbides can form in the grain boundaries of stainless alloys. This chemical
reaction robs the material of chromium in the zone near the grain boundary, making those areas much
less resistant to corrosion. This creates a galvanic couple with the well-protected alloy nearby, which
leads to weld decay (corrosion of the grain boundaries in the heat affected zones) in highly corrosive
environments. A stainless steel is said to be sensitized if chromium carbides are formed in the
microstructure. A typical microstructure of a normalized type 304 stainless steel shows no signs of
sensitization while heavily sensitized steel shows the presence of grain boundary precipitates. The
dark lines in the sensitized microstructure are networks of chromium carbides formed along the grain
boundaries. Special alloys, either with low carbon content or with added carbon "getters" such as

titanium and niobium (in types 321 and 347, respectively), can prevent this effect, but the latter
require special heat treatment after welding to prevent the similar phenomenon of knife line attack. As
its name implies, corrosion is limited to a very narrow zone adjacent to the weld, often only a few
micrometers across, making it even less noticeable.

3.2

Factors Affecting Corrosion

Temperature Effect: At an elevated temperature, the oxidation of the metal tends to occur fast and
cause corrosion of the metal. However, at elevated temperature, the alloy steels have more oxidation
resistance due to presence of the chromium in high percentage. The increase in the temperature,
generally, increases the corrosion rate. The kinetics (rate of motion or reaction) of the action
increases with the increase of temperature.
Potential (Emf) Difference: The tendency of the metal to enter into solutions a function of electrode
potential of the metal. Electrode potential is an inherent property of each element. When there is a
difference in potential between two metals exposed in the same environment, the metal higher in
series (Zinc in case of Steel and zinc) will corrode and protect the metal lower in the series, i.e.
steel.
Heat Treatment: The corrosion behaviour of many alloy steels can be strongly influenced by its heat
treatment.
Surface Condition: The cleanliness of the surface, existence of the surface films, and presence of
foreign matter can affect the initiation of corrosion and rate of corrosion in different way.
Effect of Erosion: The corrosion is directly proportional to the flow rate (velocity) of the liquid
passing through the pipe. More is the flow; there is more corrosion due to the erosion of the corrosion
resistance films getting washed away at faster rate. Erosion removes the corrosion films from the
surface of metal, which act as protective coating of a substrate. Thus erosion exposes a fresh metal
surface to corrode and thereby accelerate the corrosion.
Radiation: Test has revealed that there is a slight additional increase in corrosion due to radiation.
Environmental Impurities: It is a very important factor to affect the corrosion of metal.
Time: The extent of corrosion, certainly, increases with increase of the time.
Effect of Stress: Test has revealed that a material corrodes more when it is under tensile stress. The
major concern is the cracking of a metal or plastic under the combined effect of tensile stress and
corrosion to produce a brittle failure of the material.
Pressure: Pressure does not have any effect on corrosion unless the liquid under pressure is
corrosive.
Differential Aeration: When a metal is exposed to an aerated liquid, it will corrode if there is an
electrical path through the liquid.
Concentration Difference: The action of the chemical like acid or base is based on degree of
ionization. The strong acid like HCL ionizes more than weak acid like boric acid and hence HCL acid
is more corrosive. When there are differences in concentration or pH of corrosive liquids in contact
together with the metal surface, then the metal will corrode between the zones exposed to the differing
solutions.
Biological Effects: Macro and microscopic organisms influence corrosion of metals in two different
ways, (1) by creating mats or obstructions on the surface which produce differential aeration cells, or
(2) by absorbing hydrogen from the surface of steel and thus removing the hydrogen as a resistance
factor in corrosion cell.

3.3

Corrosion Table

The piping materials as mentioned in the table below are recommended based on various effects of
fluids on metals. This information have been collected from various books, specifications and
compiled here for initial knowledge on corrosion of the metals.
This corrosion table is prepare with the help of a book known as CORROSION TABLE and other
book on corrosion to assist to have information of the corrosive fluids and their effect on different
metals. The table is not intended for reference for design of the piping. It is a sincere advice to the
reader to refer the authentic book CORROSION TABLE for authenticity of the corrosion
requirement of the materials. Since the corrosion is a function of temperature, the table indicates the
suitability of each material at varying temperatures. The symbols used to indicate specific corrosion
rate are shown here below:
The Corrosion Resistance of material is different at different temperature for the same fluid.
Accordingly, a suitable abbreviation is selected to denote the different corrosion resistance as
mentioned below:
Excellent (E): When the corrosion rate is less than 2 mils penetration per year, it is called
Excellent and is denoted by E.
Good (G): When the corrosion rate is less than 20 mils penetration per year, it is called Good and
is denoted by G.
Satisfactory (S): When corrosion rate is less than 50 mils penetration per year, it is called
Satisfactory and is denoted by S.
Unsatisfactory (U): When corrosion rate exceeds 50 mils penetration per year, it is called
Unsatisfactory and is denoted by U.
Example: See the corrosion table below for the fluid service Ammonia Gas. For Carbon
Steel/Alloy Steel Grade material, it is written, as E/38. This shows that the corrosion resistance of
carbon steel/alloy steel is Excellent up to 380C in Ammonia Gas service. Similarly, stainless Steel
grade 304 & 347 are Excellent up to 940C, Stainless Steel grade 316 is Excellent up to 940C,
Aluminium is Satisfactory up to 260C, and Monel is Unsatisfactory at any temperature for the same
fluid.
Table: Corrosion of Metal under influence of fluids

(CORROSION TABLE)
Fluid service

Acetylene
Air

Corrosion Resistance: Excellent (E), Good (G),


Satisfactory (S) & Unsatisfactory (U)/ up to max. Limit
of Temp. 0C
Carbon Stainless
Stainless
Aluminium Monel
Steel/ Steel
Steel
Alloy
Grade 304, Grade 316
Steel
347
G/204 E/204
-E/180
-G/ 65
-----

Ammonia
(Anhydrous)
Ammonia
Chloride (Sat.)
Ammonia Gas
Ammonium
Phosphate
Asphalt
Bear
Benzene,
Benzyl
Benzene
Sulphurric Acid (10%)
DO (100%)

E/204

G/249

E/293

E/82

--

--

--

--

--

G/260

E/38
U

E/94
E/58

E/94
E/58

S/26
U

U
G/95

G/15
G/28
G/60

G/116
E/93
G/106

G/293
E/149
G/193

E/15
E/149
E/149

-E/149
E/94

G/100

--

G100

--

G/100

G/82

G/100

Bleach
(12.5%)
Active
Chlorine
Blood
Borax
Boric Acid
Bromine Gas
(DRY)
Bromine
Liquid
Butadiene
Butane
Butyl Alcohol

U; Hastelloy- U
C/C
E/65

U
G/93
U
U

E/293
E/65
G/204
U

E/293
E/204
G/204
U

E/293
U
E/38
G/15

E/293
E/30
G/95
E/49

--

--

G/95

--

G/85
E/175
G/93

G/85
G/82
G/93

G/204
G/149
E/204

-E/82
E/93

Butyl Ether
Butyl Phenol
Butylenes
(Butadiene)
Butyric Acid
(WET)
20%
Calcium
Carbonate
Calcium
Chloride
(SAT.)

E/15
-G/26

-G/200
G/82

E/15
E/200
G/204

G/40
G/82
E/40;G/4095
E/15
G/26
G/40

U
U
U
G/93

G/75
U
U
E/95

G/204
U
U
E/95

G/82
G/26
U
S/26

G/95
U
U
G/93

G/60

--

G/95

G/38

G/175

-G/95
E/26

Calcium Oxide
Camphor
Cane
Sugar
Liquid
Carbon
Dioxide
(DRY)
Carbon
Monoxide
Castor Oil
Caustic Potash
Chloramines
(Dilute)
Chlorine gas
(DRY)
Chlorine
Liquid
Chlorine Water
(SAT)
Chloroform

--G/75

G/30
E/30
G/30

-E/95
G/175

G/30
E/30
E/95

G/30
E/95
E/30

G/95

G/95

G/293

E/293

E/293

G/293

E/293

E/293

E/293

E/293

G/49
U
U

-E/75
(50%) G/104 G/71
---

G/95
U
--

E/82
-U

G/93

G/204

G/95

E/95

G/26

G/40

G/49

--

G/65

G/26

E/95

Citric Acid
(Concentrate)
Citric
Acid
(5%)
Coconut Oil
Coffee
Coke oven Gas
Copper
Sulphate
Corn Oil
Cotton Seed
Oil
Crude oil
Cyclohaxane
Cyclohexanol
DO (WET)
DO (10%)

G/26

E/65

E/30,G/30- -E/95
95
G/204
G/15,S/15- G/26
170
E/93
E/65
G/65

S/38
U
G/38
U

G/38
G/95
G/38
G/95

G/38
G/95
G/38
G/204

G/38
-G/38
U

G/38
E/38
G/38
S/30

G/75
G/75

-G/30

G/175
G/75

G/75
G/75

G/40
E/15

G/38
G/82
G/26
S/75
U

E/95
G/38
G/26
G/95
G/93

E/95
G/204
G/26
G/93
E/204

E/40
G/82
G/26
E/204
G/82

DO (15%)

E/95

Detergent

G/26

E/60,G/6095
G/82

E/38
G/82
U
E/75
G/15,
S/30-170
G/54-95

G/175

G/38

--

G/65-95

Detergent
Solution

--

G/82

E/82

--

--

Dichloroethane
(Ethylene
Dichloride)
Diesel Fuel
Dimethyl Ether
Dimethylamine
Dioxin
Dipentane
Diphenyl
Diphenyl
Oxide
Esters
(general)
Ethane
Ethers
(general)
Ethylene
Ethylene
Chloride
Ethylene
Diamine
Ethylene
Glycol
Ethylene Oxide
Fatty Acid
Ferric
Chloride

G/38

G/95

G/204

G/40

E/93

G/93
--G/38
-G/204
G/15

E/30
G/95
G/116
G/95
-G/95
G/26

E/30
G/95
-G/95
G/60
G/95
G/26

E/30
--G/175
-G/71
G/15

-G/95
-G/95
-G/95
G/65

--

--

G/204

--

--

G/93
G/93

-E/93

E/26
E/93

G/95
G/30

-G/30

G/65

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/26

G/26

G/204

G/26

--

G/38

G/95

G/170

E/38

G/95

G/204
U
U

G/95
G/138
U

G/204
E/204
U

Ferric Nitrate U
(SAT)
Ferric Sulphate U

--

G/65

E/95
E/204
U;
Titanium
E/149
--

G/26
E/204
U;
Tantalum
E/149
U

G/26

E/93

G/26

Fish Oil
Flue Gas
Fluorine Gas
(DRY)
Fluorine Gas
(MOIST.)

G/65
G/65
E/204;
G/204-240
U; HastelloyC/C-270
E/293

G/65
G/65
E/216

U;
NI-Resist
G/230
--E/204
G/204-240
U

G/65
G/65
S/15
U

G/65
G/65
E/293
U;

Freon F 11
& F-12, F-22

G/30;
Bronze
G/210

G/204

G/26

E/204;

Freon F-21
& F-113

--

--;
-Copper G/65

--

G/170

--;
Bronze
G/65
G/170

Fruit Juice
Fuel Gas
Fuel Oil
Gas (Natural)
Gas
(Manufactured)

G/38

G/93
G/38
G/40

G/70
G/175
G/38

G/60
G/38
G/38

G/82
G/38
E/38

G/30

G/38

G/38;

G/38

G/120
G/38
G/38
Bronze
G/175
G/30
NI-Resist
E/204
G/130

Gasoline
(Leaded)

G/38

Gasoline
(Refined)
Gasoline
(Sour)
Gasoline
(Unleaded)
Gelatin
Gin
Glaubars Salt
Glycerine
Glycolic Acid
Glycol
Green Liquor
Heptanes
Hexane
Hydrochloric
Acid (Dilute)

G/93

G/95

G/38

G/175

G/26

G/26

G/175

G/26

G/26

G/95

G/38

U
--G/40
U
G/26
G/204
G/175
G/175
U

G/65
G/93
-E/130
G/95
G/38
-G/120
G/116
U;
Tantalum/149

G/165
G/93
G/26
E/95
G/175
G/26
-G/180
G/116
U

G/165
--E/95
E/175
G/38
-G/93
G/38
G/26

Hydrochloric
Acid 20%

Hydrochloric
Acid 50%

Hydrochloric

U;
U
Tantalum
E/149
U;
U
Tantalum
E/149
U; Tantalum U

G/82
--G/149
G/26
G/26
-G/26
G/26
U;
HastelloyB/B-2
G/93
U

E/38

G/20

Acid Fume
Hydrofluoric
Acid (Dilute)
DO 50%

E/38
U

E/204

G/71204

DO 100%
DO Vapour
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Chloride Gas
(DRY)
DO (WET)
Iodine

G/49
-E/293
G/38

U
U
E/293
E/293

G/26
U
E/293
E/293

U
U
E/293
U

G/95
E/95
-E/204

E/204
U

E/204
U

U
E/26

E/260
E/26

Iodine (10%)
Solution

DO (SAT)

E/204
U; Hastelloy
C/C
270
G/82
U; Hastelloy
C/C
270
G/82
U; Hastelloy
C/C
276
G/85
-G/65
G/38
G/204
G/26
G/120

G/65
G/65
G/204
G/204
G/65
G/130

--G/75
G/75
U
G/38

G/65
G/65
G/38
G/95
G/65
G/38

G/95

E/40,
G/40-95
E/40,
G/40-95
G/149

G/26

G/26

G/38

G/38;
Bronze
G/175

G/30

G/38

--

G/95
G/95
--

G/95
G/95
G/65

U
U
--

G/95
G/95
G/65

Isobutene
G/65
Isooctane
G/65
Jet Fuel
G/75
Kerosene
G/175
Ketchup
U
Ketenes,
G/93
General
Lactic
Acid U
5%
DO 25%
U
DO
U
(Concentrated)
Lard Oil
S/38

LPG
Lube Oil
Lead Acetate
Lead Sulphate
Lime Slurry

U
U
G/65

G/49
G/18

Linseed Oil
Lubricating
Oil
Machine Oil
Magnesium
Carbonate

G/30
G/65

G/95
G/65

G/95
G/65

G/26
G/65

G/38
G/38

G/95
--

G/95
G/95

G/95
G/95

-G/30

-G/30

Mercuric
Chloride
Mercury
Methane
Methanol
Methyl Acetate
Methyl
Acetone
Methyl
Alcohol
Methyl Amine
Methyl
Chloroform
Milk
Mineral Oil
Molasses
Motor Oil
Naphtha
Naphthalene
Nickel
Chloride
Nickel Salt

G/175

G/293
G/293

E/293
E/293

E/293
E/293

U
E/93

G/293
E/95

S/65
G/65

G/104
E/26

G/104
G/65

G/26
E/26

E/26
G/65

G/95

G/120

G/175

G/65

G/95

E/26
S/26

G/50
G/30

G/65
--

G/26
--

U
--

G/71
G/38
G/38
G/120
G/30
G/82
U

E/95
E/30
E/95
G/120
G/120
E/204
G/95

E/175
G/175
E/175
G/120
G/95
E/204
G/95

E/93
G/75
G/26
-G/82
G/95
U

S/30
E/38
G/38
E/30
G/49
G/95
G/95

HastelloyG/26
C/C
276
G/149
E/95
E/95

--

E26, G/26- E/30,G/3093


93
E/26
E/40
E/50
E/50
E/293
E/293
G/65
G/65
G/65
G/120
G/140
E/140
G/65
G/65
U
G/175

E/30
E/50
G/30
G/65
G/65
G/26
E/26
S90

U
U
-G/65
-G204
E65
G/95

Nitric
Acid U
5%
DO 50%
U
DO 100%
DO Fumes
Nitrogen
Octane
Oil and Fats
Oleic Acid
Olive Oil
Oxalic
Acid

U
U
E/15
G/65
G/65
G/26
G/65
U

5%
DO 50%
DO (SAT)

U
U

U
U

G/175
U

Oxygen
Oxygen Gas

G/65
--

G/30
TantalumE/149

Ozone
Paraffin
Peanut Oil

S/40
G/38
--

Pentane
Petrolatum
Petroleum Oil
(Refined)
Petroleum Oil
(Sour)
Phenol
(Carbolic
Acid)
Phosphoric
Acid (5%)
DO (10%)

G/65
S/38
-

DO (25-50%)

Phosphorus
Polyvinyl
Acetate
Potassium
Bisulphate
Potassium
Carbonate
50%
Potassium
Chloride
(30%)
Potassium
Cyanide (30%)
Potassium
Hydroxide
27%

G/65
G/30

G/175
--

S/85
G/26,S/2650
G/26
--

G/38
G/130
Bronze
G/175
G/65
G/38
G/26

G/175
G/130
G/65

G/40
G/130
--

G/38
G/65
--

G/65
G/171
G/26

G/65
G/49
G/30

G/65
G/38
G/30

G/26

G/30

G/95

Tantalum
E/149
E/293

E/293

E/65

E/293

--

E/85

E/95

E/15

E/85

S/38

S/15

S/26

---

E/85;
S/85-95
U/65; G/65- G/93
85
E/49
E/49
E/82
E/82

G/30
--

E/49
--

G/26

G/65

--

G/95

E/95

E/95

G/95

G/95

E/95

E/175

G/95

G/95

G/95

E/175

E/65

G/93

G/95

G/175

E95

--

G/26
--

DO 50%
Potassium
Iodide (70%)
Potassium 20%
Permanganate
Potassium
Sulphate
(10%)

G/30
S/38

G/95
G/95

G/150
G/95

U
S/38

E/95
G/95

G/26

G/95

G/175

G/95

G/95

G/95

E/95

E/175

E/95

E/95

DO Pure
Propylene
Glycol
Propylene
Oxide
Pyridine
Propylene
Dichloride
Propane
Quinine
Bisulphate
Quinine
Sulphate
Quinine
Reactor
Effluent
Silicon Oil
Silver
Chloride
Silver Cyanide
Silver Nitrate
Soaps
Soap Solution
(5%)
Soap Solution
Sodium
Acetate
Sodium
Benzoate
Sodium 20%
Bicarbonate
Sodium
Bicarbonate
(Neutral)

-G/110

G/26
G/30

G/26
G/95

-G/75

G/26
G/30

G/65

G/60

G/60

--

--

G/49
G/65

G/95
G/120

G/175
--

G/175
--

G/95
G/65

G/175
--

G/82
G/15

G/165
G/15

E/30
--

E/30
E/15

--

--

--

--

E/15

--

--

G/65

--

--

G/38
U

G/38
U

G/38
U

G/38
U

-G/26

-U
S/15
G/65

E/30
G/293
G/30
G/65

E/30
G/293
G/149
G/65

U
U
G/149
G/40

G/30
U
G/30

G/75
U

G/30
G/293

G/30
G/293

G/149
E/30

G/38
G/95

--

--

--

G/38

G/38

S/38

E/110

E/175

G/65

E/95

--

G/30

G/38

G/30

--

Sodium 30%
Chloride (Salt)
Sodium
Carbonate
Sodium
Chlorate
Sodium Citrate
Sodium
Cyanide
Sodium
Hydroxide
10%
(Caustic Soda)
Caustic Soda
15%
Caustic Soda
30%
Caustic Soda
50%

G/71

G/95

G/175

E/30

G/49

G/95

G/175

E/95

S/26

G/95

G/95

G/204

E/95

-G/38

G/30
E/95

G/95
E/175

U
U

G/15
U

G/95

E/95

E/175

E/95

G/95

E/65,G/6595
E/75

E65,
G/65-149
E/75

E/175

E/75

E/75,G/7595

E/75,G/75- U
95

G/30

G/175

E/93,
G/93149
G/175

FEP E/204
G/30

-G/30

-U

-G/30

G/95

G/175

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95

G/95
GG/95

G/95
G/170

U
E/30

G/95
G/95

E/204

E/204

E/95

G/95

Hastelloy
C/C-270
E/65
G/38
G/293

--

--

--

G/65
G/293

G/75
G/95

G/65
E/293

G/95
S/38

Caustic Soda S/140


(Conc.)
Sodium Iodide G/26
Sodium Lactate FEP
E/204
Sodium 10% G/30
Peroxide
Sodium
-(Acid)
Phosphate
Sodium
G/65
(Alkaline)
Phosphate
DO (Neutral)
-Sodium
G/95
Silicate
Sodium
G/65
Sulphate
Sour Crude Oil --

Soybean Oil
Steam (LP)

G/40
G/293

Steam (MP)
Steam (HP)
Styrene

G/293
G/293
E/50

G/293
G/165
G/26

G/293
G/293
G/55

-U
G/26

E/293
U
G/55

Sulfonated
Detergent

--

--

--

--

Sulphur

Hastelloy
C/C-276
E/55
E/293

E/293

E/293

E/85,
G/85195

Sulphur
Chloride

G/95;
NickelE/293
TantalumG/30
G/293

G/40

S/30

S/30

--

--

--

G/293

G/149

G/82

G/293
U

U
U

U
S/26

S/26

G/30

G/30

G/95

G/40

U
U; Hastelloy
G/G-3 G/120
U; Incolloy
825
G/110
U; Hastelloy
B/B-2 E/110
U;
TantalumG/149
S/30;
Hastelloy
B/B-2 G/95
G/26

G/95

--

E/30

E/30

E/30

U
-G/93
---

G/95
G/50
GGG/93
E/204
U; Hastelloy
C/C276
G/110

G/95
G/50
G/93
E/204
G/65

U
E/26
G/93
---

G/95
-G/93
---

Sulphur
-Dichloride
Sulphur Oxide E/55,
DRY
G/55293
DO (WET)
U
Sulphuric Acid U
10%
Sulphuric Acid U
30%
Sulphuric Acid U
50%
Sulphuric Acid U
70%
Sulphuric Acid S/38
98%
Sulphuric Acid
100%
Sulphuric
Acid (Fumes)
Tannic Acid
Tanning Liquor
Tar
Tartaric Acid
Tin Chloride

Toluene
(Toluol)
Tomato Juice
Transformer
Oil
Trim
Ethyl
Propane
Turpentine
Urea 50%
Uric
Acid
(Conc.)
Urine
Vegetable Oil
Water

E/175

E/95

E/175

E/95

E/95

S/40
G/26

G/30
G/30

G/120
30

G/40
G/26

G/30
G/30

--

--

--

--

--

G/26
G/30
--

E/93
G/95
E/30

E/93
G/95
E/30

G/82
G/95
U

E/40
G/26
E/30

G/38
G/71
G/65

E/38
G/95
G/95

E/38
G/95
G/95

-G/71
G/95

-G/72
G/95

Table : Re comme nde d Piping Mate rials and Corrosion Allowance


Fluid
Service
Acetate solvent
Acetic acid
Acetic anhydride

Corrosion
Allowance
(mm)
1.5
Nil
Nil
Nil
3.0

Acetone
Acetylene
Acid mine Water
Air (Plant air)

1.5
1.5
Nil
1.5

Air Instrument

1.5

Alcohol
Aldehyde
Alum
(Aluminium
Sulphate)
Amine
Ammonia Vapour

1.5
1.5
Nil

Ammonia Liquid

1.5

3.0
1.5

Recommended
Piping Materials
API 5l Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 304
Aluminium
API 5L Gr B with
glass lining
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
PVC
IS 1239 Gr HVY, IS
3589
IS 1239 Gr Hvy
(Galv.)
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B (max.
260 0C)
API 5L Gr B (max.

Ammonia Chloride

1.5

Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Nitrite
Ammonium Phosphate
Ammonium Sulphate
Amyl Acetate

Nil
Nil
Nil
1.5
1.5
1.5

Amyl Alcohol

Nil
1.5

Aniline or (Aniline oil)

Nil
Nil

Aniline Dyes
Aromatics
Asphalt
Barium Chloride
Benzyl (high temp.)
Benzyl (low temp.)
Bitumen
Boiler Feed Water
Brine
Caustic Soda

Nil
1.5
1.5
1.5
Nil
3.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

Caustic Solution
Chemical
Coke Cutting Water
Corrosive Hydrocarbon
Corrosive Sour
Cooling Water

3.0
Nil
1.5
1.5
3.0
1.5

Corrosive
Service

Process 3.0
Nil
3.0

260 0C)
API 5L Gr B (in
production)
A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B (in
production)
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B (in
production)
A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 304,
Monel
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304
A335 Gr P5
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A106 Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B, Max.
400 0C
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
IS 1239 / IS 3589
API 5L Gr B, Max.
260 0C
API 5L Gr B, Max.
425 0C
A312 Gr 316L
Max. 425 0C
A335 Gr P5 Max.
230 0C

Corrosion Inhibitor

1.5

API 5L Gr B

Corrosive Sour Service


Coal Tar (Low Temp.)
Coal Tar (High Temp.)
Crude Oil

3.0
1.5
3.0
3.0

Demulsified Solution
Diesel

1.5
1.5

API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A335 Gr P5
A335
Gr
P5
Beyond 230 0 C
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B, Max.
230 0 C
A335
Gr
P11
0
Beyond 230 C
HDPE

3.0
Dilute Sulphuric Acid

Nil

D M Water

1.5
Nil
Nil

Drinking Water
Effluent Water
Fuel Oil

Nil
3.0
3.0
1.5

Fuel Gas
Fire Water

1.5
1.5

Flushing Oil

1.5
1.5

Gas
Wash
(Caustic)
HCL Gas
Hydrocarbon
Corrosive)

Water 3.0
Nil
(Non- 1.5
1.5

Hydrocarbon
Corrosive)

(Mild 3.0
3.0

API 5L Gr B, Max.
260 0 C
A312 Gr 304
API 5L Gr B,
(Rubber Lined)
IS 1239 / IS 3589
API 5L Gr B
A335 Gr P11,
Beyond 230 0 C
API 5L Gr B, Max.
230 0 C
API 5L Gr B,
API 5L Gr B, Max
260 0 C
IS 1239/IS 3589
API 5L Gr B, Max.
260 0 C
API 5L Gr B
HDPE
API 5L Gr B, Max.
425 0 C
A335
Gr
P5,
0
Beyond 425 C
API 5L Gr B, Max.
425 0C
A335
Gr
P5,
Beyond 425 0C

Hydrocarbon
(Corrosive)

Nil
1.0

A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 316L /
Gr 3210

3.0

API 5L Gr B, Max.
425 0C
A335
Gr
P5,
0
Beyond 425 C
A312 Gr TP 304
A312 Gr TP 316L /
Gr 3210
A106 Gr B
A106 Gr B
A106 Gr B
A335 Gr P11/P22
A312 Gr TP 304 /
TP 321H

3.0
Nil
1.0
H2S
Hydrogen and
(Toxic)
Hydrogen
Temp.) &
(High Temp.)

4.5
4.5
3.0
(Low 1.5
Nil

Instrument Air
Liquid Sulphur

Nil
3.0

Lime Sulphur
Linseed Oil
LPG
Lubricant Oil
Lye
Magnesium Chloride
Magnesium Sulphate

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
4.5
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
1.5
1.5
1.5

Mercuric Chloride
Mercury
Methane
Methanol/Methyl
Alcohol
Do
Product)
Milk
Mine Water
Milk of Lime
Mixed Acid

IS 1239 (Galv.)
A106 Gr B, Max.
375 0C
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
PVC
A312 Gr TP 304
Monel
Hastelloy
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B

(Pure Nil

A312 Gr TP 304

Nil
Nil
3.0
(Low Nil

A312 Gr TP 304
PVC
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304

Temp.)
(High Temp.)
Molasses
Temp.)
(High Temp.)

Nil
(Low Nil

Nil
Naphtha
Temp.)
(Low Temp.)
Natural Gas
Neon
Nickel Chloride
Nickel Sulphate
Nitre Cake
Temp.)
(Low Temp.)
Nitric Acid

(Passivated)
Tantalum
PVC

(High 3.0

API 5L Gr
(Teflon Coated)
A335 Gr P5

1.5
1.5
1.5
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
(High Nil

API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
Monel
A312 Gr TP 304
Monel
A312 Gr TP 304
PVC

Nil
Nil

Nil
Nitrogen
1.5
Non-Corrosive Service 1.5
Nitrobenzene
1.5
Oil of Mir bane
1.5
Oil of Vitriol (Sulphuric 1.5
Acid)
Oxalic Acid
Nil
Nil
Oleum Sprits
Oxygen
1.5
Nil
Phosphate Solution
Nil
Polished Water
Nil
(150 psi)
Nil
Pantene
1.5
Petroleum
Oils
& 1.5
Solvent
Phenol
4.5
Nil

Red Brass
API 5L Gr B (Glass
Lined)
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
Monel
Red Brass
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304 L
A312 Gr TP 304
HDPE Max. Temp.
1500C
Monel
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304 L

Phosphoric Acid
Ophthalmic Acid
Pickling Acid
Picric Acid

Nil
Nil
2.0
4.5
Nil
Nil

Potassium Carbonate

Nil
1.5
Nil

Potassium Chloride
Potassium
Hydrochloride

Nil
1.5
Nil

Potassium Nitrite
Potassium Sulphate
Potassium Sulphide

1.5
1.5
1.0
1.5
Propane
1.5
3.0
Pyridine
1.5
RCO (Temp.)
3.0
Raw Water (Max. Temp 1.5
2600C)
Reactor Effluent
3.0
Steam
NIBR
1.5
(LP) NIBR
(LP)
NIBR 1.5
(Tracing)
IBR
IBR
IBR
IBR

(LP)
(MP)
(HP)
(HP)

1.5
1.5
1.0
Nil
Do
Do
Do

Sulphuric Acid (70 to 1.5


90% Conc.)

A312 Gr TP 304 L
PVC
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
PVC
API 5L Gr B (Glass
Lined)
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
PVC Conc.<75%
(Low Temp.)
A312 Gr TP 304
API 5L Gr B
PVC Conc.<75%
(Low Temp.)
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A 316 L
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A335 Gr P5
API 5L Gr B
A335 Gr P5
API 5L Gr B Max
Temp 2600 C
A335 Gr P11
API 5L Gr B Max
Temp 2600 C
API 5L Gr B Max
Temp 2600 C
A 106 Gr B
A 106 Gr B Max
Temp 4000 C
A 335 Gr P11
Above 400/5500 C
A 312 TP 321H
Above 5500 C
Do
Do
do
API 5L Gr B

Sulphuric Acid (Up to Nil


60% Conc.)
Sea Water
Nil
Nil
Sewage
1.5
Soap Solution
Soda Ash
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Carbonate

Nil
1.5
Nil
Nil
1.5
Nil
1.5
Nil
1.5
1.5
1.5
Nil

Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Nitrite
Sodium Peroxide
Sodium
Phosphate
Sodium
Phosphate 1.5
(basic)
Sodium Chloride
1.0
Nil
Sweet Gas
1.5
Sodium Silicate
1.5
Sodium Sulphate
1.5
Sour Flare
3.0
Sodium Sulphide
1.0
Soybean Oil
Nil
Sulphur
1.5
Sulphur Vapour
3.0
Sulphur Chloride (Dry 3.0
Gas)
Sour Water
3.0
Sour Gas

4.5

Suffer Trioxide
Slops
Service Water
Sour Water

1.5
1.5
1.5
4.5

HDPE
HDPE
Cupronickel
Cast Iron
RCC Pipe
API 5L Gr B
HDPE
HDPE
API 5L Gr B
HDPE
API 5L Gr B
HDPE
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304L
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304L
PVC
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 316L
A312 Gr TP 304L
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B (Max.
Temp. 3750C)
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
(Temp. 4000C)
API 5L Gr B
(Temp. 4000C)
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B
IS 1239/ IS 3589
API 5L Gr B Max.

Tar
Tartaric Acid
Titanium Chloride
Trisodium Phosphate
Turpentine (Product)
(Purified
Product)
Varnish
Product)

Nil

Monel

(Rough 1.5
Nil
(Purified

Product)
Vegetable Oil
Vinegar
VAC
Vacuum Residue
VB TAR
Whisky
Wine
Wash Water
Xylem
Temp.)
Temp.)
Zinc Chloride
Zinc Sulphate

1.5
Nil
Nil
1.5
1.5

Temp. 4000C
API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304L
Monel
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B

API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 304

Nil
Nil
1.5
3.0
3.0
Nil
Nil
3.0
(Low 1.5

A312 Gr TP 304L
Monel / Inconel
API 5L Gr B
A335 Gr P5
A335 Gr P5
Copper / Brass
A312 Gr TP 304L
API 5L Gr B
API 5L Gr B

(High 3.0

A335 Gr P5

3.0.5
1.0

API 5L Gr B
A312 Gr TP 316L

4
Piping Design

4.1

General

Design refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system. Design defines the
specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how and what to do within legal,
political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective. Design
is making a specification of an object, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment,
using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements and subject to constraints. Design
is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. The design
includes a discrete sequence of stages. Process piping systems include pipe and appurtenances used
to transport fluids. Separate guidance has been provided for plumbing, potable water, sewage, storm
drainage, fuel and lubricant systems. The design analysis includes the design of the process piping
systems. The design criteria include Engineering, System Description, Specifications, Drawings,
Drawing Requirements, Process Flow Diagram (PFD) Content, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
(P&ID) Content, Piping Sketches, Service Conditions, Applicable Codes and Standards,
Environmental requirements, and other parameters, which may constrain the work. However piping
design can be understood in better ways by following main aspects of design strategy: Design
conditions; Design Criterias; Fluid service conditions; Selection of materials; Selection of Valve,
Flange, Fitting & Other Piping Components; Piping Sizing Criteria; Design Considerations for
Particular Piping System & Instruments; Piping flexibility and Supports; Design of Piping Joints;
Design Engineering and Limitations; and Plant Layout.
Applicable Codes and Standards: Piping codes provide required design criteria. These criteria are
rules and regulations to follow when designing a piping system. The following piping codes include
design criteria, allowable stresses and stress limits; allowable dead loads and load limits; allowable
live loads and load limits; materials; sizing; minimum wall thickness; maximum deflection; seismic
loads; and thermal expansion.
ASME SEC-I
:
Rule for construction of Power Boiler
ASME SEC-IV
:
Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
ASME SEC-VIII:
Rules for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels
ANSI B31.1
:
Code for general pressures piping
ANSI B31.2
:
Industrial Gas and Air Piping
ANSI B31.3
:
Code for petroleum refinery piping
ANSI B31.4
:
Code for Liquid petroleum transportation piping
system
ANSI B31.5
:
Refrigeration Piping.
ANSI B31.6
:
Chemical Industry Process Piping
ANSI B31.8
:
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.
ASME B31.9
:
Working Pressure and Temperature Limits
ANSI B16
:
Standards of Pipes and Fittings
ANSI B31.4
:
Nuclear Piping
API RP14E
:
Recommended practice for offshore piping.
API RP14C
:
Recommended practices for Safety Devices for
process components.
API RP520
:
Recommended practice for design and installation
of
Pressure Relieving n Refineries, Part-I and Part-II.

API 1102

API 1104

API 1105

API 1107

MSS-SP-58
MSS SP-69
NACE MR-01-75:

Recommended practice for liquid petroleum crosscountry pipeline.


Specification for welding of cross-country pipeline and
related facilities
Bulletin on construction practices for oil and its
producers pipelines
Recommended practice for maintenance of welding of
pipelines
:
Material and Design of Pipe Hangers and Supports
:
Selection and application of pipe hangers and
supports
Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant
Metallic Material.
NACE MR-01-77:
Testing of Metals for Resistance to Sulphide Stress
Cracking.
NFC
:
National Fire Code Volume 6 for Sprinklers, Fire
Pumps, and Water Tank.
NFC
:
National Fire Code Volume 8 for Portable and Manual
Fire Control Equipment.
IBR
:
Indian Boilers & Regulation

4.2

Design Requirements

The bases of design are the physical and material parameters such as loading and service conditions
and environmental factors that are considered in the detailed design of a liquid process piping system
to ensure a reasonable life cycle. The bases of design must be developed in order to perform design
calculations and prepare drawings.
a. Pre-design Surveys: Pre-design surveys are recommended for the design of process piping for
new processes and are a necessity for renovation or expansion of existing processes. A site visit
provides an overview of the project. Design requirements are obtained from the clients. An overall
sense of the project is acquired, and an understanding of the aesthetics that may be involved is
developed. For an existing facility, a Pre-design survey can be used to evaluate piping material
compatibility, confirm as-built drawings, establish connections, and develop requirements for
aesthetics.
b. Soil Investigation: Soil conditions play a major role in the selection of piping systems. Soils,
which contain organic or carbonaceous matter such as coke, coal, or cinders, or soils contaminated
with acid wastes, are highly corrosive. These conditions impact ferrous metals more than nonferrous
metals. For normally acceptable metals, soil variations may be significant. Buried pipes corrode
faster at the junction line of dissimilar soils. In fact, placing a metal pipe where it crosses dissimilar
soils may generate electric potentials up to one (1) volt. Civil Engineering addresses requirements for
pre-design surveys and soils investigation sampling that may be necessary to design cathode
protection systems.
c. Service Conditions: The piping system is designed to accommodate all combinations of loading
situations (pressure changes, temperature changes, thermal expansion/contraction and other forces or
moments) that may occur simultaneously. These combinations are referred to as the service conditions
of the piping. Service conditions are used to set design stress limits and may be defined or specified
by code, or are determined based on the system description, site survey, and other design bases.
d. Environmental Factors: The potential for damage due to corrosion must be addressed in the
design of process piping. Two instances of temperature changes must be considered as a minimum.
First, there are diurnal and seasonal changes. Second, thermal expansion where elevated liquid
temperatures are used must be accommodated. Corrosion occurs in metallic piping, which is the
problems that can result from corrosion, and how appropriate material choices can be made to
minimize corrosion impacts.
e. Force Measures: Design concerns for the effects of physically damaging phenomena, such as,
fires, spills, power outages, impacts/collisions, and breakdown or failure of associated equipment
and natural phenomena like, seismic occurrences, lightning strikes, wind, and floods. Risk is a
combination of probability and consequence. There are infinite possibilities and all scenarios will
not be covered by direct reference to codes.
f. Safety Provisions: Safety provisions as required by the Safety and Health Requirements Manual,
Safety standards, codes, and other manuals are required to be taken. Requirements of the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are minimum design constraints in process
piping design.
g. System Descriptions: System descriptions provide the functions and major features of each major
system and may require inputs from mechanical, electrical and process control disciplines. The
system description contains system design bases, operating modes and control concepts, and both

system and component performance ratings. System descriptions provide information to develop
process flow diagrams (PFDs), piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), and approvals
necessary to proceed.
h. Specifications: Specification is a plan from which the design object is composed. Piping
specifications define material, fabrication, installation and service performance requirements.
i. Process Flow Diagram (PFD): The Process Flow Diagram (PFD), a schematic illustration of the
system shows the relationships between the major components in the system. PFD also tabulate
process design values for the components in different operating modes, typical minimum, normal and
maximum.

Figure 1: Process Flow Diagram (PFD)


A PFD does not show minor components, piping systems, piping ratings and designations. PFD
includes, Process Piping, Major equipment symbols, names and identification numbers, Control,
valves and valves that affect operation of the system, Interconnection with other systems, Major
bypass and recirculation lines, System ratings and operational values as minimum, normal and
maximum flow and, temperature and pressure Composition of fluids. Process Flow Diagrams does
not include pipe class, pipe line numbers, minor bypass lines, isolation and shutoff valves,
maintenance vents and drains, relief and safety valve, code class information and seismic class
information. This figure depicts a small and simplified PFD:
j. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Content: P&IDs schematically illustrate the
functional relationship of piping, instrumentation and system equipment components. P&IDs show all
of the piping, including the intended physical sequence of branches, reducers, and valves, etc.;
equipment; instrumentation and control interlocks. The P&IDs are used to operate the process
systems.
k. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P & ID): P & IDs schematically illustrate the functional
relationship of piping, instrumentation, and system equipment components. P & IDs show all of the
piping, including the intended physical sequence of branches, reducers, and valves, etc.; equipment;
instrumentation and control interlocks. The P & IDs are used to operate the process systems.

Following is the lists of the typical items contained on a P & ID, which is: Mechanical Equipment,
Names, and Numbers; all Valves and Identification; Instrumentation and Designations; All Process
Piping, Sizes, and Identification; Miscellaneous Appurtenances including Lines, Reducers and

Increasers, Vents, Drains, Special Fittings, Sampling; Direction of Flow; Class Change;
Interconnections; and Control Inputs/Outputs and Interlocks. This figure depicts a very small and
simplified P & ID:

4.3

Design Conditions

Design conditions for specific process applications should consider pressure, temperature, and fluid
service. The Design Conditions include the following, in general but not limited. After the piping
systems functions, drawings, service conditions, and materials of construction the next step is to
finalize the system operational pressures and temperatures. Engineers may consider more conditions
or factors as per relevant Standard Design Codes and his experience, if any, than the listed below:

(A) DESIGN

PRESSURE :
The pressure in a fluid is defined as "the normal force per unit area exerted on an imaginary or real
plane surface in a fluid or a gas". The equation for pressure can expressed as:
p=F/A
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- (1)
Where, p = pressure [lb/in2 (psi) or lb/ft2 (psf), N/m2 or kg/ms2 (Pa)]; F = force [1), N]; and A = area
[in2 or ft2, m2]
Absolute Pressure: The absolute pressure - pabs - is measured relative to the absolute zero pressure
- the pressure that would occur at absolute vacuum. All calculation involving the gas laws requires
pressure (and temperature) to be in absolute units.
Gauge Pressure: A gauge is often used to measure the pressure difference between a system and the
surrounding atmosphere. This pressure is often called the gauge pressure and can be expressed as,
pg = ps - patm
--------------------------------------------------------------------- (2)
Where, pg = gauge pressure, ps = system pressure, patm = atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric Pressure: Atmospheric pressure is pressure in the surrounding air at - or "close" to the surface of the earth. The atmospheric pressure varies with temperature and altitude above sea
level.
The system operating pressure, up to this point, has been addressed from a process requirement
viewpoint to ensure proper operation of the system as a whole. In order to select the design pressure,
it is necessary to have a full understanding and identifying the maximum steady state pressure, and
determining and allowing for pressure transients of all operating processes piping system.
a. Maximum Pressure: Pipe and Piping components shall be designed for an internal coincident
maximum pressure and temperature expected in normal operation. This condition results in the
greatest pipe thickness. The system must also be evaluated and designed for the maximum external
differential pressure conditions. ASME B31.3 governs the following pressure and temperature rating
for the metal pipe to be used:
(1)
Listed components having established rating utilize the materials as listed in
Table 326.1 of ASME B31.3.
(2)
Listed components having established rating utilize the components of the
same materials with the same allowable stress as material specified in the codes and standards
contained in Table 326.1 of ASME B31.3.
(3) Unlisted components, i.e. components that are not listed in ASME B31.3 but conform
to other published standards, may be utilized if the requirements of the published standard are
compatible to ASME B31.3 requirements and if the pressure design satisfies the ASME B31.3
pressure design of components.
b. Transients Pressure: Most design codes provide allowances for short duration transient
conditions, which do not increase the design pressure and temperature. Before finalizing the system

design pressure and temperature, allowances for transient conditions are reviewed and the
anticipated conditions in the code are fully evaluated.
Pressure and temperature variations state that occasional variations of pressure or temperature, or
both, above operating levels are characteristic of certain services. The most severe conditions of
coincident pressure and temperature during the variation shall be used to determine the design
conditions unless all of the following criteria are met.
(a)
The piping system shall have no pressure containing components of cast iron
or other non-ductile metal.
(b)
Nominal pressure stresses shall not exceed the yield strength at temperature
(see Para. 302.3 of Code [ASME B31.3] and Sy data in [ASME] BPV Code, Section II, Part D,
and Table Y-1).
(c)
Combined longitudinal stress shall not exceed the limits established in
paragraph 302.3.6 [of ASME B31.3].
(d)
The total number of pressure-temperature variations above the design
conditions shall not exceed 1000 during the life of the piping system.
(e)
In no case shall the increased pressure exceed the test pressure used under
Para 345 of ASME B31.3 for the piping system.
(f)
Occasional variations above design conditions shall remain within one of the
following limits for pressure design.
1)
Subject to the owner's approval, it is permissible to exceed the pressure
rating or the allowable stress for pressure design at the temperature of the increased condition by
not more than: 33% for no more than 10 hour at any one time and no more than 100 hour per year;
or 20% for no more than 50 hour at any one time and no more than 500 hour per year. The effects
of such variations shall be determined by the designer to be safe over the service life of the piping
system by methods acceptable to the owner. (See Appendix V of ASME B31.3)
2)
When the variation is self-limiting and lasts no more than 50 hour at any one
time and not more than 500 hour/year, it is permissible to exceed the pressure rating or the
allowable stress for pressure design at the temperature of the increased condition by not more than
20%.
(g)
The combined effects of the sustained and cyclic variations on the
serviceability of all components in the system shall have been evaluated.
(h)
Temperature variations below the minimum temperature as shown in
Appendix A of ASME B31.3 are not permitted unless the requirements of Paragraph 323.2.2 of
ASME B31.3 are met for the lowest temperature during the variation.
(i)
The application of pressures exceeding pressure-temperature ratings of
valves may under certain conditions cause loss of seat tightness or difficulty of operation. The
differential pressure on the valve closure element should not exceed the maximum differential
pressure rating established by the valve manufacturer. Such applications are the owner's
responsibility.
(j) The maximum pressure rating of the pipe is calculated using the following equation:
2 S E (tm + A)
Pmax =
Do x 2 y (tm + A)

Where: Pmax = maximum allowable pressure, MPa (psig); S = code allowable stress, MPa (psi); E
= joint efficiency; tm = pipe wall thickness, mm (in); A = corrosion allowance, mm (in); Do =
outside diameter of pipe, mm (in); y = temperature-based coefficient, see ASME B31.1, for cast iron,
non-ferrous metals, and for ferric steels, austenitic steels and Ni alloys less than 4820C (9000F), y = 0.4.
(k) The design pressure is also arrived on the basis of the following considerations:
(i) The minimum positive design pressure shall be normally 3.5 kg/cm2.
(ii) The discharge piping of a centrifugal pump, not protected by safety valve, should be designed for
1.2 times the max. Pump Differential plus the max. Suction Pressure of the pump.

(B) DESIGN

TEMPERATURE :
The design temperature in a piping system is the maximum temperature of component expected in the
service during the life of the piping system. It is the temperature at which, under the coincident
pressure, the greatest thickness or highest component rating is required. This is the temperature of all
the fluid, atmosphere, and solar radiation, heating and cooling medium and other coincidental
conditions. Low temperature less than 29 0 C needs special design requirements and material
qualification requirement. For detail governing rules, please refer the design Standards & Codes for
piping components design. Piping components shall be designed for the temperature representing the
most severe conditions described as follows:
The design temperature of non-insulated pipe may be the metal temperature rather than the fluid
temperature.
The design temperature of the steam traced piping may be the fluid temperature or 20 0 F below
saturation temperature of tracing steam whichever is greater.
The design temperature of Low Temperature piping with a fluid temperature below 20 0 F
may be the normal fluid operating temperature.
For fluid temperatures below 65 0C (150 0F), the metal design temperature of the pipe and
components shall be taken as the fluid temperature.
For fluid temperatures above 65 0C (150 0F), the metal design temperature of un-insulated pipe
and components shall be taken as 95% of the fluid temperature, except flanges, lap joint flanges
and bolting shall be 90%, 85% and 80% of the fluid temperature, respectively.
For insulated pipe, the metal design temperature of the pipe shall be taken as the fluid
temperature unless calculations, testing, or experience based on actual field measurements can
support the use of other temperatures.
For insulated and heat traced pipe, the effect of the heat tracing shall be included in the
determination of the metal design temperature.
In addition to the impact of elevated temperatures on the internal pressure, the impact of
cooling of gases or vapours resulting in vacuum conditions in the piping system must be evaluated.

(C) AMBIENT F LUCTUATING E FFECTS :


(i) Ambient Cooling Effect on Pressure: Sometimes, the pressure in the pipe is suddenly and
sufficiently reduces due to cooling of a gas or vapour in the pipe. This creates an internal vacuum. So
a pipe may be designed in such a way, considering the external pressure (vacuum inside) so that it is
capable to withstand the external pressure at lower temperature. Some arrangement like automatic

vent opening or breathing (breather valve) may be provided on pipe to break the vacuum.
(ii) Ambient Heating Effect on Fluid expansion: Sometime the pressure in the pipe is suddenly and
sufficiently increased due to sudden heating or boiling of a fluid in the pipe. Pipe may be designed
strong to withstand the increase in pressure caused by heating and boiling of the fluid. The set
pressure of the relief valve may not exceed the lesser of the system test pressure or 112% of design
pressure (refer 322.6.3(b) (2) of ANSI B31.3.
(iii) Ambient Icing Effects: When you design a piping system to handle fluid below 0 0C (32 0F), you
should consider the possibility of moisture condensation and building of ice. You should take a
precautionary measure to avoid ice building on moving parts of shut off valves, control valves,
pressure relief valves etc. and resultant malfunction of the above valves.
(iv) Ambient Low Temperature: When a piping system is designed in low ambient temperature
area, design consideration may be low ambient temperature conditions prevailing in the area and
accordingly displacement stress analysis shall be done.
(v) Ambient Corrosion Effects: While designing a piping system, the consideration for corrosion
allowance should be given while calculating the thickness of the pipe. However, all Carbon Steel
piping should be protected with a coating (painting) system, which has been proven acceptable in a
normal or marine environment by prior performance, or by suitable tests. Among the generic types,
currently in use are the following: Wash primer-vinyl or chlorinated rubber system; Inhibited epoxy
primer-epoxy system; Zinc rich epoxy primer-epoxy system; Zinc silicate inorganic primer-vinyl, or
epoxy system.

(D)

EFFECTS :
(i) Impact effects: Sometimes in vertical pipe or inclined pipe, when we handle fluids at a
temperature of its boiling point or near to its boiling point, then a rapid evolution of vapour takes
place inside the pipe. Due to this a pressure surge is generated which may cause destruction to the
piping. This is called Geysering. This causes impact on the pipe. There are many other factors
external or internal, which cause impact on the pipe, such as change in flow rate, hydraulic shock,
water hammer, liquid or solid slugging, and flashing etc. While designing a piping system, the impact
effect may be taken into account.
(ii) Wind Effects: Some times, in certain area, the wind load and wind velocity is so high due to
cyclone or low pressure in atmosphere, which affect the exposed piping. So the wind velocity/load
effect shall be taken into consideration while designing piping exposed to atmosphere in cyclone
prone area. The dynamic load stress analysis shall be done as per ASCE-7 analysis method, the
minimum designs loads for buildings and other structures or the uniform builders codes. Wind load
is a transient, live load (or dynamic load) applied to piping systems exposed to the effects of the
wind. Obviously the effects of wind loading can be neglected for indoor installation. Wind load can
cause other loads, such as vibratory loads, due to reaction from a deflection caused by the wind. The
design wind speed is determined from Governing Code and ASCE-7. Load assumptions for buildings,
although a minimum of 161 km/h (100 miles per hour) should be used. By manipulating Bernoullis
equation, the following equation may be obtained to calculate the horizontal wind load on a projected
pipe length.

FW =CW1 x VW 2 x CD x Do

DYNAMIC

Where: FW = design wind load per projected pipe length, N/m (lb/ft); VW = design wind speed, m/s
(miles/hr); CD = drag coefficient, dimension less; Do = pipe (and insulation) outside diameter, mm
(in); CW1 = constant, 2.543 x 10-6 (N/m) / [mm (m/s)]; (2.13 x 10-4 (lb/ft) / [in (mile/hr)]).
The drag coefficient is obtained from ASCE 7 and is a function of the Reynolds Number, R, of the
wind flow across the projected pipe.
Re = CW2 x VW xDo
Where: Re = Reynolds Number; VW = design wind speed, m/s (miles/hr); Do = pipe (and insulation)
outside diameter, mm (in); CW2 = constant, 6.87 s/mm-m (780 hr/in-mile).
(iii) Earthquake effects: Piping shall be designed and analyzed for earthquake induced horizontal
forces stress analysis per method described in ASCE-7 or the uniform building code.
(iv) Vibration effects: Piping may be designed and analyzed for excessive and harmful vibration
effects caused due to pressure pulsation, resonance in compressor and wind load. Piping connected to
compressors or other rotating equipment shall be carried out with vibration stress analysis and
accordingly it should be routed and supported.
(v) Discharge reaction: When a fluid is let down or discharged in piping, a reaction proportionate to
the discharge pressure, velocity & quantity of fluid is developed in piping. So, a discharge or
letdown piping shall be stress analyzed for discharge reaction and accordingly support and loop shall
be designed.

(E)

W EIGHT /L OAD

EFFECTS :
The stresses on a piping system define the service conditions of the piping system and are a function
of the loads on that system. The sources of these loads are internal pressure, piping system dead
weight, Insulation weight, and differential expansion due to temperature changes, wind loads, and
snow or ice loads. Loads on a piping system are classified as sustained or occasional loads.
a. Sustained Weight/Loads: Sustained loads are those loads that do not vary considerably over time
and are constantly acting on the system. Examples of sustained loads are the pressures, internal and
external, acting on the system and the weight of the system. The weight of the system includes both
that of the piping material and the operating fluid. The sustained maximum system operating pressure
is the basis for the design pressure. The design temperature is the liquid temperature at the design
pressure. The minimum wall thickness of the pipe and the piping components pressure rating is
determined by the design temperature and pressure. Although the design pressure is not to be
exceeded during normal, steady state operations, short-term system pressure excursions in excess of
the design pressures occur. These excursions are acceptable if the pressure increase and the time
durations are within code defined limits. Piping codes provide design guidance and limits for design
pressure excursions. If a code does not have an over-pressure allowance, transient conditions are
accounted for within the system design pressure. A reasonable approach to over-pressure conditions
for applications without a specific design code is:
(1) For transient pressure conditions, which exceed less than 10 percent of the total operating time,
neglect the transient and do not increase the design pressure.
(2) For transients whose magnitude or duration is greater than 10 percent of the design pressure or
operating time, increase the design pressure to pressure transients are addressed in the governing

code.
b. Live Weight/load effects: The live loads in piping includes the weight of the medium being
transported or the medium used for testing together with surrounded ice formed on pipe both due to
environmental and operating conditions. A pipe shall be designed as per the above live load effect.
c. Dead Weight/load: These loads consist of the weight of piping components, insulation, and other
superimposed permanent loads supported by the piping. Dead weight is the dead load of a piping
system or the weight of the pipe and system components. Dead weight generally does not include the
weight of the system fluid. The weight of the fluid is normally considered an occasional load by code.
A sustained load that is analyzed is the load from the earth potential for deformation; the effects of an
earth load on flexible piping and rigid piping are analyzed differently. Governing Code addresses
earth loads on buried flexible piping. The earth load on rigid piping may be calculated using the
following formula.
WxH
FE =
kPa
Where: FE = earth load, kPa (psi); W = soil weight, kg/m3 (lb/ft3); typically 1,922 kg/m3 (120 lb/ft3); H
= height of cover, m (ft); a = conversion factor, 102 kg/m2/kPa (144 lb/ft2 /psi).
d. Occasional Weight/Loads: Occasional loads are those loads that act on the system on an
intermittent basis. Examples of occasional loads are those placed on the system from the hydrostatic
leak test, seismic loads, and other dynamic loads. Dynamic loads are those from forces acting on the
system, such as forces caused by water hammer and the energy released by a pressure relief device.
Another type of occasional load is caused by the expansion of the piping system material. An example
of an expansion load is the thermal expansion of pipe against a restraint due to a change in
temperature.
e. Snow and ice loads: Snow and ice loads are live loads acting on a piping system. For most heavy
snow climates, a minimum snow load of 1.2 kPa (25 psf) is used in the design. In some cases, local
climate and topography dictate a larger load. This is determined from ANSI A58.1, local codes or by
research and analysis of other data. Snow loads can be ignored for locations where the maximum
snow is insignificant. Ice build-up may result from the environment, or from operating conditions. The
snow loads determined using ANSI A58.1 methods assume horizontal or sloping flat surfaces rather
than rounded pipe. Assuming that snow lying on a pipe will take the approximate shape of an
equilateral triangle with the base equal to the pipe diameter, the snow load is calculated with the
following formula.
WS = n Do SL
Where: n = conversion factor, 10-3m/mm (0.083 ft/in); WS = design snow load acting on the piping,
N/m (lb/ft); Do = pipe (and insulation) outside diameter, mm (in); SL = snow load, Pa (lb/ft).
Ice loading information does not exist in data bases like snow loading. Unless local or regional data
suggests otherwise, a reasonable assumption of 50 to 75 mm (2 to 3 in) maximum ice accumulation is
used to calculate an ice loading.
f. Seismic loads: Seismic loads induced by earthquake activity are live/dynamic loads. These loads
are transient in nature. Seismic loads may influence piping systems. Seismic zones for most

geographical locations can be found in relevant Code, American Water Works Association (AWWA)
D110, AWWA D103, and Seismic Protection for Mechanical Electrical Equipment. ASME B31.3Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping require that the piping be designed for earthquake
induced horizontal forces using the methods of ASCE 7 or the Uniform Building Code. Hydraulic
loads are by their nature transient loads caused by an active influence on a piping system. Examples
of dynamic loads inherent to piping systems are pressure surges such as those caused by pump starts
and stops, valve actuation, water hammer, and by the energy discharged by a pressure relief valve.
Examples of hydraulic loads causing pressure transients and the effect upon the design are provided
in relevant Code. Vibration in a piping system is caused by the impact of fluctuating force or pressure
acting on the system. Mechanical equipment such as pumps can cause vibrations. Typically the low to
moderate level of periodic excitation caused by pumps do not result in damaging vibration. The
potential for damage occurs when the pressure pulses or periodic forces equate with the natural
resonant frequencies of the piping system. Relevant Code for Noise and Vibration Control provides
design recommendations for vibration control, particularly vibration isolation for motor-pump
assemblies. In addition, relevant Code recommends the following vibration isolation for piping
systems:
For connections to rotating or vibrating equipment, the first three supports nearest the
vibrating equipment should have a static deflection equal to
of that required for the
equipment; the remaining pipe supports should have a static deflection of 5 to 12.5 mm (0.2 to
0.49 in);
Provide a minimum 25 mm (1 in) clearance for a wall penetration, support the pipe on
both sides of the penetration to prevent the pipe from resting on the wall, and seal the penetration
with a suitable compound (fire- stop system, if required);
Use neoprene isolators in series with steel spring isolators;
Always include a neoprene washer or grommet with ceiling hangers; and
Inspect hanger rods during installation to ensure that they are not touching the side of the
isolator housings. Flexible pipe connections should have a length of 6 to 10 reinforced
elastomeric piping. Tie-rods are not used to bolt the two end flanges together.
g. Live loads: Live loads can result from the effects of vehicular traffic and are referred to as wheel
loads. Above loads are only addressed during the design of buried piping. In general, wheel loads are
insignificant when buried at shallow depths. The term shallow is defined based upon both sitespecific conditions and the piping material. However, as a rule, live loads diminish rapidly for
laying depths greater than about four feet for highways and ten feet for railroads. Wheel loads are
calculated using information in AASHTO H20 and guidance for specific materials such as AWWA
C150 (ductile-iron and metallic), AWWA C900 (PVC) and AWWA C950 (FRP). For example, wheel
loads for rigid metallic piping over an effective length of 0.91 m (3 ft) can be calculated using the
following formula.
CRPF
FW =
b Do
Where: F W = wheel load, kPa (psi); C = surface load factor, see AWWA C150, Table 10.6 M/10.6; R
= reduction factor for a AASHTO H20 truck on an unpaved or flexible paved road, see AWWA C150,

Table 10.4M/10.4; P = wheel weight, kg (lb); typically 7,257 kg (16,000 lb); F = impact factor;
typically 1.5; b = conversion factor, 0.031 kg/m/kPa (12 lb/ft/psi); and Do = pipe outside diameter,
mm (in).

(F)

THERMAL

EFFECTS :
(i) Thermal loads due to restraints: Forces resulting from thermal expansion and contraction
include loads applied to a piping system because of at restraints or anchors that prevent movement of
the piping system. Finally, loads can be introduced in the system by combining materials with
different coefficients of expansion. Movements to a piping system can cause loads to be transmitted to
the system. These loads can be transferred through anchors and supports.
(ii) Load due to temperature gradients: These loads are developed from stresses in pipe walls due
to large rapid temperature changes or due to unequal temperature distribution or due to stratified two
phase flow created by flow of fluid at or near its boiling temperature and at a certain flow rate. This
effect causes large circumferential temperature gradients and possibly unacceptable stresses at
anchors supports, guides and within pipe walls. Two-phase flows also generate excessive pressure
oscillations and surges, which may damage the pipe. This effect shall be taken into account while
designing a pipe at higher temperature.
(iii) Thermal loads due to difference in expansion characteristics: When pipe has to be designed
with two different materials welded together such as bimetallic, lined, jacketed or metallic nonmetallic piping then due to difference in thermal expansion of the two metals, loads is resulted. This
effect shall be taken into account when designing two-metal pipes at higher
temperature.
(iv) Load due to movement of supports, anchors and equipment effects: Sometimes supports,
anchor or equipment nozzles moves or shifts due to flexibility, thermal expansion of equipment,
support or anchor and due to settlement, tidal movement or sway. This effect of movement of supports
anchor or equipment nozzle shall be taken into account while designing piping in above condition.
(G)
Reduced ductility effects: Sometimes, the ductility of the piping material is reduced
due to welding, heat treatment, forming, bending or operating at low temperatures or due to chilling
effect of sudden loss of pressure on highly volatile fluids. It damages the piping. So, the harmful effect
of rescued ductility shall be taken into account while designing of piping.

(G)

CYCLIC

EFFECTS :
Due to increase & decrease (large fluctuation) in pressure or temperature of the fluid in pipe or other
kind of cyclic effect, a fatigue is developed in the piping, which affects it badly. Care shall be taken
for harmful effect of fatigue due to cycling nature of pressure, temperature or any other kind, if any.

(H)

AIR

CONDENSATION EFFECTS :
When a piping is operating below -191 C ambient temperature, condensation and oxygen enrichment
takes place heavily which shall be taken care when designing of piping below-1910 C atmospheric
condition. All the above design condition are described here in detail and shall be considered for
case to case desponding on the criticality of that particular condition effect by the designer. All the
above design conditions are very important and play very important role depending on place-to-place
and environmental condition prevails in the area. For example, in earthquake prone the earthquake
design condition has to be taken at first priority while designing the pipe in earthquake prone area.
0

Similarly, in coastal area like Bangladesh where cyclone is hitting the area, wind effect factor of
design condition plays important role.

4.4
1

Piping Design Criteria Part-

The basic design of the pipe is done by the Process Engineer to find out the pipe diameter to handle a
particular quantity of the fluid. The Detail Engineering and Design of the piping system is done based
on the diameter of the pipe. The Detail Engineering and Design of the piping is done by two
fundamental methods as mentioned below:
Method 1:
Temperature-Pressure Ratings Design Criteria.
Method 2:
Allowable Stress & Strain Calculation Based Design Criteria.

4.4.1
Temperature-Pressure
Ratings Design Criteria
There are many standards and codes in which piping components are properly designed and listed as
per the established Temperature-Pressure Ratings. According to the established TemperaturePressure Ratings, Fluid Service, and Corrosion Allowance, the piping and piping components
material, dimensions, thickness, end/face to be used in a piping system are given in various Piping
Material Specification and Codes.
Interpolation of Ratings between two Temperatures: The Ratings are the maximum allowable nonshock working gauge pressure at the temperature shown in the Rating Tables at certain interval of
temperature. Intermediate TemperaturePressure Rating can be obtained by a linear graph drawn
between the two pressures and corresponding two temperatures. For example, two pressures and
corresponding two temperatures are taken from class 150# Rating and a graph is drawn here below in
Figure. By linear interpolation, as shown in the adjacent graph, the pressure rating at 2200C is
calculated as 13.5 Kg / cm2.

Fig: Interpolation of Ratings between two temperatures.


Temperature Rating: In practice, the material temperature is taken as the same of the fluid
temperature. For any Rating Temperature below 290C, the Pressure is not greater than the pressure
shown at 290C. The primary consideration in establishing the temperature rating is to ascertain the
adequate wall thickness of the pipe, flange and flanged fittings to sustain the stresses due to pressure
and other loading at different rating classes.
Pressure Rating: The pressure rating is the safe working or operating maximum pressure in the line
with respect to the Working Temperature. It is available in different Codes and Standards based on
the Materials Stress-Strain Characteristics.
Flange Rating: The Temperature-Pressure Ratings for flange are established by ASME B16.5 on the
basis of prime factor of hydro testing of the flanged fittings to the bursting and by providing a factor of
safety of 3.0 at the rated working pressure and ambient temperature. ASME/ANSI B16.5 Society
establishes the temperature-pressure ratings, given in the tabular form, for all materials at different
flange ratings by using Formula as,
(Pr x SI)
PT =
8750

Where, PT = rated working pressure in psig


for specified material at temperature T. Pr
= Pressure rating as per Class in Psig. SI =
Selected stress in Psig for specified
material at Temperature T.

Maximum Allowable non-shock Pressure (psig)


Temperature
Pressure Class (lb)
0
( F)
150
300
400
600
900
1500
Hydrostatic Test Pressure (psig)
450
1125
1500
2225
3350
5575
-20 to 100
285
740
990
1480
2220
3705
200
260
675
900
1350
2025
3375
300
230
655
875
1315
1970
3280
400
200
635
845
1270
1900
3170

2500
9275
6170
5625
5470
5280

500
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

170
140
125
110
95
80
65
50
35
20

600
550
535
535
505
410
270
170
105
50

800
730
715
710
670
550
355
230
140
70

1200
1095
1075
1065
1010
825
535
345
205
105

1795
1640
1610
1600
1510
1235
805
515
310
155

2995
2735
2685
2665
2520
2060
1340
860
515
260

Table: Pipe, Flange, Valves & Fittings ANSI Rating


S. N.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Service

Pressure
Rating Class
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 150 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 300 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 400 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 600 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 900 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 1500 lb ANSI
Glycol
Non- Corrosive Hydrocarbons and 2500 lb ANSI
Glycol
Air
150 lb ANSI
Water
150 lb ANSI
Steam and Steam Condensate
150 lb to 600
lb ANSI
Drains and Sewers
150 lb ANSI
Flare and Industrial Waste
150 lb ANSI

ANSI Rating

150#

End
Face
R.F

300#, 400#, R.F

Flange Description
FACE FINISH

Gasket
Type

Serrated Finish (250 CAF


AARH)
SPWD
Serrated Finish (125 SPWD

4990
4560
4475
4440
4200
3430
2230
1430
860
430

600#
900#, 1500#, R.T.J
2500#

AARH)
Hardness of Groove:
Carbon Steels: 140
BHN;
Alloy Steels: 150
BHN
Stainless Steels: 140160 BHN.

Octagonal
Metallic
Ring
Gasket

Notes:
R.F = Raised Face;
CAF = Compressed Asbestos Gasket;
# = Ponds;
SPWD = Spiral Wound Gasket;
R.T.J = Ring Type Joint;
125 AARH = means 125 to 200 AARH Serrated Finish
250 AARH = means 250 to 500 AARH Serrated Finish
63 AARH = means 32 to 63 AARH Serrated Finish
All flanges should conform to the following Codes:
ANSI RATING

Flange Size

150#, 300#, 400#, 600#,


900#, 1500#, & 2500#
150#, 300#, 400#, & 600#
900# & 1500#
2500#

Up to 24 Dia.

Design
Code
ANSI B16.5

26 to 60 Dia. API 605


26 to 36 Dia. MSS SP-44
For all sizes
API
STD
6A

Flanges should be in accordance with the following codes: Flanges threads should confirm to ANSI
B2.1 unless otherwise it is specified; 150# to 2500# Class up to 24 NB should be as per ANSI
B16.5; 150# to 2500# Class 26 NB and larger should be as per API 605; Above 2500# Class it
should be as per API Std. 6A. Flange Face should be serrated finish (Concentric or Spiral) to 250 to
500 AARH as per MSS-SP-6 unless otherwise specified. Smooth Finish Face should be serrated
finish up to 125 AARH only.
Weld Neck flanges should be manufactured to suit the pipe bore and thickness.
Hardness of the flange face for Ring Joint Type Gasket: The minimum Brinnell Hardness of the
flange face for Ring Joint Type gasket should be, such as, for Carbon Steel = 120; 1% to 5% Cr Steel
= 150; Stainless Steel type 304, 316, 347 = 180 and Stainless Steel type 304L, 316L = 180.
Temperature-Pressure Rating:
The allowable working pressures for Pipe are calculated from the stress values and relevant
Formulae as detailed in ASME B31.3. Pressure - Temperature Ratings chart is derived from ASME
B31.3 to provide a general comparative guide to working pressures for different pipe wall
thicknesses. The Temperature-Pressure Chart is reproduced here as a general guide only. It has not

been updated to reflect any subsequent changes to ASME B31.3. It is not intended as a
recommendation of allowable working pressures for calculation exact working pressures, people
should refer to ASME B31.3, as well as any other relevant piping codes or industry regulations. The
ASME Code for Pressure Piping including allowable stress values (SE) for metal temperatures up to
595C for Carbon Steel Pipe, but cautions that conversion of carbides to graphite (graphitization)
may occur in Carbon Steel Pipes after prolonged exposures to temperatures over 425C. For this
reason, with temperatures above 425C it is recommended that Alloy Steel Pipes should be used.
Allowable Stress values (SE) used in tabulated calculations is those approved for piping systems
which come under Section B31.3 of the code. The Pressure/Temperature Chart lists maximum
allowable pressure ratings for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe Grade B, with plain ends, at temperatures
up to 425C. Pressure-Temperature Ratings show the maximum allowable working pressures at the
temperatures from -20 0F to the maximum allowable temperature for the materials. They are
established by the stress calculations utilizing the minimum wall thickness and the maximum
allowable stress of the materials at specified temperatures. The maximum allowable stress for any
kind of Pipe and piping component material always decreases as the temperature increases. The
maximum allowable working pressure of any kind of Pipe and piping component material always
decreases as the temperature increases, as shown in the Pressure-Temperature Rating Tables.
American National Standard Institute Maximum allowable non-shock pressure (psig) and temperature
ratings for steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings according the American National Standard ANSI
B16.5 - 1988.
Step 1: Determine the maximum operating pressure and temperature.
Step 2: Refer to the pressure rating table for the piping material group, and starting from the class
150 lb, go at the Pressure-Temperature rating that is the next highest above the maximum operating
Pressure-Temperature Rating of the fluid.
Step 3: Proceed through the table columns on the selected temperature row until a pressure rating is
reached that exceeds the maximum operating Temperature.
Step 4: The column label at which the maximum operating pressure is exceeded at a temperature
equal to or above the maximum operating temperature is the required Temperature at which the
suitable Pipe, Flange and Fittings and Valve materials and their Schedule/Thickness are given.
Several organizations and associations have published specifications that provide materials and
dimensional information as well as pressure specifications at different temperatures. For
convenience, relevant portions of the American National Standard Institute B 16.34 -1996, Pressure
Temperature Ratings are reproduced below:
PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP. CARBON STEEL
0
C API
A106
5L
GR B
GR B
-250
---

A335
GR
P5
--

-196

--

--

--

RATING:
150#

ALLOY STEEL
A335 A335
GR
GR
P9
P11
----

--

A335
GR
P22
---

-80

--

--

--

--

--

--

-45

--

--

--

--

--

--

-29

19.90

19.90 19.90

19.90 19.90 19.90

38

19.90

19.90 19.90

19.90 19.90 19.90

100

18.00

18.00 18.00

18.00 18.00 18.00

150

16.10

16.10 16.10

16.10 16.10 16.10

200

14.20

14.20 14.20

14.20 14.20 14.20

250

12.30

12.30 12.30

12.30 12.30 12.30

350

8.50

8.50

8.50

8.50

8.50

400

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.360 6.60

500

4260C5.60 4260C 2.80


5.60
--5370C
1.40

2.80

2.80

550

L.T.C.S.

2.80

5370C 5370C 5370C[


1.4
1.40 1.4

PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C

8.50

RATING:
150#

-250

A333
GR 3
--

A333
GR 6
--

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP
TP
304
316
321
19.30
---

-196

--

--

19.30

--

--

-80

19.90

--

19.30

--

--

-45

19.90

18.70

19.30

--

--

-29

19.90

18.70

19.30

19.30 19.3

38

19.90

18.70

19.30

19.30 19.3

100

800C
18.60

800C
17.90

16.00

16.20 16.0

150

--

--

14.10

14.60 14.2

200

--

--

12.80

13.80 13.5

250

--

--

11.90

11.90 11.9

350

--

--

8.50

8.50

8.5

400

--

--

6.60

6.60

6.6

500

--

--

2.80

2.80

2.8

550

--

--

5370C
1.10

5370C 5370C
1.10 1.10

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING GRAPH

PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C

-250

CARBON
STEEL
API
A106
5L
GR B
GR B
---

RATING:
300#

ALLOY STEEL
A335
GR
P5
--

A335
GR
P9
--

A335
GR
P11
--

A335
GR
P22
--

-80

--

--

--

--

--

--

-45

--

--

--

--

--

--

-29

52.0

52.00 52.70 52.70

52.70 52.70

38

52.0

52.00 52.70 52.70

52.70 52.70

100

47.3

47.30 52.50 52.50

49.40 49.70

150

46.1

46.10 51.20 51.20

46.70 46.50

200

44.6

44.60 49.70 49.70

45.60 45.60

250

42.5

42.50 47.20 47.20

44.50 44.50

350

37.7

37.70 41.00 41.00

41.00 41.00

400

35.1

35.10 35.00 36.80

36.80 36.80

500

26.00 26.00

550

4260C 4260C 19.70 26.20


29.2 29.2
--11.00 15.20

600

--

--

650

--

--

6.50

12.00 15.20

7.00

5930C 5930C 6.9


5.90
-6480C 6480C -3.10 3.3

PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C

L.T.C.S.

RATING:
300#

-250

A333
GR 3
--

A333
GR 6
--

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP
TP
304
316
321
50.6
---

-80

52.00

--

50.6

--

--

-45

52.00

49.00

50.6

--

--

-29

52.00

49.00

50.6

50.60 50.60

38

52.00

49.00

50.6

50.60 50.60

100

800C
47.00
--

41.7

42.70 42.30

150

800C
50.50
--

37.0

38.80 38.24

200

--

--

33.4

36.40 35.00

250

--

--

31.0

34.10 32.74

350

--

--

28.6

30.60 29.88

400

--

--

28.0

29.60 29.07

500

--

--

26.5

27.10 27.00

550

--

--

5370C
22.6

5370C 5370C
25.40 24.42

600

--

--

--

--

--

650

--

--

--

--

--

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH


PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C

RATING:
400#

-196

CARBON
STEEL
API
A106
5L
GR B
GR B
---

A335
GR
P5
--

A335
GR
P9
--

A335
GR
P11
--

A335
GR
P22
--

-80

--

--

--

--

--

--

ALLOY STEEL

-45

--

--

--

--

--

--

-29

69.48

69.48

70.10

70.10

70.10

70.10

38

69.48

69.48

70.10

70.10

70.10

70.10

100

63.20

63.20

68.70

68.70

66.00

66.50

150

60.50

60.50

67.60

67.60

63.50

63.50

200

59.40

59.40

65.80

65.80

61.60

60.60

250

56.50

56.50

62.40

62.40

60.20

60.20

350

50.20

50.20

54.40

54.40

54.40

54.40

400

45.41

45.41

49.10

49.40

49.40

49.10

500

35.00

37.00

37.00

550

4260C 4260C 26.40


38.40 38.40
--14.60

20.50

16.40

20.60

600

--

--

8.01

9.50

5930C 5930C
9.10
10.5

650

--

--

6480C
4.00

6480C
4.5

PIPE TEMPERATUREPRESSURE RATING (Pressure


in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C

-196

L.T.C.S.
A333
GR 3
--

A333
GR 6
--

RATING: 400#

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP
TP
304
316
321
67.48 ---

-80

69.48

--

67.48 --

--

-45

69.48

64.90

67.48 --

--

-29

69.48

64.90

67.48 67.48

67.48

38

69.48

64.90

67.48 67.48

67.48

100

800C
61.00
--

55.40 57.10

56.00

150

800C
64.40
--

49.40 51.50

50.40

200

--

--

44.10 47.50

46.00

250

--

--

41.40 45.10

43.10

350

--

--

37.50 40.70

38.60

400

--

--

36.40 38.80

37.80

500

--

--

33.15 34.14

34.10

550

--

--

5370C 5370C
30.10 33.10

5370C
32.50

600

--

--

--

--

650

--

--

--

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH


PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)

RATING: 600#

TEMP. CARBON STEEL


0
C API
A106
5L
GR B
GR B
-196
---

ALLOY STEEL
A335 A335 A335
GR
GR
GR
P5
P9
P11
----

A335
GR
P22
--

-80

--

--

--

--

--

--

-45

--

--

--

--

--

-29

104.0 104.0

105.4 105.4 105.4

105.4

38

104.0 104.0

105.4 105.4 105.4

105.4

100

94.00 94.66

104.0 104.0 99.80

100.0

150

92.30 92.30

102.3 102.3 94.28

95.08

200

89.35 89.35

99.15 99.15 92.45

91.05

250

85.05 85.05

93.50 93.50 90.04

89.80

350

75.00 75.00

80.00 80.00 80.00

80.00

400

68.38 68.38

72.66 73.00 73.00

73.00

500

54.68

550

4260C 4260C58.0 40.58 54.00 54.88


58.0
--22.87 31.56 24.00

600

--

--

650

--

--

30.40

12.86 14.00 5930C10.5 5930C


15.5
-6480C 6480C -6.12 6.8

PIPE TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING (Pressure in Kg/cm2)
EMP.
0
C

--

L.T.C.S.

RATING:
600#

-196

A333
GR 3
--

A333
GR 6
--

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP
TP
304
316
321
101.0
---

-80

104.0

--

101.0

--

--

-45

104.0

97.54

101.0

--

--

-29

104.0

97.54

101.0

101.0 101.0

38

104.0

97.54

101.0

101.0 101.0

100

800C
94.50
--

83.00

86.00 84.80

150

800C
103.0
--

74.15

78.00 76.24

200

--

--

66.21

73.20 69.60

250

--

--

62.32

68.50 64.83

350

--

--

57.22

62.10 59.60

400

--

--

55.00

59.10 57.20

500

--

--

53.21

54.60 53.84

550

--

--

5370C
45.24

5370C 5370C
50.20 50.16

600

--

--

--

--

--

65
0

--

--

--

--

--

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH

TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING
FOR PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)

TEMP.
0
C

RATING:
900#

CARBON
ALLOY STEEL
STEEL
API
A106 A335 A335 A335
A335
5L
GR B GR
GR
GR
GR
GR B
P5
P9
P11
P22

-29

156.1 156.1 158.1 158.1 158.1

158.1

38

156.1 156.1 158.1 158.1 158.1

158.1

100

142.5 142.5 157.2 157.2 148.8

150.0

150

137.4 137.4 153.5 153.5 141.0

141.7

200

133.4 133.4 148.6 148.6 138.8

136.7

250

126.8 126.8 141.6 141.6 135.3

134.6

350

112.2 112.2 122.8 122.8 122.8

122.8

400

101.4 101.4 112.0 112.0 112.0

112.0

500

80.30

550

4260C 4260C 54.83 80.24 80.30


86.8 86.8
--33.52 49.72 41.01

600

--

--

650

--

--

18.94 21.04 5930C20.2 5930C


23.9
-6480C 6480C -9.24 10.69

TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE
RATING FOR PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)

TEMP.
0
C

-29

TP
304
151.7

44.83

RATING:
900#

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP
TP
316
321
316H
151.7
151.7 151.7

38

151.7

151.7

151.7 151.7

100

124.0

128.3

126.2 128.3

150

110.2

117.1

113.8 117.1

200

99.10

108.2

104.2 108.2

250

92.8

101.0

96.6

101.0

350

85.6

92.6

88.6

92.6

400

83.3

89.2

86.8

89.2

500

79.08

79.56

79.85 79.56

550
600

5370C
67.24
--

5370C
76.26
--

5370C 75.20
74.16
-63.00

650

--

--

--

41.00

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH

TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING FOR


PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP. CARBON STEEL
0
C
API
A106
A335
5L
GR B
GR
GR B
P5

RATING:
1500#

ALLOY STEEL
A335 A335 A335
GR
GR
GR
P9
P11
P22

-29

260.5 260.5

263.6

263.6 263.6 263.6

38

260.5 260.5

263.6

263.6 263.6 263.6

100

236.4 236.4

259.6

259.6 248.0 249.2

150

228.6 228.6

252.3

252.3 233.5 234.6

200

222.8 222.8

248.2

248.2 231.3 228.0

250

212.5 212.5

233.7

233.7 225.7 225.0

350

188.0 188.0

203.7

203.7 203.7 203.7

400

170.2 170.2

185.2

186.0 186.0 186.0

500

132.0 132.0 132.0

550

4260C 4260C144.1 98.75


144.1
--52.56

600

--

--

650

--

--

78.44 64.16 81.40

26.04

30.10 5930C 5930C


33.6 39.6
-6480C15.72 6480C -17.98

700
750
815

TEMPERATUREPRESSURE RATING FOR


PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)
TEMP.
0
C
TP

RATING: 1500#

STAINLESS STEEL
A312
TP
TP

TP

-29

304
253.1

316
253.1

321
253.1

347
253.1

38

253.1

253.1

253.1

253.1

100

208.5

214.5

210.4

210.4

150

182.4

196.7

189.2

189.2

200

165.0

184.0

173.6

173.6

250

153.6

168.0

161.0

161.0

350

142.1

154.0

147.1

147.1

400

138.5

146.3

144.2

144.2

500

131.4

135.0

135.7

135.7

550

5370C113.0

125.8

600

--

5370C127.40 5370C
125.10
---

650

--

--

94.8

--

102.4

700

48.13

750

26.70

815

14.00

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH


EMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING FOR PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)

TEMP.
0
C

-29

CARBON
STEEL
API A106
5L GR B
GR
B
-433.0

RATING:
2500#

ALLOY STEEL
A335
GR P5

A335
GR P9

A335 A335
GR
GR 22
11

439.0

439.0

439.0 439.0

38

--

433.0

439.0

439.0

439.0 439.0

100

--

393.6

436.1

436.1

412.1 414.1

150

--

383.2

424.5

424.5

390.1 392.2

200

--

371.8

413.4

413.4

382.0 376.1

250

--

350.8

389.9

389.9

368.1 364.2

350

--

312.6

340.4

340.4

340.4 340.4

400

--

279.2

300.0

302.2

302.2 302.2

500

--

4260C241.1 160.4

218.0

220.1 220.1

550

--

--

90.30

138.3

94.45 120.2

600

--

--

52.60

58.40

650

--

--

5930C 5930C
56.15 66.21
-6480C26.0 6480C30.12 --

700

--

--

--

--

--

--

750

--

--

--

--

--

--

815

--

--

--

--

--

--

EMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING
FOR PIPE
(Pressure in Kg/cm2)

TEMP.
0
C

STAINLESS STEEL
A312

RATING:
2500#

-29

TP
304
421.2

TP
316
421.0

TP
321
421.0

TP
316H
421.2

38

421.2

421.0

421.0

421.2

100

351.2

359.5

356.1

359.5

150

305.4

321.1

314.5

321.1

200

269.0

304.4

283.1

304.4

250

258.1

281.0

270.5

281.0

350

229.5

257.3

240.6

257.3

400

224.8

244.5

232.9

244.5

500

219.8

226.1

225.9

226.1

550

183.2

212.2

207.5

212.2

600

5370C
212.0
--

5370C
208.5
--

175.1

650

5370C
188.6
--

700

--

--

--

80.46

750

--

--

--

44.27

815

--

--

--

24.24

116.4

FIG: TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE RATING GRAPH

P IPE S PECIFICATION
Piping Materials Specification: Piping Material Specification is prepared in the form of a table in
which, Temperature-Pressure Rating (Piping Class) is the main governing parameter. The Detail
Engineering and Design of the piping is done with the help of Piping Material Class, and
Temperature-Pressure Rating and Piping Materials Specification. Piping materials have been
categorized in different groups called Piping Material Class with respect to Flange Ratings and
Materials as mentioned below.
Nomenclature for Piping Class is fixed with three X, such as:
XXX

1st X
: It indicates the rating of the piping system, such as,
1st letter A indicate the Flange Rating = 150 #
1st letter B indicate the Flange Rating = 300 #
1st letter C indicate the Flange Rating = 400 #
1st letter D indicate the Flange Rating = 600 #
1st letter E indicate the Flange Rating = 900 #
1st letter F indicate the Flange Rating = 1500 #
1st letter G indicate the Flange Rating = 2500 #
2nd X
: It represents some times single digit or sometimes double digits, which indicate the
material of the piping system, such as:
If it is single digit like 1, it indicates normal grade of material.
If it is single digit like 2, it indicates IBR grade of material.
If it is single digit like 3, it indicates commercial grade of material.
If it is single digit like 4, it indicates Low Temperature grade of material.
If it is double digit like 10, 11, 12, etc., it indicates superior grade material with conditions, in main
group.
If it is double digit like 30, 31, 32, etc., it indicates superior grade material with conditions, in main
group.
If it is double digit like 40, 41, 42, etc., it indicates superior grade material with conditions, in main
group.
3rd X
: It indicates the main material of the piping system, such as:
A indicates
Carbon Steel
B indicates
C- MO Alloy steel (P1)
C indicates
1Cr- Mo Low Alloy steel (P11, P12)
D indicates
1 Cr-3/4 Mo Alloy Steel (P11, P22)
E indicates
2 Cr-1.0 Mo Alloy Steel (P22)
F indicates
5 Cr- Mo Alloy Steel (P5)
G indicates
9 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel (P9)
H indicates
3.5 NI Alloy Steel (A333 Gr 3)
K indicates
Austenitic Stainless Steel, type 304, 304H, and 304L.
L indicates
Aluminium & Alloy
M indicates
Martensitic Stainless Steel type 316, 316H, 321, 321H,347.
N indicates
Ferrite Stainless Steel type 316L.
P indicates
Nickel & Alloy
R indicates
PVC
T indicates
Cast Iron and Silicon Iron
W indicates
Cupro-Nickel
Y indicates
Carbon Steel (Rubber Lined)
Z indicates
HDPF
Example: Suppose A1A is a Piping Class. The following is the interpretations:
Solution: The first letter A of the piping class indicates that it is 150# Flange Rating. The second
digit 1 of the piping class indicates that it is normal grade of steel, i.e. API 5L Gr.B The third letter
A of the piping class indicates that it is carbon steel i.e. API 5L Gr.B So, for A1A piping class,

the pipe material is API 5L, GR B and Rating is 150#.


Piping Material Specification is a summarized and properly compiled document put in a tabular form
in which pipe and piping components designed detail are listed according to its Piping Class or
Temperature-Pressure Rating combinations for process piping and utility piping. These
combinations make a big volume of Piping Material Specification, which is not possible to
accommodate in a book. We have given few tables of Piping Material Specification as an example.
All the information about pipe and other matching piping components like flanges, fittings are taken
from various Codes and Standards and are made available in this book such as materials, their types,
end finish, ratings, dimensions, manufacturing standards, corrosion allowance, joining detail, branchconnection, vent & drain connections, temperature gauge connection, pressure gauge connections.
Based on the fluid service and a range of temperature-pressure combination, a set of complete
information about pipe and piping components are given in such a way that you can complete the
piping design properly as per requirement of the code. As mechanical engineers, we have to refer so
many books, standards, codes and specifications to design a piping system for handling a various
fluid services and at various Temperature-Pressure Ratings. We can find out suitable all information
about pipe, flanges, valves, fittings, gaskets, studs and nuts and other piping connections such as
vents, drains, temperature gauges, pressure gauge or branch connections at one place. All the above
information is arranged in Piping Material Specification as per Piping Class and Flange Rating.
Sometimes, we do not have sufficient time to go through all the above Codes and Standards. Codes
and Standards are, sometimes, not available at one place to refer the same. We have to spend huge
money and a lot of time to collect or buy the relevant documents or to engage a consultant for
designing a small quantity of piping work.
Looking into the above difficulties, we have collected and put here at one place a lot of relevant
information on the basis of vast study and reference of many books, codes standards and
specifications. You may refer the same at one place and design or does modification work of piping
system. We have tried to put as much as the information such as, type of materials, corrosion
resistance of material, limitations on use of materials etc. and how to select the suitable material. It is
also mentioned the different piping components such as pipes, flanges, fittings, valves, gaskets, studs
& nuts and their materials, uses, limitations and their selection.
Depending on various service conditions and different Temperature-Pressure working conditions,
selection and utilization of piping components with particular pipe, changes. To have a proper and
well-designed piping network, as per requirement of the codes, standards and specifications, it is
necessary to identify the different services, different conditions of temperature, pressure, corrosion
resistance, erosion effects and various other affecting factors.
Table: Piping Class
Piping
Class
A1A
A2A
A3A
A5A
A8A

Piping
Rating
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#

Piping Material
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; IS 1239
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B

A9A
A10A
A15A
A16A
A19A
A20A
A21A
A22A
A23A
A1F
A1K

150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#
150#

A4D
B1A
B2A
C1A
C2A
D1A
D2A
D5A
D25A
D2D
D4F
D1K
E1A
E2A
E25A
E5E
F1A
F2A
G1A
G2A
G5M

150#
300#
300#
400#
400#
600#
600#
600#
600#
600#
600#
600#
900#
900#
900#
900#
1500#
1500#
2500#
2500#
2500#

G25N

2500#

Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B


Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P5
Stainless Steel; ASTM A312 GR.
TP 304
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P11
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P11
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P5
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P11
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Alloy Steel; A335 GR. P22
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Carbon Steel; API 5L GR. B
Carbon Steel; ASTM A106 GR. B
Stainless Steel; ASTM A312 GR. T
P321
Stainless Steel; ASTM A312 GR.
TP 316L
Table-Piping Material Specifications

Fluid Service: Non-Corrosive Utilities (Above Ground)- Cooling Water, Fire Water, Instrument
Air, Plant Air, Instrument Gas, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide Gas, Condensate, Boiler Feed Water
(N-IBR), DM Water, Treated Water, Raw water.

PIPING CLASS
A3A

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

ANSI
CA
RATING
1.5 mm
150#
SN ITEM
DIAMETER
SCH./
FACE DIMN. MATERIAL
RANGE
FINISH STD.
1 PIPE
0.5
1.5
HVY
IS 1239 IS 1239 BLACK
LSW
2.0
6.0
HVY
IS 1239 IS 1239 BLACK
LSW
8.0
16.0
6.35 mm
IS 3589 IS 3589
GR 410
ERW
18.0 26.0
8.00 mm
IS 3589 IS 3589
GR 410
ERW
28.0 30.0
10.0 mm
IS 3589 IS 3589
GR 410
2 FLANGE
0.5
1.5
150#
125 SF B 16.5
ASTM A105
2.0
24.0
150#
125 SF B 16.5
ASTM A105
26.0 34.0
150#
125 SF API 605 ASTM A105
3 BLIND
0.5
24.0
150#
125 SF B 16.5
ASTM A105
FLANGE
26.0 34.0
150#
125 SF API 605 ASTM A105
4 SPACER
0.5
16.0
150#
125 SF API 590 ASTM A105
FIG-8
18.0 24.0
150#
125 SF API 590 ASTM A105
26.0 34.0
150#
125 SF FLG
ASTM A516
SPCR
STD
GR70
5 FITTING
0.5
1.5
3000#
R=1.5D B16.11
ASTM A105
ALL
2.0
6.0
PIPE SCH
B16.9
ASTM A234
GR WPB
MITRE BEND
BW 8.0
34.0
PIPE SCH MTR
IS 3589 GR 410
STD
CUT REDUCER BW 8.0
34.0
PIPE SCH RDR
IS 3589 GR 410
STD
6 VALVE
BODY
TRIM
GATE
SW 0.5
1.5
800#
API
ASTM
13% CR
602
A105
RF
2.0
24.0
150#
API
A216
13% CR
600
GR WPB
GLOBE
SW 0.5
1.5
800#
BS
ASTM
13% CR
5352
A105
RF
2.0
8.0
150#
BS
A216
13% CR
1873
GR WPB

CHECK

SW

0.5

1.5

800#

ASTM
A105
RF
2.0
24.0
150#
A216
BTRFLY
GR WPB
WAF 3.0
24.0
150#
A216
GR WPB
7 STUDS
A307
GR B
NUTS
B18.2 A307
GR B
8 GASKET
0.5
24.0
2 MM
B16.21 IS 2712 GR
W/3
RING
26.0 34.0
2 MM
API
IS 2712 GR
605
W/3
9 STRAINER SW 0.5
1.50
800#
MNF ASTM
STD
A105
PERM.
BW 2.0
6.0
PIPE SCH
MNF A234
STD
GR WPB
BW 8.0
24.0
PIPE SCH
MNF A234
STD
GR WPBW
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

Description

MAINT
JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

ALL

Flanged
but 0.5
keep minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT WELD

DRAINS

ALL

VENTS

1.5& below
2.0& above

ALL

SW,
CPLG,
3000#
0.75 NB, PIPE
SW,
CPLG,
3000#
0.75
NB, PIPE

BS
5352
BS
1868
BS
5155
B18.2

RUN PIPE

BRANCH
PIPE

1.5

0.5 1.5

30.0

0.5 1.5

2.0 6.0

13% CR
13% CR
13% CR

SS 304
SS 304
SS 304

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#
SW,
Half
Coupling, 3000#

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.
8.0 30.0 Pipe-to-Pipe

connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
TEMP
connection
CONN
where Equal Tee
is used.
Note: This Piping Class is workable for Maximum Temperature 65 0C and Maximum Pressure
PRESS
CONN

ALL

SW,
HVY,
NIPPLE, 0.75
NB
1.5 NB 200 Tapping on line
mm long
4.0 NB pipe
(min)

at 10.5 Kg/cm2 for size above 24 NB.

Fluid Service: DM Water, Polished Water.

PIPING
CLASS
A3Y
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8

FITTING

PIPING
MATERIAL ANSI
CORROSION
SPECIFICATION
RATING
ALLOWANCE:
NIL
150#
DIAMETER RANGE SCH FACE
DIMN. Material
FINISH
STD.
1.0
1.5 SCH B36.10 API 5L GR B
80
(rubber lined)
2.0
6.0 SCH B36.10 API 5L GR B
40
(rubber lined)
8.0
12.0 SCH B36.10 API 5L GR B
20
(rubber lined)
1.0
12.0 150# Rubber
B 16.5 ASTM
A105
(rubber lined)
1.0
12.0 150# Rubber
B 16.5 ASTM
A105
(rubber lined)
1.0
12.0 150# Rubber
API
ASTM
A105
605
(rubber lined)
1.0
12.0 150# Rubber
B 16.5 ASTM
A105
(rubber lined)
1.0
10.0 150# 125 SF
API
ASTM A182GR
590
F304
10.0
12.0 150# 125 SF
API
ASTM A182GR
590
F304
1.0
1.5 150# R=3.0D
B16.11 A234 GR WPB
2.0
12.0 150#
B16.9 (rubber lined

VALVE
1.0
GATE
1.0
GLOBE
1.0
CHECK
1.0

8
9

12.0 150# 125 SF API


600
8.0 150# 125 SF BS
1873
12.0 150# 125 SF BS
1868
12.0 150# 125 SF MNF
STD

1.0

12.0 150# 125 SF BS


5155

STUDS

NUTS

BTRFLY

GASKET
1.0
RING
STRAINER 1.0

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION

&

BODY
A351 GR
CF8
A351 GR
CF8
A351 GR
CF8
A216 GR
WPB (RBR
lined)

SS304
SS304
SS304

A216 GR SS304
WPB (RBR
lined)

B18.2

A307 GR
B
B18.2 A307 GR
B
B16.21 BUTYLE RUBBER

12.0 2
MM
12.0 150# T
MNF A403 GR SS 304
TYPE STD
WP304
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE BRANCH


PIPE

PIPE
JOINT
DRAINS

ALL

FLANGED

ALL

TRIM
SS304

1.0 2.0

1.0

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
2.0 BW, TEE, SCH
80
12.0 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
OR one size less
branch
connection
where Tee is
used.

1 NB
3.0 12.0 1.0
SCH 80
VENTS
ALL
1 NB
SCH 80
PRESS
ALL
1 NB
CONN.
SCH 80
TEMP
1.5 PIPE 1.5 NB SCH 80
CONN.
200
mm
long
Note: Pipe sizes less than 1 NB should not be used. Diaphragm Valve should be used up to
10 Kg/cm2. Welding should not be carried out after Rubber lining is completed. Natural

Rubber (Soft) lining of S.H. 60 should be completed as per IS 4682 Part-I. The thickness of
the lining should be minimum 3 mm. The Bend of size 1.5 and below should be Min. 3D
Radius. All sharp edges should be ground off. All Branch Connection should be made with
BW Tee welded to WN flange.

Fluid Service: Non-Corrosive Hydrocarbon Process (l/v/g), Kerosene, LPG (gas/oil), Fuel Oil/Gas,
Crude Oil, Heavy Naphtha, Wash Water, Demulsified Solution, Ammonia Solution, Corrosion
Inhibitor, Steam &Condensate (N-IBR).

PIPING CLASS
A1A

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

SN ITEM

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5
2.0
6.0
8.0
14.0
16.0
24.0

FACE
FINISH
-

0.5
2.0
0.5

SCH./
RATING
SCH 80
SCH 40
SCH 20
7.92
mm
1.5 150#
24.0 150#
24.0 150#

125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

B 16.5 ASTM A105


B 16.5 ASTM A105
B 16.5 ASTM A105

0.5

16.0 150#

125 SF

ASTM A105

18.0

24.0 150#

125 SF

0.5
2.0

1.5 3000#
14.0 PIPE
SCH
24.0 PIPE

R=1.5D

API
590
API
590
B16.11
B16.9
B16.9

ASTM A234 GR WPBW

PIPE

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8

FITTING

16.0

ANSI
CORROSION
RATING
ALLOWANCE:
150#
1.5 MM
DIMN. MATERIAL
STD.
B36.10 API 5L GR B
B36.10 API 5L GR B
B36.10 API 5L GR B
B36.10 API 5L GR B

ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR WPB

SCH
6

VALVE
GATE

GLOBE

CHECK

7
8
9

STUDS
NUTS
GASKET
STRAINER

ALL
ALL
RING
PERM
PERM
PERM

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION

&

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

150#

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

150#

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

1.5& below
2.0& above

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG,
3000#
BUTT WELD
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
0.75 NB, PIPE

VENTS

ALL

TRIM
13%
CR
API 600 A216 GR WCB 13%
CR
BS 5352 ASTM A105
13%
CR

BS 1873 A216 GR WCB 13%


CR
0.5
1.5
800#
BS 5352 ASTM A105
13%
CR
2.0
24.0 150#
BS 1868 A216 GR WCB 13%
CR
B18.2
A193 GR B7
B18.2
A194 GR 2H
0.5
24.0 2 MM
B16.21 IS 2712 GR 0/1
0.5
1.50 800#
MNF
ASTM A105
SS
STD
304
2.0
14.0 PIPE SCH MNF
A234 GR WPB SS
STD
304
16.0
24.0 PIPE SCH MNF
A234
GR SS
STD
WPBW
304
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

DRAINS ALL

BODY
API 602 ASTM A105

SW,

CPLG,

BRANCH
PIPE
1.5

0.5

1.5

24.0 0.5

1.5

2.0

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

SW, HC, 3000#.


2X1.5 Tee
10.0 Pipe-to-pipe.
Equal size Equal

3000#
0.75
NB, PIPE

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

12.0

ALL

SW,
HVY,
NIPPLE, 0.75
NB
1.5 PIPE 200 Tapping on line
mm long
4.0 NB pipe
(min)

Tee
24.0 Pipe-to-Pipe
with RF. Equal
size
branch
Equal Tee.

Note: Soft-seated ball and Plug Valves can be used up to 200 0C. Pipe fabricated Reducer are
permitted.

Fluid Service: Highly Corrosive Sour Service (NACE), Flammable, Non-Lethal, Toxic, Sour Water,
Sour Flare, Caustic (Stress Relieved), etc.

PIPING
CLASS
A12A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8

FITTING

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

ANSI RATING
150#

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5 1.5
2.0 3.0 6.0
8.0 10.0 14.0
0.5 1.5
2.0 24.0
0.5 24.0

SCH./
RATING
XXS
SCH 160
SCH 80
SCH 60
SCH 40
150#
150#
150#

FACE
FINISH
125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

DIMN.
STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

0.5 16.0
18.0 24.0

150#
150#

125 SF
125 SF

API 590
API 590

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5
2.0

PIPE SCH
PIPE SCH

R=1.5D

B16.9
B16.9

ASTM A234 G
ASTM A234 G

1.5
14.0

Corrosion
Allowanc
6.0 MM
MATERIAL
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105

16.0 24.0
6

PIPE SCH

B16.9

VALVE
GATE

GLOBE

0.5

1.5

150#

API
602

2.0

24.0

150#

A216 GR WCB

0.5

1.5

150#

2.0

8.0

150#

API
600
BS
5352
BS
1873

0.5

1.5

150#

ASTM A105

2.0

24.0

150#

2.0

24.0

150#

0.5

24.0

2 MM

BS
5352
BS
1868
BS
5351
B18.2
B18.2
B16.21

0.5

1.50

150#

2.0

14.0

16.0

24.0

CHECK

BALL

7
8
9

STUDS
NUTS
GASKET
RING
STRAINER
PERM.

ASTM A234 G
BODY
ASTM A105

ASTM A105
A216 GR WCB

A216 GR WCB
A351 GR CF8
A193 GR B7
A194 GR 2H
IS 2712 GR 0/1

PIPE JOINT & AUXILIARY CONNECTION

MNF
ASTM A105
STD
150#
MNF
A234 GR WPB
STD
150#
MNF
A234 GR WPBW
STD
BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION

RUN PIPE

BRANCH PIPE

MAINT
JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

ALL

FLANGED

0.5

0.5

1.5

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

BUTT WELD BUTT WELD 2.0

24.0 0.5

1.5

Minimum

1.5

2.0

BRAN
CONN
BW, T

Weldo
3000#
Tee

24.0 Pipe
with R

VENTS
PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

ALL

Weldolet,
3000# 0.75NB, PIPE
ALL 0.75 Weldolet,
SCH
XXS
NB
NIPPLE
1.5 PIPE FLGD, Tapping on line 4.0
200
mm pipe (min)
long

2x1.5
size w
Tee.

Note: All weld joint should be Post Weld Heat treated. All valve casting should be 100% Rad
Velocity of the fluid should be limited to 6.0 m/s

Fluid Service: Hydrogen and Hydrogen bearing Hydrocarbon, Flammable, Toxic but Nonlethal.

PIPING CLASS PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION


A5A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS
SMLS

2
3
4

EFSW
FLANGE
BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8
SPCR
FITTING
ALL

ANSI
RATING
150#
DIMN.
STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM
MATERIAL

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
2.0
8.0
16.0
22.0

SCH./
RATING
1.5 SCH 80
6.0 SCH 40
14.0 SCH 20
20.0 SCH 10
24.0 7.92

FACE
FINISH
-

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5 150#
24.0 150#
24.0 150#

125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5
18.0

16.0 150#
24.0 150#

125 SF
125 SF

API 590
API 590

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5

1.5

R=1.5D

B16.11

ASTM A105

2.0

14.0 PIPE SCH

B16.9

16.0

24.0 PIPE SCH

B16.9

ASTM A234 GR
WPB
ASTM A234 GR

3000#

API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B

WPBW
ASTM A105
TRIM

CAP
6

0.5

1.5

3000#

0.5

1.5

800#

BS 5352

2.0

8.0

150#

BS 1873

0.5

1.5

800#

BS 5352

2.0

24.0 150#

BS 1868

0.5

24.0 150#

BS 5351

STUDS

B18.2

NUT

B18.2

GASKET
RING

0.5

24.0 5MM

VALVE
GLOBE

CHECK

BALL

B16.11
BODY

0.5
STRAINER
2.0
PERM
16.0

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

MAINT ALL
JOINT

&

ASTM
A105
A216 GR
WCB
ASTM
A105
A216 GR
WCB
A216 GR
WCB
A193 GR
B7
A194 GR
2H

13% CR
13% CR
13% CR
13% CR
13% CR

API 601

SPWD,SS (TFL- filled)


304
1.50 800#
MNF STD ASTM
SS 304
A105
14.0 PIPE SCH MNF STD A234 GR SS 304
WPB
24.0 PIPE SCH MNF STD A234 GR SS 304
WPBW
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
PIPE
1.5&
below SW,
CPLG, 2.0
JOINT 2.0& above
3000#
BUTT
WELD
DRAIN On line<2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe

1.5

BRANCH
PIPE
0.5 1.5

24.0 0.5

1.5

BRANCH
TYPE
SW,
TEE,
3000#
SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#,
except
2X1.5
where Tee is
used

On line>1.5
VENTS On line<2

2.0
SW
3000#
pipe

10.0

CPLG
0.75

On line>1.5

12.0 24.0

PRESS 0.75 PIPE


CONN

SW, SCH
NIPPLE

80

TEMP 1.5 PIPE


CONN. mm long

200 FLG, Tapping on


line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal
size branch
connection
where Equal
Tee is used.
Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
with
reinforcement
pad except
equal
size
branch
connection
ere Equal Tee
is used.

Note: All weld joint should be Post Weld Heat treated. All valve & Strainer Casting should be
100% Radiographic. Velocity of the fluid should be limited to 6.0 m/s.

Fluid Service: LP Steam, Boiler Feed Water and Superheated LP Steam (IBR).

PIPING
CLASS
A2A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

DIAMETER RANGE
0.5
2.0
8.0
16.0

1.5
6.0
14.0
24.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH 80
SCH 40
SCH 20
7.92MM

0.5
2.0

1.5
24.0

150#
150#

ANSI RATING
150#

Corrosion
Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL

DIMN. STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

A106 GR B
A106 GR B
A106 GR B
A672 GR C70
CL2

B 16.5
B 16.5

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

3
4

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8
SPCR
FITTING
ALL

0.5

24.0

150#

B 16.5

ASTM A105

0.5
18.0

16.0
24.0

150#
150#

API 590
API 590

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5
2.0

1.5
14.0

3000#
PIPE SCH

B16.11
B16.9

16.0

24.0

PIPE SCH

B16.9

ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR
WPB
ASTM A234 GR
WPBW

VALVE
2.0

24.0

150#

125
SF
-

API 600

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

150#

125
SF
-

BS 1873

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

150#

125
SF
125
SF

BS 1868

STEAM
TRAP

0.5

1.5

150#

STUDS

B18.2

NUTS

B18.2

24.0

2MM

B16.21

1.50

800#

GATE

BS 5352

GLOBE

BS 5352

CHECK

8
9

GASKET
0.5
RING
STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

PIPE

BS 1868

Y
MNF
TYPE STD
14.0
PIPE SCH T
MNF
TYPE STD
16.0 24.0
PIPE SCH T
MNF
TYPE STD
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

BODY
TRIM
A216
GR 13%
WCB
CR
ASTM
13%
A105
CR
A216
GR 13%
WCB
CR
ASTM
13%
A105
CR
A216
WCB
ASTM
A105

GR 13%
CR
13%
CR

A193
B7
A194
2H
IS 2712
W/3
ASTM
A105
A234
WPB
A234
WPBW

GR
GR
GR
SS
304
GR SS
304
GR SS
304

CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION

MAINT
JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

ALL

FLANGED
but 0.5
keep minimum
SW, CPLG, 3000# 2.0
BUTT WELD

DRAIN

On
line<2
On
line>1.5
On
line<2

VENTS

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

0.75
PIPE
1.5 PIPE
200mm
long

1.5

BRANCH PIPE

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

0.5

1.5

24.0 0.5

1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

10.0

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.
Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

SW CPLG 3000#
0.75 pipe, Globe,
2.0
SW CPLG 3000#
0.75 pipe, Globe,

On
line>1.5

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

RUN PIPE

12.0 24.0

SW, SCH 80 NIPPLE,


Globe
FLG, Tapping on line
4.0 pipe (min)

Note: All pipes and piping components should be hydrostatic tested and certified by IBR
Inspector in the Form IIIA for pipe & IIIC foe piping components. The Carbon contents of all pipes
and piping components should not exceeds 0.25%. Soft seated ball and Plug Valves can be used up to
200 0C. Pipe fabricated Reducer are not permitted for use.

Fluid Service: Mild to Moderate Corrosive Hydrocarbon, flammable, nonlethal, Fuel Gas, Valv
Residue, BIM Reactor Effluents.

PIPING CLASS
A1D
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW

3
4

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8
SPCR
FITTING

VALVE
GATE

GLOBE

PIPING
MATERIAL ANSI RATING
SPECIFICATION
150#
DIA.
RANGE
0.5
1.5

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM
DIMN. STD. MATERIAL

SCH./ Face
Rating Finish
SCH
80
SCH
40
SCH
20
7.92
MM

B36.10

A335 GR P11

B36.10

A335 GR P11

B36.10

A335 GR P11

B36.10

A691 GR 1.25C
CL42

ASTM
F11
ASTM
F11
ASTM
F11
ASTM
F11
ASTM
F11
ASTM
F11

2.0

6.0

8.0

14.0

16.0

24.0

0.5

1.5

150#

125 SF

B 16.5

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

B 16.5

0.5

24.0

150#

125 SF

B 16.5

0.5

16.0

150#

125 SF

API 590

18.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

API 590

0.5

1.5

3000#

R=1.5D

B16.11

2.0

14.0

16.0

24.0

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

150#

125 SF

B16.9

A182 G

A182 G

A182 G

A182 G

A182 G

A182 G

ASTM A234 G
WP11 CL1
B16.9
ASTM A234 G
WP11 CL1
BODY
TRIM
API
A182 GR F11
Stellited
602
API
A217 GR WC6
Stellited
600
BS
A182 GR F11
Stellited
5352
BS
A217 GR WC6
Stellited

CHECK

7
8
9

STUDS
NUTS
Gasket
RING
STRAINER
PERM

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

0.5

24.0

5 MM

0.5

1.50

800#

Y TYPE

2.0

14.0

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

16.0 24.0

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION

&

T TYPE

1873
BS
5352
BS
1868
B18.2
B18.2
B16.21
MNF
STD
MNF
STD
MNF
STD

A182 GR F11

Stellited

A217 GR WC6

Stellited

A193 GR B16
A194 GR 4
SPWD, SS304, CAF, I &
Ring
A182 GR F11
SS
304
A234 GR WP11 CL1
SS
304
A234 GR WP11W CL1 SS
304

AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

BRANCH PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

1.5

0.5

1.5

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

24.0

0.5

1.5

SW,
Ha
Coupling,
3000#, excep
2X1.5 wher
Tee is used

DRAIN

On line<2 SW
CPLG.
0.75
Online>1.5 3000#
pipe, Globe,
On line<2 SW
CPLG
0.75
Online>1.5 3000#
pipe, Globe,

2.0

10.0

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal siz
branch
connection
where Equal Te
is used.
Pipe-to-Pipe
connection wi
reinforcement
pad except equa

VENTS

12.0 24.0
PRESS
CONN

0.75 PIPE

SW, SCH 80
Nipple, Globe

BRANCH
CONNECTIO
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000

TEMP
CONN

1.5
200
long

PIPE FLG, Tapping on


mm line 4.0 pipe
(min)

size
branc
connection
where Equal Te
is used.

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive Low Temperature Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)

PIPING
CLASS
A1H
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
FIG-8

PIPING
MATERIAL ANSI RATING
SPECIFICATION
150#
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5 1.5

SCH./
Face
Rating Finish
SCH 80 -

DIMN. STD.

Corrosion
Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL

B36.10

A333 GR 3

2.0 6.0
8.0 14.0
16.0 24.0

SCH 40 SCH 20 7.92MM

B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

A333 GR 3
A333 GR 3
A671 GR CF66 CL32

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
24.0
24.0

150#
150#
150#

125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5

ASTM A350 GR LF3


ASTM A350 GR LF3
ASTM A350 GR LF3

0.5 16.0
18.0 24.0

150#
150#

125 SF API 590


125 SF API 590

ASTM A350 GR LF3


ASTM A350 GR LF3

0.5
2.0

3000#
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

R=1.5D B16.11
B16.9

SPCR
5

FITTING
ALL

1.5
14.0

16.0 24.0
6

VALVE

B16.9

ASTM A350 GR LF3


ASTM A420 GR
WPL3
ASTM A420 GR
WPL3W
BODY TRIM

GATE

0.5

1.5

800#

API 602

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

API 600

0.5

1.5

800#

BS 5352

2.0

8.0

150#

125 SF

BS 1873

0.5

1.5

800#

BS 5352

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

BS 1868

STUDS

B18.2

NUTS

B18.2

GASKET
RING

0.5

24.0

5 MM

B16.21

STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

1.50

800#

GLOBE

CHECK

16.0
PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION

&

A350
Stellited
GR LF3
A352
Stellited
GR LC3
A350
Stellited
GR LF3
A352
Stellited
GR LC3
A350
Stellited
GR LF3
A352
Stellited
GR LC3
A320
GR L7
A194
GR 4
SPWD, SS304, CAF, I&O
Ring

Y
MNF
A350 GR LF3
SS
TYPE STD
304
14.0
PIPE
T
MNF
ASTM A420 GR SS
SCH
TYPE STD
WPL3
304
24.0
PIPE
T
MNF
ASTM A420 GR SS
SCH
TYPE STD
WPL3W
304
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION

RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

FLANGED
(Minimum)

0.5

1.5

BRANCH PIPE BRANCH


CONNECTION
TYPE
0.5
1.5 SW, TEE, 3000#

PIPE

1.5&

SW, CPLG, 3000# 2.0

24

0.5

1.5

SW,

Half

JOINT

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

below
2.0&
above
On line
< 2
On line
> 1.5
On line
< 2

On line
> 1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE
200 mm
long

BUTT WELD

SW CPLG 3000#
0.75 pipe, Globe,
2.0
SW CPLG 3000#
0.75 pipe, Globe,

12
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Fluid Service:
Non-corrosive
Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)
PIPING PIPING
CLASS MATERIAL
SPECIFICATION
A4A
SN ITEM
DIAMETER
RANGE
1 PIPE
0.5 1.5
2.0 6.0
8.0 14.0
16.0 24.0
2

FLANGE 0.5

BLIND

Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

1.5

Low

Temperature

ANSI
Corrosion
RATING
Allowance
150#
1.5 mm
SCH./
Face
DIMN.
Rating Finish STD.
SCH 80 B36.10
SCH 40 B36.10
SCH 20 B36.10
7.92MM
B36.10
150#

2.0

24.0 150#

0.5

24.0 150#

10.0 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.
24.0 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

MATERIAL

A333 GR 6
A333 GR 6
A333 GR 6
A671
GR
CC70 CL32
125 SF B 16.5 ASTM A350
GR LF2
125 SF B 16.5 ASTM A350
GR LF2
125 SF B 16.5 ASTM A350

FLANGE
SPACER 0.5 16.0 150#
OR FIG8
18.0 24.0 150#
FITTING 0.5
ALL
2.0

1.5

3000#

14.0 PIPE
SCH
16.0 24.0 PIPE
SCH

GR LF2
125 SF API
ASTM A350
590
GR LF2
125 SF API
ASTM A350
590
GR LF2
R=1.5D B16.11 ASTM A350
GR LF2
B16.9 ASTM A420
GR WPL6
B16.9 ASTM A420
GR WPL6W

VALVE

BODY

TRIM

GATE
0.5

1.5

2.0

24.0 150#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

150#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0 150#

125 SF

STUDS

NUTS

Gasket
RING

0.5

24.0 2MM

A350 GR Stellited
LF2
A352 GR Stellited
LCB
A320
GR L7
B18.2 A194
GR 4
B16.21 IS2712 GR 0/1

STRAINER 0.5

1.50 800#

Y TYPE

MNF

GLOBE

CHECK

800#

API
602
API
600
BS
5352
BS
1873

A350
LF2
A352
LCB
A350
LF2
A352
LCB

GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited

BS
5352
BS
1868
B18.2

A350 GR LF2 SS 304

RING
2.0
16.0
PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION
ITEM

&

SIZE

STD
14.0 PIPE
T TYPE
MNF A420
GR SS 304
SCH
STD WPL6
24.0 PIPE
T TYPE
MNF A420
GR SS 304
SCH
STD WPL6W
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT ALL
JOINT

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
PIPE
1.5& below SW,
CPLG, 2.0
JOINT 2.0& above
3000#
BUTT
WELD
DRAIN On line
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
<
pipe, Globe,
2
On line
>
1.5
VENTS On line <2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,
On line >1.5
PRESS 0.75 PIPE
CONN

TEMP
CONN

1.5

BRANCH
PIPE
0.5

1.5

24.0 0.5

1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

10.0

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.
Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

2.0

12.0 24.0
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe

1.5 PIPE 200 FLG, Tapping on


mm long
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

Fluid Service: DM Water, Phosphate Solution, Pure Process Liquid, Vapour or Gas, Mild
Corrosive Hydrocarbon, Polished Water and Chemicals etc.

PIPING
CLASS
A1K
SN ITEM
1

2
3
4

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE
BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8
SPACER
FITTING
ALL

PIPING
SPECIFICATION
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


150#

2.0

6.0

8.0

24.0

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
24.0
24.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH
40
SCH
10
SCH
10
150#
150#
150#

0.5
18.0

16.0
24.0

0.5
2.0

1.5
14.0

16.0

24.0

0.5

FACE FINISH DIMN.


STD.
B36.10

Corrosion
Allowance
NIL
MATERIAL
A312 GR TP304

B36.10

A312 GR TP304

B36.10

125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

A358 GR TP304
CL1
A182 GR F304
A182 GR F304
A182 GR F304

150#
150#

125 SF
125 SF

API 590 A182 GR F304


API 590 A182 GR F304

3000#
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

R=1.5D

B16.11
B16.9

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

150#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

150#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

A182 GR F304
A403 GR WP304

B16.9

A403
WP304W
BODY
TRIM

VALVE
GATE

GLOBE

CHECK

API
602
API
600
BS
5352
BS
1873
BS
5352

A182
F304
A351
CF8
A182
F304
A351
CF8
A182
F304

GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited

GR

2.0
STUDS

BS
1868
B18.2

NUTS

B18.2

GASKET
RING

0.5

24.0 5 MM

B16.21

STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

1.50 800#

16.0
PIPE JOINT
CONNECTION

&

24.0

150#

125 SF

Y
TYPE
14.0 PIPE SCH T
TYPE

24.0 PIPE SCH T


MNF
TYPE STD
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On line SW
CPLG
<2
3000#
0.75
On line pipe, Globe,
>1.5

DRAIN

VENTS

MNF
STD
MNF
STD

A351 GR Stellited
CF8
A320
GRB8CL2
A194 GR
8
SPWD, SS304, CAF,
I & O Ring
A182 GR SS 304
F304
A403 GR SS 304
WP304

On line SW
CPLG
<2
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

A403 GR SS 304
WP304W

BRANCH
PIPE
1.5

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

0.5

1.5

24.0 0.5

1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

10.0

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

2.0

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

On line
>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE
200 mm
long

12.0
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

24.0

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: Non-Corrosive Hydrocarbon Process (l/v/g), Kerosene, LPG (gas/oil), Fuel
Oil/Gas, Crude Oil, Heavy Naphtha, Wash Water, Demulsified Solution, Ammonia Solution,
Corrosion Inhibitor, Steam &Condensate (N-IBR).

PIPING
CLASS
B1A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
SPCR

4
5

FITTING
ALL

VALVE

PIPING
SPECIFICATION

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


300#

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5
2.0
6.0
8.0
18.0
20.0
24.0
0.5
1.5
2.0
24.0
0.5
24.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH 80
SCH 40
SCH 40
7.92MM
300#
300#
300#

FACE
FINISH
-

0.5
18.0
0.5
2.0

16.0
24.0
1.5
14.0

16.0

24.0

300#
300#
3000#
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

Corrosion Allowance
1.5 mm

MATERIAL

125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

DIMN.
STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

125 SF
125 SF
R
=
1.5D

API 590
API 590
B16.11
B16.9

ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR WPB

B16.9

ASTM
WPBW

API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105

BODY

A234

GR

TRIM

0.5

1.5

800#

API 602

2.0

24.0

300#

API 600

0.5

1.5

800#

125
SF
-

2.0

8.0

300#

BS 1873

0.5

1.5

800#

125
SF
-

2.0

24.0

300#

BS 1868

0.5

24.0

2 MM

125
SF
-

0.5

1.50

800#

2.0

14.0

PIPE
SCH

GATE

BS 5352

GLOBE

BS 5352

CHECK

7
8
9

STUDS
NUTS
GASKET
RING
STRAINER
PERM

B18.2
B18.2
B16.21

Y
MNF STD
TYPE
T
MNF STD
TYPE

ASTM A105

13%
CR
A216
GR 13%
WCB
CR
ASTM A105 13%
CR
A216
GR 13%
WCB
CR
ASTM A105 13%
CR
A216
GR 13%
WCB
CR
A193 GR B7
A194 GR 2H
SPWD,SS304 (CAF)
ASTM A105
A234
WPB

16.0 24.0
PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION

&

GR SS 304

PIPE
T
MNF STD
A234
SCH
TYPE
WPBW
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

BRANCH
PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

1.5

0.5

1.5

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

24

0.5

1.5

SS 304

GR SS 304

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

On line<2
On
line
>1.5
On line<2
On
line
>1.5
0.75 PIPE
1.5
200
long

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

2.0

24

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE
PIPE FLG, Tapping on
mm line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: Medium Pressure Steam (IBR), Boiler Feed Water (IBR)

PIPING PIPING
CLASS SPECIFICATION
B2A
SN ITEM
DIAMETER
RANGE
1 PIPE
0.5
1.5
SMLS
2.0
6.0

EFSW

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8
SPACER

4
5

FITTING

8.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

24.0

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
24.0
24.0

0.5
18.0
0.5
2.0

16.0
24.0
1.5
14.0

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


300#

Corrosion
Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL

SCH./
Rating
SCH
80
SCH
40

Face
Finish
-

DIMN.
STD.
B36.10

B36.10

A106 GR B

SCH
40
SCH
40
SCH
XS
300#
300#
300#

B36.10

A106 GR B

B36.10

A672 GR C70 CL2

B36.10

A672 GR C70 CL2

125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5

300# 125 SF API 590


300# 125 SF API 590
3000# R=1.5D B16.11
PIPE
B16.9
SCH

A106 GR B

ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR WPB

16.0
6

VALVE
GATE

24.0

2.0

24.0

0.5

1.5

2.0

8.0

0.5

1.5

2.0

24.0

STEAM
TRAP

0.5

1.5

STUDS

NUTS

GLOBE

CHECK

8
9

GASKET
0.5
RING
STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

24.0
1.50
14.0

16.0

PIPE JOINT
CONNECTION

&

24.0

PIPE
SCH

B16.9

ASTM A234 GR WPBW

BODY
300# 125
API 600
A216
SF
WCB
800# BS 5352
ASTM
A105
300# 125
BS 1873
A216
SF
WCB
800# BS 5352
ASTM
A105
300# 125
BS 1868
A216
SF
WCB
300# 125
BS 1868
ASTM
SF
A105
B18.2
A193
B7
B18.2
A194
2H
5 MM API 601
SPWD,
(CAF)
800# Y
MNF STD ASTM
TYPE
A105
PIPE T
MNF STD A234
SCH TYPE
GR
WPB

TRIM
GR 13%
CR
13%
CR
GR 13%
CR
13%
CR
GR 13%
CR
13%
CR
GR
GR
SS304
SS 304
SS 304

PIPE
SCH

T
MNF STD A234 SS 304
TYPE
GR
WPBW
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

BRANCH
PIPE

MAINT

ALL

FLANGED

0.5

0.5

1.5

1.5

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

DRAINS On
line<2
On
line>1.5
VENTS On
line<2
On
line>1.5
PRESS
0.75
CONN
PIPE
TEMP
1.5
CONN
PIPE 200
mm long

24

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

0.5

1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

2.0

24

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive Low Temperature Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)

PIPING
CLASS
B4A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION ANSI RATING


300#
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5
2.0
6.0
8.0
14.0
16.0
18.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH 80
SCH 40
SCH 30
SCH 30

20.0

24.0

12.7MM

0.5

1.5

300#

Face
Finish
-

DIMN.
STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

125 SF B 16.5

Corrosion
Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL
A333 GR 6
A333 GR 6
A333 GR 6
A671 GR CC70
CL32
A671 GR CC70
CL32
ASTM A350 GR
LF2

3
4

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8

2.0

24.0

300#

125 SF B 16.5

0.5

24.0

300#

125 SF B 16.5

0.5

16.0

300#

125 SF API 590

18.0

24.0

300#

125 SF API 590

ASTM A350 GR
LF2
ASTM A350 GR
LF2
ASTM A350 GR
LF2

SPACER

8
9

ASTM A350 GR
LF2
FITTING
0.5
1.5
3000#
R=1.5D B16.11 ASTM A350 GR
LF2
ALL
2.0
14.0
PIPE
B16.9
ASTM A420 GR
SCH
WPL6
16.0
24.0
PIPE
B16.9
ASTM A420 GR
SCH
WPL6W
VALVE
BODY TRIM
0.5 1.5
800# API 602 A350
Stellited
GATE
GR LF2
2.0 24.0
300# 125 SF
API 600 A352
Stellited
GR LCB
0.5 1.5
800# BS 5352 A350
Stellited
GR LF2
2.0 8.0
300# 125 SF
BS 1873 A352
Stellited
GR LCB
GLOBE
0.5 1.5
800# BS 5352 A350
Stellited
GR LF2
2.0 24.0
300# 125 SF
BS 1868 A352
Stellited
GR LCB
CHECK
STUDS
B18.2
A320
GR L7
NUTS
B18.2
A194
GR 4
GASKET
0.5 24.0
5 MM API 601 SPWD,
SS304
(CAF)
RING
STRAINER 0.5 1.50
800# Y TYPE
MNF
A350 GR LF2 SS
STD
304
PERM

2.0

14.0

PIPE T TYPE
MNF
A420
SCH
STD
WPL6
16.0 24.0
PIPE T TYPE
MNF
A420
SCH
STD
WPL6W
PIPE JOINT & AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On line
<2
On line
>1.5
On
line<2
On line
>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE
200 mm
long

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

GR SS
304
GR SS
304

1.5

BRANCH BRANCH
PIPE
CONNECTION
TYPE
0.5 1.5 SW, TEE, 3000#

24

0.5

1.5 SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

2.0

24 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: Medium Pressure High Temperature Non-corrosive Hydrocarbon (Liquid or


vapour), Mild to Moderate Corrosive Hydrocarbon, flammable, nonlethal, Fuel Gas, Valve
Residue, BIM Reactor Effluents.

PIPING CLASS PIPING

MATERIAL ANSI RATING

Corrosion

B1D

SPECIFICATION

SN ITEM

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5

SCH./ FACE
Rating FINISH
SCH
80

DIMN. STD.

Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL

B36.10

A335 GR P11

2.0

6.0

B36.10

A335 GR P11

8.0

10

SCH
40
SCH
30

B36.10

A335 GR P11

EFSW

12

24

XS

B36.10

A335 GR P11

FLANGE

0.5

1.5

300#

125 SF

2.0

24

300#

125 SF

0.5

24

300#

125 SF

0.5

16

300#

125 SF

18.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

2.0

14.0 PIPE
SCH

16.0

24.0 PIPE
SCH

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

300#

125 SF

3
4

PIPE
SMLS

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8

FITTING

300#

3000# R=1.5D

VALVE
Gate

Globe

B 16.5

ASTM A182
GR F11
B 16.5
ASTM A182
GR F11
B 16.5
ASTM A182
GR F11
API 590
ASTM A182
GR F11
API 590
ASTM A182
GR F11
B16.11
ASTM A182
GR F11
B16.9
ASTM A234
GR
WP11
CL1
B16.9
ASTM A234
GR
WP11
CL1
BODY
TRIM
API
A182 GR Stellited
602
F11
API
A217 GR Stellited
600
WC6
BS
A182 GR Stellited
5352
F11
BS

A217

GR Stellited

Check
0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

300#

125 SF

STUDS

NUTS
GASKET

0.5

24.0

5
MM

STRAINER 0.5

1.50

800#

Y TYPE

2.0

14.0

PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

16.0

24.0

PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

PIPE JOINT
CONNECTION

&

1873
BS
5352
BS
1868

WC6
A182
F11
A217
WC6

GR Stellited

B18.2

A193 GR
B16
B18.2 A194 GR 4
B16.21 SPWD, SS304, CAF,
I & O ring

MNF
STD
MNF
STD

MNF
STD

A182
SS 304
GR F11
A234
SS 304
GR
WP11
CL1
A234
SS 304
GR
WP11W
CL1

AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE BRANCH PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On line
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
<2
pipe, Globe
On
line>1.5

DRAIN

GR Stellited

1.5 0.5 1.5

24

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

0.5 1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

2.0 24

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

On
line<2
On
line>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE 200
mm long

reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive Medium pressure & Low Temperature Hydrocarbon (Liquid or
Vapour)

PIPING CLASS PIPING


SPECIFICATION
B1H

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


300#

SN ITEM

DIAMETER RANGE

0.5

1.5

2.0

6.0

PIPE
SMLS

8.0
12.0

SCH./ Face Finish DIMN.


Rating
STD.
SCH
B36.10
80

SCH
40
10.0 SCH
30
16.0 SCH
STD

Corrosion
Allowance
1.5 mm
MATERIAL
A333 GR 3

B36.10

A333 GR 3

B36.10

A333 GR 3

B36.10

A333 GR 3

3
4

EFSW
FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
SPACER
OR FIG-8

FITTING

16.0

24.0 XS

0.5

1.5

300#

125 SF

2.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

16.0 300#

125 SF

18.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

2.0

14.0 PIPE
SCH
24.0 PIPE
SCH

16.0
6

B36.10

3000# R=1.5D

VALVE

A671 GR CF66
CL32

B 16.5

ASTM A350 GR
LF3
B 16.5 ASTM A350 GR
LF3
B 16.5 ASTM A350 GR
LF3
API 590 ASTM A350 GR
LF3
API 590 ASTM A350 GR
LF3
B16.11 ASTM A350 GR
LF3
B16.9
ASTM A420 GR
WPL3
B16.9
ASTM A420 GR
WPL3W
BODY TRIM

GATE

GLOBE

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

CHECK

STUDS

API 602 A350


GR
LF3
API 600 A352
GR
LC3
BS 5352 A350
GR
LF3
BS 1873 A352
GR
LC3
BS 5352 A350
GR
LF3
BS 1868 A352
GR
LC3
B18.2
A320

Stellited

Stellited

Stellited

Stellited

Stellited

Stellited

NUTS
8
9

GASKET
0.5
RING
STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

16.0

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

MAINT ALL
JOINT

PIPE
JOINT

&

B18.2

24.0 5 MM

B16.21

1.50 800#

Y TYPE

14.0 PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

MNF
STD
MNF
STD

24.0 PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

MNF
STD

GR L7
A194
GR 4
SPWD, SS304,
CAF, I & O ring
A350 GR SS
LF3
304
ASTM
SS
A420 GR 304
WPL3
ASTM
SS
A420 GR 304
WPL3W

AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS


DESCRIPTION RUN
PIPE

BRANCH PIPE

FLANGED
0.5 1.5 0.5
but
keep
minimum

1.5&
below SW,
CPLG, 2.0 24
2.0& above
3000#
BUTT
WELD
DRAIN On line
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
<2
pipe, Globe,
On line>1.5
VENTS On line<2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
On line>1.5
pipe, Globe,
PRESS 0.75 PIPE
SW, SCH 80
CONN
NIPPLE, Globe
TEMP 1.5 PIPE 200 FLG, Tapping on
CONN mm long
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE

1.5

SW, TEE, 3000#

0.5

1.5

SW,
Half
Coupling, 3000#,
except 2X1.5
where Tee is used

2.0

24.0 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement pad
except equal size
branch connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: Medium Pressure Pure Process (liquid or Vapour), Mild corrosive

hydrocarbon Flammable, Non-flammable & lethal DM Water, Polished water, chemicals


and High Pressure Fuel Gas
PIPING
CLASS
B1K
SN ITEM
1

PIPE

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE

FIG-8

SPACER
FITTING

VALVE

PIPING
SPECIFICATION

MATERIAL ANSI
RATING
300#

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
NIL

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5 1.5
2.0 4.0
6.0 8.0
10.0 12

SCH./ Rating Face


Finish
SCH 40S
SCH 10S
6.35MM
7.92MM
-

DIMN.
STD.
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

MATERIAL

14.0 24

11.1MM

B36.10

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
24
24

300#
300#
300#

125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5
125 SF B 16.5

0.5 16
18.0 24

300#
300#

125 SF API 590 A182 GR F304


125 SF API 590 A182 GR F304

0.5 1.5
2.0 14
16.0 24

3000#
PIPE SCH
PIPE SCH

R=1.5D B16.11
B16.9
B16.9

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0
0.5

A312 GR TP304
A312 GR TP304
A312 GR TP304
A358 GR TP304
CL1
A358 GR TP304
CL1
A182 GR F304
A182 GR F304
A182 GR F304

A182 GR F304
A403 GR WP304
A403 GR WP304W
BODY
TRIM

GATE
-

API
602

A182
Stellited
GR F304

24.0 300#

125 SF

1.5

API
600
BS
5352

A351
Stellited
GR CF8
A182
Stellited
GR F304

GLOBE

CHECK

800#

2.0

8.0

300#

125 SF

BS
1873
BS
5352
BS
1868
B18.2

A351
Stellited
GR CF8
0.5 1.5 800#
A182
Stellited
GR F304
2.0 24
300#
125 SF
A351
Stellited
GR CF8
7 STUDS
A320
GR
B8 CL2
NUTS
B18.2 A194
GR 8
8 GASKET
0.5 24.0 5 MM
B16.21 SPWD, SS304, CAF, I
& O ring
RING
9 STRAINER 0.5 1.50 800#
Y TYPE MNF
A182
GR SS
STD
F304
304
PERM
2.0 14.0 PIPE SCH T TYPE MNF
A403
GR SS
STD
WP304
304
16
24.0 PIPE SCH T TYPE MNF
A403
GR SS
STD
WP304W
304
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum

1.5

BRANCH BRANCH
PIPE
CONNECTION
TYPE
0.5 1.5 SW, TEE, 3000#

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0& above
On line<2

SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

24

0.5

1.5 SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used

2.0

24 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement

DRAIN

On
line>1.5

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

On line<2
On
line>1.5
0.75 PIPE

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

pad except equal


size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
1.5 PIPE FLG, Tapping on
200 mm long line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Fluid Service: Non-Corrosive Hydrocarbon Process (l/v/g), Kerosene, LPG (gas/oil), Fuel
Oil/Gas, Crude Oil, Heavy Naphtha, Wash Water, Demulsified Solution, Steam &Condensate
(N-IBR).
PIPING
CLASS
D1A
SN ITEM
1

3
4

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8
SPACER
FITTING

PIPING
SPECIFICATION
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5
2.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0

MATERIAL ANSI
RATING
600#
SCH./
FACE DIMN.
Rating FINISH STD.
SCH 80 B36.10
SCH 80 B36.10
SCH 60 B36.10
SCH XS B36.10
14.0MM
B36.10

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM
MATERIAL

0.5

1.5

600#

125 SF

B 16.5

ASTM A105

2.0
0.5

24.0
24.0

600#
600#

125 SF
125 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5
10.0

8.0
24.0

600#
600#

125 SF
125 SF

API 590
API 590

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

0.5
2.0

1.5
14.0

3000#
PIPE

R=1.5D B16.11
B16.9

API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
API 5L GR B
A672
GRC70CL12

ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR

SCH
PIPE
SCH

WPB
16.0
24.0
B16.9
ASTM A234 GR
WPBW
6 VALVE
BODY
TRIM
GATE
2.0 24.0
600#
125 API 600
A216
13% CR
SF
GR
WCB
GLOBE
0.5 1.5
800#
BS 5352 ASTM
13% CR
A105
2.0 8.0
600#
125 BS 1873 A216
13% CR
SF
GR
WCB
CHECK
0.5 1.5
800#
BS 5352 ASTM
13% CR
A105
2.0 24.0
600#
125 BS 1868 A216
13% CR
SF
GR
WCB
7 STUDS
B18.2
A193
GR B7
NUTS
B18.2
A194
GR 2H
8 GASKET
0.5 24.0
5 MM
B16.21
SPWD, SS304, CAF,
O Ring
9 STRAINER 0.5 1.50
800#
Y
MNF STD ASTM SS 304
TYPE
A105
2.0 14.0
PIPE SCH T
MNF STD A234
SS 304
TYPE
GR
WPB
16.0 24.0
PIPE SCH T
MNF STD A234
SS 304
TYPE
GR
WPBW
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION

RUN PIPE

BRANCH
PIPE

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE

MAINT
JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

ALL

FLANGED
0.5
but keep minimum
SW, CPLG, 3000#
BUTT WELD

1.5

0.5

1.5 SW, TEE, 3000#

2.0

24

0.5

1.5 SW,
Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used
24 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On line SW CPLG 3000#
<2

On line
>1.5
On
line<2
On
line>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE 200
mm long

BUTT WELDED

2.0

SW CPLG 3000#
BUTT WELDED
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

Fluid Service: Steam and Boiler Feed Water (IBR) up to 400 0 C

PIPING
CLASS
D2A
SN ITEM
1

PIPE

FLANGE

BLIND

PIPING
SPECIFICATION

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


600#

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM

DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5 1.5
2.0 6.0
8.0 14.0
16.0 24.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH 80
SCH 80
SCH 60
SCH 40

Face
Finish
-

DIMN. STD. MATERIAL


B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

A106 GR B
A106 GR B
A106 GR B
A672 GR C70 CL2

0.5
2.0
0.5

600#
600#
600#

125 SF
125 SF
125 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105

1.5
24.0
24.0

FLANGE

FIG-8

0.5 8.0
10.0 24.0

600#
600#

125 SF
125 SF

API 590
API 590

0.5
2.0

3000#
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

R=1.5D B16.11
B16.9

ASTM A105
ASTM A105

SPACER
5

FITTING

1.5
14.0

16.0 24.0
6

VALVE
2.0

24.0

600#

0.5
2.0

1.5
8.0

800#
300#

0.5
2.0

1.5
24.0

800#
600#

0.5

1.5

600#

0.5
0.5

24.0
1.50

5 MM
800#

GATE

GLOBE

B16.9

CHECK
STUDS
NUTS
GASKET
STRAINER

125
SF
125
SF
125
SF
125
SF

API 600

Y
TYPE
T
TYPE

B18.2
B18.2
API 601
MNF STD

BS 5352
BS 1873
BS 5352
BS 1868
BS 1868

ASTM A105
ASTM A234 G
WPB
ASTM A234 G
WPBW
BODY
TRIM
A216
GR 13% CR
WCB
ASTM A105 13% CR
A216
GR 13% CR
WCB
ASTM A105 13% CR
A216
GR 13% CR
WCB
ASTM A105 13% CR

A193 GR B7
A194 GR 2H
8
SPWD, SS304 (CAF)
9
ASTM SS 304
A105
2.0
14.0
PIPE
MNF STD
A234 SS 304
SCH
GR
WPB
16.0
24.0
PIPE
T
MNF STD
A234 SS 304
SCH
TYPE
GR
WPBW
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION

ITEM

SIZE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT
DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
1.5& below SW,
CPLG, 2.0
2.0& above
3000#
BUTT
WELD
On line <2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
On line>1.5
pipe, Globe,
On line<2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
On line>1.5
pipe, Globe,
0.75 PIPE
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
1.5 PIPE 200 FLG, Tapping on
mm long
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

BRANCH
PIPE

1.5

0.5

1.5

24

0.5

1.5

2.0

24

BRANCH
CONNECTIO
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000

SW,
Ha
Coupling,
3000#, exce
2X1.5 whe
Tee is used
Pipe-to-Pipe
connection wi
reinforcement
pad except equ
size
branc
connection
where Equal Te
is used.

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive High Temperature Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)

PIPING
CLASS
D1D
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

DIAMETER RANGE

ANSI RATING
600#

0.5

1.5

SCH./ FACE
DIMN.
Rating FINISH STD.
XS
B36.10

2.0

6.0

XS

B36.10

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM
MATERIAL
A335 GR P11
A335 GR P11

3
4

8.0

14.0 SCH
80

B36.10

A335 GR P11

EFSW

16.0

18.0 20 MM -

B36.10

A691 GR 1.25CR
CL42

FLANGE

0.5

1.5

600#

125 SF

B 16.5

ASTM A182 GR
F11

2.0

24.0 600#

125 SF

B 16.5

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8

0.5

24.0 600#

125 SF

B 16.5

0.5

8.0

600#

125 SF

API 590

SPACER

10.0

20.0 600#

125SF

API 590

FITTING

0.5

1.5

R=1.5D B16.11

2.0

14.0 PIPE
SCH
24.0 PIPE
SCH

ASTM A182 GR
F11
ASTM A182 GR
F11
ASTM A182 GR
F11
ASTM A182 GR
F11
ASTM A182 GR
F11
ASTM A234 GR
WP11 CL1
ASTM A234 GR
WP11 CL1
BODY TRIM
A217
Stellited
GR
WC6
A182
Stellited
GR F11
A217
Stellited
GR
WC6

16.0
6

3000#

B16.9
B16.9

VALVE
2.0

24.0 600#

125 SF

API 600

0.5

1.5

800#

BS 5352

2.0

8.0

600#

125 SF

BS 1873

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0 600#

BS 5352 A182
Stellited
GR F11
BS 1868 A217
Stellited
GR
WC6

GATE

GLOBE

CHECK

125 SF

STUDS

B18.2

NUTS

B18.2

GASKET

0.5

24.0 5MM

B16.21

STRAINER 0.5

1.50 800#

Y TYPE MNF
STD

2.0

14.0 PIPE
SCH

T TYPE MNF
STD

16.0

PIPE
JOINT
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

MAINT ALL
JOINT

&

A193
GR B16
A194
GR 4
SPWD,
SS304,
GRAFOIL, I & O
Ring
A182
SS 304
GR F11

A234
SS 304
GR
WP11
CL1
24.0 PIPE
T TYPE MNF
A234
SS 304
SCH
STD
GR
WP11W
CL1
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
PIPE
1.5&
below SW,
CPLG, 2.0
JOINT 2.0& above
3000#
BUTT
WELD
DRAIN On line<2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
On line>1.5
pipe, Globe,
VENTS On line<2
SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
On line>1.5
pipe, Globe,
PRESS 0.75 PIPE
SW, SCH 80
CONN
NIPPLE, Globe
TEMP 1.5 PIPE 200mm FLG, Tapping on
CONN long
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

1.5

24

BRANCH BRANCH
PIPE
CONNECTION
TYPE
0.5 1.5 SW, TEE, 3000#

0.5 1.5 SW,


Half
Coupling,
3000#, except
2X1.5 where
Tee is used
2.0 24 Pipe-to-Pipe
connection with
reinforcement
pad except equal
size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive Low Temperature & Medium Pressure Hydrocarbon (Liquid or
Vapour)

PIPING CLASS PIPING


SPECIFICATION
D1H
SN ITEM

DIAMETER
RANGE

PIPE

0.5
2.0
8.0
16.0

FLANGE

3
4

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8

SPACER
FITTING

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


600#
SCH./
Rating

Face
Finish

DIMN. STD.

1.5
6.0
14.0
24.0

SCH 80
SCH 80
SCH 60
SCH 60

B36.10
B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

0.5

1.5

300#

125 SF B 16.5

2.0

24.0 300#

125 SF B 16.5

0.5

24.0 300#

125 SF B 16.5

0.5

8.0

300#

125 SF API 590

10.0

24.0 300#

125 SF API 590

0.5

1.5

R=1.5D B16.11

3000#

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM
MATERIAL
A333 GR 3
A333 GR 3
A333 GR 3
A671 GR CF66
CL32
ASTM A350 GR
LF3
ASTM A350 GR
LF3
ASTM A350 GR
LF3
ASTM A350 GR
LF3
ASTM A350 GR
LF3
ASTM A350 GR

ALL

2.0

14.0 PIPE SCH

B16.9

16.0

24.0 PIPE SCH

B16.9

0.5

1.5

2.0

24.0 300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

300#

125 SF

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0 300#

0.5

24.0 5MM

0.5

1.50 800#

VALVE

LF3
ASTM A420 GR
WPL3
ASTM A420 GR
WPL3W
BODY
TRIM

GATE

GLOBE

CHECK

7
8
9

STUDS
NUTS
GASKET
RING
STRAINER
PERM

800#

API 602

A350
LF3
API 600 A352
LC3
BS 5352 A350
LF3
BS 1873 A352
LC3
BS 5352 A350
LF3

GR Stellited
GR Stellited
GR Stellited

BS 1868 A352 GR Stellited


LC3
B18.2
A320 GR L7
B18.2
A194 GR 4
B16.21
SPWD, SS304, CAF, I
& O Ring
Y TYPE MNF STD A350
GR SS
LF3
304

14.0 PIPE
T TYPE MNF STD
SCH
16.0
24.0 PIPE
T TYPE MNF STD
SCH
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
SIZE

GR Stellited

125 SF

2.0

ITEM

GR Stellited

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

ASTM A420
GR WPL3
ASTM A420
GR WPL3W

SS
304
SS
304

BRANCH PIPE BRANCH


CONNECTION

MAINT
JOINT
PIPE
JOINT

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

ALL
1.5&
below
2.0&
above
Line
<2
Line>1.5
Line<2

FLANGED
0.5
(Minimum)
SW,
CPLG, 2.0
3000#
BUTT
WELD

1.5

0.5

1.5

SW, TEE, 3000#

24

0.5

1.5

SW, Half Coupling,


3000#,
except
2X1.5 where Tee
is used

2.0

24

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
with
reinforcement pad
except equal size
branch connection
where Equal Tee is
used.

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,

SW
CPLG
3000#
pipe,
Line>1.5 0.75
Globe,
0.75
SW, SCH 80
PIPE
NIPPLE, Globe
1.5 PIPE FLG, Tapping on
200mm
line 4.0 pipe
long
(min)

Fluid Service: Non-corrosive Medium Pressure & High Temperature Hydrocarbon (Liquid or
Vapour), Medium corrosive Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)
PIPING
CLASS
D2K

PIPING
SPECIFICATION

SN ITEM

DIAMETER RANGE

0.5

1.5

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

EFSW

10.0

12.0

FLANGE

0.5
2.0

PIPE
SMLS

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


600#

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
NIL

SCH./
Rating
SCH
40S
SCH
40S

Face DIMN.
Finish STD.
B36.10

MATERIAL

B36.10

A312 GR TP304

B36.10

A312 GR TP304

B36.10

1.5

SCH
80S
SCH
80S
600#

B 16.5

24.0

600#

125
SF
125

A358 GR TP304
CL1
A182 GR F304

B 16.5

A182 GR F304

A312 GR TP304

BLIND
FLANGE

0.5

24.0

600#

FIG-8
SPACER

0.5

8.0

600#

10.0

12.0

0.5
2.0

1.5
8.0

10.0

12.0

FITTING
ALL

125
SF
600# 125
SF
3000# R =
PIPE 1.5D
SCH
PIPE
SCH

VALVE
GATE

2.0

24.0

600#

GLOBE

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

8.0

600#

0.5

1.5

800#

2.0

24.0

STUDS

NUTS

GASKET

0.5

24.0

STRAINER 0.5

1.50

2.0

12.0

CHECK

SF
125
SF

B 16.5

A182 GR F304

API 590

A182 GR F304

API 590

A182 GR F304

B16.11
B16.9

A182 GR F304
A403 GR WP304

B16.9

A403 GR WP304W

125
SF
-

API 600

125
SF
-

BS 1873

600#

125
SF

BS 1868

B18.2

BS 5352

BS 5352

BODY
A351 GR
CF8
A182 GR
F304
A351 GR
CF8
A182 GR
F304
A351 GR
CF8

TRIM
Stellited
Stellited
Stellited
Stellited
Stellited

A320
GRB8CL2
B18.2
A194
GR 8
5MM B16.21
SPWD,
SS304,
CAF,
I & O Ring
800#
Y
MNF
A182
SS 304
TYPE STD
GR F304
PIPE
SCH

T
MNF
TYPE STD

A403
GR
WP304

SS 304

PIPE JOINT
CONNECTION
ITEM
SIZE

&

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On line
<2
On line
>1.5
On line
<2
On
line>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE 200
mm long

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS


DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

BRANCH
PIPE

FLANGED
0.5 1.5
but
keep
minimum
SW,
CPLG, 2.0 24
3000#
BUTT
WELD

0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

SW, Half Coupling,


3000#,
except
2X1.5 where Tee
is used

2.0

12

Pipe-to-Pipe
connection
with
reinforcement pad
except equal size
branch connection
where Equal Tee is
used.

SW
CPLG
3000#
0.75
pipe, Globe,
SW
CPLG
3000#;
0.75
pipe, Globe,
SW, SCH 80
NIPPLE, Globe
FLG, Tapping on
line 4.0 pipe
(min)

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
SW, TEE, 3000#

Fluid Service: High Pressure Non-Corrosive Hydrocarbon Process (l/v/g), Non-Corrosive


Hydrocarbon Process liquid, Kerosene, Crude Oil, Heavy Naphtha.

PIPING
CLASS
F1A
SN ITEM

PIPE

PIPING
SPECIFICATION

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


1500#

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
1.5 MM

DIAMETER
RANGE

SCH./ FACE DIMN. STD.


Rating FINISH

MATERIAL

0.5

1.5

2.0

14.0

SCH
160
SCH
160

B36.10

API 5L GR B

B36.10

API 5L GR B

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8
SPACER
FITTING

4
5

VALVE
GATE

16.0

20.0

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
20.0
20.0

0.5
6.0
0.5

4.0
20.0
1.5

2.0

14.0

16.0

24.0

2.0

20.0

0.5

1.5

2.0

8.0

0.5

1.5

2.0

20.0

STUDS

NUTS
8

GASKET

B36.10

63 SF
63 SF
63 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

1500#
1500#
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

63 SF API 590
63 SF API 590
R
= B16.11
1.5D
B16.9
B16.9

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
-

B18.2

B18.2

0.5

24.0

5MM

B16.21

STRAINER 0.5

1.50

1500# Y TYPE

MNF STD

2.0

14.0

PIPE
SCH

MNF STD

GLOBE

CHECK

SCH
160
1500#
1500#
1500#

API 600
BS 5352
BS 1873
BS 5352
BS 1868

T TYPE

A672 GR C70
CL12
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A105
ASTM A234 GR
WPB
ASTM A234 GR
WPBW
BODY
TRIM
A216 GR Stellited
WCB
ASTM
Stellited
A105
A216 GR Stellited
WCB
ASTM
Stellited
A105
A216 GR Stellited
WCB
A193 GR
B7

A194 GR
2H
SOFT IRON (90BHN)
max
ASTM
A105
A234
GR

SS 304
SS 304

WPB

16.0 20.0

PIPE JOINT
CONNECTION

&

PIPE
SCH

T TYPE

MNF STD

A234
GR
WPBW
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE BRANCH PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

1.5

0.5

1.5

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On
line<2

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
BUTT WELD

Weldolet

20

0.5

1.5

2.0

20

DRAIN

On
BUTT
line>1.5 WELDED

VENTS

On
Weldolet
line<2
On
BUTT
line>1.5 WELDED

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE 200
mm long

Weldolet
FLG, Weldolet
on line 4.0NB
(min)

2.0

SS 304

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
BW, TEE, 3000#

WELDOLET,
PIPE
SCH,
except 2X1.5
where Tee is
used
WELDOLET
shall be used
except equal size
branch
connection
where Equal Tee
is used.

Fluid Service: High Pressure & High Temperature Non-corrosive Hydrocarbon (Liquid
or Vapour), High Pressure Boiler Feed Water and Superheated LP Steam (IBR).
PIPING
CLASS
F2A
SN ITEM
1

2
3
4

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE
WN
BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8
SPACER

FITTING

PIPING
SPECIFICATION
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5

MATERIAL ANSI RATING


1500#

2.0

14.0

16.0

20.0

0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
24.0
24.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH
160
SCH
160
SCH
160
1500#
1500#
1500#

0.5

8.0

1500#

63 SF

10.0

24.0

1500#

63 SF

0.5

1.5

R=
1.5D

2.0

14.0

16.0

20.0

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

VALVE
GATE

Corrosion
Allowance:
1.5 mm

FACE
DIMN. MATERIAL
FINISH STD.
B36.10 A106 GR B
-

B36.10 A106 GR B

B36.10 A672 GR C70


CL2
B 16.5 ASTM A105
B 16.5 ASTM A105
B 16.5 ASTM A105

63 SF
63 SF
63 SF

API
ASTM A105
590
API
ASTM A105
590
B16.11 ASTM A105
B16.9

ASTM A234 GR
WPB
B16.9 ASTM A234 GR
WPBW
BODY TRIM

GLOBE
2.0

20

PIPE
SCH

API
600

0.5

1.5

PIPE

BS

CHECK

A216
GR
WCB
ASTM

Stellited

Stellited

STEAM
TRAP

SCH
PIPE
SCH

2.0

8.0

0.5

1.5

2.0

20

0.5

1.5

STUDS

NUTS

GASKET
Oval Ring

0.5

20

STRAINER 0.5
PERM
2.0

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
1500#

63 SF

5352 A105
BS
A216
Stellited
1873 GR
WCB
BS
ASTM
Stellited
5352 A105
BS
A216
Stellited
1868 WCB
MNF ASTM
Stellited
STD A105
B18.2 A193 GR
B7
B18.2 A194 GR
2H
B16.20 SOFT
IRON
(90BHN) max

1.50

PIPE Y TYPE MNF ASTM


SS
SCH
STD
A105
304
14.0
PIPE T TYPE MNF A234 GR SS
SCH
STD
WPB
304
16.0 20
PIPE T TYPE MNF A234 GR SS
SCH
STD
WPBW
304
PIPE JOINT & AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

FLANGED
0.5
but
keep
minimum
BUTT WELD 2.0

1.5&
below
2.0&
above
On
Weldolet
line<2
On
line>1.5

DRAIN

BRANCH
PIPE

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
BW, TEE, PIPE
SCH.

1.5 0.5

1.5

24 0.5

1.5

WELDOLET,
PIPE
SCH.,
except 2X1.5
where BW, Tee
is used

2.0

24

WELDOLET
shall be used

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

On
line<2
On
line>1.5
0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE 200
mm long

except equal size


branch
connection
where
BW,
Equal Tee is
used.

Weldolet

Weldolet
FLG, Weldolet
on line 4.0NB
(min)

Fluid Service: High Pressure & High Temperature Non-corrosive Hydrocarbon (Liquid or Vapour)
PIPING
CLASS
F2D
SN ITEM
1

2
3
4

PIPE
SMLS

EFSW
FLANGE
BLIND
FLANGE
FIG-8

PIPING
MATERIAL ANSI RATING
SPECIFICATION
1500#
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5 1.5
2.0 14.0
16.0 20.0

0.5
2.0
0.5

SCH./ Rating FACE


FINISH
SCH 160
SCH 160
SCH 160
-

CORROSION
ALLOWANCE:
MM

DIMN. STD.

MATERIAL

B36.10
B36.10
B36.10

A335 GR P11
A335 GR P11
A691 GR 1.25
CL42

1.5 1500#
24.0 1500#
24.0 1500#

63 SF
63 SF
63 SF

B 16.5
B 16.5
B 16.5

ASTM A182 GRF11


ASTM A182 GRF11
ASTM A182 GRF11

0.5 8.0 1500#


10.0 24.0 1500#

63 SF
63 SF

API 590
API 590

ASTM A182 GRF11


ASTM A182 GRF11

0.5
2.0

R=1.5D B16.11
B16.9

SPACER
5

FITTING

1.5 PIPE SCH


14.0 PIPE SCH

16.0 20.0 PIPE SCH


6

VALVE
GATE

B16.9
BODY

ASTM A182 GRF11


ASTM A234
WP11CL1
ASTM A234
WP11CL1
TRIM

GLOBE

2.0

20.0 PIPE SCH

0.5
2.0
0.5
2.0
0.5

1.5
8.0
1.5
20.0
1.5

PIPE SCH
PIPE SCH
PIPE SCH
PIPE SCH
1500#

API 600

A217 GR WC6

Stellited

BS 5352
BS 1873
BS 5352
BS 1868
63 SF MNF STD

A182 GRF11
A217 GR WC6
A182 GRF11
A217 GR WC6
A182 GRF11

Stellited
Stellited
Stellited
Stellited
Stellited

B18.2
B18.2

A193 GR B16
A194
GR 4

B16.20

5CR, 1.5 MO
(120BHN) max
A182 GRF11

CHECK

STEAM
TRAP

STUDS
NUTS

GASKET
Oval Ring

0.5

20.0

STRAINER 0.5

1.50 PIPE SCH

Y
MNF STD
SS 304
TYPE
2.0 14.0 PIPE SCH
T
MNF STD ASTM A234 GR SS 304
TYPE
WP11CL1
16.0 20.0 PIPE SCH
T
MNF STD ASTM A234 GR SS 304
TYPE
WP11WCL1
PIPE
JOINT
&
AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION
ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

PIPE
JOINT

1.5&
below
2.0&
above

FLANGED
0.5 1.5
but
keep
minimum
BUTT WELD 2.0 24

BRANCH
PIPE
0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

BRANCH
CONNECTIO
TYPE
BW, TEE, PI
SCH.

WELDOLET,
PIPE
SC
except 2X1
where BW, T

DRAIN

VENTS

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

is used

On line<2 Weldolet
On
line
>1.5
On line <2

2.0

24.0

Weldolet

WELDOLET
shall be u
except equal s
branch
connection
where
B
Equal Tee
used.

On
line
>1.5
0.75 PIPE Weldolet
1.5
200
long

PIPE FLG, Weldolet


mm on line 4.0NB
(min)

Fluid Service: High Pressure & High Temperature medium corrosive Hydrocarbon (Liquid or
Vapour)

PIPING
CLASS
F2K
SN ITEM
1

PIPE
SMLS

FLANGE

BLIND
FLANGE

PIPING
MATERIAL ANSI RATING
SPECIFICATION
1500#
DIAMETER
RANGE
0.5
1.5
2.0
3.0

2.0
4.0

SCH./
Rating
SCH
80S
8.74
11.10

0.5

1.5

1500#

63 SF

B 16.5

2.0

4.0

1500#

63 SF

B 16.5

0.5

4.0

1500#

63 SF

B 16.5

Corrosion
Allowance NIL

Face
Finish
-

DIMN. STD. MATERIAL


B36.19

A312 GR TP304

B36.19
B36.19

A312 GR TP304
A312 GR TP304

ASTM
GRF304
ASTM
GRF304
ASTM
GRF304

A182
A182
A182

FIG-8

0.5

4.0

1500#

63 SF

API 590

0.5

1.5

R=1.5D B16.11

2.0

4.0

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH

ASTM
GRF304

A182

SPACER
5

FITTING

VALVE
GATE

2.0 4.0

GLOBE

0.5 1.5
2.0 4.0

CHECK
0.5 1.5
2.0 4.0
7
8

STUDS
NUTS
GASKET

0.5 4.0

STRAINER 1.50

PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
PIPE
SCH
-

B16.9

API
600
BS
5352
BS
1873
BS
5352
BS
1868
B18.2
B18.2
B16.20

ASTM
A182
GRF304
ASTM A403 GR
WP304

BODY
TRIM
A351 GR CF8 Stellited
A182
Stellited
GRF304
A351 GR CF8 Stellited
A182
Stellited
GRF304
A351 GR CF8 Stellited
A193 GR B7
A194 GR 2H
A182 GR F304 (130BHN)
max
A182 GR F304 SS 304

PIPE
Y TYPE MNF
SCH
STD
4.0
PIPE
T TYPE MNF
A403
SCH
STD
WP304
PIPE JOINT & AUXILIARY BRANCH CONNECTIONS
CONNECTION

GR SS 304

ITEM

SIZE

DESCRIPTION RUN PIPE

BRANCH PIPE

MAINT
JOINT

ALL

1.5

0.5

1.5

PIPE

1.5&

FLANGE
0.5
but
keep
minimum
BUTT WELD 2.0

4.0

0.5

1.5

BRANCH
CONNECTION
TYPE
BW, TEE, PIPE
SCH.
WELDOLET,

JOINT

DRAIN

below
2.0&
above
On line Weldolet
<2
On line
>1.5

VENTS

On line Weldolet
<2
On line
>1.5

PRESS
CONN
TEMP
CONN

0.75
PIPE
1.5
PIPE
200
mm
long

PIPE
SCH.,
except 2X1.5
where BW, Tee
is used
2.0

24

WELDOLET
shall be used
except equal size
branch
connection
where
BW,
Equal Tee is
used.

Weldolet
FLG, Weldolet
on line 4.0NB
(min)

VALVE DESIGN
Operating block valves shall be in accordance with the applicable P & ID and applicable
specifications.
A)
Unless otherwise noted block valve in suction side of the pumps and
compressors shall be of the line size regardless of pump or compressor nozzle size.
B)
Check and block valves in discharge side of pumps and compressors can be
one size smaller, than line size, but never less than pump and compressor nozzle size.
C)
Generally all control valve sizes and there by pass and bleed valves are in
accordance with the applicable P & Ids.
D)
Generally the primary block valves only are shown on P & Ids. For
instrument connections to Process & Utility lines, vessels and equipment, instrument data sheets
shall indicate the details of the valve requirements.
E)
Vent valves at high points & drains at low point shall be shown on the piping
isometrics for line size 2 NB and above. For line size 1 NB and below shall be decided in the
field in accordance with the specification.
F)
Valves requiring gear operation shall be indicated on the applicable P & IDs.
G)
Gate valve shall be provided with pressure equalizing by-passes and globe
type by-pass valves when the flow diagram indicates that a differential pressure approximately

equal to the pressure rating of the valve at the operating temperature may exist across the closed
valves.
Self-Contained Automatic Valves
Self-contained automatic valves are used for pressure- reducing stations. The valve body itself is
normally a globe-type valve. It is normally diaphragm actuated and hydraulically operated. The
valves are capable of maintaining constant downstream pressure regardless of the fluctuations in the
flow or upstream pressure by internal hydraulic controllers.
Parts of the Valve: Body: Valve body is connected to pipe, fittings or vessels by their body ends,
which may be flanged, screwed, butt or socket welding, or finished for hose, sleeve coupling.
Jacketed valves are also available.
Disc, Seat and Port: These components are directly used for stopping and regulating the flow. The
moving part directly affecting the flow is termed as disc, regardless of its shape. The non-moving part
is termed as the seat. The port is the maximum internal opening for flow when the valve is fully open.
Discs may be actuated by conveyed fluid or be moved by stem having a linear, rotary or helical
movement. The stem can be moved manually or be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically,
under remote or automatic control, or mechanically by weighted lever, springs etc.
Stem: Stems are screwed. There are two types of screwed stems, the rising stem and non-rising stem.
These are moved by hand-lever or hand-wheel. Rising Stem is provided, generally, for gate and globe
valves. These are made either with inside screw (IS) or outside screw (OS). The OS type has a yoke
on the bonnet and the assembly is referred to as Outside Screw and Yoke (OS& Y type). The handwheel can either rise with the stem, or the stem can rise through the hand wheel. Non-rising stem is
provided in Gate valves. The hand wheel and the stem are in the same position, level-wise, whether
the valve is open or closed. The screw is inside the bonnet and in contact with conveyed fluid.
Depending on the size of the required valve and availabilities, selection of stem type can be based on
(1) Whether it is undesirable for the conveyed fluid to be in contact with the thread bearing surface,
(2) Whether an exposed screw is liable to be damaged by abrasive atmospheric dust or (3) Whether it
is necessary to see whether the valve is open or closed. Most of the other valves have a simple rotary
stem. Rotary, Ball, Plug, and Butterfly valves have a rotary stem that is moved by a permanent lever,
or tool applied to a square boss at the end of the stem.
Bonnet: There are three basic types of bonnets, such as: screwed (including union), bolted and
breech lock. A screwed bonnet may occasionally stick and turn when a valve is opened or closed.
Although sticking is less of a problem with the union type bonnet, valves with screwed bonnets are
best reserved for services presenting no hazard to personnel. Union bonnets are more suitable for
small valves requiring frequent dismantling than the simple screwed type. The bolted bonnet has
largely displaced screwed and union bonnet valves in hydrocarbon applications. A U-bolt or clamp
type bonnet is offered on some small gate valves for moderate pressures, to facilitate frequent
cleaning and inspection. The pressure seal is a variation of bolted bonnet used for high-pressure
valves, usually combined with OS & Y type construction. It makes use of line pressure to tighten and
seal an internal metal ring or gasket against the body. A critical factor for valves used for process
chemicals is the lubrication of the stem. Care needs to be taken for selection of packing, gland design
and choice of lubricant. As an option the bonnet may include a Lantern Ring, which serves two
purposes, either to act as a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages, or as a point where
lubricant can be injected. The breech lock is a heavier infrequently used and more expensive
construction, also for high pressure use, and involves seal welding of the bonnet with the body.
Seal: In most stems operated valves, irrespective of the stem has rotary or linear movement; packing

or seals are used between stem and bonnet or body. If high vacuum or corrosive, flammable or toxic
fluid is to be handled, the disc or stem may be sealed by metal bellows, or by a flexible diaphragm. A
gasket is used as seal between a bolted bonnet and valve body. Flanged valves use gaskets to seal
against the line flanges. Butterfly valves may extend the resilient seat to also serve as line gaskets.
The pressure-seal bonnet joint utilizes the pressure of conveyed fluids to tighten the seal.
Type of Valve Operator: Operator is a device that opens or closes a valve. Different Types of Valve
Operator are available as given below.
Manual Operator: Manual operator is used where automatic control is not required. These valves
may still result in good throttling control manually, if control is necessary. Gate, globe, and stop check
valves are often supplied with hand wheel operators. Ball and butterfly valves are supplied with
hand levers. Manual operators can be supplied with direct mount chain wheels or extensions to
actuate valves in hard-to-reach locations, i.e. at height. Manual operators are much less expensive
than automatic operators.
Hand Lever: It is used to actuate the stems of small butterfly, ball, plug valves, and cocks. Wrench
operation is used for cocks and small plug valves.
Hand Wheel: It is the most common means of rotating the stem on the majority of popular smaller
valves such as gate, globe and diaphragm. Hammer blow or impact hand wheels offer additional
operating torque for gate and globe valves than normal hand wheels.
Chain: It is used where a hand wheel would be out of reach for the operation. The stem is fitted with
a chain wheel or wrench for lever operated valves and loop of the chain is brought down within
reach of the operator, i.e. one meter of working floor level.
Gear: These are used to reduce the operating torque. For manual operation, it consists of a hand
wheel operated gear train actuating the valve stem. Generally, gear operators should be considered
for valves of 350 mm NB and larger up to 300#, 200 mm NB and larger up to 600#, 150 mm NB and
larger up to 1500# and 100 mm NB and larger for higher ratings.
POWERED O PERATORS : FOLLOWINGS ARE THE POWER OPERATIONS PROVIDED ON THE VALVES :
a. Electric Geared Motor: Geared Motor rotates the valve stem. This is useful for operating large
size valves in remote areas. Electrical operators only require electrical power to the motors and
electrical input signal from the controller in order to be positioned. Electrical operators are usually
self-contained and operate within either a weatherproof or an explosion-proof casing.
b. Solenoid: These can be used for fast acting check valves, and with on/off valves in light-duty
instrumentation applications.
c. Pneumatic and Hydraulic: These may be used where flammable vapour is likely to be present. A
pneumatic operator can be a spring and diaphragm type or a pneumatic piston. Spring and diaphragm
operators are pneumatically operated using low-pressure air supplied from a controller position or
other source. The different type of operators include direct acting, in which increasing air pressure
pushes down the diaphragm and extends the actuator stem; reverse acting, in which increasing air
pressure pushes up the diaphragm and retracts the actuator stem; and direct acting for rotary valves.
Pneumatic operators are simple, dependable, and economical. Moulded diaphragms can be used to
provide linear performance and increase travel. The sizes of the operators are dictated by the output
thrust required and available air pressure supply. Pneumatic piston operators are operated using highpressure air. The air pressure can be up to 1.03 MPa (150 psig), often eliminating the need for a
pressure regulator that is required on a diaphragm actuator. The best design for piston actuators is
double acting. This allows for the maximum force in both directions on the piston. Piston actuators

can be supplied with accessories that will position the valve in the event of loss of air supply. While
these pneumatic operators are also available for rotary shaft valves, electrical operators tend to be
more common on the rotary valves. They are of following forms:
- Cylinder with double acting piston driven by air, water, oil or other liquid, which usually actuates
the stem directly.
- Air motor, which actuates the stem through gearing. These motors are commonly piston and cylinder
radial type.
- A double acting vane with limited rotary movement in a sector casing, actuating the stem directly.
- Squeeze type. In addition, the amount of valve leakage is determined based on acceptability to
process and design requirements. Control valve seats are classified in accordance with ANSI/FCI
70-2 for leakage. These classifications are summarized in Tables below.
Table: Valve Seat Leakage Classification
Leakage
Maximum Allowable Leakage
Class
Designation
I
II
III
IV
V

--0.5% of rated capacity


0.1% of rated capacity
0.01% of rated capacity
5 x 10-12 m3 /s of water per mm of seat diameter
per bar differential (0.0005 ml/min per inch of
seat diameter per psi differential)
VI
Not to exceed amounts shown in Table 10-6
(based on seat diameter) of ANSI/FCI 70-2
Source: ANSI/FCI 70-2
Table: Class VI Valve Seat Allowable Leakage
Nominal Port Diameter
mm (in)
25 (1)
38 (1)

Allowable Leakage Rate


(ml per minute)
0.15
0.30

51 (2)
64 (2)
76 (3)
102 (4)
152 (6)
203 (8)
Source: ANSI/FCI 70-2

0.45
0.60
0.90
1.70
4.00
6.75

Packing: Most valves use packing boxes with the packing retained and adjusted by flange and stud
bolts. Several packing materials are available for use, depending upon the application.
End Connections: The common end connections for installing valves in pipe include screwed pipe
threads, bolted flanges with gasket, welded connections, and flangeless (or wafer) valve bodies.
Screwed end connections are typically used with small-bore valves. Threads are normally specified
as tapered female National Pipe Thread (NPT). This end connection is limited to valves below 50
mm (2 in) and smaller but is not recommended for elevated temperature service. This connection is
also used in low maintenance or non-critical applications.
Flanged end valves are easily removed from piping and, with proper flange specifications, are
suitable for use through the range of most valve working pressures. Flanges are used on all valve
sizes 50 mm (2 in) and larger. The most common types of flanged end connections are flat faced,
raised faced, and the ring joint. Flat-faced flanges are typically used in low pressure, cast iron, or
brass valves and have the advantage of minimizing flange stresses. Raised faced flanges can be used
for high pressure and temperature applications and are normally as per standard ANSI Class 150#
and above on all steel and alloy steel bodies. The ring-type joint flange is typically used at extremely
high pressures of up to 103 MPa (15,000 psig) and also at high temperatures. This type of flange is
furnished only on steel and alloy valve bodies when specified.
Welding ends on valves have the advantage of being leak tight at all pressures and temperatures;
however, welding end valves are very difficult to remove for maintenance and/or repairs and hence,
the uses are limited to very high pressure and temperature. Welding ends are manufactured in butt
weld style.
Flangeless valve bodies are also called wafer-style valve bodies. This body style is common to
rotary shaft control valves such as butterfly valves and ball valves. Flangeless bodies are clamped
between two pipeline flanges by long through-bolts. One of the advantages of a wafer-style body is
that it has a very short face-to-face body length.
00C
Table: Type and application of Valve Packing
Type
PTFE

Application
Resistant to most chemicals.
Requires extremely smooth stem finish
to seal properly.
Will leak if stem or packing is damaged.
Laminated/Filament Impervious to most liquids and
Graphite
radiation.
Can be used at high temperatures, up to
6500C (1,2000F).
Produces high stem friction.
Semi-Metallic
Used
for
high pressures
and
0
0
temperatures, up to 480 C (900 F).
Fibreglass
Good for general use.
Used with process temperatures up to
2880C (5500F).

Ferritic steel stems require additive to


inhibit pitting.
Kevlar
and Good for general use.
Graphite
Used with process temperatures up to
2880C (5500F).
Corrosion inhibitor is included to avoid
stem corrosion.
Source: Compiled by SAIC, 1998
Valve Supports: Specific pipe material design recommendations are followed when designing
supports for valves. In general, one hanger or other support should be specified for each side of a
valve, that is, along the two pipe sections immediately adjacent to the valve. The weight of the valve
is included in the calculation of the maximum span of supports.
Valve Schedule: This Valve Schedule can provide useful data. For design purposes, contract
drawings include a valve schedule. Following Table presents a valve schedule that is included in the
drawings for process piping design. This valve operator schedule is used when additional
information, beyond that shown on a valve schedule, is required.
TABLE: VALVE SCHEDULE
Valve Description Size
Flange Screw
Type
Range Rating Ends
Ball Ball Valve, 40 mm
Taper
-Valve Full Port
&
ANSI
Positive
Smaller
B2.1
Shut-off

Ball Valve, 40 mm
Full Port
&
Positive
Greater
Shut-off

Design Body
Rating Materials
1.39
316 SS
MPa

ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#

--

689
kPa

316 SS

Ball Valve, 40 mm ANSI


Full Port
&
B16.5
Positive
Smaller Class

--

1.03
MPa

316 SS

Trim
Materials
SS 316
Ball
&
Stem
Glass
Filled
TFE
Seats,
TFE
Seals
SS 316
Ball
&
Stem
Glass
Filled
TFE
Seats,
TFE
Seals
SS 316
Ball
&
Stem

Shut-off

300#

Glass
Filled
TFE
Seats,
TFE
Seals
689
CS
13% Cr
kPa
ASTM A Steel
and
216
Seats &
above GR WCB SS Stem

Gate Solid
50 mm
Valve Wedge Gate &
Valve
Larger
O.S. & Y.,
Rising Stem

ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#
and
above

--

Double
50 mm
Disc Gate &
Valve
Larger
O.S. & Y.,
Rising Stem

ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#

--

689
kPa

CS
UT Trim
ASTM A 316 SS
216
Stem
GR WCB

50 mm ANSI
&
B16.5
Larger Class
150#
and
above
50 mm
-&
Smaller
50 mm
-&
Smaller

--

689
kPa
and
above

CS
ASTM A
216
GR WCB

13% Cr
Steel
Seats &
Disc

Taper
ANSI
B2.1
Socket
Weld

1.39
MPa

Bronze

Bronze

17.2
MPa

CS
ASTM
105

13% Cr
A Steel
Seats &
302 SS
Spring

PFA
Coated
Steel

Check Swing
Valve Check
Valve

Swing
Check
Valve
Y-Pattern
Check
Valve

Lined
Wafer
Check
Valve

250
mm

Fit
ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#

--

689
kPa

PFA
Coated
CS

Wafer Style 100


Check
mm
Valve
to

Fit
ANSI
B16.5

--

689
kPa

410 SS
302 SS
ASTM A
276

PCV

250
mm
100
mm

Globe
Valve,
Bolted
Bonnet,
O.S. & Y.,
Rising Stem
Butterfly
100
Valve
mm

Butterfly
Valve

300
mm

Class
150#
Fit
ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#
Fit
ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#
Fit
ANSI
B16.5
Class
150#

--

689
kPa

CS
302 SS
ASTM A
216
GR WCB

--

689
kPa

PFA Lined
D.I.

PFA
Lined D.I.
& SS
Stem

--

689
kPa

PFTE
Lined
CS

PTFE
Lined CS
&
SS Stem

Source: SAIC, 1998.

VALVE S PECIFICATIONS
GATE VALVE SPECIFICATION - I
MAX
TEMP
0C

Material

Body
Bonnet
(Forge/
Cast)
Cast)
A105
A216
GR
WCB

PIPING
CLASS

Seat
Rising
Wedge
Disc Renewable /
(Forge/
Stem Rising
(Solid/ Flex)
NonRenewable

A105 A216
GR WCB

13%CR
Steel

13% CR Steel

13% CR Steel 400C

A1A, A2A,
A3A, A5A,
A7A, A10A
B1A, B2A,
B5A, B7A,
B10A, J3A

A105
A216
GR
WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A182
F304L
A351
GR
CF8

A105 A216
GR
WCB
A105 A216
GR
WCB

SS
304/ SS
304L

SS
304/ SS
304L

SS
304/ SS
304L

Stellite

Stellite

13%CR
Steel
Stellite

400C

A12A,
A13A

400C

D1A,
D2A

400C

F1A, F2A

540C

A10K

Stellite

A105 A216
GR
WCB

13%CR
Steel

A182F
304L A351
GRCF8

SS
304L

SS
304L

SS
304L

SS
304

A182F304 SS
304

A182F304 SS
540C
304

Stellite

Stellite

A182
F304 A182F
A351 304 A351
GR
GRCF8
CF8
A182
F304 A182F
A351 304 A351
GR
GRCF8
CF8
A105 A105 A216
A216
GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A105 A105 A216
A216
GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A350
A350
GRLF2
A352 GRLF2 A352
GRLCB GRLCB

SS
304
13%CR
Steel

13%CR Steel

SS
304

SS
304

SS
304

Stellite

Stellite

SS
304

A1K,
A13K,
B1K, B13K

540C

F1K

200C

A20A,
B20A

200C

A9A,
A19A,
B9A, B19A

-45C

A4A, A40A,
B4A, B40A

13%CR Steel

A350
GRLF3
A352
GRLC3
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
F11
A217
GR
WC6
A182
F11
A217
GR
WCB

A350
GRLF3 A352
GRLC3
A182
F304 A351
GRCF8

Stellite
SS
304
Stellite

Stellite

13%CR
Steel

Stellite

-80C

A1H, A10H,
B1H, B10H

-196C

A2K, A20K,
B2K, B20K

550C

A1D, A2D,
B1D, D2D

550C

F1D, F2D

Stellite

SS
304

13%CR
A182 F11 A217 Steel
GR
WC6

A182
F11 A217
GR WCB

Stellite

Stellite

Stellite

A182
Stellite
Stellite
F22
A182F22 A217 13%CR
G2E
560C
A217
Steel
GR WC9
GR
WC9
A182 A182F316H
F316H A351
SS
SS
SS
685C
A13K, B13K
A351
GR
316H
316H
316H
GR
CF8M
CF8M
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End Thickness & others, if any,
should be done as per piping class of piping material specifications.
2) Valve body and Valve seat testing should be done as per "API 598" OR, IBR at the following test
pressure.
3) Valve should be provided with Gear as per Table.
4) Valve for IBR SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body should not exceed 0.25% and should
be certified by IBR authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should be painted Red for identification
5) All Valves should be "0.S & Y" in construction.
6) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as per BS 6364 and 100%
body should be radiographic by X-Ray.

Hydro test Pressure

Seat (psig)

Pneumatic Test
Pressure
Rating
(psig)

2175
310
805
1060
1590

80
80
80
80
80

Rating

Body
(psig)
800# *3000
150# 425
300# 1100
400# 1450
600# 2175

900#
1500#
2500#
3000#

Hydro test Pressure


Body
(psig)
3250
5400
9000
4500

Seat
(psig)
2375
3950
6570
4050

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure
(psig)
80
----------

GATE VALVE SPECIFICATION - II


MAX
TEMP
0C

Material

Body
Bonnet
(Forge/
Cast)
Cast)

A105
A216
GR
WCB

A105
A216
GR
WCB
A105
A216
GR

(Forge/ Stem
Rising

PIPING
CLASS

Seat
Rising
Wedge
Disc Renewable /
(Solid/ Flex)
NonRenewable

A105 A216
GR WCB

13%CR
Steel

13% CR Steel

13% CR Steel 400C

A1A,
A2A,
A3A,
A5A,
A7A,
A10A
B1A,
B2A,
B5A,
B7A,
B10A,
J3A

A105 A216
GR
WCB

SS
304/ SS
304L

SS
304/ SS
304L

SS
304/ SS
304L

400C

A12A,
A13A

Stellite

Stellite
400C

D1A,
D2A

A105 A216
GR
WCB

13%CR
Steel

WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A182
F304L
A351
GR
CF8
A182
F304
A351
GR
CF8
A182
F304
A351
GR
CF8

Stellite

A105 A216
GR
WCB

13%CR
Steel

A182F
304L A351
GRCF8

SS
304L

A182F
304 A351
GRCF8

A182F
304 A351
GRCF8

A105 A105 A216


A216
GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A105 A105 A216
A216
GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A350 A350
GRLF2
GRLF2 A352
A352
GRLCB
GRLCB
A350 A350
GRLF3
GRLF3 A352
A352
GRLC3
GRLC3
A182 A182
F304 F304 A351
A351 GRCF8

SS
304

Stellite
400C

F1A, F2A

540C

A10K

A182F304 SS
304

A182F304 SS
540C
304

A1K,
A13K,
B1K,
B13K

Stellite

Stellite

SS
304L

SS
304L

SS
304

13%CR
Steel

SS
304

540C

13%CR Steel

13%CR Steel
200C

SS
304

SS
304

Stellite

Stellite

SS
304
Stellite

SS
304

-80C
Stellite

SS
304

200C

-45C
Stellite

F1K

Stellite
-196C

A20A,
B20A
A9A,
A19A,
B9A,
B19A
A4A,
A40A,
B4A,
B40A
A1H,
A10H,
B1H,
B10H
A2K,
A20K,
B2K,

B20K

GRCF8
A182
F11
A217
GR
WC6
A182
F11
A217
GR
WCB
A182
F22
A217
GR
WC9
A182
F316H
A351
GR
CF8M

13%CR
A182 F11 A217 Steel
GR
WC6

Stellite

13%CR
Steel

Stellite

A182
F11 A217
GR WCB

Stellite
A182F22 A217
GR WC9

13%CR
Steel

A182F316H
A351
GR
CF8M

SS
316H

SS
316H

Stellite
550C

A1D,
A2D,
B1D,
D2D

550C

F1D, F2D

560C

G2E

685C

A13K,
B13K

Stellite

Stellite

SS
316H

1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End Thickness & others, if any,
should be done as per piping class of piping material specifications.
2) Valve body and Valve seat testing should be done as per "API 598" OR, IBR at the following
test pressure
3) Valve should be provided with Gear as per Table in the book
4) Valve for IBR SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body should not exceed 0.25% and
should be certified by IBR authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should be painted Red for
identification
5) All Valves should be "0.S & Y" in construction.
6) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as per BS 6364 and
100% body should be radiographic by X-Ray.
Hydro test Pressure
Rating

Pneumatic Test
Pressure
Rating
(psig)

Hydro test Pressure

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure

80

900#

Body
(psig)
3250

150# 425 310


300# 1100 805

80
80

1500#
2500#

5400
9000

3950
6570

400# 1450 1060


600# 2175 1590

80
80

3000#

4500

4050

800# *

Body Seat (psig)


(psig)
3000 2175

GLOBE VALVE SPECIFICATION - I


MATERIAL
Body
Bonnet
(Forge/ (Forge/
Cast) Cast)
A105
A216
GR
WCB

A105
A216
GR
WCB

Seat Ring MAX


Disc
Stem
Renewable TEMP
(Loose/
Rising
/
Non- 0C
Plug Type
Renewable
13%CR 13%CR 13%CR
Steel
Steel
Steel

A105
SS
A105
A216
A216GR
304/ SS
GR
WCB
304L
WCB
A105
A105
A216
13%CR
A216
GR
Steel
GR WCB
WCB
A105
A105
A216
13%CR
A216 GR
GR
Steel
WCB
WCB
A182
F304L
A351

A182
F304L
A351

SS
304/ SS
304L

SS
304/ SS
304L

Stellite

Stellite

Stellite

PIPING
CLASS

400C

A1A, A2A,
A3A, A5A,
A7A, A10A
B1A, B2A,
B5A, B7A,
B10A, J3A

400C

A12A, A13A

400C

D1A, D2A

400C

F1A, F2A

540C

A10K

Stellite

SS 304L SS 304L SS 304L

Seat (psig)
(psig)
2375 80

GRCF8 GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8

A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8

A105
A216
GR
WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A350
GRLF2
A352
GrLCB
A350
GRLF3
A352
GrLC3
A182
GR
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
GRF11
A217
GrWC6
A182
GRF11
A217
GrWCB
A182
GRF22

A105
A216
GR
WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A350
GRLF2
A352
GrLCB
A350
GRLF3
A352
GrLC3
A182
GR
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
GRF11
A217
GrWC6
A182
GRF11
A217
GrWCB
A182
GRF22

SS 304

A182F304 A182F304
540C
SS 304
SS 304
Stellite

Stellite

SS 304
13%CR 13%CR
Steel
Steel

13%CR
Steel

SS
304

SS
304

SS
304

Stellite

Stellite

SS
304
Stellite

F1K

200C

A20A, B20A

200C

A9A, A19A,
B9A, B19A

-45C

A4A, A40A,
B4A, B40A

-80C

A1H, A10H,
B1H, B10H

-196C

A2K, A20K,
B2K, B20K

550C

A1D, A2D,
B1D, D2D

550C

F1D, F2D

Stellite

SS
304
13%CR Stellite
Steel

Stellite

13%CR Stellite
Steel

Stellite

Stellite

Stellite

13%CR

540C

Stellite

SS
304
Stellite

A1K, A13K,
B1K, B13K

A217 A217
GrWC9 GrWC9
A182
GR
F316H
A351
Gr
CF8M

A182
GR
F316H
A351
Gr
CF8M

Steel

SS
316H

SS
316H

SS
316H

560C

G2E

685C

A13K, B13K

1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End


Thickness & others, if any, should be done as per piping class of piping
material specifications
2) Globe Valve body and Valve Seat testing should be done as per "API 598"
OR, IBR at the following test pressure.
3) Valve should be provided with Gear as per table in book. Valve for IBR
SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body should not exceed 0.25% and
should be certified by IBR authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should be
painted Red for identification
4) All Valves should be "0.S & Y" in construction.
5) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as per
BS 6364 and 100% body shall be radiographic by X-Ray.

Hydro
Pressure
Rating
Body
(psig)
800# * 3000
150# 425
300# 1100

Seat
(psig)
2175
310
805

400#

1450 1060

600#

2175 1590

test

Hydro
Pressure

Pneumatic Test
Pressure
Rating
(psig)
Body
(psig)
80
900# 3250
80
1500# 5400
80
2500# 9000
3000#
80
4500
**
80

GLOBE VALVE SPECIFICATION - II

Seat
(psig)
2375
3950
6570
4050

test

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure
(psig)
80

MATERIAL
Seat Ring MAX
Body
Bonnet
Disc
Stem
Renewable TEMP 0C
(Forge/ (Forge/
(Loose/
Rising
/
NonCast) Cast)
Plug Type
Renewable
13%CR 13%CR 13%CR
Steel
A105 A105 Steel Steel
A216 A216
400C
GR
GR
WCB WCB
A105
A105
A216
A216GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A105 A105
A216 A216
GR
GR
WCB WCB
A105 A105
A216 A216
GR
GR
WCB WCB
A182 A182
F304L F304L
A351 A351
GRCF8 GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A105
A216
GR

A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
F304
A351
GRCF8
A105
A216
GR

SS
SS
304/ SS 304/ SS
304L 304L
Stellite

SS
304/ SS
304L

400C

A12A, A13A

400C

D1A, D2A

400C

F1A, F2A

540C

A10K

Stellite

13%CR
Steel

SS
304L

SS 304L

SS 304

A182F304 A182F304
540C
SS 304
SS 304

SS 304L

Stellite

A1K, A13K,
B1K, B13K

Stellite

SS 304
13%CR 13%CR
Steel Steel

A1A, A2A,
A3A, A5A,
A7A, A10A
B1A, B2A,
B5A, B7A,
B10A, J3A

Stellite

13%CR
Steel
Stellite

PIPING
CLASS

13%CR
Steel

540C

F1K

200C

A20A, B20A

WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A350
GRLF2
A352
GrLCB

WCB
A105
A216
GR
WCB
A350
GRLF2
A352
GrLCB
A350 A350
GRLF3 GRLF3
A352 A352
GrLC3 GrLC3
A182
GR
F304
A351
GRCF8
A182
GRF11
A217
GrWC6

SS
304

SS
304

SS
304

Stellite

Stellite

SS
304
Stellite

A9A, A19A,
B9A, B19A

-45C

A4A, A40A,
B4A, B40A

-80C

A1H, A10H,
B1H, B10H

-196C

A2K, A20K,
B2K, B20K

550C

A1D, A2D,
B1D, D2D

550C

F1D, F2D

Stellite

SS
304

A182
Stellite
GR
SS
F304
304
A351
GRCF8
A182 13%CR Stellite
GRF11 Steel
A217
GrWC6
A182 A182 13%CR Stellite
GRF11 GRF11 Steel
A217 A217
GrWCB GrWCB

200C

Stellite

Stellite

Stellite

A182 A182
Stellite
Stellite
GRF22 GRF22 13%CR
560C
G2E
A217 A217 Steel
GrWC9 GrWC9
A182 A182
GR
GR
SS
SS
F316H F316H SS
685C
A13K, B13K
A351 A351 316H 316H
316H
Gr
Gr
CF8M CF8M
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End
Thickness & others, if any, should be done as per piping class of piping

material specifications
2) Globe Valve body and Valve Seat testing should be done as per "API
598" OR, IBR at the following test pressure.
3) Valve should be provided with Gear as per table in book. Valve for IBR
SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body should not exceed 0.25% and
should be certified by IBR authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should
be painted Red for identification
4) All Valves should be "0.S & Y" in construction.
5) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as
per BS 6364 and 100% body shall be radiographic by X-Ray.

Rating

Hydro
Hydro
test Pneumatic
Pressure
Pressure
Test
Pressure
Rating
(psig)

800# *
150#
300#

Body
(psig)
3000
425
1100

Seat
(psig)
2175 80
310 80
805 80

400#

1450 1060 80

600#

2175 1590 80

Body
(psig)
900# 3250
1500# 5400
2500# 9000
3000# 4500
**

test
Pneumatic
Test
Pressure
(psig)

Seat
(psig)
2375
3950
6570
4050

80

BALL VALVE SPECIFICATION - I


MATERIAL

MAX
TEMP
0C

S.
NO
Body
Stem Gland
(Forge/ Anti- Bolted/
Cast) Blowout Welded
A105
A216GR
WCB

13%CR 13%CR
Steel
Steel

BALL
& Full
Bore)
13%CR
SS304

PIPING
CLASS

(Solid
BODY SEAT

Steel

Reinforced
PTFE
with
/
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced

A1A, A5A,
A3A, A7A,

A350
SS
GR F2
304
A352
GR LCB
A105
SS
A216GR
304
WCB
A182
GR
F304
A351
GR CF8
A182
GR
F304
A351
GR CF8

SS304/ SS316

SS
304

SS304/ SS316

SS
304

SS
304

SS304/ SS316

SS
304

SS
304

SS304/ SS316

A350
GR LF3 SS
A352 304
GR LC3
A105
A216GR
WGB

SS
304

SS
304

13%CR 13%CR
Steel
Steel

13%CR 13%CR
Steel
Steel

SS304/ SS316

13%CR Steel

PTFE
with
-45C
secondary
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
-196C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
-80C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE

A4, A40A,
B4A, B40A

A9A, A19A,
B9A, B19A

A12A,
A13A

A2K, A20K,
B2K, B20K

A1H, A10H,
B1H, B10H

A1A, A3A,
A7A, B1A,
B3A, B7A

Reinforced
A20A,
A105
PTFE
with
SS304/ SS316
B20A
A216GR
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
B4A
WGB
PTFE
A182
Reinforced
GR
PTFE
with
SS
SS
SS304/ SS316
F304
secondary
-196C D2K (Cryo)
304
304
A351
metal to metal/
GR CF8
PTFE
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End Thickness & others, if any,

should be done as per piping class of piping material specifications


2) Ball valve should be fire safe tested as per API 607/BS 6755 (Part-II) or API RP 6F.
3) Body Seat of Trunion mounted Ball Valves should be spring loaded and the location of spring
should not be in flow direction.
4) Ball Valve should be Bi-directional.
5) Ball Valve should be provided with "Stop" at 90 degree Location to insure positive
open/close alignment with ports and position indicator.
6) Ball Valves should be provided with pressure relieving device for body and bonnet cavity.
7) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as per BS 6364.

Rating

Hydrotest
Pressure
Seat
Body (psi)

800# *
150#
300#

Hydrotest
Pressure

Pneumatic Test
Rating
Pressure

3000 2175 80
425 310 80
1100 805 80

400#
600#
--

Body

Seat

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure

1450
2175
--

1060
1590
--

80
80
--

BALL VALVE SPECIFICATION - II


MATERIAL

MAX PIPING
TEMP CLASS
0C

S.
NO
Body
(Forge/
Cast)

A105 A216GR
WCB

Stem Anti- Gland


Blowout
Bolted/
Welded
13%CR
Steel

A350 GR F2 SS

13%CR
Steel

SS

BALL
& Full
Bore)
13%CR
SS304

(Solid BODY SEAT

Steel

Reinforced
PTFE
with
/
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with

A1A,
A5A,
A3A,
A7A,
A4,
A40A,

2 A352 GR LCB 304

304

SS304/ SS316

A105 A216GR SS
304
WCB

SS
304

SS304/ SS316

A182
GR
SS
A351
4 F304
304
GR CF8

SS
304

SS304/ SS316

A182
GR
SS
A351
5 F304
304
GR CF8

SS
304

A350 GR LF3 SS
A352 GR LC3 304

SS
304

13%CR
A105 A216GR Steel
WGB

13%CR
Steel

13%CR
Steel

13%CR
Steel

SS304/ SS316

SS304/ SS316

13%CR Steel

-45C
secondary
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
-196C
metal to metal/
PTFE
Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
-80C
metal to metal/
PTFE

B4A,
B40A

Reinforced
PTFE
with
secondary
200C
metal to metal/
PTFE

A1A,
A3A,
A7A,
B1A,
B3A,
B7A

A9A,
A19A,
B9A,
B19A

A12A,
A13A

A2K,
A20K,
B2K,
B20K
A1H,
A10H,
B1H,
B10H

Reinforced
A20A,
PTFE
with
A105 A216GR
SS304/ SS316
secondary
200C B20A
8
WGB
metal to metal/
B4A
PTFE
Reinforced
A182
GR
PTFE
with
SS
SS
D2K
SS304/ SS316
A351
secondary
-196C
9 F304
304
304
(Cryo)
GR CF8
metal to metal/
PTFE
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End Thickness & others, if any,

should be done as per piping class of piping material specifications


2) Ball valve should be fire safe tested as per API 607/BS 6755 (Part-II) or API RP 6F.
3) Body Seat of Trunion mounted Ball Valves should be spring loaded and the location of spring
should not be in flow direction.
4) Ball Valve should be Bi-directional.
5) Ball Valve should be provided with "Stop" at 90 degree Location to insure positive open/close
alignment with ports and position indicator.
6) Ball Valves should be provided with pressure relieving device for body and bonnet cavity.
7) All Valves in cold service should be provided with extended Bonnet as per BS 6364.
Hydrotest
Rating Pressure

800# *
150#
300#

Pneumatic Test
Rating
Pressure

Body

Seat (psi)

3000
425
1100

2175
310
805

Hydrotest
Pressure
Body

80
80
80

400#
600#
--

1450
2175
--

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure
Seat
1060 80
1590 80
---

CHECK VALVE SPECIFICATION - I


MATERIAL

Body
(Forge/
Cast)

Cover
Piston/Ball/ Disc
Welded/ Bolted
13%CR Steel

A105
A216GR
WCB

A105 A216
GR
WCB

MAX
TEMP
0C
Body
Seat
Ring
Integral/
Renewable
13%CR Steel

400C

PIPING
CLASS

A1A, A2A,
A3A, A5A,
A7A,
A10A B1A,
B2A,

B5A, B7A,
B10A, J3A
A105
A216GR
WCB

A105 A216
GRWCB

A105 A216
GR
WCB
A105 A216
A105
A216GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A182F304L A182F304L
A351GR
A351
CF8
GRCF8
A182F304 A182
A351GR
F304 A351
CF8
GRCF8
A182F304 A182
A351GR
F304 A351
CF8
GRCF8
A105 A216
A105
A216GR
GR
WCB
WCB
A105
A216GR
WCB

A105
A216GR
WCB

A105 A216
GR
WCB

A350GR
A350
LF2 A352Gr GRLF2 A352
LCB
GrLCB

A350
A350GR
LF3 A352Gr GRLF3 A352
LC3
GrLC3
A182F304
A351GR
CF8

A182
F304 A351
GRCF8

SS304/ SS
304L

SS304/ SS304L 400C

A12A,
A13A

Stellite
13%CR Steel

400C

D1A, D2A

400C

F1A, F2A

Stellite
13%CR Steel
SS
304L

A182
540C
F304L SS304L

A10K

SS304

A182
F304 SS304

540C

A1K, A13K,
B1K, B13K

540C

F1K

200C

A20A, B20A

200C

A9A, A19A,
B9A, B19A

-45C

A4A, A40A,
B4A, B40A,
D4A, D40A

-80C

A1H, A10H,
B1H,
B10H
D1H, D10H

-196C

A2K, A20K,
B2K, B20K,
D2K, D20K

Stellite
SS304
13%CR Steel

SS304

13%CR Steel

SS304
Stellite

SS304

Stellite
SS304
Stellite
SS304
13%CR Steel

Stellite

A182F11
A217Gr
WC6

A182
F11 A217
GrWC6

A182F11
A217Gr
WC6

A182
F11 A217
GrWC6

A182F22
A217Gr
WC9

A182
F22 A217
GrWC9

550C

13%CR Steel

A1D, A2D,
B1D, D2D
F1D, F2D

Stellite
550C

F1D, F2D

560C

G2E

Stellite
13%CR Steel

A182
A182F316H
F316H A351 SS
SS
A13K, B13K
16 A351Gr
685C
Gr
316H
316H
CF8M
CF8M
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension Standards; End Thickness & others, if
any, should be done as per piping class of piping material specifications.
2) Valve body and Valve seat testing should be done as per BS675 OR, IBR at the following
test pressure. 3) All Valve above 6" NB and above should have independent spring for each
plate.
3) Valve for IBR SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body should not exceed 0.25% and
should be certified by IBR authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should be painted Red for
identification
4) Vendor should specify that Bearing/Bushing material is suitable for the service.
5) All castings should be solution heat treated for piping class A1K, A3Y, A13A, A12A,
A2K, A10K, B1K, and B2K & B20K.
6) All Valves of size 0.5" TO 1.5"should have Piston Type Check Valve or Spring Loaded
Ball Type Lift check valve as per BS 5352.
7) All Valves of size 2" TO 24"should have Disc Type Swing Check Valve as per BS1868
and Spring Loaded Dual Plate Type Swing check valve as per API 594

Rating

800#
*
150#
300#
400#
600#

Hydrotest
Pressure
Body Seat
(psig) (psig)

Pneumatic
Pressure
(psig)

Rating

Hydrotest
Pressure
Body
(psig)

Test

Seat
(psig)

3000 2175

80 psig

900#

3250

2375

425
1100
1450
2175

80 psig
80 psig
80 psi
80 psi

1500#
2500#
3000# **

5400
9000
4500

3950
6570
4050

310
805
1060
1590

CHECK VALVE SPECIFICATION - II


MATERIAL

Body
(Forge/
Cast)

A105
A216GR
WCB

A105
A216GR
WCB
A105

MAX PIPING
Body Seat TEMP CLASS
Cover
0C
Piston/Ball/ Ring
Welded/
Disc
Integral/
Bolted
Renewable
13%CR
13%CR
A1A,
Steel
Steel
A2A,
A3A,
A5A,
A7A,
A105 A216
A10A
GR
400C
B1A,
WCB
B2A,
B5A,
B7A,
B10A,
J3A
A105 A216 SS304/ SS SS304/
SS304L
GRWCB 304L
A105 A216

13%CR

Stellite

400C

A12A,
A13A
D1A,

Pneumatic
Test
Pressure
(psig)
80 psi

A216GR
WCB
A105
A216GR
WCB
A182F304L
A351GR
CF8

Steel
GR
WCB
A105 A216
13%CR
GR
Steel
WCB
A182F304L
SS
A351
304L
GRCF8

A182F304
A351GR
CF8

400C D2A
Stellite
400C

F1A,
F2A

A182
F304L
SS304L

540C A10K

A182
F304 A351 SS304
GRCF8

A182
F304
SS304

A1K,
A13K,
540C
B1K,
B13K

A182F304
A351GR
CF8
A105
A216GR
WCB

A182
F304 A351 SS304
GRCF8
A105 A216 13%CR
Steel
GR
WCB

Stellite

A105
A216GR
WCB

A105 A216
SS304
GR
WCB

540C F1K
13%CR
Steel

SS304
Stellite

A350
A350GR
GRLF2
LF2 A352Gr
A352
LCB
GrLCB

SS304

Stellite
A350
A350GR
LF3 A352Gr GRLF3
A352
LC3
GrLC3

SS304

Stellite
A182F304
A351GR
CF8

A182
F304 A351 SS304
GRCF8

200C

A20A,
B20A

A9A,
A19A,
200C
B9A,
B19A
A4A,
A40A,
B4A,
-45C
B40A,
D4A,
D40A
A1H,
A10H,
B1H,
-80C
B10H
D1H,
D10H
A2K,
A20K,
B2K,
-196C B20K,
D2K,
D20K

Stellite

A182F11
A217Gr
WC6

A182
F11 A217
GrWC6

13%CR
Steel

A182F11
A217Gr
WC6

13%CR
A182
Steel
F11 A217
GrWC6

Stellite

A182F22
A217Gr
WC9

A182
13%CR
F22 A217
Steel
GrWC9

Stellite

A1D,
A2D,
B1D,
550C
D2D
F1D,
F2D
550C

F1D,
F2D

560C G2E

A182
A182F316H F316H
SS
SS
A13K,
A351
685C
16 A351Gr
B13K
316H
316H
CF8M
Gr
CF8M
1) Rating; Ends; Manufacturing Standards; Dimension
Standards; End Thickness & others, if any, should be done as
per piping class of piping material specifications.
2) Valve body and Valve seat testing should be done as per
BS675 OR, IBR at the following test pressure. 3) All Valve
above 6" NB and above should have independent spring for
each plate.
3) Valve for IBR SERVICE, the carbon content in valve body
should not exceed 0.25% and should be certified by IBR
authority in "Form IIIC" certificate and should be painted Red
for identification
4) Vendor should specify that Bearing/Bushing material is
suitable for the service.
5) All castings should be solution heat treated for piping class
A1K, A3Y, A13A, A12A, A2K, A10K, B1K, and B2K &
B20K.
6) All Valves of size 0.5" TO 1.5"should have Piston Type
Check Valve or Spring Loaded Ball Type Lift check valve as
per BS 5352.
7) All Valves of size 2" TO 24"should have Disc Type Swing
Check Valve as per BS1868 and Spring Loaded Dual Plate
Type Swing check valve as per API 594.

Hydro Test Pneumatic


Hydro Test Pneumatic
Test
Test
Pressure
Pressure
Rating
Rating
Pressure
Body Seat Pressure
Body Seat (psig)
(psig)
(psig) (psig)
(psig) (psig)
800#
3000 2175 80 psig 900# 3250 2375 80 psi
*
150# 425 310 80 psig 1500# 5400 3950
300# 1100 805 80 psig 2500# 9000 6570
3000#
400# 1450 1060 80 psi
4500 4050
**
600# 2175 1590 80 psi
Note: Source ANSI B16.5, API 602 and API Spec. 6A (metal valve part only). Following denoting is
applicable for all the Valves Specification Tables:
* Indicates API Pressure Class 800 in psi and applies to Valve only.
** Indicates API Pressure Class 3000 in psi and applies to Flange only.
# Indicates ANSI Pressure Class in lb.
@ Indicates API Pressure Class 3000 in psi and applies to Flange 16 and larger only.
$ Indicates API Pressure Class 6000 in psi and applies to Flange 14 and smaller only.
LI MI TATI ON ON VALVE SELECTI ON:
Plug Valves and Ball Valves are not permitted for use above 2000C due to their soft seat.
Accordingly, Plug and Ball Valves restricted for use in IBR lines and all other lines having
temperature more than 2000C.
Valves should be designed, manufactured, tested, inspected and marked with a tag or punching
or casting or by all three methods as per design code and standards.
Valves to be used for CRYO service should be supplied with Bonnet extension should be
tested to the cryogenic test as per BS 6364 and should be witnessed by third party.
Heavy valves should be provided with lifting lugs, or Eye bolts for lifting and installation
purpose.
All flanged valves should have cast flange (integral flange). Welded- On flanges are not
allowed.
All flanges should be Serrated Finished to 125 AARH (125 to 200 AARH) or 250 AARH (250
to 500 AARH) or 63 AARH (32 to 63 AARH).
All check Valves 3 and above, should have a drain boss at the bottom. It should be provided
with a tapped drain hole with a plug of size 0.5 to 0.75 as per ANSI B16.34.
All valves, size 26 and above in Class 150#; 16 and above in Class 300#; 6 and above in
Class 600#; 4 and above in Class 900# & 1500#; and 3 and above in Class 2500# should be
provided with a globe valve by-pass line in the centre of flow as per specifications The sizes of
the by-pass line should be as mentioned below:

0.5 Globe valve by-pass on main line size up to 4.


0.75 Globe valve by-pass on main line size up to 8
1 Globe valve by-pass on main line size above 8.
By-pass valve direction should be marked for identification of the flow. All by-pass
attachments to the main valve should be fillet welded and 100% Dye-penetration or magnetic
particle tested as per MSS SP-45 and ANSI B16.34.
Depositing the material 1.6 mm minimum thick should do Stelliting or hardening of the seat.
All austenitic stainless steel valves should be inter granular corrosion tested (IGC) to ASTM
A262, practice B and corrosion rate should not be more than 48 mils/ years.
All ball valves should be tested for fire safe test as per API-607/API-6 FA or BS-6755, part-II,
latest edition and the test should be witnessed by third party. All valves should be provided with
Antistatic devices.
All butt-welded or socket-welded ball valves should have 100 mm long pipe nipple welded to
each end of the valve. Nipples should be welded prior to the assembly of the Teflon seats/seals so
that it should not get burnt during welding.
Face to face dimension of the ball valves, 12 and above in Class 150# are different than
others, and are as per API-6D, long pattern.
All valves should be provided with hand wheel, or hand-lever or wrench except heavy valves.
All heavy valves should be provided with totally enclosed gearbox, grease casing, grease nipple
and position indicators for Open/Close position on top of the stem with a limit stop. The detail of
the gearbox is given below:
Hand wheel diameter of the valve should not be more than 750 mm or the lever length more
than 500 mm. The effort to operate the valve should not increase more than 35 kg at hand wheel
periphery for any valve type or size. Whenever the effort exceeds 35 kg at hand wheel periphery,
the valve should be provided with a gear operation as per above details.
All valves should have the material test certificates; radiography and other NDT test
certificates. The following test should be carried for all valves:
1% strip check to verify the compliance with specification.
10% for forged valves and 100% for cast valves, the hydrostatic test of body should be carried
out.
10% of seats for all valves should be hydrostatic tested.
The body of the cast valves under critical, lethal and toxic service conditions should be radio
graphed minimum as per following requirements as per ANSI B16.34; otherwise it should be
specified in the design documents.
For non-corrosive services: For non-corrosive services, carbon steel meeting the requirements
of API 600, API 6A, API 6D OR ANSI B16.5-1968 is satisfactory for valve bodies because of its
strength, ductility and resistance to damage by fire.
Cast or ductile iron valve bodies should not be used for hydrocarbon or glycol services
because of their low impact properties. Non ferrous valves are not suitable for process
hydrocarbon service because they may fail in a fire; they may be suitable for instrument and control
system service. Cast iron, ductile iron, and bronze body valves may be used for water services.
One-half inch and smaller needle valves for process hydrocarbon service should be austenitic
stainless steel, such as AISI 304 or AISI 316, for corrosion resistance and ease of operation.
Resilient sealing materials used in valves include Buna N, Neoprene, Delrina, Vinton, Teflon,
Nylon and Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE). Resilient sealing materials should be carefully selected to be

compatible with the process fluids selected to be compatible with the process fluids and
temperatures.
For low-pressure (200 psig or lower) salt-water service, butterfly valves with ductile iron
body, aluminium-bronze disc, and AISI 316 stainless steel steam with Buna N seals are
satisfactory. Gate valves in this service should be iron body bronze trim (IBBM). For highpressure (above 200 psig) salt-water applications, steel gate valves with aluminium-bronze trim
give good service.
Corrosive Service: Generally, carbon steel valve bodies with corrosion resistant internal trim are
used for corrosive service. AISI 410 type stainless steel is generally used for internal trim.
Austenitic stainless steels, such as AISI 316, may also be used for internal trim.
Chloride Stress Cracking Service: Consideration should be given to chloride stress cracking when
selecting trim materials.
Sulphide Stress Cracking Service: Valve bodies and internal trim should be in accordance with
NACE, MR 01-75.
Table: Radiographic Inspection Requirements of Valves
Material
All
All
All

Rating
150#

Radiography
100% on valves
26
NIL on valves
24
300#
100% on valves
18
NIL on valves
16
400# and above 100% on all sizes valves

Table: Detail of gearbox to be provided on Valves


Valve
Piping Class
Type
Gate or
150#, 300#, 400#
Diaphragm 600#
900#
1500#, 2500#
Globe
900#
100#, 2500#
Ball
or 150#, 300#
Plug
400#, 600#
900#, 1500#
Butterfly
150#, 300#

Size of Valve Type


of
Gear
>= 14
Bevel Gear
>= 12
>= 6
>= 3
>= 6
Bevel Gear
>= 3
>= 6
Helical
>= 4
Gear
>= 3
>= 6
Helical
gear

4.4.2
Criteria

Stress Strain Design

The previous design methods have concentrated on the evaluation of the pressure and temperature
rating as design bases. In this method, once the system operating conditions have been established, the
minimum wall thickness is determined based on the pressure integrity requirements. The design
process for consideration of pressure integrity uses allowable stresses; thickness allowances based
on system requirements and manufacturing wall thickness tolerances to determine minimum wall
thickness. Allowable stress values for metallic pipe materials are generally contained in applicable
design codes. The codes must be utilized to determine the allowable stress based on the requirements
of the application and the material to be specified. For piping materials that are not specifically listed
in an applicable code, the allowable stress determination is based on applicable code references and
good engineering design. For example, ASME B31.3 Sec. 302.3.2 provides design references that
address this type of allowable stress determination. These requirements address the use of cast iron,
malleable iron, and other materials not specifically listed by the ASME B31.3.
Stress-Strain Diagram: The Stress-Strain Diagram is achieved by plotting the available
corresponding values of the stress and strain against each other, strain on the X-axis and stress on the
Y-axis. The graph of stress ( ) along the y-axis and the strain ( ) along the x-axis is called the stressstrain diagram. The stress-strain diagram differs in form for various materials. The diagram shown
below is for a medium-carbon structural steel. An arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken
as the dividing line between ductile or brittle materials. The following parameters are explained in
detail before designing the piping system:

Fig: Stress-strain diagram of a medium-carbon structural steel


Proportional Limit (Hooke's Law): The linear relation between elongation and the axial force is
called Hooke's Law, which states that, within the proportional limit, the stress is directly proportional
to strain or;
The constant of proportionality is called the Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus and is
equal to the slope of the stress-strain diagram from O to P.
Then,

Most metals have deformations that are proportional with the imposed loads over a range of loads.
Stress is proportional to load and strain is proportional to deformation and expressed by the Hooke's
law like, E = stress / strain = (Fn / A) / (dl / lo); Where, E = Young's modulus (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi).
Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus are commonly used for metals and metal alloys and
expressed in terms 106 lbf/in2, N/m2 or Pa. Tensile modulus are often used for plastics and expressed
in terms 105 lbf/in2 or GPa.
Stress: Stress is the ratio of applied force F and cross section A, defined as "force per area".
Strain: Strain is defined as "deformation of a solid due to stress" and can be expressed as
= dl / lo = / E;
Where, dl = change of length (m, in); lo = initial length (m, in); = unit less measure of engineering
strain; E =Youngs Modulus (Modulus of Elasticity) (Pa, psi).
The Ratings are the maximum allowable non-shock working gauge pressure at the temperature shown
in the Rating Tables at certain interval of temperature. Intermediate TemperaturePressure Rating can
be obtained by a linear graph drawn between the two pressures and corresponding two temperatures.
Working Stress, Allowable Stress, and Factor of Safety: Working stress is defined as the actual
stress of a material under a given loading. The maximum safe stress that a material can carry is
termed as the allowable stress. The allowable stress should be limited to values not exceeding the
proportional limit. However, since proportional limit is difficult to determine accurately, the
allowable tress is taken as either the yield point or ultimate strength divided by a factor of safety. The
ratio of this strength (ultimate or yield strength) to allowable strength is called the factor of safety.
Direct Stress or Normal Stress: Stress normal to the plane is usually denoted "normal stress" and
can be expressed as,
= Fn / A ------------ ---------------------------------------------------------

(1)

Where, = normal stress ((Pa) N/m2, psi); Fn = normal component force (N, lbf; A = area (m2, in2)
Shear Stress: Stress parallel to the plane is usually denoted "shear stress" and can be expressed as
= Fp / A ----------------------------------------------------------------------

(2)

Where, = shear stress ((Pa) N/m2, psi); Fp = parallel component force (N, lbf); A = area (m2, in2)
Table: Allowable Stresses for ASTM A106 Gr B, Seamless Pipe
(ANSI B31.3 1973)
Metal Temperature (0 F)
- 20 to 400
401 to 500
501 to 600
601 to 650

S (psi)
20,000
18,900
17,300
17,000

Basic allowable stress(s) in tension, compression and shearing for metals are as mentioned below:
a)
Steels and Stainless Steel (Pipe &Plate):
For Austenitic stainless steel and nicked steels flange joints, the stress values are either 75% of
the stress value in the table A-1 of ANSI B31.3.or two-thirds of the yield strength.
The lower of one third of SMTS at room temperature and one third of tensile strength at
temperature.
The lower of two-third of SMYS at room temperature and two third of yield strength at
temperature.
For Austenitic stainless steels and Nickel alloy steels having similar stress strain behaviour,
the lower of two third of SMYS at room temperature and 90% of yield strength at temperature.
100% of average stress for a creep rate of 0.01% per 1000 hours.
67% of the average stress of rupture at the end of 100,000 hours.
80% of the minimum stress of rupture at the end of 100,000 hours..
Structural grade material: The basic Allowable Stress (S) in tension for structural grade materials
shall be taken as 0.92 times the basic allowable stress (S) of the metals other than bolting materials,
cast iron and malleable iron as calculated above.
Bolting materials: The basic Allowable Stress (S) value for bolting materials at temperature are
determined as mentioned below and shall not exceed of the lowest of followings:
The lower of one fourth of SMTS at room temperature and one fourth of tensile strength at
temperature.
Lower of two third of SMYS at room temperature and two third of yield strength at
temperature.
The lower of one fifth of SMTS and one-fourth of SMYS at temperature below creep range.
Two-third of yield strength at temperature.
100% of the average stress for a creep rate of .01% per 1000 hour.
67% of the average stress for rupture at the end of 100,000 hour
80% of minimum stress for ruptures at the end of 100,000 hours.
Cast iron: Basic allowable stress(s) value at temperature for cast iron shall be equal to the lowest of
the following
One-tenth of SMTS at room temperature.
One tenth of tensile strength at temperature
Malleable iron: Basic allowable stress value(s) for malleable iron at temperature shall be equal to
the lowest of the followings:
One fifth of the SMTS at room temperature and one fifth of tensile strength at temperature

4.5
2

Piping Design Criteria-Part-

4.5.1 Pressure Integrity-Piping Design:


CASTING Q UALITY F ACTOR (E C):
The casting quality factor (Ec) to be used for designing piping components are defined in ANSI B31.3
and are mentioned here for ready reference. However for designers, it is advised to refer codes
requirements:

TABLE : B ASIC CASTING Q UALITY F ACTORS (E C)


Inspection Method
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

Factor (Ec)
Visual surface examination of castings
0.85
Magnetic particle test or liquid penetration
0.85
test of surfaces of castings
Visual + MPT + DPT
0.90
Ultrasonic testing of casting confirming no
0.95
Defect beyond 5 % of wall thickness
Visual and ultrasonic testing conforming
1.00
no defect at all.
6. 6. Visual, MPT, DPT & Radiographic Test
1.00

W ELDED JOINT Q UALITY F ACTOR (E J ):


Different welding processes with different welding joint grooves do the welding of the piping.
Accordingly the quality and strength of the weld vary from each other. So welding quality factor (EJ)
is mentioned here for reference only. For detail designing purpose, the code shall be referred.
Longitudinal Weld Joint Quality Factor (Ej)
Type of Joint
Type of
seam
factor (Ej)
1. Furnace Butt Weld
Straight
0.60

2. Electric Resistance Weld


0.85
3. Single Butt Weld:
(Visual)
0.80
(Spot Radiography)
Spiral
(100% Radiography)
1.00
4. Double Butt Weld:
(Visual)
Spiral
(Spot Radiography)
Spiral
(100% Radiography)
1.00

Straight or Spiral

Straight or Spiral
Straight or
0.90
Straight or Spiral

Straight or
0.80
Straight or
0.90
Straight or Spiral

P IPING CONNECTION JOINTS :


Commonly accepted methods for making pipe joint connections include butt-welded, socket welded,
threaded and coupled. In normal condition piping, 2 inch in diameter and larger should be buttwelded. All piping 1 inches or less in diameter should be socket welded. Threads should be
tapered, concentric with the pipe, clean cut with no burrs, and conform to API STD 5B or ANSI B2.1.
The inside of the pipe on all field cuts should be reamed. Thread compounds should conform to API
Bulletin 5A2

4.5.2 Pipe Wall Thickness Design


(i) Straight pipe under external pressure: After the allowable stress has been established for the
application, the minimum pipe wall thickness required for pressure integrity is determined. For
straight metallic pipe, this determination can be made using the requirements of ASME B31.3 Sec.
304 or other applicable codes. The determination of the minimum pipe wall thickness using the
ASME B31.3 procedure is described below (see code for additional information). The procedure
and following example described for the determination of minimum wall thickness using codes other
than ASME B31.3 are similar and typically follow the same overall approach. Wall thickness and
stiffening of the pipe under external pressure is designed in accordance with the boiler & pressure
vessel code, section VIII, division I, UG-28 to UG-30.
The required thickness of straight pipe is determined in accordance with the following equation:
Tm
A

t + Where: Tm = total minimum wall thickness


required for pressure integrity, mm (in); t =
pressure designed thickness, mm (in); A =
Allowance, i.e. the sum of mechanical
allowances plus corrosion allowance and
erosion allowance, mm (in).

After determining the thickness of piping as per pressure and stress criteria, some allowances for
thickness shall be added for corrosion, erosion and threads depth or groove depth. Also the wall
thickness shall be increased to prevent overstressed damaged collapse or buckling due to super
imposed loads from supports, Ice formation, backfill or other miscellaneous causes.
Allowances include thickness due to joining methods, corrosion/erosion, and unusual external loads.
Some methods of joining pipe sections result in the reduction of wall thickness. Joining methods that
will require this allowance include threading, grooving, and swaging. Anticipated thinning of the
material due to effects of corrosion or mechanical wear over the design service life of the pipe may
occur for some applications. Finally, site-specific conditions may require additional strength to
account for external operating loads, i.e. thickness allowance for mechanical strength due to external
loads. The stress associated with these loads should be considered in conjunction with the stress
associated with the pressure integrity of the pipe. The greatest wall thickness requirement, based on
either pressure integrity or external loading, will govern the final wall thickness specified. Paragraph
3-4 details stress analyses. Using information on liquid characteristics, the amount of corrosion and
erosion allowance necessary for various materials of construction can be determined to ensure
reasonable service life.
(ii) Straight Pipe Wall under internal pressure: Most of the piping components, now days, are
designed based on Pressure-Temperature ratings. However, knowledge of designing the piping in
case of any special material, in special conditions, the piping components thickness can be designed
as mentioned above. These formulas are given here for designing the piping components thickness
and for general information and knowledge of fresh Engineers. The overall formula used by ASME
B31.3 for pressure design minimum thickness determination (t) is:

P Do
t
=
2 (SEPy)

Where: P = design pressure, MPa


(psi); Do = outside diameter of the
pipe, mm (in); S = allowable stress,
MPa (psi), see Table A-1 from ASME
B31.3,

and, E = weld joint efficiency or quality factor, y = dimensionless constant which varies with
temperature, determined as follows: For t < Do /6, see table 304.1.1 from ASME B31.3 for values of
y; For t > Do /6 or P/SE > 0.385, then a special consideration of failure theory, fatigue and thermal
stress may be required. ASME B31.3.
The pipe wall thickness required for a particular piping service is primarily a function of internal
operating pressure and temperature. The standards under which ASTM A106 and API 5L seamless
line pipe are manufactured permit a variation in wall thickness of 12- % below nominal wall
thickness. It is usually desirable to include a minimum corrosion/mechanical strength allowance of
0.050 inches (1.27 mm) for carbon steel piping. A calculated corrosion allowance should be used
after prediction of corrosion rate.
For t <D/6; the pipe thickness with internal pressure shall not be less than that calculated by
following formula:
Where;
t = pressure design
thickness, inches; = Minimum wall
P1 D0
t
t = thickness minus corrosion/ mechanical
strength allowance or thread allowance

(see Table given in ANSI B31.3). =


2(SE + P1 Y)
(0.875 x nominal wall thickness)
minus 0.050 (for normal usage with
A106 and API 5L pipe); P1= internal
design pressure, psig. D0= pipe outside
diameter, inches. E = longitudinal weld
joint factor (see ANSI B 31.3) = 1.00 for
seamless and = 0.85 for ERW. Y =
temperature factor (0.4 for ferrous
materials at 900 F Or below).
(d + 2c)
Y
=
(D + d + 2C)

Where, d = Inside diameter of pipe


(max.); c = as defined above for
equation 1. S = allowable stress in
psi in accordance with ANSI B31.3,
Table 2.6.

Other Following Equations also can be used for calculation of Pipe Wall Thickness Required for
a Particular Piping:
Where, P =Internal Design Pressure in gauge. For t > D/6 or P/SE > 0.385, the calculation of

thickness need special consideration, i.e. theory of failure, effect of fatigue and thermal stress.
PD
t
=

P (d + 2c)
D
P)

t=

2
SE

(SE - t =

[1-

2
P)

(SE +

2[SE
- P (1 - y)]

Limitations: Small diameter, thin wall pipe is subject to failure from vibration or corrosion. In
hydrocarbon service, the following should be met minimum, such as, pipe nipples inch diameter or
smaller should be schedule 160 minimum; All pipe 3-inch diameter or smaller should be schedule 80
minimum. Completely threaded nipples should not be used.
Table: Thread Allowances for Pipe Wall Thickness Calculation (Inch)
Nominal pipe size
- 3/8
-
1 -2
2 - 20

Thread Allowance
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.11

4.6
3

Piping Design Criteria-Part-

4.6.1

Sizing of Liquid Line-Single


Phase

The sizing for any piping system consists of two basic components, such as, (i) the flow velocity
(fluid flow design) and (ii) pressure drop (pressure integrity design). Now, computer programs are
used to facilitate piping sizing design. Fluid flow design determines the minimum acceptable diameter
of the piping necessary to transfer the fluid efficiently. Pressure integrity design determines the
minimum pipe wall thickness necessary to safely handle the expected internal and external pressure
and loads.

Special Conditions for designing the Pipe Sizing:


(i) Fluid Flow Velocity Condition: The maximum velocity of bubble point liquids shall be 1.2 m/s
and for sub-cooled liquids shall be 2.4 m/s. For corrosive liquids these values may be reduced by
fifty percent. A suction liquid line to a centrifugal pump velocities are usually between 0.3 to 2.13
m/s and the piping should be short and simple. For normal liquid service applications, the acceptable
maximum velocity in pipes is 2.1 0.9 m/s (7 3 ft/s) with a maximum velocity limited to 2.1 m/s (7
ft/s) at piping discharge points. Higher velocities and unit losses can be allowed within this range
when sub cooled liquid is flowing than when the liquid is saturated. Note that the longer payout times
favour larger pipe diameters. Pipe of smaller size than pump discharge nozzle is not used.
When determining line sizes, the maximum flow rate expected during the life of the piping should be
considered rather than the initial flow, rate. It is also usually advisable to add a surge factor of 20 to
50 percent to the anticipated normal flow rate, unless surge expectations have been more precisely
determined by pulse pressure measurements in similar systems or by specific fluid hammer
calculation. The flow velocity in oil pipes should be within certain limits as shown in the following
Table:
Table: The flow velocity
Oil Application
Suction lines
for
pumps
Suction lines for pump
at low pressure
Discharge lines for
booster pumps

m/s

ft/s

< 0.5

< 1.6

0.1 0.2

0.3 - 0.65

1.0 2.0

3.3 - 6.5

Discharge lines
burner pumps

for

< 1.0

< 3.3

However, the velocity should not exceed 15 feet/second at maximum flow rates, to minimize flashing
ahead of the control valve. If, practical, flow velocity should not be less than 3 feet/second to keep
the line swept clean of sand and other solids. At this flow velocity, the overall pressure drop in the
piping will usually be small. Most of the pressure drop in liquid lines between two pressure vessels
will occur in the liquid dump valve and/or choke. Flow velocity in liquid lines may be calculated
using the following derived equation:
Where:
V1 = average
liquid flow velocity, feet/second;
Q1 = Liquid flow
rate,
barrels/day; d1 = pipe inside
diameter, inches.

V1

0.012 Q1
d12

(ii) Pressure Drop Condition: Pressure drop, or head loss, is caused by friction between the pipe
wall and the fluid, and by minor losses such as flow obstructions, changes in direction, and changes
in flow area. In general, the pressure drops in pump suction lines shall be held below 4.5 kPa/100 m;
and below 7.9 kPa/100 m in the case of liquid below the boiling point.
Pressure drop (psi per 100 feet of flow length) for single phase liquid lines may be calculated using
the following (Fanning) equation:

P =

0.00115 f Q12 S1 Where: P = pressure drop, psi /


100 feet; F = friction factor,
dimensionless; Q1
=
d15
liquid flow rate, barrels/day; S1 =
liquid specific gravity (water =
1); d1 = pipe inside diameter,
inches.

The friction factor, f, is a function of the Reynolds number and the surface roughness of the pipe. The
modified Moody diagram may be used to determine the friction factor once the Reynolds number may
be determined by the following equation:
Pressure has dimensions of energy per unit volume. Therefore, the pressure drop between two points
must be proportional to (1/2) V2, which has the same dimensions as it resembles the expression for
the kinetic energy per unit volume. We also know that pressure must be proportional to the length of
the pipe between the two points L as the pressure drop per unit length is a constant. To turn the
relationship into a proportionality coefficient of dimensionless quantity we can divide by the
hydraulic diameter of the pipe, D, which is also constant along the pipe? Therefore,
Where, p = the pressure loss due to
friction (Pa or kg/ms2); the density of
the fluid, (kg/m3); the mean
velocity of the flow, V (m/s), a =
coefficient of laminar, or turbulent
flow, f.
In fluid dynamics, the DarcyWeisbach equation relates the head loss or pressure loss due to friction
along a given length of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow. The DarcyWeisbach equation
contains a dimensionless friction factor, known as the Darcy friction factor. The Darcy friction factor
is four times the Fanning friction factor, with which it should not be confused. Head loss is calculated

with:
Where, hf = the head loss due to
friction (m); L = the length of the pipe
(m); D is the hydraulic diameter of
the pipe (internal diameter) (m); V is
the average velocity of the fluid flow,
(m/s); and
g = the local acceleration due to gravity (m/s2); f = a dimensionless coefficient called the Darcy
friction factor. Determination of pressure drop in a line should include the effect of valves and
fittings. Manufacturers data or an equivalent length given may be used. A common method for
calculating pressure drop is the Darcy-Weisbach equation.
The head loss hf expresses the pressure loss p as the height of a column of fluid, and is calculated
as,
Where is the density of the fluid, the
DarcyWeisbach equation can also be
written in terms of pressure loss.
(iii) Hydraulic head: In fluid dynamics, head is a concept that relates the energy in an incompressible
fluid to the height of an equivalent static column of that fluid. Head is expressed in units of height such
as meters or feet. The static head of a pump is the maximum height (pressure) it can deliver. The
capability of the pump can be read from its Q-H curve (flow vs. height). Head is equal to the fluid's
energy per unit weight. Head is useful in specifying centrifugal pumps because their pumping
characteristics tend to be independent of the fluid's density. There are four types of head used to
calculate the total head in and out of a pump: Velocity head is due to the bulk motion of a fluid
(kinetic energy); Elevation head is due to the fluid's weight, the gravitational force acting on a column
of fluid; Pressure head is due to the static pressure, the internal molecular motion of a fluid that exerts
a force on its container; Resistance head (or friction head or Head Loss) is due to the frictional forces
acting against a fluid's motion by the container. A mass free falling from an elevation (in a vacuum)
will reach a speed,

When
Where, g is the acceleration due When arriving at elevation
z = 0 or when we
to gravity.
rearrange it as a head.
The term is called the velocity head, expressed as a length measurement. In a flowing fluid, it
represents the energy of the fluid due to its bulk motion. The total hydraulic head of a fluid is
composed of pressure head and elevation head. The pressure head is the equivalent gauge pressure of
a column of water at the base of the piezometer, and the elevation head is the relative potential energy
in terms of an elevation. The head equation, a simplified form of the Bernoulli Principle for

incompressible fluids, can be expressed as:

Where, h is the hydraulic head (Length in m or ft), also known as the piezometric head; is the
pressure head, in terms of the elevation difference of the water column relative to the piezometer
bottom (Length in m or ft), and z is the elevation at the piezometer bottom (Length in m or ft).

PIPE SIZING D ESIGN


Method-1: The optimum pipe size should be based on velocity limitations causing erosion or
aggravating corrosion, which must be taken into consideration. Sometimes, the line size must satisfy
process requirements such as pump suction line. Although pipe sizing is mainly concerned with
pressure drop, sometimes for preliminary design purposes when pressure loss is not a concern,
process piping is sized on the basis of allowable velocity. When there is an abrupt change in the
direction of flow (elbow or tees), the local pressure on the surface perpendicular to the direction of
flow increases dramatically. This increase is a function of fluid velocity, density and initial pressure.
Since velocity is inversely proportional to the square of diameter, high velocity fluids require special
attention with respect to the size selection. In Reynolds Number method, the relationship between
pipe diameter, fluid density, fluid viscosity and velocity of flow according to Reynolds number is as
follows:
d. V. p Where,
Re
=
Reynolds
number
Re = -------- dimensionless; (mu) = Viscosity at flowing

temperature and pressure, in (cP); (rho) =


Density, in (kg/m3), d = internal diameter of
pipe and V = velocity of fluid.
Method-2: In hydraulic engineering applications, it is often desirable to express the head loss in
terms of volumetric flow rate in the pipe. For this, it is necessary to substitute the following into the
original head loss form of the DarcyWeisbach equation
Where, V = the average velocity of the fluid
flow, equal to the volumetric flow rate per
unit cross-sectional wetted area; Q is the
volumetric flow rate; Aw is the internal
cross-sectional wetted area of pipe.
Method-3: For the general case of an arbitrarily-full pipe, the value of Aw will not be immediately
known, being an implicit function of pipe slope, cross-sectional shape, flow rate and other variables.
If, however, the pipe is assumed to be full flowing and of circular cross-section, as is common in
practical scenarios, then
Where, D is the

diameter of the
pipe.

Pipe Velocity: A fluids flow velocity in pipes can be calculated,


v = 0.4085 q / d2 -------

(1) in Imperial or American units.

Where, v = velocity (ft/s); q = volume flow (US gal. /min); d = pipe inside diameter (inches).
v = 1.274 q / d2 ------(2) in SI units,
Where, v = velocity (m/s), q = volume flow (m3/s), d = pipe inside diameter (m)
Volume of discharge: For streamline flow through a smooth-walled circular pipe, the volume of
liquid being discharged can be expressed with the Poiseulle's formula:
V = p r4 / 8 l -------

(1)

Where, V = discharge volume flow (m3/s); p = pressure difference between ends of pipe (N/m2, Pa); r
= internal radius of pipe (m); l = length of pipe (m) and = viscosity of fluid.
Pump Piping: A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by
accelerating the liquid by a revolving device - an impeller. The most common type is the volute
pump. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. The fluid is
accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that
continuously draws more fluid into the pump. The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy
according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at
the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the
higher will the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the
Affinity Laws.
A catastrophic failure of a centrifugal pump can occur if the liquid within the pump casing is allowed
to vaporize. To prevent flashing due to overheating of the fluid, a flow must be maintained through the
pump to keep the liquid below saturation temperature. If a temperature rise of 15 0F is accepted in the
casing - minimum flow through a centrifugal pump can be calculated as
q = PBHP / 2.95 cp SG ---------- ----------------------------------------------

(1)

Where, q = minimum flow rate (gpm); PBHP = power input (BHP); cp = specific heat capacity (Btu/lb
0
F) and SG = specific gravity of the fluid.
Bernoulli Equation): For a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow, the sum of pressure,
potential and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point. A special form of the Eulers
equation derived along a fluid flow streamline is often called the Bernoulli Equation:

Where, v = flow
speed;
p
=
pressure; =
density;
g
=
gravity; h = height
&
h = h1 h2
Pressure and Head: If the discharge of a centrifugal pump is pointed straight up into the air the fluid
will pumped to a certain height or head is called the shut off head. This maximum head is mainly
determined by the outside diameter of the pump's impeller and the speed of the rotating shaft. The
head will change as the capacity of the pump is altered.

The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is obstructed by creating a resistance in the
flow. The first resistance is created by the pump casing which catches the liquid and slows it down.
When the liquid slows down the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. It is the resistance to
the pump's flow that is read on a pressure gauge attached to the discharge line. A pump does not
create pressure, it only creates flow. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance to flow.
In Newtonian fluids (non-viscous liquids like water or gasoline) the term head is used to measure the
kinetic energy which a pump creates. Head is a measurement of the height of the liquid column the
pump creates from the kinetic energy the pump gives to the liquid.
The main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pumps energy is that the
pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but not the
head.
Different Types of Pump Head: Total Static Head is total head when the pump is not running.
Dynamic Head is total head when the pump is running. Static Suction Head is the head on the suction
side, with pump off, if the head is higher than the pump impeller. Static Suction Lift is the head on the
suction side, with pump off, if the head is lower than the pump impeller. Static Discharge Head is the
head on discharge side of pump with the pump off. Dynamic Suction Head/Lift is the head on suction
side of pump with pump on. Dynamic Discharge Head is head on discharge side of pump with pump
on. The head is measured in either feet or meters and can be converted to common units for pressure
as psi or bar. It is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the
shaft is turning at the same rpm. The only difference between the fluids is the amount of power it takes

to get the shaft to the proper rpm. The higher the specific gravity of the fluid the more power is
required. Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines", since pressure is a function of head and
density. The head is constant, even if the density changes. The head of a pump in metric units can be
expressed in metric units as:
h = (p2 - p1 )/( g) + v2 2 /(2 g)

-----------------------------------------

(1)

Where, h = total head developed (m); p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2); p1 = pressure at inlet (N/ m2);
= density (kg/m3); g = acceleration of gravity (9.81) m/s2; v 2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s).
The Hazen-Williams formula is empirically derived and is limited to use with fluids that have a
kinematics viscosity of approximately 1.12 x 10-6 m2 /s (1.22 x 10-5 ft /s), which corresponds to
water at 15.6 0C (60 0F), and for turbulent flow. Deviations from these conditions can lead to
significant error. The Hazen-Williams coefficient, C, is independent of the Reynolds number. Values
of C for various pipe materials are taken from the reference book.
Full Pipe Flow: The Chezy-Manning Equation is occasionally applied to full pipe flow. The use of
this equation requires turbulent flow and an accurate estimate of the Manning factor, n, which varies
by material and increases with increasing pipe size. The reference book provides values of n for
various pipe materials. The Chezy-Manning equation is:
Where, hL = head loss, m (ft); V = fluid
= velocity, m/s (ft/s); n = Manning factor;
(L a = empirical constant, 1.0 for SI units
(2.22 for IP units); Le = equivalent
length of pipe for minor losses, m (ft);
a (Di/4)4/3
L = length of pipe, m (ft); Di = inside
pipe diameter, m (ft).
V2 n2
hL

Le )

Pump Suction Line: Reciprocating, rotary and centrifugal pump suction piping systems should be
designed so the available Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) at the pump inlet flange exceeds the
pump required NPSH. Additionally, provisions should be made in reciprocating pump suction piping
to minimize pulsation. Satisfactory pump operation requires that essentially no vapour be flashed
from the liquid as it enters the pump casing or cylinder. Eccentric Reducer with topside in straight
line is used to avoid vapour flashing.
In a centrifugal or rotary pump, the liquid pressure at the suction flange must be high enough to
overcome the pressure drop between the flange and the entrance to the impeller vane (or rotor) and
maintain the pressure on the liquid above its vapour pressure. Otherwise, cavitations will occur. In a
reciprocating unit, the pressure at the suction flange must meet the same requirement; but the pump
required NPSH is typically higher than for a centrifugal pump because of pressure drop across the
valves and pressure drop caused by pulsation in the flow. Similarly, the available NPSH supplied to
the pump suction must account for the acceleration in the suction piping caused by the pulsating flow,
as well as the friction, velocity and static head.
The necessary available pressure differential over the pumped fluid vapour pressure may be defined
as Net Positive Suction Head available (NPSHa). It is the total head in feet absolute determined at
the suction nozzle, less the vapour pressure of the liquid in feet absolute. Available NPSH for most

pump applications may be calculated using following equation.


NPSHa = h p - h vpa + h st - h f - h vh - ha
Where: h p = absolute pressure head due to pressure, atmospheric or otherwise, on surface of liquid
going to suction, feet of liquid; h vpa = the absolute vapour pressure of the liquid at suction
temperature, feet of liquid; h st = static head, positive or negative, due to liquid level above or below
datum line, i.e. Centreline of pump in feet of liquid; h f = friction head, or head loss including
entrance and exit losses due to flowing friction in the suction piping, (feet of liquid).

V12
hvh

= velocity head =
2g

(feet of liquid.)

Where, ha = acceleration head, feet of liquid; V1 = velocity of liquid in piping, feet/second; g =


gravitational constant (usually 32.2 feet/second2)
For a centrifugal or rotary pump, the acceleration head, ha, is zero. For reciprocating pumps, the
acceleration head is critical and may be determined by the following equation from the Hydraulics
Institute:
L V1 Rp C
ha =
K
g

Where: ha = acceleration head, feet of


liquid; L = length of suction line, feet
(actual length, not equivalent length); V1
= average liquid velocity in suction line,
feet/second; Rp
= pump speed,
revolutions/minute;

And, C = empirical constant for the type of pump = 0.200 for simplex double acting = 0.200 for
duplex single acting = 0.115 for duplex double acting = 0.066 for triplex single or double acting =
0.040 for quintuples single or double acting = 0.028 for septuplet single or double acting; and K = A
factor representing the reciprocal of the fraction of the theoretical acceleration head which must be
provided to avoid a noticeable disturbance in the suction piping = 1.4 for liquid with almost no
compressibility (deareated water) = 1.5 for amine, glycol, water = 2.0 for most hydrocarbons = 2.5
for relatively compressible liquid (hot oil or ethane); and g = gravitational constant (usually 32.2
feet/second 2). Following table be used to determine preliminary suction and discharge line sizes:
Table: Typical Flow Velocities
Suction Velocity,
ft/s

Discharge
ft/s

Velocity,

Centrifugal
pumps:

23

69

4.6.2

Sizing of Gas Line-Single


Phase

a. Process Lines: When pressure drop is a consideration in the lines connecting two components
operating at essentially the same pressure, etc., single-phase gas lines should be sized on the basis of
acceptable pressure drop. The pressure drops listed in following table have been found by
experience to be an acceptable balance for short lines, when capital costs for pipe and components
and operating costs are considered. When velocities in gas lines exceed 60 feet/second, noise may be
a problem. Gas velocities may be calculated using the following derived equation (neglecting
compressibility);
60 Qg Where: Vg = gas velocity, feet/second; d1
= pipe inside diameter, inch; Qg = gas
flow rate, million cubic feet/day at 14.7
psia and 60 0 F;

T
Vg=
d12

And. T = operating temperature, 0 R; P = operating pressure, psia


Table: Acceptable Pressure-Drop for Single Phase Gas Process Line
Operating Pressure (psig)
(psi / 100 feet)
0 100
101 500
0.49
501 20

Acceptable Pressure Drop


0.05 - 0.19
0.2 0.5 - 1.2

Compressor Lines: Reciprocating and centrifugal compressor piping should be sized to minimize
pulsation, vibration and noise. The selection of allowable velocities requires an engineering study
for each specific application.
Very Low Pressure Lines: Pressure drop calculations may be necessary in very low operating
pressure systems. The following equation (Spitzglass) may be used for operating pressures less than
1 psig.

4.6.3

Sizing of Liquid / Gas LineTwo Phase

Erosional Velocity: Flow lines or process headers and other lines transporting gas and liquid in twophase flow should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity. Flow velocity should be kept at
least below fluid Erosional velocity. If solids (sand) production is anticipated, fluid velocities
should be reduced accordingly.
The Velocity above which erosion may occur can be determined by the following empirical equation:
C

Ve = fluidErosional
velocity,
Ve feet/second;C = empirical constant =
125 for intermittent service = 100 for
continuous service; and Pm =
(Pm) gas/liquid mixture density at flowing
pressure and temperature, lbs/ ft3

The density of the gas / liquid mixture may be calculated using the following derived equation.

Sg P
=

12409 S1 P + 2.7 R Where: P = operating pressure,


psia; S1 = liquid specific gravity
(Water=1; use average Gravity
Pm
for
hydrocarbon-water
198.7 P + R T mixtures); R = gas/liquid ratio,
ft3/barrel; T = operating
temperature, 0 R;

And, Sg = gas specific gravity (air = 1).


Minimum Cross Sectional Area: Once Ve is known, the minimum cross sectional area required to
avoid fluid erosion may be determined from the following derived equation.
RT
9.35

+
21.25P

A
=

Where: A = minimum pipe


cross - sectional flow area
required, in2/ 1000 barrels
liquid per day; T = 535 0 R; R
= gas/liquid ratio, ft3/barrel; P
= operating pressure, psia;

Ve
Minimum Velocity: If possible, the minimum velocity in two-phase lines should be about 10 feet per
second to minimize slugging of separation equipment. This is particularly important in long lines
with elevation changes.

Pressure Drop: The pressure drop in a two-phase steel piping system may be estimated using the
following equation, which was developed from Fannings fluid flow equation using an average
friction factor of 0.0038. This equation is limited to a total pressure drop of 10% of inlet pressure to
minimize the error resulting from assuming pm constant:
Where, P = Pressure drop, psi /
100 feet; d1 = pipe inside diameter, W2
inches; pm = gas /liquid density at P =
flowing pressure and temperature,
lbs/ft3 ( calculate
as shown in
equation above); W = total liquid
plus vapour rate, lbs/hr.

6.9 x 10

d15 pm

W may be calculated using the following derived equation:


W = 3180 Qg Sg + 14.6 Q1 S1
Where: Qg = gas flow rate, million cubic feet/day (14.7 psia and 60 0 F); Sg = gas specific gravity
(air = 1); Q1 = liquid flow rate, barrels /day; S1 = liquid specific gravity (water = 1)

PIPE SIZING FOR O FFSHORE PLANT- SINGLE PHASE


GAS FLOW
The optimum pipe size should be based on minimizing the sum of energy cost and piping cost.
However, velocity limitations causing erosion or aggravating corrosion must be taken into
consideration. Sometimes, the line size must satisfy process requirements such as pump suction line.
Although pipe sizing is mainly concerned with pressure drop, sometimes for preliminary design
purposes when pressure loss is not a concern, process piping is sized on the basis of allowable
velocity. When there is an abrupt change in the direction of flow (as in elbow or tees), the local
pressure on the surface perpendicular to the direction of flow increases dramatically. This increase is
a function of fluid velocity, density and initial pressure. Since velocity is inversely proportional to the
square of diameter, high velocity fluids require special attention with respect to the size selection.
2
P1P2
Pave = Average Gas Pressure = { P1 + P2 - }
3
P1 + P2
In vapour systems, the use of rule of thumb or approximate sizing methods can lead to critical flow
and subsequent vibration and whistling. With two-phase systems, improper sizing can lead to slug
flow with its well known vibration and pressure pulsations.
With both vapour and two-phase systems, approximate calculations often neglect the importance of
momentum on total pressure drop; the result being that, pressure drop available for controllability, is
reduced; and rigorous calculations to determine pressure drop involving trial and error should be

performed by computers. The problem is further complicated when a diameter is to be found which
will produce a specified pressure drop or outlet velocity for a given flow. In this situation additional
trial and error is required to determine the proper diameter. The design problem as described above
is correctly defined as line sizing. In general an evaluation of the total system equivalent length must
be made based on fittings, valves, and straight line in the system. In addition, fitting and valve losses
are not constant, but are functions of diameter. A preliminary line sizes must often be selected before
an accurate knowledge of the system equivalent length is available, spool check calculations are
required before final specifications for prime movers can be written on final diameter, chosen.
Water Flow: The pressure loss for water flow shall be calculated by Hazen- Williamss formula.
The Hazen-Williams relationship is one of the most accurate formulas for calculation pressure loss
in water line (see Appendix C for Hazen-Williams constant C). For the design of new water
pipelines, constant "C" is taken as "100".
The Hazen-s formula is as follows:
100
Qw 1.85
hf = 2.25 x 104 Le {--------- }1.85 x {---------- }
C
d 4.865
Where, C = Hazen-Williams constant; d = Inside diameter of pipe, in (mm); hf = Head loss due to
friction, in (mm); Le = Equivalent length of pipe, in (m); and Qw = Vapour flow rate, in (m/h).
Pump Suction Lines: Allowable pressure drops is determined by formula:
P = 9.835 S [H-(NPSHR + )] + (P1-Pv)
Where: P is friction loss in piping to pump inlet, in (kpa); S is relative density (Water = 1); H is
height from datum to pump centre, in (m) (the term "Datum" refers to the bottom tangent line in the
case of vertical vessels and to the bottom level in the case of horizontal vessels); NPSHR is net
positive suction head required, in (m); (alpha) is 0.305 m (1 ft) for liquid at boiling point and
0.2134 m for liquid below boiling point; P1 is pressure working on suction liquid surface (kPa); Pv =
vapour pressure of liquid at suction temperature (kPa).
In cases where permanent strainers are to be provided a minimum pressure drop of 3.45 kPa (0.5 psi)
shall be added in the case o f dirty service. No addition is required in the case of clean service. The
equivalent length to be used for pressure drop calculations shall be assumed to be 46 m (150 ft).
Cooling Water: Cooling water discharge headers are usually sized with unit pressure losses in
decimals of 7 kPa (1 psi). An economical comparison is justified with large diameter piping, where
most of the pump pressure is used for pipe and equipment resistance. Of course, piping costs increase
with diameter while utility costs decrease. Between alternate designs the best size can be determined
by adding the total cost of utilities over the period of capital payout to the capital cost of each
installation. The lowest over-all figure will give the most economical solution.
Amine solution: The following limitations should be considered.
For carbon steel pipe: Velocity for Liquid = 3 m/s; Velocity for Vapour-liquid = 30 m/s; Velocity for
stainless steel pipe, Liquid = 9 m/s; and Velocity for Vapour-liquid = 36 m/s
Ammonium bisulphate (NH3-H2S-H2O) solution: Aqueous solutions of ammonium bisulphate
produced in the effluent line of hydro-cracking, hydro-treating processes often cause rapid erosion-

corrosion of carbon steel pipes, especially for nozzles, bend, tees, reducer and air cooler tube inlet
parts after water injection points. Care must be taken not to exceed the highest fluid velocity in pipe
tubes.
Gravity flow: i) Side cut draw-off: In cases where no controller is provided for the liquid level in
the liquid draw-off tray, the flow velocity in the first 3 meters of the vertical line shall be less than
0.762 m/s. This value is intended for vapour-liquid separation based on the particle diameter 200
micrometers (1000 micron = 1 mm) in cases where the operating pressure is high or the difference
between the vapour and liquid densities is small:
Q
CV = ------------------ {P/S.G}

Where: CV = the flow coefficient or


pressure loss coefficient; Q = flow rate,
GPM; P = pressure drop, psi; and S.G
= specific gravity of the fluid.

The line size shall be also checked that the control valve size may not become larger than the line
size.
Steam condensate lines: This is a line from heat exchanger to steam trap or control valve. The
pressure drop in this line shall be smaller than 11.3 kPa/100 m (0.1kg/cm2/100 m) and shall be
checked that no condensate may vaporize therein.
ii) Line from steam trap or control valve to following vessel - Steam condensate return lines must be
sized to avoid excessive pressure loss. Part of the hot condensate flashes into steam when it is
discharged into the condensate return system.
354 x W x VR (hc - The flow velocity "V calculated
by the following equation must be
hR )
V = --------------------------- limited to 1524 m/min to prevent
erosion.
--------d2xL
Flare headers: Flare headers shall be designed so that the maximum allowable velocity does not
exceed 50 percent of critical velocity, a figure mostly practiced by design companies.

SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW:


1. In general when considering compressible flow, as pressure decreases along the line so does the
density (assuming isothermal flow). A variation in density implies variation in Reynolds number on
which the friction factor is dependent. A rigorous calculation of pressure loss for long pipeline
involves dividing it into segments, performing the calculation for each segment (considering variable
parameters) and integrating over the entire length. For process piping however, since pipe lengths are
generally short, a rigorous calculation would not be necessary and the equation outline below are
considered adequate.
2. As mentioned above for estimating pressure drop in short run of gas piping such as within plant or
battery limit, a simplified formula for compressible fluids is accurate for fully turbulent flow,
assuming the pressure drop through the line is not a significant fraction of the total pressure (i.e., no

more than 10%).


3. The Darcy formula
62530 fD x Wg2
is used for calculation P100 = --------------------------of pressure loss in bar/100 m
process gas lines as
g x d5
here:
4.
Steam
Flow:
D + 3.6
2
Babcock formula shall W x L
be used to calculate Pf = 3.63 x 10-8 { ------------- }
pressure drop in steam ------------------lines:
d6

---

Where: Pf is frictional component of pressure drop, psi.


5. Sampling and Injection Connections: Connections may be desired for chemical injection and for
obtaining samples. If installed, they should be inch minimum nominal size and include a closecoupled block valve. Associated piping should be stainless steel tubing or heavy wall pipe and
should be well protected to minimize the possibility of damage. A spring-loaded ball check valve
should be close-coupled to the block valve on injection lines.
Chokes: Chokes are normally installed to control the flow. Choke types include adjustable, positive
and combination. The number and location of chokes depend on the amount of pressure drop taken,
fluid, flow rate, and solids in the stream. Usually, if only one choke is used, it should be located near
the source of flow. Additional chokes may be located in between the headers. The following general
guidelines should be considered regardless of the number of chokes or their location:
Choke bodies should be installed in a manner that will permit easy removal and trim changes.
The downstream flow passage within ten nominal pipe diameters should be free of abrupt
changes in direction to minimize flow cutting due to high velocity.
Outlet connections should be examined to determine if their bore should be tapered to improve
flow patterns.
Suitable provisions should be provided to isolate and depressurise the choke body when
changing trim, removing trash, etc.
Flow line Pressure Sensor: The installation of a Flow line sensor should be in accordance with API
RP 14C. Further, the connection should be inch minimum nominal size and located to minimize the
possibility of plugging and freezing. Connections on the bottom of the line or in turns should be
avoided. Sensors should be installed with an external test connection and block valve. Sensing lines
should be stainless steel and secured to prevent whip in case of severance.
Flow line Temperature Sensor: The installation of a Flow line sensor should be in accordance with
the Codes. Further, the connection should be 1-inch minimum nominal size and located to minimize
the possibility of plugging and freezing. Connections should be on the top of the header line.
Connections in turns should be avoided. Sensors should be installed with an external test connection
and with Thermo well. Sensing lines should be stainless steel and secured to prevent whip in case of
severance.

Flow line Orifice Fitting: A Flow line orifice fittings may be desirable in gas service for either a
monitoring aid or as a means of production allocation.
Flow Line Heat Exchanger. If a Flow line heat exchanger is used, the following provisions should
be considered;
Connections should be arranged so that the exchanger bundle may be pulled without having to
cut or weld on inlet and outlet piping.
Exchanger U-bends, if used, should either be exposed to the exterior, or easily accessible for
non-destructive testing.
A Flanged end heat exchanger shell of a standard dimension is desirable so that bundles can be
interchanged, or pulled and repaired.
A relief system should be provided.
Flow line Check Valve: A Flow line check valve should be installed to minimize back flow due to
inadvertent switching of a low-pressure system into a higher-pressure system, or in case of line
rupture.
Flow line Support: Flow lines should be supported and secured to minimize vibration and to prevent
whip. When designing Flow line supports, it should be recognized that even though the equipment
may be fixed to the foundations, there is a possibility of independent equipment movement due to heat
or expansion.
Sampling: Sample piping should be as short as possible, protected from physical damage, and easily
accessed by operators. Sample connections are made on feed, intermediate and product streams for
process control. Process engineers are consulted in order to determine the number and location of
sample ports.
It is recommended that the minimum size connection to either the process equipment or the piping be
15 mm ( in). If the sample line is longer than a meter (approximately 3 feet), two valves are
installed in the sample line. The first valve is located as close to the actual sample point as possible.
The second valve is a final block valve and should be located near the end of the sample piping. The
valves should be quick opening, either gate or ball type, and all materials of construction should meet
the application.
Sampling Valves: Materials of construction for sample ports and sample valves match the piping
system and the required application. Coordination with CEGS 01450, Chemical Data Quality
Control, is necessary to ensure proper sampling. Valves for sampling process streams should be
provided at appropriate locations. Valves should be located so that representative samples will be
obtained. Sample valves may be used in conjunction with sample catchers or with sample tubes,
which extend into the centre of the pipe. Consideration should be given to the quality and condition
of the stream at each location. Valve design and piping should allow cleaning or rotting of valves,
which may become plugged with solids. Valves subject to large pressure drops maybe quickly cut
out. Double valve and proper sampling procedures can minimize such problems. Sample valves are
usually inch austenitic stainless steels.
Piping Manifolds: Manifold branch connections should be in accordance with ANSI B31.3. If
weldolet are used, care should be taken to ensure the entrance hole is smooth and free of burrs after it
is welded in place. The terminus of the Manifold runs should be blind
flanged to provide a
fluid cushion area and for possible future expansion. The piping arrangement should provide easy
access to each manifold valve for operational purposes and easy removal. In initial design of the
piping, it may be desirable to make provisions for the future installation of valve operators.
Process Vessel Piping: Typical three-phase process vessel with standard accessories and many

optional items is shown on Figure 6.2. Different vessels are required for different functions in
processing. However, all of the flow streams to and from a vessel are generally handled in a similar
manner. All of the items shown on Figure 6.2 may not be needed, but are shown in their
recommended location when required. Accessories should be installed to permit ready removal for
repairs or replacement. Safety devices should be capable of being tested in place.
Utility Systems: This section deals with pneumatic, firewater, potable water, sewage and related
systems.
Pneumatic Systems: Pneumatic systems are required to provide a dependable supply for
pneumatically operated components. All pipe, tubing and fittings 3/8 inch nominal size and smaller
should be AISI 304 or 316 stainless steel, with 0.035 inch minimum wall thickness where exposed to
the atmosphere. Synthetic tubing may be used in weatherproof enclosures or in fire loop safety
systems. Fire loop safety systems should be in accordance with API RP 14C. Piping should be
installed in a manner that will minimize low points or traps for liquid. Outlets, from vessels and
piping should be from the top of the system and drains from the bottom. Blow down provisions
should be included in the piping systems to allow removal of condensation. Pneumatic systems
should be tested.
Air Systems: Main air headers should be 2-inch nominal diameter, utilizing corrosion resistant
material such as threaded and coupled galvanized steel. Care must be exercised in locating air
compressor suctions to preclude the introduction of gas or hydrocarbon vapours into the system. No
crossovers, whereby air and gas could be intermixed, should be allowed anywhere in the system.
Gas Systems: For gas systems, vents and relief valves should be taken to a safe location, if it is
determined that the volumes being vented could create an abnormal condition. The gas source chosen
should be the driest gas available. The following guidelines may be helpful in designing an
instrument gas or a fuel gas system:
Taking a significant pressure drop, an external heat source may be required to prevent freezing
if the gas is not dehydrated.
The gas should be expanded to a separator to prevent hydrates and liquids from entering the
system piping.
The inlet and outlet pressure rating of pressure reduction devices should be carefully
considered. If the outlet pressure rating is less than the inlet source pressure, a relief device
should be close-coupled to the reduction device.
Parallel reduction devices should be considered to maintain system operation in the event the
primary device fails.

4.6.4

Pipe Sizing in Steam Systems

There are two types of losses, such as (1) Major Loss and (2) Minor Loss in steam distribution
systems. The pressure drop in the distribution of steam system is the pressure difference between the
initial pressure at the boiler, and the final pressure received, at the steam consumer, at the end of the
line and can be expressed as:
p = pj - pk
pt = pmajor + pminor

p = available pressure drop (Pa (N/m2); pj =


initial or boiler pressure (Pa (N/m2)) pk =
final pressure (Pa (N/m2))

The total pressure drop in the distribution system is a result of friction in pipe (pt ),
Where, pt = total pressure drop in the system (Pa (N/m2)); pmajor = pressure loss in pipes due to
friction (Pa (N/m2)); pminor = pressure loss in fittings (Pa (N/m2)).
Friction - Major Loss: The pressure loss due to friction in a low-pressure steam distribution system
can be expressed as:
pmajor = pa l pa = pipe friction resistance per unit length of
pipe (Pa/m (N/m2/m))
l = length of pipe (ft, m)
Loss due to Fittings - Minor loss can be expressed as:
pminor = 1/2 = minor loss coefficient; pminor =
v2
pressure loss (Pa (N/m2)); = Density
(kg/m3); v = flow velocity (m/s)
As a rule, the total pressure drop is about 5 -10 % of initial pressure per 100 m pipe.
Recommended Velocities in Steam Systems: The steam velocities in steam distribution systems
should be within certain limits to avoid excessive wear and tear of the pipe and as given, such as,
Exhaust steam - 20 to 30 m/s; Saturated steam - 30 to 40 m/s; Superheated steam - 40 to 60 m/s;
Saturated Steam - high pressure - 25 to 40 m/s; Saturated Steam - high pressure - 30 to 40 m/s;
Saturated Steam - high pressure - < 50; and Saturated Steam - high pressure - < 25.
Selection of Steam Pipes (kg/h)-Size: Steam is a compressible gas where the mass flow capacity of
the pipelines depends on the steam pressure. The following Table gives the suitable size of steam
pipes, where pressure is in bar, velocity in m/s and capacity in kg/h. A speed of 25 m/s is in general
sufficient for saturated steam applications.

Fig: Manifold with Control Vale

Fig: Air Cooler Piping Manifold

Fig: Reciprocating Compressor Piping


Branch connections: When the branch line size is equal size or greater than one half of nominal size
of run pipe, branch connections in welded lines should be butt weld straight tees or reducing tees. If
the branch line is 2-inch nominal pipe size or larger, but less than 1.5 times of the nominal run size,
weldolet may be used. Branch lines 1 inch nominal pipe size and smaller should be connected to
runs size 1 inch nominal and smaller, with socket weld tees. It shall be connected to run size 2 inch
nominal and larger with Sockolet or equivalent or socket weld couplings. Stub-in connection
should, generally, not be used. The disadvantages of a non-reinforced stub-in connection are
numerous. Sharp changes in section and direction and junction introduce severe stress intensification.
Reinforcement using a pad or a saddle improves the situation somewhat. However, the finished
connection is difficult to examine for welding and other defects. The stress-intensifying defect makes
sub-ins connection a poor choice for critical services for those with severe cyclic operating
conditions and loading. If, stub-in connections are necessary, the use of full encirclement saddles is
recommended. Branch connection in screwed piping systems should be made using straight tees and
swage reducers, or reduced outlet tees. All screwed piping systems should be isolated from welded
piping systems by block valves.

Fig: Heat Exchanger Piping


Fire Water systems: Fire water systems should be constructed of carbon steel pipe. Accessibility
during a fire should be considered when locating fire hose stations and/or turrets. In the
determination of required flow rates, consideration should be given to the surface area, location of
the equipment and to the maximum number of discharge nozzles, which could be in use
simultaneously. See NFPA. (National Fire Code, Volumes 6 and 8)

Fig: Column and Towers Piping


Potable water systems: Threaded and coupled galvanized steel pipe and bronze valves should
generally be used in potable water service. Copper pipe may be used within the confines of
buildings. Toxic joint compounds should be avoided. If water makers are used, consideration should
be given to potential contamination of the water from heating sources. When potable water is
supplied to other facilities such as engine jacket water makeup, etc., care should be exercised to
prevent contamination from backflow.
Sewage Systems: Interior sewage piping, such as in living quarters areas, should be carbon steel,
cast iron pipe with Babbitt, or lead sealed joints or PVC properly supported. Exterior piping may be
carbon steel, cast iron, fibreglass or PVC (when properly supported and protected from sunlight). All
piping should be well supported and have a minimum slope of 1/8 inch per foot. Down pipes in the
living quarters, etc. should be a minimum of 2-inch nominal diameter and all other piping a minimum
of 4-inch nominal diameter. The system should be designed with adequate clean-out provisions.
Discharge lines from sewage treatment plants should terminate near water level and contain readily
accessible sampling connections. Care should be exercised in locating vents.

Heating Fluid and Glycol Systems: The paramount safety consideration in the design of heating fluid
systems is containment of the fluid for personnel protection and fire prevention. All piping, valves
and fittings should be in accordance with API RP14E and ANSI B31.3 except that flanges for other
than low pressure steam and hot water systems should be a minimum of ANSI 300 lb to minimize
leakage. Piping should be designed for thermal expansion and thermal insulation.
If the process side of a shell and tube heat exchanger has a higher operating pressure than the design
pressure of the heating fluid side, a relief device must protect the heating fluid side. The location of
the relief device depends on the actual design of the system. If possible, the relief device should be
located on the expansion (surge) tank, which will serve as a separator. A relief device may also be
required at the heat exchanger. Consideration should also be given to tube failure in heat exchangers
where the operating pressure of the heating fluid system exceeds the test pressure of the process
system. The effect of mixing hot fluids with cold fluids should be considered when determining how
to dispose of the discharge of a relief device on a heat exchanger. A separate scrubber may be
required heating systems (except hot water or steam) should preferably be pneumatically tested. If
hydrostatically tested, provisions should be made for removal of all water from the system before
placing in service. Additionally, any water remaining after draining should be removed at start-up, by
slowly bringing the system to 212 0 F and venting the generated steam. Care should be taken to ensure
that each branch of the system has circulation during this period.
The exhaust stream from a glycol Reboiler contains steam and hydrocarbon vapours. Caution should
be exercised in the design of Reboiler exhaust piping to prevent backpressure, ignition and
condensation problems.

Fig: Centrifugal Pump Piping


Pressure Relief and Disposal Systems: Pressure relief and disposal systems are required to prevent
over pressure of process components and to dispose of the relieved product in a safe manner. Some
possible causes of over pressure are downstream blockage, up-stream control valve malfunction, and
external fire.
The commonly used safety relief devices are the conventional spring loaded relief valve, the
balanced bellows spring loaded relief valve, the pilot operated relief valve, the pressure- vacuum
relief valve and the rupture disc. For a complete description, operation, sizing, pressure setting and
application guide, see ASME Section VIII, API RP 520 Part I, API RP 521 and API RP 14C.
Relief devices in gas or vapour service should normally be connected to either the vessel vapour
space or the outlet piping. They should be located upstream of wire mesh mist extractors. Liquid
relief devices should be located below the normal liquid level.
If vessels with the same operating pressure are in series, a relief device set at the lowest design
pressure in the system may be installed on the first vessel. If any remaining vessel can be isolated, a
relief device sized for fire or thermal expansion is required. Relief devices should be located so they
cannot be isolated from any part of the system being protected.
Relief Device Piping: If a spring-loaded relief valve is used, it may have a full opening block or
check valve upstream plus an external test port for testing and calibrating. If not, it will be necessary
to remove the valve for testing. If a pilot operated relief valve is used, the upstream valve is not

required for testing purposes.


Should the relief device have to be removed, process systems connected to a common relief header
must be shut down. Alternatively, a full opening block or check valve may be installed downstream
of relief devices if connecting to a common relief header. All block valves installed either upstream
or downstream of relief devices should be equipped with locking devices and operated in accordance
with ASME Section VIII, Appendix M.
Piping on the exhaust side of relief devices should be designed to minimize stress on the device. The
piping should also be designed to withstand the maximum backpressure to which it could be
subjected. API Spec 526 covers the allowable working pressure of relief valves.
Relief (Disposal) System Piping: The relief system and piping should be designed to dispose of the
relieved product in a safe and reliable manner. The system and piping should be designed to prevent
backpressure from occurring at any point in the system that would reduce the required relieving
capacity of any of the pressure relieving devices. The maximum possible backpressure at each relief
point should be determined. This is particularly important where two or more relief devices may
relieve simultaneously into the same disposal system. The materials, fittings, welding and other
design criteria should conform to the respective parts of the RP 14E and to API RP 520, PART II.
Vent or flare structures should be designed to prevent buckling caused by wind moment. Vent or flare
structures should preferably be installed on the downwind side of the plant. In determining height and
distance from the plant, consideration should be given to accidental ignition due to lightning, falling
burning fluid, and heat radiation.
When hydrocarbon vapours are discharged into the atmosphere, mixtures within the flammable range
will occur downstream of the outlet. To determine the location of this flammable mixture and the
intensity of the heat should the mixture become ignited, refer to API RP 521 and API Proceedings,
Vol. 43 (III) (1963), Paged 418-433. When toxic vapours are discharged into the atmosphere,
systems should be designed in accordance with EPA A P-26, Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion
Estimates.
If feasible, all relief systems should be designed for a minimum pressure of 50 psig in order to
contain flashback. In most cases, vents from atmospheric pressure equipment should be equipped
with flame arrestors for flashback protection. Flame arrestors are subject to plugging with ice and
should not be used in cold climates. Flame arrestors should be inspected periodically for paraffin
build-up.
Drain Systems: All low points in liquid process piping systems should be provided with drain or
blow-off valves. These valves allow flushing of sediments from, or draining of, the entire lines. The
most common valves used for draining purposes are gate valves. If rapid draining is not important,
globe valves may also be used, provided that sediment accumulation is not a concern. Pipelines 50
mm (2 in) and smaller should use 15 mm ( in) valves, as a minimum size. Pipelines that are 65 mm
(2 in) or greater should have a minimum valve size of 20 mm ( in). Drain systems should be
designed to collect and dispose of contaminants from all sources. A good drain system prevents
contaminants from spilling overboard; prevents the accumulation of flammable liquids on the ground
or pans; and promotes good housekeeping practices.
Pressure Drains: When pressure (closed) drains from pressure vessels are used, they should be
piped directly to the disposal facilities, independent of the gravity drains, to prevent the introduction
of fluids from the pressure drains into the gravity drains. The design pressure of the interconnecting
piping and drain valve on each process component should correspond to the highest working pressure
process component in the system. Piping should be in accordance with Section ANSI B31.3. A

separate closed drain system should be provided for hydrogen sulphide service to permit safe
disposal of the fluids.
Gravity Drains: Storm water drain or open drain is usually drained by gravity to the disposal
facilities. A wide variety of materials may be satisfactory for this service. Consideration should be
given to minimizing bends and flow restriction in the system. Piping should be installed with a
downward slope on the order of 1/8 inch per foot. In some cases, it may be necessary to install runs
in a horizontal plane, but in no circumstances should up-slopes be permitted. Clean-out connections
should be provided.
Special Requirements for Sulphide Stress Cracking Service: Fitting and flange materials, as
normally manufactured, are generally satisfactory for sulphide stress cracking service with the
additional stipulation that they be modified to conform to the requirements of NACE MR 01 75.
ASTM A 194, Grade 2 M, nuts and ASTM A 193, Grade B 7 M, bolts are generally satisfactory for
pipe flanges. Consideration should also be given to torque requirements during installation. Type R
and RX rings should be made of annealed AISI 316 stainless steel
Erosion Prevention: To minimize erosion where sand production is expected, short radius pipe
elbows should not be used. All turns in flow lines should be made with tees and weld caps (or blind
flanges), cap tees 0r flow tees, or long radius bends, (minimum bending radius should be 1.5 times
dia. in accordance with ANSI B 31.3).
Noise: In the design of plant piping systems, provisions should be made to protect personnel from
harmful noise. Problems and solutions are discussed in depth in API Medical Research Report EA
7301, Guidelines on Noise. A general discussion of noise related to piping systems is included in
this section.
1. Noise in a piping configuration is caused by the turbulence of a fluid passing through the system.
Turbulence is created downstream of restricted openings and increases as the fluid velocity
increases. Most noises in piping systems may be attributed to the various types of control valves.
The sound pressure level may be calculated for control valves from formulas and data supplied by the
various manufacturers.
2. The fundamental approach to noise control in piping system should be to avoid or minimize the
generation of harmful noise levels. Methods that may be effective in avoiding such levels in piping
systems include: Use acoustic insulation and / or shielding around pipe and fittings to absorb or
isolate sound. Use flow stream silencers for extreme cases.
Minimize fluid velocities: The noise levels generated by the recommended velocities in Section 2 of
API RP14E should be acceptable. Select control valves of a type or with special trim to minimize
noise. Methods that may be effective in minimizing noises in piping systems include:
Avoid abrupt changes in flow direction.
Use venturing (conical) type reducers to avoid abrupt changes in flow pattern.
Use flow-straightening vanes to reduce large-scale turbulence.
Use extra heavy valve pipe and fittings to attenuate sound and vibration (See API Medical Research
Report EA 7301).
Cryogenic System: Cryogenic system is the name of piping system, which handles fluids at very low
temperature in a process requiring manufacture of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon; Methane purification
piping, low temperature gas treatment, i.e. Nitrogen wash unit-piping at a temperature level at 400F
to absolute zero, i.e. 459.70F. The cryogenic system or process is nothing but utilization of low
temperatures to produce a physical change in liquid, solid or gas to manufacture Oxygen, Nitrogen,
Helium, and Methane and to manufacture certain metal superconductors. The main problem in a

cryogenic system is the leakage of heat from the surrounding atmosphere leads to vaporize the
cryogenic liquid, which have, generally, very low boiling points and very small latent heat of
vaporization. The basic principle to design a cryogenic system is to take care of these special
properties of the cryogenic products. The following main and special considerations have to be taken
into account:
1. To maintain the slope of the piping upward in the direction of flow to take advantage of the
principle of airlift.
2. Maintain the piping in one line, avoiding peak or air pockets, to avoid gas traps.
Minimize the heat loss to a minimum for proper operation. The valve should have extended bonnets
the stem should be stainless steel to bring the stem seals and the valve handles outside the insulation
of the valve. Provide wood, a low thermal conductive material, between the supports outside surface
and the supports resting structure.
3.10
PIPING FLEXIBILITY AND PIPING SUPPORT -DESIGN
All piping shall be adequately supported, guided, or anchored so as to prevent undue vibration,
deflection or loads on connected equipment & piping and leakage at joints. Piping at valves and
equipment such as heat exchangers and pumps, requiring periodic maintenance, shall be supported in
such a way so that the valves and equipment can be removed with a minimum necessity of installing
temporary pipe supports. If the temperature of the fluid and pipe is between - 29 C to 65 C, it is
considered a normal working condition and hence design of flexibility and support is not critical. But
if the temperature is above 65 C and higher, the design of flexibility and supports becomes more
critical with the rise of temperature. More is temperature; most typical and critical design of supports
shall be done based on Piping Flexibility calculation.
Careful design of piping support systems of above grade piping systems is necessary to prevent
failures. The design, selection, and installation of supports follow the Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry, Inc. (MSS) standards SP-58, SP-69, and SP-89,
respectively. The objective of the design of support systems for process piping systems is to prevent
sagging and damage to pipe and fittings. The design of the support systems includes selection of
support type and proper location and spacing of supports. Support selection and spacing can be
affected by seismic zone.
The locations of piping supports are dependent upon four factors, such as pipe size, piping
configuration, locations of valves and fittings, and the structure available for support. Individual
piping materials have independent considerations for span and placement of supports. Pipe size
relates to the maximum allowable span between pipe supports. Span is a function of the weight that
the supports must carry. As pipe size increases, the weight of the pipe also increases. The amount of
fluid, which the pipe can carry, increases as well, thereby increasing the weight per unit length of
pipe. But at the same time, the resistance against deflection in pipe and stresses also increases with
increase of the size/ diameter and thickness of pipe. The configuration of the piping system affects the
location of pipe supports. Where practical, a support should be located adjacent to directional
changes of piping. Otherwise, common practice is to design the length of piping between supports
equal to, or less than the specified in the spacing table.

4.7

Piping Flexibility Analysis

Piping flexibility concept: A piping system undergoes dimensional changes, i.e. Expansion or
Contraction with any change in temperature. It is constrained from free expansion or contraction by
rigid equipment, guides, or anchors connected to it. It will be displaced from its unrestrained
position. This is called thermal displacement. Total displacement strains due to thermal displacement,
reaction displacements and externally imposed displacements, cumulative effect on piping system
shall be considered together in determining the total displacement strains in various parts of the
piping system taken together. But when the layout of piping system is designed wrongly, stresses
cannot be considered proportional to the displacement strains throughout piping system. Then
excessive amount of stress may occur in localized portions of the system. Operation of unbalanced
system in the creep range may aggravate the deleterious effects due to creep strain accumulation in the
most susceptible regions of the system.
When the layout of piping system is designed properly, the displacement strain in piping system at any
point are well distributed within the permissible range and hence stresses can be considered
proportionally distributed over the total system and within the acceptable limit by selective use of
Cold Spring.
Where the piping lacks built in changes of direction or where it is unbalanced, large reactions or
detrimental overstrain can be developed. All bending strains, tortional strains, reactions or
detrimental overstrains can be brought within prescribed limit and flexibility of piping system can be
improved by providing one or more of the followings means: 1) More bends, 2) more loops 3) offsets
4) swivel joints 5) corrugated pipe 6) expansion joints of bellow types or slip-joint types or other
suitable devices. This permit angular, rotational or axial movement, suitable anchors ties should be
provided if necessary to resist end forces produced by fluid pressure restriction resistance to
movement.
Flexibility analysis not required: For the following piping system the flexibility analysis is not
required.
Flexibility analysis required: Any piping system, which does not satisfy the above three criteria,
shall be analysed for flexibility by any one of (a) simplified (b) approximate or (c) comprehensive
method. (I.e., by analytical and chart methods which provide an evaluation of the forces, moments and
stresses caused by displacement strains as per requirement of the code.
Flexibility and stress intensification factors: In absence of directly available data, the flexibility
factors K and the stress intensification factors I, as given in appendix D of ANSI B 31.3, shall be
used.

STRESS ANALYSIS R EQUIREMENTS :


Further, piping systems may be subjected to many diversified loading and stresses. Generally,
stresses are caused by 1) Pressure, 2) Weight of pipe, fittings, and fluid, 3) external loading, and 4)
thermal expansion. They are significant in the stress analysis of a piping system. Normally, most pipe
movement will be due to thermal expansions.
A stress analysis should be made for a two anchors (fixed points) system if the following criterion is
not satisfied:
D

Where: D = nominal pipe size, inches;

1=

expansion to be absorbed by pipe, inches; U =


anchor distance, feet (straight-line distance
between anchors); L = actual length of pipe,
feet; S = allowable stress, psi;

30S
(L U) 2
Em

Em = modulus of elasticity of the piping material in the cold condition, psi (Em=30 x 106 for Grade B
pipe at 700F); 1 = may be calculated by the following equation from ANSI B31.3.
1

LB

=
T

12

= expansion to be absorbed by pipe, inches;

L = actual length of pipe, feet; B = mean coefficient of thermal expansion at Operating temperatures
normally encountered (Approximately 7.0 x 10 6 inches/inch/0F for carbon steel pipe; T =
temperature change, 0F.
The following guidelines help in screening piping or systems that generally will not require stress
analysis:
Systems where the maximum temperature changes will not exceed 500F.
Piping where the maximum temperature change will not exceed 750F, Provided that the distance
between turns in the piping exceeds 12 nominal pipe diameters.
ANSI B31.3 1973 does not require a formal stress analysis in systems which meet one of the
following criteria:
The systems are duplicates of successfully operating installations or replacements of systems
with a satisfactory service record.
The systems can be judged adequate by comparison with previously analysed systems.
Minimum Flexibility Requirements: If pipe is made of carbon steel or low alloy steel, it will
expand with a rate of 3/4"-1" for each l000 F temperature rise. This means the pipe running between
two equipment 100 ft. apart may well expand by 3 to 4 or more inches as it heats up,- but as ends are
not free to-move, this increase in length can only be accommodated by straining the pipe. This
straining produces a stress in pipe. However, when the pipe is taken out of service, it cools down to
ambient temperature, the expansion returns to zero and hence the stress. Every time that the pipe is put
into or taken out of service, the same cycle of event occurs. The pipe starts from stress free condition
when cold and has stresses imposed which reach a maximum at operating condition and reduce to
zero when the pipe is taken out of service. The type of straining described, if repeated often enough
will cause the pipe to crack. The cracking will start at a point or points where the stresses are
maximum. This is called fatigue failure. The various codes and standards covering the design of
piping system puts a limit to maximum stresses which the system can be subjected when put to use.
This limit is called the allowable stress range for expansion and generally denoted by SA.
Analysis of Metallic Piping: No formal analysis of adequate flexibility is required for a piping
system if; (a) it duplicates or replaces without significant change, a system with a successful service
record, (b) it can be readily judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed system, and (c)
it is of uniform size, has no more than two point of fixation, no intermediate restrains and falls within
limitation set by the equation.

Code Requirements: ASME and ANSI codes contain the reference data, formulae, and acceptability
limits required for the stress analysis of different pressure piping systems and services. ASME B31.3
requires the analysis of three stress limits, such as, Stresses due to sustained loads, Stresses due to
displacement strains, and Stresses due to occasional loads. Although not addressed by code, another
effect resulting from stresses that is fatigue is examined. The layout of piping often provides inherent
flexibility through change in direction of the piping route and hence bending and torsion stress
produced in the piping system are within the prescribed limits. The amounts of axial tension or
compression strain, which produce large reaction, are usually small.
Allowable stresses: The allowable displacement stress range, permissible additive stress and the
stress intensification factors as per the requirement of codes.
Modulus of elasticity: Modules of elasticity (E) shall be used to calculate the flexible analysis.
Poisons Ratio: Poisons ratio may be taken as 0.3 at all temperature for all metals.
Purpose of Stress Analysis: Flexibility Analysis of Piping is done to determine the amount of stresses
governing flexibility in the layout and to establish that the required flexibility has been provided in
layout. there are number of criteria defining the minimum acceptable flexibility and these fall into two
main categories: i) Maximum allowable stress range in the pipe and ii) The limiting values of forces
and moments which piping is permitted to impose on connected equipment. The flexibility required in
those cases where the piping reaction on connected equipment governs, invariably overrides that
required to satisfy the maximum stress range condition. After piping materials, design pressure and
sizes have been selected; a stress analysis is performed that relates the selected piping system to the
piping layout and piping supports. The analysis ensures that the piping system meets intended service
and loading condition requirements while optimizing the layout and support design. The analysis may
result in successive reiterations until a balance is struck between stresses and layout efficiency,
stresses and support locations and types. The stress analysis can be a simplified analysis or a
computerized analysis depending upon system complexity and the design code.
Stresses due to Sustained Loads: The stress analysis for sustained loads includes internal pressure
stresses, external pressure stresses, and longitudinal stresses. ASME B31.3 considers stresses due to
internal and external pressures to be safe if the wall thickness meets the pressure integrity
requirements. The sum of the longitudinal stresses in the piping system that result from pressure,
weight and any other sustained loads should not exceed the basic allowable stress at the maximum
metal temperature.
The new piping system replaces in kind, or without significant change, a system with a successful
service record. The new piping system can be readily judged adequate by comparison to previously
analyzed systems; and The new piping system is of uniform size, has 2 or less fixed points, has no
intermediate restraints, and meets the following empirical condition:
Stress due to Thermal expansion: For calculation of the value of stress range or the value of
reactions on supports and connected equipment, the value of thermal displacement is used.
Internal Pressure/External Pressure Stress: The stresses due to internal pressure are considered
safe when the thickness including reinforcement is adequate (using the value SH the allowable stress
at the operating temperature).
Longitudinal Stresses (SL): The sum of longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight and other
sustained loading shall not exceed the basic allowable stress (SH). Pipe thickness for calculation of
SL must be reduced by allowance such as corrosion, erosions, manufacturing tolerance and grove
depth. (1.33 times in case of occasional loads such as wind/earth quake)

Allowable displacement stress = SA = f (1. 25 Sc + O. 25 Sf); Where, Sc - Basic allowable stress at


min. temp. SH - Basic allowable stress at max. temp. Sf - Stress range reduction factor for cyclic
condition for total number of full temperature cycles over expected life
Stress range reduction factor: When SW-is greater than the calculated value of SL the difference
between them is added to the term 0.25 SH in the above equation. In that case, the revised formula
becomes; S = f [1.25 (Sc + SM ) - SL].
Cold Spring: Cold Spring is the intentional deformation or pulling of the piping during assembly to
produce a desired initial displacement and stress. Cold Springs is beneficial in the sense that it
serves to balance or reduce the magnitude of stress under initial and extreme displacement
conditions. The service life of piping system is more affected by the range of stress variation than by
the magnitude of the stress.
Piping Components (Auxiliaries): Those elements other than straight pipe which go to make up a
complete piping system are described as Piping Components. These are important to know to the
extent of knowing their individual effects on the flexibility of piping system and the stresses in it,
before going for a analysis of complicated piping system. The common auxiliaries used are bends,
tees, reducer flanges.
The deflection of a beam when it is subjected to bending and torsion is shown in figure. If the same
length of pipe is subjected to torsion, the rotation of one end relative to other is given by,

TL
= ------GJ

Where, - Angle of twist in radians; T Torsion moment, lb/inch; L - Length in inch; G Modulus of rigidity, Ib/ inch 2; J - polar moment
of inertia, inch 4

This result is very important considering 3-D layouts. It shows that a given length of pipe will give
30% more rotation if moment from adjacent leg produces torsion instead of bending. Torsion
deflection alone is rare as means of obtaining flexibility, but the fact demonstrated above may
influence the stress engineer in choice of alternative routes for a pipe.
Elbows: These are used when change in direction of pipe is required, .they can be of the type short
radius, long radius, or pipe bends. The analysis of piping systems considers bending of elbows for
the maximum bending stress.
The analysis of the pipe bends when subject to a bending moment shows that when curved pipe is
subjected to a bending moment in its own plane, the circular cross section undergoes changes and is
flattened and this results in increased flexibility. The ratio of the flexibility of a bend to that of a
straight pipe having the same length and cross section is known as flexibility factor and usually
denoted by letter "K".
Now let us examine how this flattening of elbow or change in cross section occurs. Let us consider an
elbow with a neutral axis is subjected to a bending moment. The outer fibre of elbows will be
subjected to tensile stress and the inside surface to a compressive stress. Let us take a thin cross
section and study in detail. The resultant tensile load on outer fibre results in inward radial load in
the element. Similarly, the compressive load on inside fibre also produces a resultant inward radial
load on the element. If we now take a slice as a cross section of pipe and draw the loading diagram

for the ring which is in effect. Under the loading, the ring flattens into an ellipse with its major axis
horizontal. If we now reverse the sign of bending moment the cross section will elongate instead of
flattening. If we now consider the element in more detail, we see that the flattening produces bending
moments in the ring which are maximum at the end of the horizontal diameter. These moments produce
a stress which varies from tension to compression through the thickness of pipe wall and is
circumferential in direction. If we consider the half of the ring, the circumferential stress in pipe wall
due to moment can be many times the value calculated as (My/I) as per ordinary bending theory for
structural members. The factor by which the circumferential stresses exceed the longitudinal stresses
in bend is called the Stress intensification factor often denoted as S.l.F.
One of the practical manifestations of the existence of these circumferential stresses is that when an
elbow is subjected to repeat in-plane bending, it ultimately develops a fatigue crack along its sides.
When we take into account the elbows of a piping system, we are therefore able to claim additional
flexibility due to this flattening, but at the same time we must also take into account the induced
circumferential stresses by multiplying the stresses at the bends due to overall bending moment in the
piping system by appropriate stress intensification factor. The expression for calculating both
factor and stress intensification factor are given in codes such as B 3l.3 and are as followed.
Branch Connections: The resultant bending stress requires a bit more attention as the section
modulus Z for header and branch is slightly different. The pipe wall thickness has no significant effect
on bending stress due to thermal expansion but it affects the end reactions in direct ratio. So
overstress cannot be remedied by adding thickness; on the-contrary, this tends to make matter worse
by increasing the end reactions.
Effect of Pressure on Stress Intensification Factor and Flexibility Factor: Some of the piping
codes give formulas for correcting the values of SIF and flexibility factor for elbows and bends.
When the pressure effects are considered, SIF values are lower thus actually reducing the value of
thermal stress. However, the terminal forces increase because of reduced flexibility at elbows.
Pressure can affect significantly the magnitude of flexibility factor and SIF in case of large diameter
and thin wall elbows. The correction factor CKF for flexibility factor due to pressure on elbows is
considered.
b. Stresses due to Displacement Strains: Constraint of piping displacements resulting from thermal
expansion, seismic activities or piping support and terminal movements cause local stress conditions.
These localized conditions can cause failure of piping or supports from fatigue or over-stress,
leakage at joints or distortions. To ensure that piping systems have sufficient flexibility to prevent
these failures, ASME B31.3 requires that the displacement stress range does not exceed the
allowable displacement stress range.
c. Stresses due to Occasional Loads: The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to both sustained and
occasional loads does not exceed 1.33 times the basic allowable stress at maximum material
temperature.
d. Fatigue: Fatigue resistance is the ability to resist crack initiation and expansion under repeated
cyclic loading. A materials fatigue resistance at an applied load is dependent upon many variables
including strength, ductility, surface finish, product form, residual stress, and grain orientation. Piping
systems are normally subject to low cycle fatigue, where applied loading cycles rarely exceed 105.
Failure from low cycle fatigue is prevented in design by ensuring that the predicted number of load
cycles for system life is less than the number allowed on a fatigue curve, or S-N curve, which
correlates applied stress with cycles to failure for a material. Because piping systems are generally
subject to varying operating conditions that may subject the piping to stresses that have significantly

different magnitudes, the following method can be used to combine the varying fatigue effects.
e. Support Spans
Spacing is a function of the size of the pipe, the fluid conveyed by piping system, the temperature of
the fluid, and the ambient temperature of the surrounding area. Determination of maximum allowable
spacing, or span between supports, is based on the maximum amount that the pipeline may deflect due
to load. Specific metallic piping materials have particular requirements for the design of piping
supports. Concentrated loads, such as valves, meters, and other fittings, should be independently
supported. As a thumb rule, spans for insulated lines should be reduced by approximately 30% from
those for un-insulated pipes. Calculations should be performed for each application since material
strength varies by temper and manufacturing method. Following Table summarizes support spacing for
carbon, stainless steel, nickel 200, and nickel 201 pipes. Support of nickel pipe should follow similar
principles of other metallic piping systems. Nickel 200 is pure wrought nickel. Nickel 201 is a lowcarbon alloy of nickel 200, for higher temperature applications.
When designing aluminium pipe system supports, either aluminium or padded pipe supports should be
specified. Aluminium will corrode when exposed to other metals. Contact with metals such as
copper, brass, nickel, and carbon steel should be avoided. The support spacing for aluminium alloy
6063 pipes is also given in Table below.
Typically, a deflection of 2.5 mm (0.1 in) is allowed, provided that the maximum pipe stress is
limited to 10.3 MPa (1,500 psi) or allowable design stress divided by a safety factor of 4, whichever
is less.
Code Requirements:
- Sets forth the engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of
pressure piping.
- Safety is the main consideration - The above alone will not govern the final specification for any
piping installation.
- Code is not a designs hand book.
- It does not do away with the need of designer or competent engineering judgment.

Design Pressure: Design Pressure shall


not be less than the pressure at most
severe condition of coincident internal /
External and temperature min / max
expected during service.
Design
Temperature:
Design
Temperature shall be the coincident
temperature at severe condition, such as, Fluid temp; ambient temp; and Heating or Cooling medium.
Internally Insulated Piping: To be determined by heat transfer calculation limitation of calculated
stresses due to sustained load and displacement strains, such as, (a) Internal pressure stresses; mill
tolerance 12.5% ; Min. thickness = T mill tolerance > t + C, where
C - Sum of mechanical allowance (thread) + corrosion allowance and t- Pressure design thickness.
P = Internal design pressure gage. D =

Outside diameter. S = Stress value for


material from table A-1. E = Quality
factor table A-1A / A-1B, Seamless
Pipe, E = 1.0; E R W Pipe, E = 0.85;
Furness butt welded Pipe, E = 0.6; Electric fusion welded Pipe, E = 0.95; Double Butt Welded and
100% radio graphed Pipe, E = 1.0. Y - Coefficient from table 304.1.1 t < D/6, t D / 6 d inside
diameter (max.); Function of material and design temperature 0.4 to 0.7.
Branch Reinforcement: t = 2.5 x (Thickness of pipe Mill tolerance Corrosion Allowance) for
header or 2.5 x (Thickness of pipe Mill tolerance Corrosion Allowance) for branch + Tr.
The term W, weight per length, is the uniformly distributed total weight of the piping system, and
includes the weight of the pipe, the contained fluid, insulation, and jacket, if appropriate. Due to the
many types of insulation, the weight must be calculated after the type of insulation is selected; see
Chapter 11 for insulation design.
Pipe
Bends:
The
thickness required is at
the mid-span at side wall
on bend centre line I =
1.0.
Mitre Bends: Angular
offset more than 3 deg are
required to be checked.

Table: Beam Coefficient (m)


Beam Coefficient (m )
Beam Characteristic
76.8
Simple, single span
185.2
Continuous, 2-span
144.9
Continuous, 3-span
153.8
Continuous, 4 or more span
Note: These values assume a beam with free ends and uniform loads.
For piping systems with
a fixed support, cantilever beam coefficients may be more
appropriate.
Source: Manual of Steel Construction,
Spacing of Supports: Proper spacing of supports is essential to the structural integrity of the piping

system. An improperly spaced support system will allow excessive deflection in the line. This can
cause structural failure of the piping system, typically at joints and fittings. Excessive stress can also
allow for corrosion of the pipe material by inducing stress on the pipe and, thereby, weakening its
resistance to corrosive fluids.
The amount of sag, or deflection in a span, is calculated from the following equation:
Where: y = deflection, mm (in); W = weight per
length, N/mm (lb/in); l = span, m (ft); n =
conversion factor, 10-3 m/mm (1 ft/12 in); m =
=
beam coefficient, E = modulus of elasticity of
mE I
pipe material, MPa (psi); I = moment of inertia,
mm4 (in4).
Improper spacing of supports can allow fluids to collect in the sag of the pipe. Supports should be
spaced and mounted so that piping will drain properly. The elevation of the down-slope pipe support
should be lower than the elevation of the lowest point of the sag in the pipe. This is determined by
calculating the amount of sag and geometrically determining the difference in height required.
W (l/n) 4
y

(l/n) 2 y
h=
0.25 (l/n) 2y2

Where: h = difference in elevation of


span ends, mm, (in); l = span, m (ft); n
= conversion factor, 10-3 m/mm (1
ft/12 in); y = deflection, mm (in).

Piping system shall be designed in such a way giving sufficient loops in the total runway of pipe to
have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction effect, movement or
displacement of piping supports effect and pull or thrust effect on the nozzle of the equipment. If the
piping is not efficiently designed flexible, it will get damaged due to the following effects:
The piping or supports fail due to overstressing or fatigue.
Leak at joint occurs due to pulling or pushing while expansion or contraction.
Distortion in piping and valve or in connected equipment such as pumps, compressors, or
turbine due to overstressing in pipe resulting from excessive thrusts and movement in piping. The
flexibility in piping system should meet the following requirement minimum to confirm the
flexibility.
(1) The computed stress range at any point due to displacement in the piping system should not
exceed the allowable stress range.
SA =

f (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh)

--------------------- (1)

Where, Sh > Sl, then the difference, i.e. (Sh Sl) must be added to the term 0.25 Sh above. In that
case it will be as mentioned below:
SA = f {1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh + (Sh Sl)} ----------------- (2)
= f {1.25 (Sc + Sh) - Sl}
Where, Sc = Basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature expected during the

displacement cycle under analysis. Sh = Basic allowable stress at maximum metal temperature
expected during the displacement cycle under analysis. F = Stress range reduction factor from the
table given here or calculated by equation on given below.
f = 6.0 (N) 0.2

1.0

----------------- (3)

Where, N = Equivalent number of full displacement cycles during the expected service life of the
piping system i.e. reaction forces computed as per equation given below should
not be
detrimental to supports or connected equipment.
R (1 2C) Em
Rm =
3 Ea

Where, Rm = Estimated instantaneous


maximum reaction force or moment for a
two anchor Piping system without
intermediate restraints and

C = Cold spring factor varying from zero (for no cold spring) to 1.0 (for 100% cold spring). Ea =
Modulus of elasticity at installation temperature. Em = Modulus of Elasticity at maximum or minimum
metal temperature. R = Range of reaction forces or moments derived from flexibility analysis
corresponding to the full displacement stress range and based on Ea. The computed moment of piping
should be within the limit and shall be properly accounted for in the flexibility calculation.

4.8

Pipe Supports-Design

The supports are required for supporting all concurrently acting loads due to weight effects such as
the weight of the piping, valves, fittings, insulating materials, suspended hanger components and all
appurtenances along with the weight of normal operating contents, loads introduced by service
pressure and temperatures, vibrations, wind, earthquake shock, the added weight of water used for
hydrostatic testing and displacement strain.
Calculating Pipes Weight: This is a weight calculating formula for steel pipes. If the outside
diameter and the wall thickness of a steel pipe are known, the weight per foot can be expressed as:
m = 10.68 (do - tw) tw

-------------------------------- (1)

Where, m = weight per foot (lbs/ft), do = outside diameter (inches), tw = wall thickness (inches.
Example: Weight of 4" Schedule 40 Steel Pipes. The outside diameter (do) of 4" Schedule 40 Steel
Pipe is 4.500 inches. The wall thickness is 0.237 inches. The weight per foot can be calculated using
(1) as:
m = 10.68 ((4.500 in) - (0.237 in)) (0.237 in) = 10.79 lbs/ft.
Purpose of pipe supports: The main purposes of layout and design of piping and support is to
prevent the followings:
Piping stress in excess of those permitted in the code.
Leakage at the joints.
Excessive thrust and moments on connected rotating equipment such as pump, turbine or
compressors.
Excessive stresses in the supporting elements.
Resonance with imposed or fluid induced vibrations.
Excessive interference with thermal expansion and contraction in piping which is otherwise
adequately flexible.
Unintentional disengagement of piping from its supports.
Excessive piping sag in piping requiring drainage slopes.
Excessive distortion or sag of piping (e.g., thermo plastics) subject to creep under conditions of
repeated thermal cycling.
Excessive heat flow, exposing supporting elements to temperature extremes outside their design
limit.
In general, the pipe supports location and design is done based an simple calculation and engineering
judgment. However, when a more refined design is required then the stresses, moments and reactions
determined during the piping flexibility analysis, are used in design of the piping supporting elements.
However, most of the supporting components are designed and standardized based on diameter,
temperature (hot or cold) and insulation required. Accordingly standard sketches of various types of
supports are given in MSS-SP-58 and SP-69. For special condition and high temperature line all
supports locations and supporting elements are design considering all the above factors after piping
flexibility and stress analysis.
Support Types: There are various types of supports used in piping system. These should be as

simple as conditions allow. Stock items are used wherever possible, especially for piping held from
above. To support piping from below, supports are usually made to suit from plates, pipes and pieces
of structural steel. Following hardware is used to create supports. However following supports are
mainly used in piping system.
The type of support selected is equally important to the design of the piping system. The stresses and
movements transmitted to the pipe factor in this selection. Pipe supports should not damage the pipe
material or impart other stresses on the pipe system. The expected movement at each support location
dictates the basic type of support.
The initial support design must address the load impact on each support. Typically, a moment-stress
calculation is used for 2-dimensional piping, and a simple beam analysis is used for a straight piperun.
If a pipe needs to have freedom of axial movement due to thermal expansion and contraction or other
axial movement, a roller type support is selected. If minor axial and transverse (and minimal vertical)
movements are expected, a hanger allowing the pipe to swing is selected. If vertical movement is
required, supports with springs or hydraulic dampers are required. Other structural requirements and
conditions that have the potential to affect piping systems and piping support systems are analyzed.
Pipes that connect to heavy tanks or pass under footings are protected from differential settlement by
flexible couplings. Similarly, piping attached to vibrating or rotating equipment is also attached with
flexible couplings.
Rest Support: The weight of the piping is usually carried on supports made from structural steel, or
steel and concrete.
Hanger Support: It is a device, which suspends piping (usually a single line) from structural steel,
concrete or wood. These are generally adjustable for height. The simple rod type hanger support,
suspended from top, or base, bracket, structural members are used where there is no movement or
negligible vertical and horizontal movement in the pipe. The simple rod type hanger support,
suspended from top, or base, bracket, structural members is permitted for used, even, where there is
zero vertical movement and limited or definite horizontal movement in the pipe, i.e. up to 4 degree
deflection in the overall length of vertical hanger rods. Hanger support includes pipe and beam
clamps, clips, brackets, rods, straps, chains, and other devices. They shall be proportioned to all
required loads to be hanged. The hanger support should not be provided at the centre of gravity of the
pipe because the hanger would then act as a pivot point and would not resist the sway. The hanger
support should also not be provided below the centre of gravity of the pipe because the unstable
turnover condition would result in the piping system. The hanger support should be provided, most
desirably, above the centre of gravity of the pipe

Figure: Flexibility Arrangements (Source: SAIC)

Anchor Support: A rigid support that prevents transmission of movement (thermal, vibratory etc.)
along piping. Construction may be from steel plate, brackets, flanges, rods, etc. Attachment of anchors
to pipe should preferably encircle the pipe and be welded all around as this gives better distribution
of stress in the pipe wall. Anchor type support is used to maintain an essentially fix position of the
pipe in all direction. For anchor the pipe in its location, anchors should be designed to withstand the
forces and movements as mentioned below:
Forces or moments required to compress, extend, offset or rotate the joints.
Static fraction of the pipe in moving on its supports between extreme extended and contracted
positions.
Operating and transient dynamic forces caused by the following medium or fluid.
Other piping forces or moments.
Pressure thrust of the pipe

The purpose of a main anchor is to divide a pipeline into individual expanding sections. This shall be
designed to withstand the full line thrust due to internal pressure plus the force required compressing
the expansion joint plus friction load. Anchors at bends such as elbows and centrifugal thrust also
shall be added. Anchors on straight pipe containing cap or valve, line thrust due to internal pressure
is,
Fs = AP
Where, Fs = Static thrust; A = Effective area or corrugation; P = Internal line pressure lb/ in2 or kg /
cm2. Anchors at pipe bends, such as elbows, etc., the line thrust due to internal pressure is: F
= Fc + Fs + F1A
Where, F = Total line thrust; Fc = Centrifugal thrust; Fs = Static thrust; FIA = Force required to
compress the spring.

V2
=
Sin

2 a Y Where, A = Internal Area of pipe; Y =


Density of fluid (lb / Ft3 or kg / m3); V =
= Angle
Fc Velocity (Ft / Sec or M/Sec.);
of pipe bend;
/2 a

Where, Fs = 2 op Sin

/2; a = Acceleration due to gravity (32.2 Ft/ Sec. 2 or 9.81 M / Sec. 2)

Intermediate Anchor Supports: Intermediate anchor shall be designed to withstand the force
necessary to compress the expansion joint to its full rated movement + Friction load.

Tie Support: It is an arrangement of one or more rods, bars etc. to restrain movement of piping.
Dummy Leg Support: In this an extension piece (of pipe or rolled steel section) is welded to an
elbow in order to support the line. This part rests or anchors on some steel member.
Guide: This is a means of allowing a pipe to move along its length, but not sideways. Proper
alignment is of vital importance in the installation of all expansion joints. The pipe guides are used to
maintain the alignment of the pipeline allowing moving freely in one direction. Guide spacious should
be in accordance with the following standard.
The first guide must be located within a distance of four pipe diameters from the expansion joint and
the second within fourteen pipe diameters from the first guide. Guide support is also one kind of
semi-anchor type. It is used to restrict movement of the pipe in transverse (perpendicular direction to
the axis of the pipe) and to allow movement of the pipe in axial direction. Guides are used to protect
terminal equipment or other weaker portion of the system by the side of the pipe. If control the
movement or to allow the expansion into those portions of the system which are designed to absorb
them. The guides also facilitate the expansion joint movements occur in the direction on for which the
expansion joint is designed.

Shoe: It is a piece of metal attached to the underside of a pipe, which rests on supporting steel. It is
primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. It permits insulation to be
applied to pipe.
Saddle: It is a welded attachment for pipe requiring insulation, and subject to longitudinal or rolling
movement (resulting from temperature changes other than climatic). Saddles may be used with guides.
Sliding Supports: In this two slide plates of graphite, Teflon or some special materials, fixed to steel
plates, are fixed to the flat surface of the pipe support. These plates are faced for low friction able to
withstand mechanical stress and temperature changes. The sliding supports are provided where the
piping is supported from below or at the bottom to facilitate the sliding movement of the pipe during
its horizontal movement. Sliding supports (or shoes) are the support where a saddle or a shoe is
welded with pipe and the same is resting on bracket. There is a height in the shoes to accommodate
insulation thickness. Sliding supports are designed to allow the movement in the pipe in axial
direction up to a designed length and a small movement in transverse direction.
Constant Load Hanger: This device consists of a coil spring and lever mechanism in housing.
Movement of the piping, within limits, will not change the spring force, holding up the piping; thus no
additional force will be introduced to the piping system.

Variable Spring Hanger: This device consists of a coil spring in housing. The weight of the piping
rests on the spring in compression. The spring permits limited amount of thermal movement. A
variable spring hanger holding up a vertical line will reduce its lifting force as the line expands
toward it. A variable spring support would increase its lifting force as the line expands towards it.
Both place load on piping system, and where this is undesirable, a constant-load hanger can be used
instead.
Hydraulic Dampener: These are also called as shock snobbier or sway suppressor. One end of the
unit is attached to the piping and the other to structural steel or concrete. The unit expands or contracts
to absorb slow movement of piping, but is rigid to rapid movement. A hydraulic cylinder type support
is used to give a constant supporting force to the pipe. Safety devices and stops are provided in the
hydraulic support to support the load in case of hydraulic failure.
Non-integral attachment type supports: These types of supports include clamps, U-bolts, cradles,
saddles, straps etc., in which the reaction between the piping and the support is by contact.
All the above types of supporting elements are used to suitably transmit the load of piping to a
foundation or heavy structures made and capable of bearing the load without deleterious effect
through supporting structural members like bracket etc.
Sway Brace: This is also called as sway arrestor. It is essentially a helical spring in a housing that is
fitted between piping and a rigid structure. Its function is to buffer vibration and sway.
Spring supports: Where there is the vertical movement in the pipe, the spring support should be
incorporated with spring cushions. Spring supports are designed to extent a supporting force at a
point of attachment to the pipe equal to the load as determined by the weight balance calculations.
They are provided with means to prevent misalignment, buckling or eccentric loading of the springs
and to prevent unintentional disengagement of the load. Constant spring hangers provide a
substantially uniform supporting force throughout the range of travel. The use of this type of spring
hanger is advantageous at locations subjected to appreciably movement with thermal changes. The
type of hanger spring supports should be selected so that their travel range exceeds expected
movement of the pipe. All spring support shall be provided with a lock of prevent the overstressing
the spring hangers due to excessive deflections and also with a position indicator to indicate the total
travel of the springs. There are two types of spring supports, commonly used n piping: (1) the coiledspring vibration dampener support and (2) the hydraulic vibration dampener support, which operates
by means of a controlled flow of fluid through an orifice and whose resistance to the movement of the
pipe increases with the speed of the displacement of the pipe. The distinctive advantage of the
hydraulic hanger support is that there is a minimum resistance to the movement of the pipe due to
thermal expansion in the pipe. Further, there are two types of the coiled-vibration dampener support:
(a) the opposed-spring type and (b) the double acting spring support.
Roller support: Where there is an assured movement in the pipe along the axis and in the transverse
direction, a roller support can be used at the bottom of the pipe to provide the movement of the pipe
in both directions.
Counter weight supports: Counter weight support is made of chains, cables hangers, rocker arms
and other devices to stop the limit of travel of the pipe as well as to attach the counter weight load to
the piping.
Nozzle Support: Piping connected to centrifugal pumps or equipments is supported properly to avoid
the followings:
Stress in the pipe due to pressure, thermal expansion and contraction, weight, and wind loading do
not exceed the values, which the pump can safely sustain. Although piping reactions and stresses can

be evaluated accurately and the stress imitation for the pipe is closely defined, the values of
acceptable reaction on pumps are not so well defined.
The following notes define limits of piping reaction on pump, and describe support procedures that
have proved satisfactory in the past.

Fig: Spring Supports


Selection of Pipe Support: The selection of support types is dependent upon four criteria: the
temperature rating of the system, the mechanism by which the pipe attaches to the support, protective
saddles that may be included with the support, and the attachment of the support to the building or
other structures. Support types are most commonly classified in accordance with MSS SP-58. Figure
3-2 displays some of the support types applicable to liquid process piping systems. The selection of
the appropriate support type is made according to MSS SP-69. Table 3-8 provides guidance for
process system temperatures.

Some piping systems utilize protective saddles between the pipe and the support member. This is
done to minimize the stress on the pipe from point loads. In addition, pipe insulation requires
protection from supports. Saddles support piping without damaging insulation.
The method by which the supports attach to buildings or other structures is addressed by the design.
Typical pipe supports are in the form of hangers, supporting the pipe from above. These hangers may
be attached to a ceiling, beam, or other structural member. Pipelines may be supported from below as
well, with pipe stanchions or pipe racks. Pipe supports may be rigidly attached to a structure, or
allow for a pivoting axial motion, depending on the requirements of the system.
Some piping systems require adjustable pipe supports. One reason for this requirement is the cold
spring action. Cold spring is the action whereby a gap is left in the final joint of a piping run to allow
for thermal expansion of the pipeline. This action results in the offset of all points along the piping
system, including the attachments to pipe supports, and requires that supports be adjustable to
accommodate this offset. From a maintenance consideration, cold springing should be avoided if
possible through proper thermal expansion and stress analyses. Vertical adjustment is also usually
necessary for pipe supports. Settlement, particularly in new construction, may result in an improper
deflection of the elevation of a pipe support. To maintain the proper slope in the pipeline, thereby
avoiding excessive sag between supports and accumulation of the product being carried by the pipe,
the possibility of vertical adjustment is accommodated in the design of pipe supports.
Table: Pipe Support- Support-Span in Meter
Pipe
Size
INCH

1
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

Gas Line
Bare
Insulated Pipe
Pipe
Up to 300
3000C -4000C
4.5
3.5
2.5
5.0
4.0
3.0
6.0
5.0
4.5
6.5
5.0
4.5
8.0
6.5
5.5
9.0
7.5
6.5
11.0
9.5
8.5
12.0
11.0
10.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

Liquid Line
Bare
Insulated Pipe
Pipe
Up to 300 -4000C
3000C
4.0
3.0
2.0
4.5
3.5
3.0
5.0
4.5
3.5
5.5
4.5
3.5
6.5
6.0
5.0
7.5
7.0
6.0
9.0
8.0
7.5
10.0
10.0
9.0
12.0
10.5
10.5
12.0
12.0
11.5
12.0
12.0
11.5
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

Table: Pipe Support- Guide Support-Span in Meter

Pipe Size

1
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

(inch)

Vertical Line
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
10.0
10.0
12.0
12.0
14.0
14.0
16.0
16.0
16.0

Horizontal Line
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
18.0
18.0
24.0
24.0
30.0
30.0
30.0
36.0
36.0
42.0
42.0

Table: Pipe Support- Support-Span in Meter


Nominal
Pipe
Size,
mm (in)
15 (0.5)
20 (0.75)
25 (1)
40 (1.5)
50 (2)

Maximum Support Spacing, m (ft)


SS Sch 5S SS
Sch CS Sch 40 SS
Sch CS Sch 80
10S
40S
2.9 (9.4)
3.2 (10.3)
3.4 (11.2)
3.8 (12.6)
4.1 (13.4)

2.9 (9.6)
3.2 (10.6)
3.6 (11.9)
4.2 (13.8)
4.5 (14.9)

80 (3)

4.8 (15.7)

5.2 (17.1)

100 (4)

5.0 (16.5)

5.6 (18.3)

150 (6)

5.9 (19.4)

6.3 (20.6)

200 (8)

6.2 (20.2)

6.8 (22.4)

250 (10)

7.1 (23.3)

7.4 (24.1)

300 (12)

7.4 (24.3)

7.8 (25.6)

2.1 (7.0) *
2.1 (7.0) *
2.1 (7.0) *
2.7 (9.0) *
3.0 (10.0)
*
3.7 (12.0)
*
4.3 (14.0)
*
5.2 (17.0)
*
5.8 (19.0)
*
6.1 (22.0)
*
7.0 (23.0)
*

2.9 (9.6)
3.3 (10.7)
3.6 (12.0)
4.3 (14.2)
4.8 (15.6)

2.5 (8.3)
2.9 (9.4)
3.2 (10.5)
3.9 (12.7)
4.3 (14.1)

5.8 (18.9)

5.2 (17.1)

6.4 (21.0)

5.8 (19.2)

7.5 (24.6)

7.0 (23.0)

8.3 (27.4)

7.9 (25.8)

9.1 (30.0)

8.7 (28.7)

9.8 (32.2)

9.5 (31.1)

Notes: CS - ERW Carbon Steel ASTM A 53, grade A.; SS - seamless


stainless steel ASTM A 312, TP316L.
Table: Nickel Pipe Support- Support-Span in Meter
Nominal
Pipe
Size,
mm (in)
15 (0.5)
20 (0.75)
25 (1)
40 (1.5)

Ni 200,
Sch 5

Maximum Support Spacing, m (ft)


Ni 201, Ni 200, Ni 201, Ni 200,
Sch 5
Sch 10
Sch 10
Sch 40

Ni 201,
Sch 40

2.4 (7.8) 2.1 (6.9) 2.4 (7.9) 2.1 (6.9) 2.4 (7.9) 2.1 (6.9)
2.6 (8.6) 2.3 (7.5) 2.7 (8.8) 2.3 (7.7) 2.7 (8.8) 2.4 (7.8)
2.9 (9.4) 2.5 (8.2) 3.0 (9.8) 2.6 (8.6) 3.0 (9.9) 2.6 (8.7)
3.2
2.8 (9.3) 3.5
3.1
3.6
3.1
(10.6)
(11.5)
(10.1)
(11.8)
(10.3)
50 (2)
3.4
3.0 (9.9) 3.8
3.3
4.0
3.5
(11.3)
(12.5)
(10.9)
(13.0)
(11.4)
80 (3)
4.0
3.5
4.4
3.8
4.8
4.2
(13.2)
(11.6)
(14.4)
(12.6)
(15.7)
(13.8)
100 (4)
4.3
3.7
4.7
4.1
5.3
4.7
(14.0)
(12.3)
(15.4)
(13.6)
(17.5)
(15.3)
150 (6)
4.5
4.0
4.8
4.3
5.6
5.0
(14.7)
(13.2)
(15.6)
(14.0)
(18.4)
(16.4)
200 (8)
4.7
4.2
5.2
4.6
6.3
5.6
(15.4)
(13.8)
(17.0)
(15.2)
(20.5)
(18.4)
250 (10) 5.4
4.8
5.6
5.0
6.9
6.1
(17.8)
(15.9)
(18.3)
(16.4)
(22.5)
(20.1)
300 (12) 5.7
5.1
5.9
5.3
7.4
6.6
(18.5)
(16.6)
(19.4)
(17.4)
(24.2)
(21.6)
Notes: Ni 200 = seamless nickel ASTM B 161, alloy N02200, annealed.
Ni 201 = seamless nickel ASTM B 161, alloy N02201, annealed. Span
lengths are based on a piping system that is a simple single span. Pipe run
is not insulated, has a full flow condition that is essentially water and is
subject to a maximum operating condition of 93 C (200 F).

Fig: Supports Location Piping Drawing

Figure: Pipe Supports for Ambient Applications


(Source: MSS-SP-69. Pipe Hangers and Supports)

Table: Aluminium Pipe Support- Support-Span in Meter


Nominal
Maximum Support Spacing, m (ft)
Pipe
Size, mm Al
6063, Al
6063, Al
6063, Al
6063,
(in)
Sch 5
Sch 10
Sch 40
Sch 80
15 (0.5)

2.3 (7.6)

2.4 (8.0)

2.5 (8.3)

2.6 (8.5)

20 (0.75)
2.5 (8.1)
2.6 (8.6)
25 (1)
2.6 (8.5)
3.0 (9.7)
40 (1.5)
2.7 (9.0)
3.2 (10.6)
50 (2)
2.8 (9.3)
3.4 (11.1)
80 (3)
3.2 (10.7)
3.7 (12.2)
100 (4)
3.3 (10.9)
3.9 (12.6)
150 (6)
3.8 (12.6)
4.2 (13.8)
200 (8)
3.9 (12.9)
4.5 (14.7)
250 (10)
4.5 (14.8)
4.8 (15.6)
300 (12)
4.7 (15.4)
5.0 (16.4)
Notes:
Al 6063 = seamless aluminium ASTM B
welded joints.

2.8 (9.1)
3.1 (10.1)
3.6 (11.4)
3.7 (12.3)
4.5 (14.7)
4.9 (16.0)
5.5 (18.1)
6.0 (19.8)
6.5 (21.4)
6.9 (22.7)

2.9 (9.4)
3.2 (10.5)
3.7 (12.2)
4.0 (13.3)
4.8 (15.9)
5.3 (17.5)
6.3 (20.5)
6.9 (22.7)
7.6 (25.0)
8.2 (27.1)

241 A96063, type T6 with

Piping Reaction at Pump: Pumps with vertical nozzles are capable of withstanding a limited amount
of Vertical weight load. However, rod hangers shall be located on all suction and discharge lines
above or close to vertical nozzles in order to:
Reduce overturning moments on pumps due to dead weight.
Facilitate the thermal unloading required to correct unavoidable fabrication errors.
General Note on Support: Temporary Supports shall be provided before Hydrostatic Testing for
bare vapour line. Pipe support saddle material & wall Thickness shall be same of pipe & size of 900
in width x 300 long at point of support bearing surface.
The basic span is based on the corrosion allowance, such as, for line up to 1 = 0.05 and for line
above 2 = 0.1. The Guide Spacing is indicative only.
Line 10 and above need not be provided with Guide unless required by Stress group.
Support locations are independent of pipe size, piping configuration, location of heavy valves and
fittings, and the structure, which is available in the plant in the piping. These support spacing may
vary to suit the column spacing. The above spacing is for straight run of pipe and does not include the
guides, which are required for control of thermal expansion or movements of pipe.
The following span between the pipe supports are based on a combined bending stress and the shear
stress of 1500 psi when the pipe filled with water and the allowed deflection of pipe between the
supports amounting to the max. 2.55 mm. Wherever, there are concentrated weights such as valves or
heavy fittings or where there is change in direction of piping system, this support span is not
applicable Wherever there is change in the direction of the piping, it is advisable to keep the total
length of the pipe between the supports less than 3/4th of the full spans as given in the table. It is also
advisable to provide a hanger support at the location immediately adjacent to any change in direction
of piping.
The piping systems have been classified into the following three temperature conditions in order to
provide the criteria for selection of the supports such as hangers, anchors or the other type of
supports:
a) Hot Temperature Conditions: The temperature ranging from 1200F to and above, such as lowpressure steam, hot water, and hot process piping; boiler plant piping, and high-pressure steam
piping.
Ambient Temperature Conditions: In this condition, the pipe is neither heated nor cold. It is at the

atmospheric temperature condition.


Cold Temperature Conditions: The operating temperature 290C and below, such as chilled water
piping, brine system piping or the cryogenic system piping.
Friction Load: The thermal movement of pipe exerts a horizontal on the supporting member due to
frictional resistance. These forces are independent of the line temperature and the amount of
movement taking place.
The frictional forces are in the order of 0.2 to 0.3 times the dead load at the point of support. Thus the
Pipe, 500 feet of 30 diameter X 0.375 wall thickness and full of oil and 2 insulation, will produce
a frictional resistance of about 25 tons.
Ten Basic Steps of providing Pipe Support: Procedure for the design and selection of pipe supports
has been broken into the followings 10 basic steps of providing the pipe supports,
1. Make Isometric piping sketch.
2. Spot preliminary location of hanger on the sketch.
3. Study building steel structure and adjust location of hangers to suit the same.
4. Check for interference
5. Calculate distribution of weight of piping
6. Summarize hanger loading
Calculate distribution of vertical expansion to hangers
Calculate distribution of equipment vertical movement to hangers
9. Summarize hanger movements
10. Choose hangers loading and movements
The two main factors governing selection of pipe hangers are;
1. Changes resulting from thermal expansion, which causes movement of pipe due to increase of
length of legs and displacement of equipment connections.
2. Weight to be supported, which depends on pipe, flowing medium, insulation type, and number
and type of fittings in line supported.

4.9
Design

Piping Assembling Joints-

While designing the piping system, the pipe joints shall be selected to suit the material & the fluid
service with respect to joint tightness, mechanical strength and permissible leakage through the joints,
test condition of pressure, temperature and external loading. Piping joints are of the following types:
Butt-Welded joint; Socket-welded joint; Fillet-welded joint; Threaded joint: a) With seal welding,
b) Without seal welding; Flange joint; Flared Joints: a) Flared tube joint; b) Flare less tube
joint; Compression type tube joint; Caulked Joints; Expanded Joints; Packed Joints; Special joints:
a) Bell type b) Packed gland type.
1. Welded Joints: Piping components are welded together with each other end to end with the
bevelling at the end to make a V-groove for welding. Backing ring shall not be used for butt-welding.
Efficiency factor for butt-welded joint is considered as noted below:
Without Radiography, Ej= 0.80
With spot Radiography, Ej= 0.90
With 100% Radiography, Ej= 1.00
Bevelling of Butt-Welded Joint Standards:

Socket welds: In case of socket weld, one part is put into other machined part and then it is welded
at the junction point (meeting with each other) outside as shown in figure below.
Socket joints shall be avoided as much as possible as it propagates Crevice corrosion and severe
erosion. However, socket welded joints are permitted in pipe size 1 below in normal category,
category-D and severe cyclic condition category service but not in high pressure category service.
Fillet Welds: Fillet welds are used for slip-on flanges piping or on supporting saddle or shoe
welding. Use of slip on flange is limited to Normal category of fluid service only.
2) Threaded Joints: Threaded joints are allowed in normal or category-D fluid service condition.
Threaded joints may be used under severe cyclic condition for a limited purpose such as Pressure
Gauge connection, drain & vent plug or caps or other place with safeguarding. Threaded joints shall
be avoided in any service where crevice corrosion, severe erosion or cyclic loading or stress may
occur. The thickness or schedule of male in relation to the size the piping components to be threaded
for making thread joints shall be strictly as per code requirements. It is always better to have a
flanged joint in piping assembly. However, sometimes we use the Threaded joints in assembly of the
piping system. Following care should be taken while assembling the Threaded joints:
All threads should be tapered and as per ANSI B 2.1.
Any compound or lubricant to use on the threaded joint should be suitable for the service conditions

and should not react unfavourably with either the fluid service or the piping material.
Any kind of sealing compound should not be applied on the Threaded joint to be seal welded. The
seal welding of the Threaded joint should be done full threading.
The compound if applied on the threaded joint should be removed and the joint should be cleaned
thoroughly before seal welding.
All the threaded joints should be completely in a straight line to avoid the leakage through the
threaded joint.
3) Flange Joints: The flange joints are made with the help of companion flanges installed on the
pipe. Then, a suitable gasket is put in between two flanges faces. The flanges are tightened with
suitable bolts and nuts. Assembly of Flange Joints is inspected thoroughly for the damage of the
gasket seating surfaces where gasket is seating. If any damage is found on the flange faces, the flange
is rejected and a good flange is selected for installing on the pipe. The gasket should uniformly be
compressed in between the flanges. For this, a special care is taken while tightening the flanges. The
flange should be tightened uniformly all around. The bolt length should be sufficient long to extend
completely through their nuts with minimum two to three threads out of their nuts. All bolts should be
equal in length. Gasket should not be more than one in the flange contact faces while assembling the
flanged joint. There are mainly four type of flanges used in piping system such as,
Weld Neck Flange: It is welded end to end with mating component with a groove weld.
Unless otherwise safeguarded, weld neck flange shall be used in severe cyclic conditions and
higher ratings.
Slip-on Flange: It is double welded by inserting the mating component inside the flange and fillet
welded at both ends. The use of slip-on flanges should be avoided where many large temperature
cycles are expected.
Threaded Flange: The inside threaded surface is tightened on the threaded piping
components.
Socket Weld Flange: Mating components is inserted into the flange and both are welded
together at outside junction point with fillet weld. Socket weld flange may be used in 1 inch and
below in severe cyclic condition.
In piping assembly, few joints are to be made, necessarily, with flanges for the following reasons:
For maintenance of the pipe as and when required.
For installation of the valves to control the flow of the fluid passing through the pipe.
For installation of the instruments to monitor the total system during operation.
Other miscellaneous work.
4) Flared Joints: In piping assembly, there is too much tubing work to connect the different tapings on
the pipe to the different instruments for operational control purpose. The tubing materials are
generally stainless steel. The union joint connects the tubes with the help of a flare. Special care
should be taken in Flared Joint. The sealing surface of the flare joint should be inspected for
imperfections before assemble of the joint. Any flare having the imperfections should be rejected.
Where the manufacturer have supplied a instruction manual and called for a specific number of turns
of the nut, this should be counted from the point at which the nut becomes finger tight.
5) Caulked Joints: Caulked Joints should be installed as per the instruction of the manufacturer and
care should be taken to ensure adequate engagement of the joint members
6) Expanded Joints: The Expanded Joints should be installed as per the instruction of the
manufacturer and care should be taken to ensure the adequate engagement of the joint members.
7) Packed Joints: The Packed Joint is installed to absorb the thermal expansion in the piping system.

A proper clearance, as specified by the manufacturer, should be provided at the bottom of the socket
to allow the movement. The Packed Joint should be installed in accordance with the manufacturers
instruction and a special care should be taken to ensure the engagement of the joint members.

4.10
Design Engineering and
Limitations
Materials: Any listed Components made of materials not covered in pressure temperature rating but
have the same allowable stress as the rated pipe, should be rated not more than 87.5% of nominal
thickness of seamless pipe in respect of schedule weight or pressure class of the fittings less all
allowances applied to the pipe (i.e., thread depth & corrosion allowance). Unlisted components but
conforming in respect of composition, mechanical properties, method of manufacturing and quality
control to a specification or standard of a listed materials may be used subject to pressure design is
verified according to code.
Components made of cast iron or other non-ductile material shall not be used in pressure piping.
Allowable Stress: Allowable Stress should not be more than the yield strength at temperature. The
sum of (combined) longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight and other sustained loading and of
the stress produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake should not be more than 1.33
times the basic allowable stress given in ANSI B 31.3, Appendix A. For casting, the basic allowable
stresses should be multiplied by the casting quality factor (EC). Allowances should be included in the
minimum design thickness of piping components for corrosion, erosion and thread depth or groove
depth.
Pipe Wall Thickness: Thickness of a piping component shall be increased to prevent over stress,
damage, collapse or buckling due to super imposed loads from supports, ice formation, backfill or
other causes.
Bends: The minimum thickness (tm) of the bend, after bending, shall not be less than the pipe
thickness. An angular offset of 3 degree or less does not require design consideration as mitre bend.
Mitre Bends: The maximum allowable internal pressure in a mitre bend, which angle does not
exceeds 22.50, should be less than PM
Where,
SE (T C)
r2

PM =
r2

(T - C)
PM =
(T C) + 0.643 tan

SE (T C)
x
R1 0.5 r2

x
r2 (T - C)

R 1 - r2

Where, C = the sum of the allowances and mechanical Allowances. E


= Quality factors
PM = Maximum allowable internal pressure; r2 = Mean radius of pipe using nominal wall thickness;
R1 =
Effective radius of mitre bend from the centre of the pipe; S = Basic allowable stress;
T = Pipe wall thickness; = Angle of mitre cut =Half of angle (
) of change in direction of mitre

joint.
A mitre bend made with groove but weld as per above requirement and having Ej >= 0.90 (i.e. with
spot radiography), should be used in category-D fluid service and normal category fluid service.
A mitre bend made with groove but weld as per above requirement and having Ej=1.0 (i.e. 100%
radiography) may be used in category of severe cyclic conditions.
A mitre bend shall not be used in category-M fluid service or category high-pressure fluid
service.
Fitting confirming to MSS-SP-43 and Proprietary Type-C Lap-Joint stub end welding fittings
should not be used in severe cyclic conditions fluid service.
Creased or corrugated bend shall not be used in severe cyclic condition fluid service and higher
ratings.
In the mitre joint, the length of pipe shall extend not less than `M` distance from the inside crotch
of the end mitre bends where,
M = the larger of 2.5 (r2 T) 0..5

or

(R1 - r2) .. (i)

Branch: Fabricated branch connection (by welding the branch pipe on run pipe) may be used in
category-D and Normal fluid service conditions but shall not be used in severe cyclic condition
service and higher rating. Branch Connection can be used subject to the following conditions:
Dn
i.e.
100

<

Tn
D
<= 1
B

I . E.

Dn

The run pipe diameter-to-thickness ratio (Dn / Tn)


is less than 100.
AND THE BRANCH- TO - RUN PIPE DIAMETER RATIO IS
NOT GREATER THAN 1.
When run pipe (Dn/Tn) is more than 100 i.e.
(Dn/Tn) > 100. The branch diameter-to-run
diameter ratio ( Db / Dn ) is less than one-half
(1/2)

i.e. (Db / Dn) < When angle


(Angle between branch and
run pipe is less or equal to 45 degree. The
0.5
axis of the branch pipe must intersect the axis
of run pipe.
Laps: Fabricated laps or flared laps may be used in category-D and Normal fluid service but shall
not be used in severe cyclic conditions service and higher ratings.
Blanks: The minimum required thickness of a blank shall be not less than tm,

tm = dg
C

Where, dg = inside diameter of


3p
+ gasket for raised or flat face, or the
pitch diameter of the RTJ and fully
retained gasket.
16 SE

Flange: Slip-on flange should be avoided where High-Temperature cycles are expected. Weld neck
flange shall be used under severe cyclic condition and higher ratings. Slip-on and Socket Welding
flanges are not recommended for service below -50 0 F temperature of flanges and subject to thermal
cycling
Bolts: Bolts having yield strength less that 207 MB (30 KSI) shall not be used for flanged joints,
ANSI RATING 300# and above. Carbon steel bolts may be used for metal temperature-29 0 C to 204
0
C inclusive and ANSI Rating 300# and lower.
Tapped Holes: Tapped holes for pressure retaining bolting in metallic piping components shall be of
sufficient depth that the thread arrangement will be at least seven eight times the nominal thread
diameter.
Reducers: Concentric reducer shall be used in vertical pipe. Eccentric reducer shall be used with
straight face at topside up near pump suction piping connection to avoid air pocket to suction.
Eccentric reducer shall be used with straight face at bottom side down at other places in horizontal
line to maintain the bottom line elevation same.
Welding: Backing rings shall not be used in pressure piping welding. Socket weld joints should be
avoided in any service where crevice corrosion or severe erosion may occur. Socket weld larger than
1 shall not be used.
Metal to Non-metal Flange Joint: Where metallic flange is bolted to a non-metallic flange, both
flanges shall be flat face and with a full faced gasket should be provided between them.
Expanded Joints: Expanded joints shall not be used under severe cyclic conditions and higher
ratings. In other service, a special precaution shall be taken to prevent separation of the joint.
Threaded Joints: Threaded joints can be used for normal fluid service without loading and stresses.
It may be used for severe cyclic condition where external moment loading is not subjected such as
thermocouple well, pressure gauge connection etc. Threaded joint shall be avoided in any service
where crevice corrosion, severe erosion or cyclic loading or thermal expansion, contraction may
occur. Piping joints shall be selected based on piping material and the fluid service with
consideration of joint tightness/permissible leakage and mechanical strength under expected service
condition of pressure, temperature, and external loading.
Piping Flexibility: Poissons Ratio shall be taken as 0.3 at all temperature for all the metals for
calculating piping flexibility.
Nominal thickness, outside diameters of pipe and fitting shall be used for flexibility
calculation.
Valves: Extended bonnet valve are reconnected where a temperature differential between the valve
stem packing and the fluid in the piping is to be maintain to avoid packing leakage and external icing
or other heat flux problem occurs.
Gaskets: Full-face gasket shall be used in flat face flange.

4.11
- Data

Piping Engineering Standards


Table: Standard Pipe Dimensions

ISO

ANSI
Nominal
Pipe
Size
(in)

1
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
40
42
44
48
52
56

Actual D Nominal Pipe Size


(in)
(mm)
(in)

Actual Do
(mm)

(in)

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.900
2.375
3.500
4.500
6.625
8.625
10.75
12.75
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00
32.00
34.00
36.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
48.00
52.00
56.00

20
25
32
50
63
90
110
160
225
280
315
356
407
457
508
559
610
660
711
762
813
864
914
1016
1067
1118
1219
1321
1422

(0.787)
(0.984)
(1.260)
(1.969)
(2.480)
(3.543)
(4.331)
(6.299)
(8.858)
(11.024)
(12.402)
(14.00)
(16.00)
(18.00)
(20.00)
(22.00)
(24.02)
(25.98)
(27.99)
(30.00)
(32.00)
(34.02)
(35.98)
(40.00)
(42.00)
(44.00)
(48.00)
(52.00)
(56.00)

15
20
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
1000
1050
1100
1200
1300
1400

(0.591)
(0.787)
(0.984)
(1.575)
(1.969)
(3.150)
(3.937)
(5.906)
(7.874)
(9.843)
(11.81)
(13.78)
(15.75)
(17.72)
(19.69)
(21.65)
(23.62)
(25.59)
(27.56)
(29.53)
(31.50)
(33.46)
(35.43)
(39.37)
(41.34)
(43.31)
(47.24)
(51.18)
(55.12)

60

60.00

1500

(59.06)

1524

(60.00)

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF 100 PERCENT OPENING VALVES AND FITTINGS IN


FEET (API RP 14E)
Swing Plug
Globe
Check Valve
90 Short
90 Long
Valve
45 Elbow
Branch of Tee
Nominal
Valve /
Radius Elbow Radius Elbow
Or
Pipe
Angle
Gate
Ball
Size
Valve
Valve
Type
(Inches)
Or
Check
Ball WeldedThreadedWeldedThreadedWeldedThreadedWeldedThread
Valve
Valve
1.5
55 26
13
1
1
2
3
5
2
3
8
9
2
70 33
17
2
2
3
4
5
3
4
10
11
2.5
80 40
20
2
2
-5
-3
-12
-3
100 50
25
2
2
-6
-4
-14
-4
130 65
32
3
3
-7
-5
-19
-6
200 100 48
4
4
-11
-8
-28
-8
260 125 64
6
6
-15
-9
-37
-10
330 160 70
7
7
-18
-12
-47
-12
400 190 95
9
9
-22
-14
-55
-14
450 210 105 10
10
-26
-16
-62
-16
500 240 120 11
11
-29
-18
-72
-18
550 280 140 12
12
-33
-20
-82
-20
650 300 155 14
14
-36
-23
-90
-22
688 335 170 15
15
-40
-25
-100
-24
750 370 185 16
16
-44
-27
-110
-- 30 -- - -- -- -- -- -- - -- - 21
-55
40
140
- 36 -- - -- -- -- -- -- - -- - 25
-66
47
170
- 42 -- - -- -- -- -- -- - -- - 30
-77
55
200
- 48 -- - -- -- -- -- -- - -- - 35
-88
65
220

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF 100 PERCENT


OPENING VALVES AND FITTINGS IN FEET
(API RP 14E)
Enlargement
Contraction

Nominal
Pipe
Size
(Inches)

Sudden
Reducer

Standard
Sudden
Reducer
Reducer
Equivalent length in terms of small diameter

Standard
Reducer

d/d=1/4d/d=1/2d/d=3/4d/d=1/2d/d=3/4d/d=1/4d/d=1/2d/d=3/4d/d=1/2d/d=3/4
1.5
5
3
1
4
1
2
7
4
1
5
1
2.5
8
5
2
6
2
3
10
6
2
8
2
4
12
8
3
10
3
6
18
12
4
14
4
8
25
16
5
19
5
10
31
20
7
24
7
12
37
24
8
28
8
14
42
26
9
----16
47
30
10
--18
53
35
11
--20
60
38
13
--22
65
42
14
--24
70
46
15
--30
----------36
-----42
-----48
-----54
-----60
-----NOTES: 1. Source of data is NGPSA Data Book.
2. d is inside diameter of smaller outlet.
3. D is inside diameter of larger outlet.

3
3
4
5
6
9
12
15
18
20
24
26
30
32
35
--------

2
3
3
4
5
7
9
12
14
16
18
20
23
25
27
--------

Dimensions (i.e. Minimum Wall Thickness) of welded and


seamless Pipe, Fittings & Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Outside
Size in Diameter SCHEDULE / THICKNESS in INCH
5S
10S
40S
80S
1/8
0.405
--0.049 0.068
0.095
1/4
0.540
--0.065 0.088
0.119
3/8
0.675
--0.065 0.091
0.126
1/2
0.840 0.065 0.083 0.109
0.147

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
--------

1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
---------------

-----1
2
2
2
---------------

3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14 O. D
16 O. D
18 O. D
20 O. D
22 O. D
24 O. D
26 O. D
28 O. D
30 O. D
32 O. D
34 O. D
36 O. D
42 O. D

1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.75
12.75
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
42.0

0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.083
0.083
0.083
0.083
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.134
0.156
0.156
0.165
0.165
0.188
0.188
0.218
--0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065

0.083
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.134
0.134
0.148
0.165
0.180
0.188
0.188
0.188
0.218
0.218
0.250
----0.25
---------

0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.276
0.237
0.258
0.28
0.322
0.365
0.375
---------------------------

0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.500
0.500
---------------------------

Note: Schedule 5S & 10S wall thickness do not permit


Dimensions (i.e. Minimum Wall Thickness) of welded and
seamless Pipe, Fittings & Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Outside
Size in Diameter
SCHEDULE / THICKNESS in INCH
Sch
Sch
10 Sch 20 30 Sch Std. Sch 40
1/8
0.405 ------0.068
0.068
1/4
0.540 ------0.088
0.088
3/8
0.675 ------0.091
0.091

1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
3 1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14 O. D
16 O. D
18 O. D
20 O. D
22 O. D
24 O. D
26 O. D
28 O. D
30 O. D
32 O. D
34 O. D
36 O. D
42 O. D

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.75
12.75
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
42.0

------------------------------0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.250
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.312

------------------------0.250
0.250
0.250
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500

------------------------0.277
0.307
0.330
0.375
0.375
0.438
0.500
0.500
0.562
--0.625
0.625
0.625
0.625
0.625
0.625

0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
0.406
0.438
0.5
0.562
0.594
--0.688
------0.688
0.688
0.750
---

Note: Schedule 5S & 10S wall thickness do not permit

DIMENSIONS OF WELDED AND SEAMLESS PIPE (i. e.


MINIMUM DIMENSIONS OF WELDED ENDS OF
FITTING AND FLANGES)
Nominal Wall Thickness (in)
Pipe
Size Outside
in Dia.
Schedule

1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1
1/4
1
1/2
2
2
1/2
3
3
1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
42

0.405
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315

Sch Sch Sch


60 Extra 80
Strong
--- 0.095 0.095
--- 0.119 0.119
--- 0.126 0.126
--- 0.147 0.147
--- 0.154 0.154
--- 0.179 0.179

1.660

--- 0.191 0.191 ---

---

--- 0.250 0.382

1.900
2.375

--- 0.200 0.200 ----- 0.218 0.218 ---

-----

--- 0.281 0.400


--- 0.344 0.406

2.875
3.5

--- 0.276 0.276 ----- 0.300 0.300 ---

-----

--- 0.375 0.552


--- 0.438 0.600

4.0
4.5
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.75
12.75
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
36.0
42.0

Sch Sch Sch Sch Sch X


100 120 140 160 X
Strong
--- --- --- ------- --- --- ------- --- --- ------- --- --- 0.188 0.294
--- --- --- 0.219 0.308
--- --- --- 0.250 0.358

--- 0.318 0.318 --- --- --- ------- 0.337 0.337 --- 0.438
0.531 0.674
--- 0.375 0.375 --- 0.500 --- 0.625 0.750
--- 0.432 0.432 --- 0.562 --- 0.719 0.864
0.406 0.500 0.500 0.594 0.719 0.812 0.906 0.875
0.500 0.500 0.594 0.719 0.844 1.000 1.125 0.875
0.562 0.500 0.688 0.844 1.000 1.125 1.312 1.000
0.594 0.500 0.750 0.938 1.094 1.250 1.406 1.000
0.656 0.500 0.844 1.031 1.219 1.438 1.594 --0.750 0.500 0.938 1.156 1.375 1.562 1.781 --0.812 0.500 1.031 1.281 1.500 1.750 1.969 --0.875 0.500 1.125 1.375 1.625 1.875 2.125 --0.969 0.500 1.218 1.531 1.812 2.062 2.344 ----- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- ------- 0.500 --- --- --- --- -----

Note: All units are in inches

Pipe
Size

1
1.5
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
30

Outside
Diameter
21.34
26.67
33.41
48.26
60.33
88.90
114.30
141.30
168.28
219.08
273.05
323.85
355.60
406.40
457.20
508.00
609.60
762.00

Schedule/Thickness of Pipe (in mm)


5S 10S 20S 30S STD S40
1.66 ---2.77 2.77
1.66 ---2.87 2.87
1.66 ---3.38 3.38
1.66 ---3.68 3.68
1.66 ---3.91 3.91
2.11 ---5.49 5.49
2.11 ---6.02 6.02
2.11 ---6.55 6.55
2.77 ---7.11 7.11
2.77 -6.35 7.04 8.18 8.18
3.40 -6.35 7.80 9.27 9.27
3.97 -6.35 8.38 9.53 9.53
3.97 6.35 7.92 9.53 9.53 9.53
4.19 6.35 7.92 9.53 9.53 9.53
4.19 6.35 7.92 11.13 9.53 9.53
4.77 6.35 9.53 12.7 9.53 9.53
5.54 6.35 9.53 14.27 9.53 9.53
6.35 7.92 12.70 15.88 9.53 --

Pipe
Size

1
1.5
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

Outside
Diameter
21.34
26.67
33.41
48.26
60.33
88.90
114.30
141.30
168.28
219.08
273.05
323.85
355.60
406.40
457.20
508.00
609.60

Schedule/Thickness of Pipe
S80 XS
S100 S120
3.73 3.73 --3.91 3.91 --4.55 4.55 --5.08 5.08 --5.54 5.54 --7.62 7.62 --8.56 8.56 -11.13
9.53 9.53 -12.70
10.97 10.97 -14.27
12.70 12.70 15.09 18.26
15.09 15.09 18.26 21.44
17.48 17.48 21.44 25.40
19.05 19.05 23.83 27.79
21.44 21.44 26.19 30.96
23.83 23.83 29.36 34.93
26.19 26.19 32.54 38.10
30.96 30.96 38.89 46.02

S60
---------10.31
12.70
14.27
15.09
16.66
19.05
20.62
24.61
--

(in mm)
S140 S160
-4.78
-5.56
-6.35
-7.14
-8.74
-11.13
-13.49
-15.88
-18.26
20.62 23.01
25.40 28.58
28.58 33.32
31.75 35.71
36.53 40.49
39.67 45.24
44.45 50.01
52.37 59.54

XXS
7.47
7.82
9.09
10.16
11.07
15.24
17.12
19.02
21.95
22.23
25.40
25.40
------

30

762.00

--

--

--

--

--

--

NB
NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS FOR PIPE IN MM.
INCH O.D
SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH
SCH
5S
10S 10
20
30
40S/STD 40
0.25 13.70 -----2.24
2.24
0.375 17.10 -----2.31
2.31
0.5
21.34 1.55 2.11 ---2.77
2.77
0.75 26.67 1.55 2.11 2.11 --2.87
2.87
1.0
33.40 1.65 2.77 2.77 --3.38
3.38
1.25 42.16 1.65 2.77 2.77 --3.56
3.56
1.5
48.26 1.65 2.77 2.77 --3.68
3.68
2
60.32 1.65 2.77 2.77 --3.91
3.91
2.5
73.02 2.11 3.05 3.05 --5.16
5.16
3
88.90 2.11 3.05 3.05 --5.49
5.49
3.5
101.60 2.11 3.05 3.05 --5.74
5.74
4
114.30 2.11 3.05 3.05 --6.02
6.02
5
141.30 2.77 3.40 3.40 --6.55
6.55
6
168.27 2.77 3.40 ---7.11
7.11
8
219.07 2.77 3.76 -6.35 7.04 8.18
8.18
10
273.05 3.40 4.19 -6.35 7.8
9.27
9.27
12
323.85 3.96 4.57 -6.35 8.38 9.52
10.31
14
355.60 3.96 4.77 6.35 7.92 9.52 9.52
11.12
16
406.40 4.19 4.77 6.35 7.92 9.52 9.52
12.70
18
457.20 4.19 4.77 6.35 7.92 11.12 9.52
14.27
20
508.00 4.77 5.54 6.35 9.52 12.7 9.52
15.03
22
558.80 4.77 5.54 6.35 9.52 12.7 9.52
15.87
24
609.60 5.54 6.35 6.35 9.52 14.27 9.52
17.47
26
660.40 --7.92 12.70 -9.52
-28
711.20 --7.92 12.70 15.87 9.52
-30
762.20 6.35 7.92 7.92 12.70 15.87 9.52
-32
812.80 --7.92 12.70 15.87 9.52
17.47
34
863.60 --7.92 12.70 15.87 9.52
17.47
36
914.40 --7.92 12.70 15.87 9.52
19.05

NB
NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS FOR PIPE IN MM.
INCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH
60
80S / 80
100 120 140 160 XXS
XS

0.25 -0.375 --

3.02
3.20

---

---

---

---

---

---

0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36

3.73
3.91
4.55
4.85
5.08
5.54
7.01
7.62
8.08
8.56
9.52
10.97
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70
12.70

------------12.70
15.08
17.47
19.05
21.44
23.83
26.19
28.57
30.95
-------

------------15.08
18.25
21.44
23.83
26.19
29.36
32.54
34.92
38.89
-------

---------11.12
12.70
14.27
18.25
21.44
25.4
27.79
30.96
34.92
38.1
41.27
46.02
-------

------------20.63
25.4
28.57
31.75
36.53
39.67
44.45
47.62
52.37
-------

4.77
5.55
6.35
6.35
7.14
8.74
9.52
11.12
-13.49
15.87
18.25
23.01
28.57
33.32
35.71
40.49
45.24
50.01
53.97
59.54
-------

7.47
7.82
9.09
9.70
10.16
11.07
14.02
15.24
16.15
17.12
19.05
21.95
22.23
25.40
25.40
-------------

------------10.31
12.70
14.27
15.09
16.65
19.05
20.62
22.22
24.61
-------

DISTANCE BETWEEN EDGE TO EDGE


OR
CENTER TO
EDGE
SIZE
Dimensions
RADIUS or HEIGHT of
FITTINGS
DIA O.D. Circumference
90 ELL 45
EQ.
CAP
RED.
ELL
TEE
2
60
190
76
35
63
38
76
2.5
73
230
95
44
76
38
89
3
89
283
114
51
86
51
82.5
4
114 348.2
152
58
105
64
102

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
26
28
30
34
36
40
42

168
219
273
324
356
406
457
508
610
661
712
768
813
915
1016
1067

528
690
858
1018
1118.5
1215
1436
1600
1920
2077
2237
2413
2554
2874
3192
3352

229
305
381
457
533
610
686
762
914
991
1067
1143
1218
1371
1514
1600

95
127
159
190
222
254
286
317
381
406
438
470
501
563
632
660

143
178
216
254
279
304
343
381
432
495
521
568
597
673
749
762

DISTANCE BETWEEN EDGE TO EDGE


CENTER TO EDGE
SIZE
WNRF
DIA
150 # 300 # 400 600 900 1500
#
#
#
#
2
64
70
73
73
102 102
2.5
70
76
79
79
105 105
3
70
79
83
83
102 117
4
76
86
89
102 114 124
6
89
98
103 117 140 171
8
102
111
117 133 162 213
10
102
117
124 152 184 254
12
114
130
137 136 200 282
14
127
143
149 165 213 293
16
127
146
152 176 216 311
18
140
159
165 184 229 327
20
145
162
168 190 248 356
24
152
168
178 203 252 406
26
121
184
178 222 286
-28
125
197
178 235 293
-30
137
210
219 248 311
-34
144
--- 248 330
-36
157
--- 263 362
--

89
102
127
152
165
178
203
229
267
267
267
267
267
267
267
305

OR

2500 #
127
143
168
191
273
318
419
464
-----------

140
152
178
203
330
356
381
508
508
610
610
610
610
610
610
610

40
42

164
171

---

---

264
279

364
371

---

---

TABLE: SPACING BETWEEN TWO BARE PIPES


Dia.

1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

1/2
85
95
100
115
120
140
165
195
225
260
295
330
360

1.5

100
100
115
120
145
165
200
230
260
300
330
365

105
120
125
145
170
200
235
265
305
335
365

125
130
155
175
210
240
270
310
340
375

140
160
180
215
245
280
315
345
380

175
195
230
260
295
330
360
395

210
240
275
305
345
375
405

270
300
330
370
400
435

325
360
395
425
465

4.12

Plant Layout

General: The bases of design establish the factors that must be included in process piping design.
The preparation of the piping layout requires a practical understanding of complete piping systems,
including material selections, joining methods, equipment connections, and service applications. The
standards and codes previously introduced establish criteria for design and construction but do not
address the physical routing of piping. This section contains miscellaneous considerations related to
piping systems layout. The following items should be considered when planning piping layout on
production plant.
Safety of personnel.
Compatibility with vessel, equipment, and skid arrangement
Accessibility to equipment.
Use of natural supports.
Necessity of suitable walkways.
Plant Layout Design
System P& IDs; specifications; and equipment drawings showing the equipment locations and
distance, nozzle locations and pressure ratings are needed to develop the piping plant layout. A
completely dimensioned plan drawing showing the pipe routing from one point of connection to
another with all appurtenances and branches of piping is prepared. The layout design also deals with
piping support. Piping on racks is normally designed to bottom of pipe (BOP) elevations. Horizontal
and parallel pipe running at different elevations are spaced for branch connections and also for
independent pipe supports. Interferences with other piping systems; structural work; electrical conduit
and cable tray runs; heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment; and other process equipment
not associated with the process of accounted for in pipe clearances.
Composite drawings of the facility are used to avoid interferences,. Following figures presents a
simple piping layout. Communications between engineering disciplines is properly maintained. Lay
lengths and other restriction of in-line piping equipment and other system equipment constraints are
considered. Valves and other equipment such as flow instrumentation and safety relief devices have
specific location requirements such as minimum diameters of straight run up- and downstream,
vertical positioning and acceptable velocity ranges that require pipe diameter changes. Manufacturers
should be consulted for specific requirements.
Piping connections to pumps affect both pump operating efficiency and pump life expectancy. The
plant layout design follows the pump manufacturer's installation requirements and the Hydraulic
Institute Standards, 14th Edition to reduce the effects. Followings are additional guidelines. The
project process engineer is consulted when unique piping arrangements are required. Miscellaneous
routing considerations are:
Providing piping insulation for personnel protection,
Access for future component maintenance,
Heat tracing access,
Hydrostatic test fill and drain ports, and
Air vents for testing and start-up operations.
System operability, maintenance, safety, and accessibility are the considerations that are addressed in
the plant layout design with respect to the followings aspects at least:
Valve Location Considerations:
1. Control valves: Control valve is installed with a minimum of 3 diameters of straight run both

upstream and downstream, and install vertically upright.


2. Butterfly and check valves: Butterfly and check valves are installed with a minimum of 5
diameters of straight run upstream.
3. Non-control valves: Non-control valves are installed with stems in the horizontal to vertical
positions and avoid head, knee, and tripping hazards.
4. Chemical service valves are located below the eye level.
5. All valves are provided with a minimum of 100 mm (3.94 in.) hand clearance around all hand
wheels to, allow space for valve parts removal or maintenance, and to avoid creating water hammer
conditions.
Pump Connections Considerations:
Piping is independently supported from the pump. The pump suction is continuously flooded, has 3
diameters of straight run, uses long radius elbows, and can accommodate a temporary in-line strainer.
An eccentric reducer, flat side up, is provided when a pipe reduction is required at the pipe suction to
avoid cavity formation. Flanges mating to flat face pump flanges are also flat faced and use full-faced
gaskets and common steel bolting.
Elevations: Piping should not be installed on grating or flooring. It should have adequate clearance
for maintenance. Overhead piping should be arranged to provide sufficient personnel head clearance.
Basically, units and equipment shall be arranged in the smallest possible space, consistent with
operability, safety, case of maintenance and foundation requirement and using the most optimum
piping material, structural steel, concrete, cables etc. Space shall be left within the units for the future
expansion when specially requested and other purpose as mentioned below:
1. Maintenance Access:
In the process areas, spacing between various equipment and overhead clearances are to be based
within the following guidelines:
a)
Mobile Maintenance Equipment Access:
Plant design and arrangements are based on assumption that mobile maintenance equipment such as
cranes, rolling platforms, portable ladders, portable lifts are available and can be used where
practicable. Building in maintenance facilities is not required for grade mounted or near grade
mounted equipment unless specifically asked by the clients. Break up flanges shall be provided where
required for disconnecting pipe work for eventual maintenance of tube bundle.
b) Heavy Crane Access:
Equipment, structures, shall be arranged to permit crane access to service air coolers over pipe ways,
compressors and exchangers. All exchangers tube bundles shall be jacked out against the shell. No
permanent handling arrangement shall be provided for the exchangers when layout permits access by
crane of sufficient size to hold and lower the bundle to the ground. A clear space for tube bundle
removal shall be provided. This includes a minimum clearance of tube bundle length plus 1000 mm in
front of the exchanger measured from the tube sheet and a clearance to move the exchanger out of the
area on a wheeled trolley.
Catalyst Loading: Clear access for mobile maintenance equipment shall be provided to all vessels
charged with catalyst or other bulk materials. In addition, space shall be provided for local storage
of fresh and spent catalyst during loading and unloading operations.
Access to pumps: Clear access of 3 M both vertically and horizontally shall be provided centrally
under main pipe ways for small mobile equipment to service pumps.
Access to Column: There should be clear access at grade level on all side of tall-elevated
equipment, such as columns, for lowering external and internal fittings. Access from a portable

stepladder, rolling platform or portable man lift at grade is permitted for certain instruments, pieces
of equipment and shutoff valves.
2. Layout & Access Requirements for Platforms Ladders and Stairs:
a). Two means of access (i.e. two ladders or one ladder and one staircase) shall be
provided at any elevated platform, which serves three or more vessels. Lack of such means might
prevent the escape of a person in the event of an emergency.
Platforms, ladders and stairways shall be the minimum, consistent with access and safety
requirements. Platform at large elevated structure must be provided with followings:
Duel access (i.e. one staircase and one ladder) shall be provided at large elevated
structure if any part of platform has more than 22.65M (75 ft.) of travel.
b) Air coolers shall have platforms with inter connected walk ways provided to service valve, fan
motors and instruments. When fired heaters are located adjacent to one another, they should have
interred connecting platforms on the upper and lower section. Inter-connecting platforms between
towers may be provided taking into consideration expansion of towers.
c) Platforms with stair access shall be provided for:
Locations at which normal monitoring (once a day or more) samples are taken.
d) Locations where vessels or equipment items have operator attention such as compressors, heaters,
boilers etc.
e) Platforms with ladder access shall be provided for Points, which require occasionally
operating, access including, valves, spectacle blind and motors. Man ways above grade on
equipment.
f) Ladder location: Wherever practicable, ladders shall be arranged so that users face
towards equipment or structures rather than facing open space.

Figure 2-4. Remediation Process Piping Plan


(Source: SAIC,)

GENERAL C LEARANCE AND

ACCESSIBILITY:

Additional clearance and accessibility requirements are as under:


Roads: Fire hydrants, monitors, extension steams of underground valves etc. shall not be
located within 100 mm of the edge of the road.
Tank Farm: Tank farms are off plot areas used for storing and transferring of stock in
various types and sizes of tanks. In general, storage tank clearances shall conform to the local
codes or the relevant API code.

Figure 2-5. Isometric View


(Source: SAIC,)
Clearance for Fired Heaters: Fired Heaters shall be located near the battery limit at a
minimum distance of 15 meter from any process equipment, which may be a source of spillage or
leakage of gas and liquid and 90 meter from any explosive product. Heater Stacks must be 6 M
higher than any operating platform within 25 M radius.
Exchangers: Clearance and working space between horizontal exchangers shells and
adjacent piping extremities where operation is required shall be 900 mm. Clearance distance
between horizontal exchanger flanges where no piping or equipment operation is required shall be
600 mm.
Pumps: Clearance and working space requirements between pumps and adjacent piping
extremities shall be 600 mm.
Compressors: Centrifugal and axial compressors require access on both sides.
Reciprocating compressors require space for pulling pistons. This is usually adequate for
walkway access.
Pipe Routing: Pipe shall be arranged in an orderly manner and routed as direct as
practical.
Thermal Expansion: Arrangement shall provide for flexibility of lines to take care of

thermal expansion and contraction. Large reactions or moments at equipment connection shall be
avoided.
Critical Piping: Where dynamic loading, limited pressure drop or other severe service
conditions apply; particular care shall be used in routing the piping. Dynamic loading may be
expected when pulsation flow (such as reciprocating compressors), high velocity flow flashing
fluid, fluctuating temperature or pressure or mechanical vibration (including wind) conditions
exist.
Piping subject to possible dynamic loading shall be carefully designed and checked to ensure
that the size, configuration, mechanical strength, supports and restraints shall prevent excessive
stress or vibration.
Other severe services: Other severe services include erosive, corrosive, high or low
temperature or pressure conditions or any fluids containing solids. Many such services require
alloy or their special materials.
Piping in these services shall be routed to minimize the effects of service severity and
make most practical use of required special materials.
Piping at Control valves: Special attention must be paid to any control valve, which will
contribute to excessive noise or vibration due to aerodynamics, which must be carefully analysed
and designed so that its size and configuration downstream of the control valve will minimize
these conditions. Special attention should also be paid for ejector piping and high vacuum piping.
Pipe ways: Pipe ways shall generally be run overhead for on plot units and shall
generally not be more than three decks high.
Pipe ways are the present need that includes pipes, instrument tray and electrical cable
tray plus 25%.
Line Routing: As far as practical piping shall run at the different elevations designated
for northsouth and eastwest banks and shall change elevation at change in direction.
Vessel Piping: Piping at columns shall be located redial about the column on the pipe
wayside. Man ways and platforms shall be located on the access side away from pipe way.
Water Draw off boots: Water draw off boots on elevated horizontal vessels may be
extended a reasonable amount to place the centre of gauge glass and level controller not over 1700
mm from grade, platform or ladder accesses.
Vent and drain connection: A valve blinded atmospheric vent shall be provided at
vessel high points with access provided for valve operation.
Drains with valves provided to vessels shall be gravity drains to underground systems
with open connections terminating 50 mm. below drain. However, whenever blind flange / plug
have been used, gap of 100 mm. should be provided.
Relief Valves: Relief valves required for pressure vessels shall be as indicated on the
piping and the instrument diagrams. Davits or other suitable means shall be provided to lower
pressure vessel relief valves larger than 2 inlet size when not within reach of mobile equipment.
Relief valves discharging in to a flare system shall be elevated to provide self-draining. Relief
valves discharging vapour to atmosphere must be provided with a pipe stack, which must end at
least 3 M above any platform within 8 M radius. Where indicated in process P & ID, a drain valve
with, drip leg shall be provided at the bottom of the stack. Adequate supports shall be provided
and designed to handle dead weight, wind and thrust loads.
Exchanger Piping: Piping shall not run in the way of builtin or mobile handling

facilities. One wrench clearance shall be provided at exchanger flanges.


Pump Suction Piping: Pump suction piping shall be arranged with particular care to
avoid vapour pockets or unnecessary pressure drop. Eccentric reducers, properly oriented to
avoid vapour packets, shall be used for line size reductions. (Temporary suction screens shall be
provided unless permanent strainers are required between suction line block valves and pump
nozzles.
Pump Location: Centreline of all discharge pump nozzles shall be line up.
Access to Pumps & Turbines: Piping at pumps and turbines shall be arranged to provide
maintenance access around pumps and turbines. Removable spool pieces shall be provided as
appropriate to permit maintenance without major disassembly.
Weight and thermal Stresses: Suitable supports or anchors shall be provided and
located for piping to pumps and turbines so that excessive weight and thermal stresses will not be
applied to the casings and access areas around pumps and turbines are kept free. Careful design
consideration shall be given to piping configuration to minimize these stresses.
Compressor Piping:
Large centrifugal or reciprocating compressors shall be of
a raised floor design so that piping and auxiliaries can be located below main operating platform.
Vibration: Particular attention shall be given to design of piping subject to vibration from
dynamic loading, associated with reciprocating compressors. Suction and discharge lines shall be
securely clamped and small piping around compressors and on the same support as suction and
discharge lines shall be well braced to reduce vibration.
Reciprocating compressor: Reciprocating compressor suction and discharge piping
shall be run on sleepers at grade, if at all possible. This arrangement permits simple and effective
clamping of the lines. Removable spool pieces shall be provided at compressors where needed to
permit maintenance without major piping disassembly. Suction piping to centrifugal compressors
should be designed to allow sufficient straight length i.e., 5 D minimum of pipe immediately ahead
of suction nozzle, to allow dissipation of undesirable flow distortion caused by elbows, valves or
other fittings upstream and velocity in line.
Burner piping at fired heaters: Burner piping shall be kept clear of all access and
observation openings. Adequate space for removal of heater tubes shall be kept for its
maintenance, piping to the burners shall be made using unions, flexible connectors to provide for
easy and convenient removal of burners for maintenance. Supply piping of fuel gas shall be
arranged for equal flow distribution and shall be provided with condensate legs, knockout pots
or other approved methods for the collection and elimination of condensate.
Steam Traps: All steam traps discharging to a closed system are to have a block valve
upstream and downstream of the trap. A bypass valve shall be installed around the block valves
and a stop valve shall be installed at a low point ahead of the upstream block valve. Check valve
shall be installed on the upstream of the steam trap, in case of
discharging to a closed
system.
Valve Lactation & Accessibility: All valves requiring attention during normal operation
shall be operable either from grade or platform or fixed ladder. Nonoperating valves and
instruments connections may have fixed ladder. Non operating valve is one that is used to shut off
a piece of equipment or system for maintenance. Installation of drain operation valve should be
avoided as far as possible.
Orifice Runs: Horizontal meter runs are preferred. Necessary straight runs upstream and downstream

orifice plates shall be provided in accordance to API RP 550 Part- I. Sufficient clearance at orifice
flange for installation of instrument piping and seal pots, where required, shall be provided.
Offsite and Yard piping: In general the pipes shall be laid at grade level on sleepers at 300 mm high
from grade level. Pipes at crossing of roads shall be under culverts in general. Pipe sleeves may be
considered where one or two pipes are to cross the road.

Flange

A = R1 + R2 + 25 mm
R1 = Radius of Smaller Pipe
R2 = Radius of Bigger Pipe Flange
Underground Piping: Branches, which rise above grade level and originate from underground
header, are to have a pair of flanges approximately 300 mm grade level.
Overhead clearances: Equipment, structure, platforms, piping & its supports shall be arranged to
provide the following clearance overhead:
Over railroads, top of rail to bottom of any obstruction
7.25 m
Over plant roads for major mobile equipment
7.25 m
Bottom of pipe Over secondary roads and mobile equipment
5.5 m
Bottom of pipe over grade inside battery limit and at pump row
4m
Over walkways, passways platforms to nearest obstruction
2.5 m
Over exchangers shell cover channel end.
2M
Horizontal clearances: Equipment, structure, platforms, piping & its supports shall be arranged to
provide the following clearance horizontally:
Between exchangers (aisles between piping)
1m
Around pumps (aisles between piping)
1m
Fired heaters to flammable stock handling pump
16 m
Fired heaters to other equipment not closely associated with heaters. 16 m
At driver end of pumps, where truck access is required
4m

At driver end of pumps where truck access is not required


2m
Distance between shells of adjacent vessels / exchangers at grade. 1.5 m
Pipe berthing underground
500 mm
Minimum clear gap between Bare pipes above ground =
X mm
Where, X = (Small pipe Dia. +Bigger pipe flange Dia. + 25 mm.)
Equipment spacing (Centre -to- centre distance):
Small pumps mounted on common foundations (3.7 kW & less)
800 mm
Medium pumps (22.5 kW & less)
1m
Larger pumps (Above 22.5 kW)
2m
Exchangers and other equipment on structures Minimum clear distance
1m
Platforms:
Towers, vertical & horizontal vessels
800 mm
Distance of platforms below Centreline of manhole flange
1-1.2 m
Width of manhole platform from manhole cover to outside edge
1m
Platform extension beyond centreline of manhole side
Horizontal exchanger:
Clearance in front channels or bonnets flange
1500mm
(Heat exchanger tube bundle length + 1 m)
Bundle removal space Min. clearance from edge of flanges =
Y
Where, Y = (300 mm + Length of tube bundle)
Vertical exchanger:
Distance of platform below top flange of channel or bonnet
1500mm
Furnaces:
Width of the platform at side of horizontal and vertical tube furnace (Min.)
1000mm
Width of platform at ends of horizontal tube furnaces (min.)
1000mm

4.13

Design Example 1

A facility requires an up gradation to their existing wastewater treatment system. The treatment system
is required to reduce the dissolved metal content of two process waste water units before
introduction into a biologically based central treatment plant. The wastewaters are produced from a
plating process (Process A) and from the finishing stages of a metal fabrication facility (Process B).
The latter includes metal cleaning using organic solvents and painting operations. The renovation
includes the splitting of an existing, covered, concrete wet well (P1560). Half of the wet well will
now act as an influent wet well (P1560) to a new treatment train and the other half will act as the
clear well (P1510) for the effluent from the new treatment system. The new treatment system will
include a low-profile air stripper to reduce solvent concentrations followed by a ferrous-based
precipitation reactor and associated flocculation tank and clarifier. Following Figures are the flow
diagram of the proposed pre-treatment system renovation, and the piping and instrumentation diagram,
the general equipment arrangement with the anticipated piping layout.
The influent to the pre-treatment system averages 3.79 x 10-3 m3/s with a maximum future flow of 5.36
x 10-3 m3 /s and process temperatures of 16C-minimum, 23.9C normal, and 46C-maximum. The
average pH is 5.4 due to the presence of chromic and sulphuric acids, although occasional upsets
have produced pH as low as 3.6. The pollutant concentrations are summarized in following Table.

Fig: Isometric Piping Drawing

Figure: Design Example Process Flow Diagram

ig: Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

Sketch: Isometric Drawing

5
Piping Components
Complete Piping System is an assembly of pipes, fittings, flanges, valves and other piping
components to be used for conveyance of fluids (liquids and gases) flow with pressure, temperature
and hazardous materials in specialized applications from one location to another. Piping Components
include supports also but does not include supporting structures, building frame, foundations or
equipment. Any material or work required to install on the piping system is called piping components.
These are mechanical elements suitable for joining or assembling into a pressure tight fluid containing
piping system. Piping Components include but not limited to pipes, tubes, fittings, flanges, valves,
gaskets, bolt-nuts, expansion joints, compensators, hose pipes, traps, strainers, separators, control
valves, safety valves, blind flanges, spectacle blinds, elbows, adapters, unions, tees and drip rings.

5.1 Pipe and Tube


Pipe: A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder used mainly to convey substances (liquids, gases,
slurries, powders, granules of solids) flowing through it. It is also used for structural applications
like Jacket and Platform Deck as hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. The
term Piping is used to describe conveyance of water, gas, or liquid and fluids in specialized
applications in commercial or industrial environments with high-performance. Pipe is specified by a
nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness.
Pipe has rigidity and permanence, whereas a Hose or Hosepipe is usually portable and flexible. Pipe
assemblies are always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees and flange, while tube
is formed or bent into custom configurations.

Tube: A tube is a long hollow cylinder used to convey fluids (liquids or gases). The terms "pipe" and
"tube" are almost interchangeable, but still has although minor distinctions. The term tubing is
sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.
Tube is specified by the OD or ID and wall thickness. The tubes are specified by actual inside
diameter or outside diameter and wall thickness. However, Tube assemblies are also constructed
with the use of tube fittings.
Applicable Codes and Standards
IS: 1230:
Cast Iron Rain Water Pipe and Fittings
IS: 1239:
Specification for MS Tubes and other Wrought steel Pipes
and Fittings.
IS: 3589:
Specification for MS Tubes and other Wrought Steel Pipes
and Fittings
ASTM A53:
Black, hot-dipped and zinc-coated pipes (Seamless/Welded)
ASTM A106:
Carbon steel pipe for high temperature service (Seamless)
ASTM A 135
Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
ASTM A179:
Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and
Condenser tube (Seamless)
ASTM A192:
Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High Temperature Service (Seamless)
ASTM A209:
Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy Steel Boiler and Super
heater
Tube (Seamless)
ASTM A210:
Medium Carbon Steel Boiler and Super heater Tubes
(Seamless)

ASTM A213:

Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Super heater

and
Heat Exchanger Tubes (Seamless)
ASTM A312:
Austenitic stainless steel pipe (Seamless/Welded)
ASTM A333:
Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel pipes for
LTCS.
ASTM A334:
Carbon and Alloy Steel Tubes for LTCS
ASTM A335:
Ferritic Alloy Steel pipe for High Temperature service
ASTM A358:
Austenitic Chr-Nil Alloy Steel pipe for High
Temperature
Service (E.Fs.W)
ASTM A409:
Austenitic Steel pipes for high temperature service
ASTM A450:
Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy
Tubes.
ASTM A524:
Carbon Steel pipe for atmospheric or low temperature service
ASTM A530:
Requirements for specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel pipe.
ASTM A671:
Steel Pipe for atmospheric or low temperature service
(E.Fs.W)
ASTM A672:
Steel pipe for High Pressure Service at moderate
temperature (E.Fs.W)
ASTM A691:
Carbon and Alloy Steel pipe for high-pressure service
(E.Fs.W)
ASTM B93-11: Seamless Low Carbon Steel Hydraulic Line Tubing
ASTM SB-42:
Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard sizes
ASTM SB-43:
Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes
ASTM SB-75:
Seamless Copper Tube
ASTM SB-163:Seamless Nickel and Nickel Alloy Condenser and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
ASTM SB-165:Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Seamless Pipes and
ASTM SB-167: Ni-Chr-Iron Alloys (UNS) Seamless Pipe and Tubes
ASTM SB-210: Aluminium and Aluminium-Alloy Seamless Tubes
ASTM SB-234: Aluminium-Alloy Tubes for Condensers and Heat
Exchangers
ASTM SB-241:Aluminium-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Tube
ASTM SB-337: Titanium and Titanium Alloy Pipes
ASTM SB-338:Seamless Titanium Alloy Tubes for Condensers and
Heat Exchangers
ASTM SB-395:Copper-Alloy Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
ASTM SB-407: Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube
ASTM SB-444: Ni-Cr-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Pipe and
Tube
ASTM SB-466: Seamless Copper-Nickel Pipe and Tube
ASTM SB-523:Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Tubes (Seamless/ Welded)
ASTM SB-658: Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Pipes (Seamless/Welded)
ASTM SB-668: UNS N08028 Seamless Tubes

ASTM SB-829:General Requirement for Nickel-Alloy Seamless Pipe and


ASTM F1173:
Epoxy thermo set pipe conveying seawater in a marine
environment.
API 5L:
Specification for Carbon Steel Line Pipe (Seamless/Welded)
API 5LS:
Carbon Steel Line Pipe (Spiral Welded)
API 5LX:
Specification for CS High Pressure Line Pipe
API 15LR:
Low-pressure fibreglass reinforced thermo set pipe.
NACE:
Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic
Material for oil field
(MR-01-75)
Equipment
ASTM D 2310 Machine-made reinforced thermosetting pipe.
ASTM D 2996 Filament wound fibreglass-reinforced thermo set pipe.
ASTM D 2997 centrifugally cast reinforced thermo set pipe.
ASTM D 3517 Fibreglass reinforced thermo set pipe conveying water.
ASTM D 3754 Fibreglass reinforced thermo set pipe conveying industrial
process liquids and wastes.
Pipe Manufacturing: There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. (i) Centrifugal casting
of hot alloyed metal. (ii) Seamless (SMLS) pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing
rod to create the hollow shell. (iii) Electric Resistance Welded ("ERW"), and Electric Fusion Welded
("EFW") pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam. The weld flash is removed from the
outside or inside surfaces using a scarfing blade. Welded pipe often has tighter dimensional
tolerances than seamless, and is cheaper. Large-diameter pipe is ERW, EFW or Submerged Arc
Welded ("SAW").
(a) Seamless Pipe: The Seamless Pipe of Material Specifications API 5L & 5LX; ASTM A53;
ASTM A106; ASTM A333; ASTM A335 of sizes up to 762 mm O. D. are made by these processes.
(i) In the seamless pipe-making process tube rounds are heated in a furnace, after which they are
pierced, then rolled by the Mandrel or Plug-Mill process into pipes and tubes of specified diameters
and wall thicknesses. Seamless tubular products are generally hot-rolled, but can also be supplied
cold-drawn (up to 273 mm O. D.) when required. (ii) The Push-Bench process can also be used in
the manufacture of seamless pipe. In this process, a steel billet is furnace heated to the plastic state
and partly punched at one end to take a mandrel. The billet is then forced by the mandrel through a
series of gradually reducing dies, until the required outside diameter has been attained, the I.D. being
determined by the size of the mandrel.
(b) Electric Resistance Welding (E. R. W.) Pipe: The E R W Pipe of Material Specifications API
5L & 5LX; ASTM A53; ASTM A135; ASTM A252; ASTM A333 of sizes up to 610 mm O. D. are
made by this process. The E R W Pipe is manufactured with a process is described below. At the
pipe mill, the strip is uncoiled, levelled and crop-sheared. It is then trimmed on both sides
simultaneously to correct width and immediately fed into the forming and welding line. During the
process, the strip is closely checked for surface defects. A series of cold forming rolls changes the
strip progressively into tubular form with abutting edges on top. The longitudinal edges are joined by
high frequency electric resistance welding. The weld is then heat treated electrically. Special devices
remove inside and outside flash from the weld to give uniform wall thickness of the pipe. The welded
part is then heat-treated by post annealing to ensure adequate ductility at the weld and adjacent zone.
The pipe is passed through a series of cold sizing rolls to progressively reduce the diameter to
accurate size. This operation also increases strength and improves surface condition. The pipe is then

cut to specified length by a flying cut-off machine. After the straightening operation, ends of the pipe
are cropped, then squared or bevelled depending on end finish requirements. The pipe is then
hydrostatically tested to specified pressure. Also test specimens are taken during the process to check
chemical and mechanical properties. Each length of pipe is inspected by the ultrasonic method on the
weld and checked as to diameter, wall thickness, surfaces, end finish, camber and concentricity. The
length and weight of pipe is measured and recorded and protective coating is applied on the outside
surface.
(c) Submerged Arc Welded (S A W) Pipe: The Submerged Arc Welded (S A W) Pipe of Material
Specifications API 5L, 5LX & 5LU; and ASTM A53; of sizes up to 1820 mm O. D. are made by these
processes. Steel plates are first U-shaped then O-formed by a hydraulic press. The seam is welded
from inside and outside automatically by the submerged-arc process. Hydraulic expansion gives the
pipe precise diameter and roundness and relieves residual stresses caused by forming and welding.
Pipe Sizes & Dimensions: There are two common methods for designating pipe outside diameter
(OD). The North American method is called NPS ("Nominal Pipe Size") and is based on inches
(frequently referred to as NB ("Nominal Bore")). The European version is called DN ("Diameter
Nominal" / "Nominal Diameter") and is based on millimetres. Designating the outside diameter
allows pipes of the same size to be fit together no matter what the wall thickness. As per American
Standard, Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: (i) a Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)
for diameter in inches, and (ii) Thickness or Schedule (Sch.). DN (Nominal Diameter) is the
European designation of pipe size equivalent to NPS, in which sizes are measured in millimetres. The
term NB (Nominal Bore) is frequently used with NPS.
The American Standards Association (ASA) created a system of schedule numbers that designated
wall thicknesses of pipe based on smaller steps between sizes. The Pipe Schedule, like Standard
(STD), Extra Strong (XS), Double Extra Strong (XXS) standard, extra-heavy (XH), and double
extra-heavy (XXH) relates to a given pressure rating. STD is identical to SCH 40S, and 40S is
identical to 40 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 10, inclusive. XS is identical to SCH 80S, and 80S is identical to
80 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 8, inclusive. XXS wall is thicker than schedule 160 from NPS 1/8" to NPS 6"
inclusive, and schedule 160 is thicker than XXS wall for NPS 8" and larger.
Stainless steel pipes have thinner walls with much less risk of failure due to corrosion. Accordingly,
thinner schedules, like 5S and 10S, which are based on the pressure requirements. The "S"
designation, like Sch 10S", most often indicates stainless steel pipes. However some stainless steel
pipes are available in steel designations, so strictly speaking the "S" designation only differentiates
B36.19M pipe from B36.10M pipe.
For NPS to 12 inches, the NPS and OD values are different. The OD of an NPS 12 pipe is
actually 12.75 inches. The reason is that these NPS values were originally set to give the same inside
diameter (ID) based on wall thicknesses standard at the time. However, as the set of available wall
thicknesses evolved, the ID changed and NPS became only indirectly related to ID and OD. Tubing
size is always the actual OD.
For pipe sizes less than NPS 14 inch (DN 350), both methods give a nominal value for the OD that is
rounded off and is not the same as the actual OD. For example, NPS 2 inch and DN 50 is the same
pipe, but the actual OD is 2.375 inches or 60.33 millimetres. The only way to obtain the actual OD is
to look it up in a reference table.
For pipe sizes of NPS 14 inch (DN 350) and greater the NPS size is the actual diameter in inches and
the DN size is equal to NPS times 25 (not 25.4) rounded to a convenient multiple of 50. For example,
NPS 14 has an OD of 14 inches or 355.60 millimetres, and is equivalent to DN 350. Since the outside

diameter is fixed for a given pipe size, the inside diameter will vary depending on the wall thickness
of the pipe. For example, 2" Schedule 80 pipe has thicker walls and therefore a smaller inside
diameter than 2" Schedule 40 pipe.
Table: Pipe sizes for NPS to NPS 3
Wall thickness in inch and (mm)
OD
SCH
SCH
DN
SCH
NPS
[in]
SCH
40s
80s
SCH
SCH 5 10s
(mm)
30
/40
/80
120
/10
/STD /XS
0.840 0.065 0.083 0.095 0.109 0.147

15

(21.3) (1.65) (2.10) (2.41) (2.76) (3.73)


1.050 0.065 0.083 0.095 0.113 0.154

20

(26.6) (1.65) (2.10) (2.41) (2.87) (3.91)


1.315 0.065 0.109 0.114 0.133 0.179
1
25

(33.4) (1.65) (2.76) (2.89) (3.37) (4.54)


1.900 0.065 0.109 0.125 0.145 0.200
1 40

(48.2) (1.65) (2.76) (3.17) (3.68) (5.08)


2.375 0.065 0.109 0.125 0.154 0.218 0.250
2
50
(60.3) (1.65) (2.76) (3.17) (3.91) (5.53) (6.35)
3.500 0.083 0.120 0.188 0.216 0.300 0.350
3
80
(88.90) (2.108) (3.048) (4.775) (5.486) (7.620) (8.890)

SCH
160

XXS

0.188
(4.775)
0.219
(5.563)
0.250
(6.350)
0.281
(7.137)
0.343
(8.712)
0.438
(11.125)

0.294
(7.468)
0.308
(7.823)
0.358
(9.093)
0.400
(10.16)
0.436
(11.07)
0.600
(15.240)

Table: Pipe sizes for NPS 4 to NPS 8


OD
NP DN
[in]
S
(mm)
4

6
8

1
0
0
1
5
0
2
00

4.500
(114.3
0)

S
CH 5

Wall thickness in inch and (mm)


SCH
SCH
SCH
S
S
S
SCH
SC
40s/40
80s/80
10s/10 CH 20 CH 30
CH 60
100
120
/STD
/XS

0.083 0.120

(2.108) (3.048)

6.625
0.109 0.134

(168.28) (2.769) (3.404)

0.188 0.237 0.281


(4.775) (6.020) (8.560)

0.280

(7.112)

0.437

(11.100)

0.432

(10.973)

0.5
(14

8.625
0.109 0.148 0.250 0.277 0.322 0.406
0.500
0.593
0.7
(219.08) (2.769) (3.759) (6.350) (7.036) (8.179) (10.312) (12.700) (15.062) (18
Table: Pipe sizes for NPS 10 to NPS 24
Wall thickness in inch and (mm)

DN

OD

NPS

[in
(mm)]

10

250

12

300

14

350

16

400

18

450

20

500

24

600

10.75
(273.05)
12.75
(323.85)
14.00
(355.60)
16.00
(406.40)
18.00
(457.20)
20.00
(508.00)
24.00
(609.60)

SCH
5s

SCH 5

SCH
richs

SCH
10

SCH
20

SCH 30

SCH
40s/STD

0.134
(3.404)
0.156
(3.962)
0.156
(3.962)
0.165
(4.191)
0.165
(4.191)
0.188
(4.775)
0.218
(5.537)

0.134
(3.404)
0.165
(4.191)
0.156
(3.962)
0.165
(4.191)
0.165
(4.191)
0.188
(4.775)
0.218
(5.537)

0.165
(4.191)
0.180
(4.572)
0.188
(4.775)
0.188
(4.775)
0.188
(4.775)
0.218
(5.537)
0.250
(6.350)

0.165
(4.191)
0.180
(4.572)
0.250
(6.350)
0.250
(6.350)
0.250
(6.350)
0.250
(6.350)
0.250
(6.350)

0.250
(6.350)
0.250
(6.350)
0.312
(7.925)
0.312
(7.925)
0.312
(7.925)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)

0.307
(7.798)
0.330
(8.382)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.437
(11.100)
0.500
(12.700)
0.562
(14.275)

0.365
(9.271)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)

Table: Pipe sizes for NPS 10 to NPS 24

NPS
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

SCH 40 SCH 60
0.365
(9.271)
0.406
(10.312)
0.437
(11.100)
0.500
(12.700)
0.562
(14.275)
0.593
(15.062)
0.687
(17.450)

0.500
(12.700)
0.562
(14.275)
0.593
(15.062)
0.656
(16.662)
0.750
(19.050)
0.812
(20.625)
0.968
(24.587)

Wall thickness in inch and (mm)


SCH
SCH
SCH
SCH 80
80s/XS
100
120
0.500
0.593
0.718
0.843
(12.700) (15.062) (18.237) (21.412)
0.500
0.687
0.843
1.000
(12.700) (17.450) (21.412) (25.400)
0.500
0.750
0.937
1.093
(12.700) (19.050) (23.800) (27.762)
0.500
0.843
1.031
1.218
(12.700) (21.412) (26.187) (30.937)
0.500
0.937
1.156
1.375
(12.700) (23.800) (29.362) (34.925)
0.500
1.031
1.280
1.500
(12.700) (26.187) (32.512) (38.100)
0.500
1.218
1.531
1.812
(12.700) (30.937) (38.887) (46.025)

SCH
140
1.000
(25.400)
1.125
(28.575)
1.250
(31.750)
1.437
(36.500)
1.562
(39.675)
1.750
(44.450)
2.062
(52.375)

Table: Pipe sizes for NPS 26 to NPS 36


Wall thickness in inch and (mm)

SCH
160
1.125
(28.575)
1.312
(33.325)
1.406
(35.712)
1.593
(40.462)
1.781
(45.237)
1.968
(49.987)
2.343
(59.512)

NPS

DN OD
[in (mm)]

SCH
5s
26

650 26.000

(660.400)

28

700

30

750

32

800

34

850

36

900

28.000
(711.200)
30.000
(762.000)
32.000
(812.800)
34.000
(863.600)
36.000
(914.400)

SCH
10s

SCH
10

0.312 0.500
0.375
(7.925) (12.700) (9.525)

0.312
(7.925)
0.250 0.312 0.312
(6.350) (7.925) (7.925)
0.312

(7.925)
0.312

(7.925)
0.312

(7.925)

SCH 20 SCH 30

0.500
(12.700)
0.500
(12.700)
0.500
(12.700)
0.500
(12.700)

SCH
SCH
SCH 40
40s/STD
80s/XS

0.625
(15.875)
0.625
(15.875)
0.625
(15.875)
0.625
(15.875)
0.625
(15.875)

0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)
0.375
(9.525)

Pipe & Tube Manufacturing Tolerances:


Specification

OD (mm)
Size

10.29
to
48.26
48.26
to
114.30
ASTM A312
114.30
to
219.08
219.08
to
457.20
Up to
25.4
25.4 to

Permissible
Variation
+ 0.40 / 0.80

Wall Thickness; WT
Length (mm)
(mm)
Permissible
Permissible
Size
Size
Variation
Variation
12.5%
+6/0

+ 0.80 / 0.80
+1.60
0.80

+ 2.40 / 0.80
+ 0.10 / D38.1
0.10
+ 0.15 / -
D38.1 +20% / 0

+3 / 0

0.500
(12.700)

0.500
(12.700
0.688
0.500
(17.475) (12.700
0.688
(17.475)
0.750
0.500
(19.050) (12.700

38.1
38.1 to
50.8
50.8 to
63.5
ASTM A213 63.5 to
76.2
76.2 to
101.6
101.6
to
190.5
190.5
to
228.6
Up to
ASTM A269
12.7

0.15
+ 0.20
0.20
+ 0.25
0.25
+ 0.30
0.30
+ 0.38
0.38

/ / -

+22% / 0

/ / -

+5/0

+ 0.38 / 0.64
+ 0.38 / 1.14
+ 0.19 / 0.13

15%

+ 3.2 / 0

For C. S. Pipe 10 and above Diameter; Length Tolerance + 50 mm / - 0 mm


Pipe Mass in Kilograms per metre: Formula for calculation of approximate Pipe Mass in Kilograms
per metre (kg/m) for steel round pipe and Tubing is as given below:
M = (D - T) T X 0.02466
Where: m = mass to the nearest 0.01 kg/m. D = Outside Diameter in millimetres (mm). (To nearest 0.1
mm for O. D. up to 406.4 mm and nearest 1.0 mm for O. D. 457 mm and above) t= Wall Thickness to
nearest 0.01 mm.

5.2

Pipe Fittings

Fittings are used in piping systems to connect straight pipe or tube in sections, to adapt to different
sizes, shapes, turning, regulating or measuring fluid flow and other purposes. Fittings are a non-trivial
part of piping systems and valves or flanges are technical fittings, which are discussed separately.
While there are hundreds of specialized fittings manufactured, some common types of fittings are used
widely in piping systems. The fittings should be forged and seamless and fittings with welded seams
shall not be used. Pipe Fittings used in piping work are mainly Traps, Elbow, Reducer, Tee, Union,
Coupling, Cross, Cap, Swage Nipple, Plug, Bush, Expansion Joint, Adapters, Olet (Weldolet,
Sockolet, Elbowlet, Thredolet, Nipolet, Letrolet, Swepolet and Long Radius Bend and Flanges and
Valve. Piping or tubing are usually (but not always) inserted into fittings to make connections. To
avoid confusion, connections are conventionally assigned a gender of male or female, respectively
abbreviated as "M" or "F".
Welding End Fittings: There are Butt Weld, Socket Weld and Stub Weld fittings. Socket welding
fittings are supplied in Pressure Class designations

of 3000, 6000, and 9000 lb non-shock rating. Socket Weld fittings should be as per ANSI B16.11.
Butt-Weld fittings of Carbon Steel, Ferritic Alloy Steels and Stainless Steel up to 24 NB should be
as per ANSI B16.9 or MSS-SP-43. Butt-Weld fittings of Carbon Steel, Ferritic Alloy Steels and
Stainless Steel up to 26 NB and larger should be as per MSS-SP-48. The bore of Socket Weld
fittings should be manufactured to suit the pipe O.D. and its thickness. Mitre Bends should be
fabricated with 5 times radius of the pipe nominal diameter in case of non-availability of forged
readymade Elbow on all lines up to 1.5 NB pipe. The pressure drop due to fittings is calculated by
including their equivalent length in the total length of the piping system. Equivalent lengths for welded
elbows and tees are included in table 2.2 of RP 14E. Stub-Weld fittings should not be used in
pressure piping. Fittings of lower schedule or thickness should not be used.
Threaded (Screwed) End Fittings: Forged steel screwed fittings are manufactured of 2000, 3000
and 6000 lb Ratings to ASTM A 105 and ANSI B16.11. Fittings threads should confirm to ANSI
B2.1 unless otherwise it is specified. Any threaded joints up to 200 0C should be made with 1 wide
PTFE jointing tape. Any threaded joints above 200 0C should be made with seal welded with a full
strength fillet weld. Threaded fittings have screwed (threaded) ends and they screw together to
connect. For fittings threads sizes, to 14 NPT, are made according to the NPT (American

Standard Pipe Taper Thread) standard. The word taper refers to the bottoms of the threads, which
is 1/16 inch in an inch as shown in the sketch below. Fitting threads make a leak proof mechanical
joint.

Because of the taper, a fitting can only screw onto a pipe a little distance before it jams. The standard
represents this distance, the effective thread. The standard also represents another distance, the
engagement, which is the distance the pipe can be screwed in by hand, without much effort. Various
threads available in pipe and pipe fittings are as follows: (i) Right-handed Threads; (ii) Left-handed
Threads. By turning it in a clockwise direction, the item turned moves away from the viewer. And it
is loosened by turning anticlockwise when the item moves towards the viewer. This is known as a
right-handed thread. Left-handed threads are oriented in the opposite direction.
Male Threads: In male threads, the threads of the pipe are on the outside. Here, tapered pipe threads
like NPT, BSPT are provides sealing without gaskets.
Female Threads: In female threads, the threads are on the inside. Here too, like male threads,
tapered pipe threads are used for sealing. There are Male Straight Thread and Female Straight Thread
too.
Applicable Codes and Standards
ASTM A105:
Carbon Steel Forging for Piping Components
ASTM A 126
Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings
ASTM A181:
Carbon Steel Forging for General Purpose Piping Components
ASTM A182:
Forged Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings and Valves, and
Parts
for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A216:
Carbon Steel Castings for high temperature Service
ASTM A217:
Martensitic Stainless Steel and Alloy Steel Castings for
pressure containing
Parts
ASTM A234:
Wrought Carbon Steel Fittings for High Temperature Service
ASTM A350:
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forged Piping Components
Requiring Notch Toughness Testing
ASTM A351:
Austenitic and Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Castings for
Pressure Containing Parts
ASTM A352:
Ferritic and Martensitic Steel Castings for Pressure
containing Parts suitable for Low-Temperature Service

ASTM A403:

Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings


ASTM A420:
Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel Fittings for LowTemperature Service
ASTM A592:
Low-Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered, Forged

Fittings
and Parts for High Pressure and High Strength service
ASTM A815:
Wrought Ferritic, Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel
Piping Fittings
ANSI B1.1:
Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form)
ANSI B1.20.1: Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)
ANSI B1.20.3: Dry seal Pipe Threads (Inch)
ANSI B1.20.7: House Coupling Screw Threads (Inch)
ANSI B2.1:
Pipe Threads
ANSI B16.1:
Cast Iron Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 25, 125,
250, and 800
ANSI B16.3:
Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
ANSI B16.4:
Grey Iron Threaded fittings
ANSI B16.5:
Steel pipe flanges and flanged valves and fittings
ANSI B16.9:
Wrought Steel butt welding fittings, dimension and Tolerance
ANSI B16.10:
Face to face and end-to-end Dimensions of ferrous Valves
ANSI B16.11:
Forged steel fittings (socket- welding and threaded)
ANSI B16.14:
Ferrous pipe plugs, bushings, and lock nuts with pipe threads
ANSI B16.15:
Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Class 125 and 250.
ANSI B16.20:
Ring joint gaskets for pipe flanges
ANSI B16.21:
Non-metallic gaskets for pipe flanges
ANSI B16.22:
Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
ANSI B16.24: Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300
ANSI B16.25:
Butt-welded flanges and fittings
ANSI B16.26:
Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
ANSI B16.28:
Wrought Steel Butt welding short radius Elbows and Returns
ANSI B16.31: Non-Ferrous Pipe Flanges
ANSI B16.34:
Flanged, Threaded and Welding End Valves
ANSI B16.36:
Orifice Flanges, Class 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
ANSI B16.39:
Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Class 150, 250, and 300
ANSI B16.42:
Ductile Iron Pie Flanges and Flanged Fittings,
ANSI B16.47:
Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 through NPS 60
ANSI B18.2.1: Square Hex Bolts and Screws, Including Hex Cap
Screws and Lag Screws.
ANSI B18.2.2: Square and Hex Nuts (Inch series)
ANSI B36.10M: Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
ANSI B36.19M: Stainless Steel Pipe
ANSI B46.1:
Code for Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, heaving and Lays)
IS 210:
Grey Iron Castings
IS 554:
Dimensions of Pipe Threads
MSS-SP:
Manufacturers Standardization Society-Standard Practices

MSS-SP-6
MSS-SP-25
MSS-SP-42
MSS SP-43
MSS SP-44
MSS SP-45
MSS SP-48
MSS SP-51
MSS-SP-52
MSS-SP-56
MSS SP-58
MSS-SP-61
MSS SP-63
MSS SP-65
MSS-SP-67
MSS-SP-68
MSS SP-69
MSS-SP-70
MSS-SP-71
MSS-SP-72

MSS SP-75
MSS-SP-78
MSS-SP-80
MSS-SP-81
MSS-SP-83
MSS-SP-85
MSS-SP-88
MSS SP-89
MSS-SP-90
MSS-SP-92
MSS SP-95
MSS SP-104
MSS-SP-108
MSS SP-114
MSS SP-119
MSS-SP-58:

Standard Finishes for contact surface for flanges


Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges
Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe and check valves
Wrought Stainless Steel Butt welding Fittings
Steel Pipeline Flanges
Bypass and Drain Connections
Carbon Steel Butt Welded Flanges
Class 150 LW Corrosion Resistant Cast Flanges and
Flanged Fittings
Cast Iron Gate, Plug and Check Valves
MSS-SP-53
Standard for Steel Casting for Valves, Flanges and fittings
Pipe hanger supports - Material, design and manufacture
Pipe Hangers and Supports - Materials, Design and
Manufacturer
Pressure testing of valves
High Strength wrought welding Fittings
High Pressure Flanges and Threaded Stubs for use with
Lens Gaskets
Butterfly Valves
High Pressure off seat butterfly valves
Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application
Cast Iron Gate valves
Cast iron check valves
Ball Valves
MSS SP-73
Brazing Joints for Wrought and Cast Copper Alloy Solder
Joint Pressure Fittings
Specification for High Test Wrought Butt welding Fittings
Cast iron plug valves
Bronze gate, globe and check valves
Stainless steel bonnet less knife gate valves
Pipe unions
Cast iron globe valves
Diaphragm valves
Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices
Pipe hangers and supports - guidelines on terminology
MSS valves user guide
Swage (d) Nipples and Bull Plugs
Wrought Copper Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
MSS SP-106 Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings,
Resilient seated eccentric CI plug valves
Corrosion Resistant Pipe Fittings Threaded and Socket
Welding
Balled End Socket Welding Fittings, Stainless Steel and
Copper-Nickel
Material and Design of Pipe Hangers and Supports

MSS SP-69:
ASTM A47:

Selection and application of pipe hangers and supports


Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings
ASTM A278:
Grey Iron Castings for pressure containing parts for
Temperature up to 650`F

ALUMINIUM

AND

ALUMINIUM ALLOY

ASTM SB-548:
Ultrasonic Examination of Aluminium-Alloy Plate for Pressure Vessels
COPPER & COPPER ALLOYS
ASTM SB-61:
Steam Valve Bronze Casting
ASTM SB-369:
Copper-Nickel Alloy Castings
ASTM SB-824: General Requirements for Copper-Alloy Castings
A
ASTM SB-858M: Determination of susceptibility to stress corrosion
cracking
in Copper-Alloys using an Ammonia Vapour Test
NICKEL & NICKEL ALLOYS
ASTM SB-366: Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Fittings
ASTM SB-444: Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS
N06625) Pipe and Tube
ASTM SB-494: Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Castings
ASTM SB-494M: Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Castings
TITANIUM & TITANIUM ALLOYS
ASTM SB-363: Seamless and Welded Unalloyed Titanium and Titanium Alloy
Welding Fittings.
ASTM SB-367: Titanium and Titanium Alloy Castings
ASTM SB-381: Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forging
ZIRCONIUM & ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS
ASTM SB-493: Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Forging
A21.14: Ductile Iron Fittings, 3 Inch through 24 Inch, for Gas
Types of Pipe Fittings: Followings are the different types of Pipe Fittings being used in Industries:

Adapter: Adapter is needed for


changing from one type of end condition
to another. Adapters extend or terminate
pipe runs. They are used to connect
dissimilar pipes. These fittings are
somewhat similar to pipe couplings,
with the difference that they connect pipe
of different types. Pipe adapters may
have either male or female end or the
opposite gender on the each end, which
needs to be welded or screwed onto a
smaller pipe.
Bush: Bush is threaded on Hexagonal

both the inside and outside Bush


and used for joining pipes
with different diameters
together
Cap: Cap covers the end of a pipe. A
cap is used like plug, except that the pipe
caps screws or attaches on the male
thread of a pipe or a nipple. A cap may
have a Butt-weld weld end, socket weld Cap (But-Weld)
end or a female threaded end and the
other end closed off. Industrial caps can
be round, square, rectangular, U-shaped,
I-shaped and have a round hand grip or a
flat hand grip. Caps act as protective
device and are designed to protect pipe
ends of various shapes.
Coupling:
A
coupling Equal
connects two pipes to each Coupling
other. Couplings help to (Socketextend or terminate pipe runs Weld)
and also used to change pipe Equal Coupling (Screwed)
size. Couplings extend a run
by joining two lengths of
pipe. They are known as
reduced coupling if they are
used to connect pipes of
different sizes.
Cross: Cross is a 4-way Cross
fitting. If a branch line (Socketpasses completely through a Weld)
tee, the fitting becomes a Cross
cross. A cross has one inlet (Screwed)
and three outlets, or vice
versa. They are socket weld
ends or female threaded
ends. Cross fittings can
generate a huge amount of
stress on pipe as temperature
changes, because they are at
the centre of four connection
points. Crosses are common
in fire sprinkler systems.
Elbow: An elbow is 900
installed
between
two Reducing

lengths of pipe or tubing to


allow a change of direction
of flow at a 90 or 45 or
22.5. The ends are Butt
Welding,
Threaded
(Screwed),
or
Socket
Welding. When the two ends
differ in size, it is called a
reducing elbow or reducer
elbow. 90 Degree Elbow
changes the direction by 90.
45 Degree Elbow changes
the direction by 45. A 90
degree elbow is also called
a "90 bend" or "90 ell". A 45
degree elbow is also called
a "45 bend" or "45 ell".
Elbows are various features
as below:
Long Radius (LR) Elbows:
Long Radius elbows have a
Radius of 1.5 times the pipe
diameter or the NPS and are
used when sufficient space is
available and flow is more
critical. Long elbows are
typically used in lowpressure gravity-fed systems
and other applications where
low turbulence and minimum
deposition of entrained
solids are of concern.
Short Radius (SR) Elbows:
Short Radius elbows have a
Centre-to-Face dimension of
1.0 times the pipe diameter
or the Nominal Pipe Size
(NPS) and are typically used
in tight areas
where
clearances are an issue.
Short elbows are widely
available, and are typically
used in pressurized systems.
Expansion Joints:

Elbow
(ButWeld)
450 Elbow
(ButWeld)
900 Elbow
(ButWeld)
900
Reducing
Elbow
(Screwed)
900 Elbow
(Screwed)
900 MaleFemale
Elbow
(Screwed)
900 MaleMale
Elbow
(Screwed)

Expansion joints

connect two pipes and allow movement


due to service load, shock, or thermal
cycles. They are made of steel and
feature a bellows-style construction.
Convolutions
permit
misalignment,
movement or isolation of the components
that are joined together. Expansion joints
are a flanged end or welded end to attach
to components. Expansion joints are
designed for vacuum or process-gas
systems also in which vacuum flanges
and fittings connect runs of pipes or tubes
to other sections of pipes or tubes, as
well as fittings.
Nipple: Nipple is a short
stub of pipe which has a
male pipe thread at each end
for connecting two other
fittings. Nipples are used for
connecting pipe, hoses, and
valves. It is a connector or a
coupling threaded on both
ends.
Olets: Whenever branch
connections are required in
size where reducing tees are
not available and/or when
the branch connections are of
smaller size as compared to
header size, Olets are
generally
used.
The
following
are
few
configurations
of
Olet
connections: Weld Olet;
Sock Olet and Elbo Olet.
Plug: A plug closes off the
end of a pipe. It is similar to
a cap but it fits inside the
fitting it is mated to. In a
threaded pipe system, plugs
have male threads. Plugs are
designed to insert into the
end of pipe to dead-end the

Reducing
Nipple
(SocketWeld)
Swage
Nipple

Weldolet
Sockolet

Plug

flow.
Reducer: A pipe reducer changes the
size of the pipe and fulfils the hydraulic
requirements so to adjust with the
existing piping. They provide a highly
reliable, sturdy and tight integral line
system and these types of pipe fittings
remain unaffected by shock, vibration or
thermal distortion. Reducer connects two
pipes of different sizes. There are two
types of reducer, (i) Concentric and (ii)
Eccentric.
Concentric Reducers are used to join
pipe sections on the same axis. They
provide an in-line conical transition
between pressurized pipes of differing
diameters. The pipe flow is affected by
the inside diameter conical transition
configuration which can be axially moved
and externally reconfigured to provide
for more economical reducer fittings.
When transporting between flanges or
pipes of different ratings and wear
protection is necessary, concentric
reducers are ideal. The concentric
reducer eliminates noise pollution.
Eccentric reducer is applied only when it
is required to maintain the pipe level
either on top and bottom of the pipe.
Eccentric reducer maintains the air force
direction to avoid trapping of air inside
the pipe and is very useful for pump
suction line. They are useful in services
where cavitations are present. An
eccentric reducer is designed with two
ends of different sizes and different
centres so that when they are joined, the
pipes are not in line with each other, but
the two pieces of pipes can be installed
so as to provide optimum drainage of the
line. The eccentric pipe reducers allow
simple connection of different sized
pipes. The reducer must be installed with
straight side up so that it can prevent

Concentric
Reducer
(ButWeld)

Eccentric
Reducer
Weld)

(But-

Sectional View
of Reducer

trapping air at the pump suction.

Tee: A tee is the most


common pipe fitting. It is
used to either combine or
split a fluid flow. It is a Tshaped fitting having two
outlets, at 90 to the
connection to the main line.
It is a short piece of pipe
with a lateral outlet. A tee is
used for connecting pipes of
different diameters or for
changing the direction of
pipe runs for distribution of
the
flow.
They
are
categorized as, Equal Tee
and Unequal Tee. When the
size of the branch is same as
header pipes, it is equal tee
and when the branch size is
less than that of header size,
it is reduced tee. Most of the
tees are having the same inlet
and outlet sizes.

Equal Tee
(ButWeld)

Reducing
Tee (ButWeld)
Reducing
Tee
(Screwed)

Trap: Trap regularly inject water into


traps so that "water seals" are
maintained, as necessary to keep steam or
sewer gases out of system. The trap must
be installed in a readily available place
for easy access for adjustments,
replacement,
and
repair.
Strictly
speaking, a trap is a specialized valve.
Because of this dual connection, the
design usually is certified to resist
accidental backflow of contaminated
water.
Union: A union is similar to a coupling,

except it is designed to allow quick and


convenient disconnection of pipes for
maintenance or fixture replacement. A
union provides a simple transition,
allowing
easy
connection
or
disconnection at any future time. A
standard union pipe is made in three parts
consisting of a nut, a female end, and a
male end. When the female and male ends
are joined, the nuts then provide the
necessary pressure to seal the joint. Since
the mating ends of the union are
interchangeable, changing of a valve or
other device can be achieved with a
minimum loss of time. Pipe unions are
essentially a type of flange connector. In
addition to a standard union, there exist
dielectric unions which are used to
separate dissimilar metals (such as
copper and galvanized steel) to avoid the
damaging effects of galvanic corrosion.
When two dissimilar metals are in
contact with an electrically conductive
solution (even tap water is conductive),
they will form a battery and generate a
voltage by electrolysis. When the two
metals are in direct contact with each
other, the electric current from one metal
to the other will cause a movement of
ions from one to the other, dissolving one
metal and depositing it on the other. A
dielectric union breaks the electric
current path with a plastic liner between
two halves of the union, thus limiting
galvanic corrosion.

(Socket-Weld)

(Screwed)

Male-Female
(Screwed)

Parts of Union

Wye Tee: It is basically a Tee but in the


shape of a wye and is used to create
branch lines. It is a type of Tee which has
the side inlet pipe entering at a 45 angle,
or an angle other than 90 degrees. A
standard wye is a "Y" shaped fitting
which allows one pipe to be joined to Standard
another at a 45 degree angle. Wyes are Wye
similar to tees except that the branch line
is angled to reduce friction and
turbulence that could hamper the flow.
PVDF Corrosive Waste Piping Systems
utilize wye fittings. Pipe wyes are used to
allow one pipe to join another pipe at
some degree or angle. As the name
suggests, the pipe wyes are Y-shaped
pipe fitting devices. Pipe wyes are
similar to pipe tees. The only difference
is in that the branch line is angled to
reduce friction which could hamper the
flow.

Pipe

5.3

Flanges

Common methods for the joining of the pipe include welding, flanged and threaded. A pipe flange is
disc, collar or ring that attaches to pipe with the purpose of connecting the pipes to pipes or a pipe to
any fitting or valve or equipment nozzles. Flanges are also used for the purpose of dismantling piping
systems, temporary or mobile installations, transitions between dissimilar materials, and connections
in environments not conducive to solvent cementing. Pipe flanges are usually welded or screwed to
the pipe end and are connected with bolts to other parts. A gasket is inserted between the two mating
flanges to provide a tighter seal. Flanges are relatively simple mechanical connectors that have been
used successfully for high-pressure piping applications. They are well understood, reliable, costeffective, and readily available from a wide range of suppliers. This is an important feature for
systems that experience pipe-walking or lateral buckling from temperature and pressure variations.
Flanges can be designed to meet a wide range of application requirements such as high-temperature
and corrosion resistance. Pipe flanges have flush or flat surfaces that are perpendicular to the pipe to
which they attach. Two of these surfaces are mechanically joined via bolts, collars or welds.
Ease of assembly is a qualitative measure of the efficiency of the assembly and disassembly process
and the ease of set up and take down time can be very important. Durability is the strength or
toughness of a pipe flange under stress or pressure. Pipe flange products generally have a pressure
rating that defines the maximum pressure the flange is designed to hold. The pressure classes have
differing pressure and temperature ratings for different materials. The flange faces are also made to
standardized dimensions and are typically "flat face", "raised face", "tongue and groove", or "ring
joint" styles. In piping assembly, few joints are to be made, necessarily, with flanges for the following
reasons:
a) For maintenance of the pipe as and when required.
b) For installation of the valves to control the flow of the fluid passing through the pipe.
c) For installation of the instruments to monitor the total system during operation.
d) Other miscellaneous work like maintenance.
Applicable Manufacturing Standards:
Pipe flanges and flanged fittings are made from forged materials and have machined surfaces and
nominal pipe sizes (NPS) from " to 24" as per ASME B16.5 for most liquid process piping
materials. Pipe flanges made to standard ASME B16.47 covers NPS from 26" to 60". Each
Specification delineates flanges into pressure classes of 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 psi
for B16.5; B16.47 delineates its flanges into pressure classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, 900. Materials
for flanges are usually under ASME designation: SA-105 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings
for Piping Applications), SA-266 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel
Components), or SA-182 (Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged
Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service). The selection of End Facing and
Face Finishing of the Flanges, Blind Flanges or Spacers, 2 dia. and above should be done as per
requirements of standards. Bevel end finish for Weld neck flange is to be as per ANSI
B16.5.Screwed flanges and fittings should be threaded tapered as per ANSI B2.1 up to 1.5 Nom.
Dia. And as per IS 554 for 2 to 6 Nom. Dia. All austenitic stainless steel flanges, blind flanges,
Drip Rings, Spectacle Blinds (Fig. 8 flange) and fittings should be solution annealed condition and
should be inter granular corrosion tested as per following requirements, ASTM A262, practice BAcceptance criteria of 60 mils/year (max.). ASTM A262, practice E- Acceptance criteria no crack
observed with 20 X magnification and microscopic structure observed from 250 X magnification.

In addition, there are many standards as below:


ASTM A350 LF1, LF2 & LF6 (Low Temperature).
ASTM A350 LF3 (Low Temperature: 3 1/2% Nickel)
ASTM A707 through L3 Class 3 (Low Temperature)
ASTM A694 F42 through F65 (High Strength) Plates
IS 226:
Specification for structural Steel s
IS 2062:
Specification for Structural Steels
ASTM A6:
General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates for Structural
ASTM A20:
General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels
ASTM A36:
Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A202:
Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, and ChromiumManganese-Silicon
ASTM A203:
Pressure vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Nickel
ASTM A204:
Pressure vessel Plates Alloy steel, Molybdenum
ASTM A240:
Heat-Resisting Stainless steel Plate, sheets and strips for
pressure vessel
ASTM A263:
Corrosion-Resisting Chromium steel clad plates, sheet and strip
ASTM A264:
Chromium-Nickel Stainless steel clad plate, sheet and Strip
ASTM A265:
Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloy clad steel plate
ASTM A283:
Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates
ASTM A285:
CS Pressure Vessel Plates, Low and Intermediate Tensile
Strength
ASTM A515:
CS Plates for Intermediate and High-Temperature
Service
ASTM A516:
CS Pressure vessel Plates for Moderate and LowTemperature Service
ASTM A517:
AS High Strength, Quench