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ECEE 471/518

CAD Lab VI:


Directional Couplers

Stephen Watt

Due: 11/22/13
Partners: Jonathan Fisher, Charles Green

OBJECTIVE
The student explored the design, simulation, and physical realization of a Wilkinson power divider,
branchline coupler, and a coupled line coupler using the Agilent ADS simulation, tuning, and layout
capabilities.

BACKGROUND
Part A
The general form of the Wilkinson power divider scattering matrix is:
0 1 1
[] = 1 0 0
1 0 0

The general form of the coupled line coupler scattering matrix is:
0

1 2
[] =

1 2
0
0

1 2

1 2

Part B
The general form of the branchline coupler scattering matrix is:
0 1 0
0 0 1
[] =

1 0 0
0 1 0
Design Methodology

Figure 1. ADS Component Tuning Tool

Figure 2. ADS LineCalc Tool

SIMULATION SET-UP A: WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER & COUPLED LINE COUPLERS


1. Build ideal 3dB Wilkinson power divider circuit and simulate. Incorporate realistic
discontinuities (gap, tee junctions, tapers, bends) and simulate. Complete physical realization
(microstrip) on FR4 substrate.
2. Build ideal 6dB coupled line coupler circuit and simulate. Incorporate realistic discontinuities
(gap, tee junctions, tapers, bends) and simulate. Complete physical realization (microstrip) on
FR4 substrate.

Results

Figure 3. Ideal Wilkinson power divider simulation

Figure 4. Ideal Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 5. Ideal Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 6. Ideal Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 7. Realistic Wilkinson power divider simulation

Figure 8. Realistic Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 9. Realistic Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 10. Realistic Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 11. Realistic Wilkinson power divider S-parameters (dB)

Figure 12. Realistic 3dB Wilkinson power divider physical layout (microstrip)

Figure 13. Ideal coupled line coupler simulation

Figure 14. Ideal coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 15. Ideal coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 16. Ideal coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 17. Ideal coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 18. Ideal coupled line coupler S-parameters (dB)

Figure 19. Realistic coupled line coupler simulation

Figure 20. LineCalc tool used to calculate transmission line width for coupled line coupler

Figure 21. Realistic coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 22. Realistic coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 23. Realistic coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 24. Realistic coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 25. Realistic coupled line coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 26. Realistic coupled line coupler physical layout (microstrip)


Analysis
The S-parameter results for the ideal 3dB Wilkinson power divider and the 6dB coupled line coupler were
almost exactly the same as the theoretical S-parameters (equations shown in Background). Upon
introducing the discontinuities to the simulation (step, taper, t-junction, bend) the results differed slightly
from the ideal case. The LineCalc tool provided the transmission line characteristics (impedances, widths)
to ensure the physical realization results were as close to ideal as possible.

SIMULATION SET-UP B: BRANCHLINE COUPLERS


1. Build ideal 10dB branchline coupler circuit and simulate. Incorporate realistic discontinuities
(gap, tee junctions, tapers, bends) and simulate. Complete physical realization (microstrip) on
FR4 substrate.
2. Build ideal 3dB branchline coupler circuit and simulate. Incorporate realistic discontinuities (gap,
tee junctions, tapers, bends) and simulate. Complete physical realization (microstrip) on FR4
substrate.
Results

Figure 27. Ideal 10dB branchline coupler simulation

Figure 28. Ideal 10dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 29. Ideal 10dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 30. Ideal 10dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 31. Ideal 10dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 32. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler simulation

Figure 33. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 34. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 35. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 36. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler S-parameters (magnitude & phase)

Figure 37. Realistic 3dB branchline coupler physical realization (microstrip)

Analysis
The 3dB branchline coupler is considered a quadrature hybrid coupler and that maintains a 90 phase
difference in the outputs of the through and coupled ports. The coupler is also known as a branch-line
hybrid. The ADS simulation results confirm the 90 phase difference between the output ports. The
analysis of the branchline coupler is completed using an even-odd mode decomposition technique, similar
to that used for the Wilkinson power divider.

QUESTIONS & HW PROBLEMS


See attached.

CONCLUSION
CAD Lab 6 demonstrated analysis of the Wilkinson power divider, the coupled line coupler, and the
branchline coupler. The student gained experience deriving the scattering matrices for these couplers
during the assigned homework problems. The ADS portion of the lab provided opportunity to calculate
the transmission line impedances and widths using the LineCalc tool. After calculating the physical
dimensions of the couplers, the student simulated the structures in ADS and the S-parameter simulation
results were in agreement with the analytical derivation. The student also gained experience incorporating
discontinuities in the coupler structures, which then led to completing a physical realization of each
circuit. In the coming weeks the couplers will be fabricated on an FR4 substrate and tested to evaluate the
accuracy of the students board dimensions.