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International Society and

Sustainable Development Goals
(eds.)
paloma durán y lalaGuna
cástor mIGuel díaz barrado
carlos r. Fernández lIesa
(coords.)

saGrarIo morán blanco
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
elena c. díaz Galán
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS FUND

First edition, december 2016

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© 2016 [Thomson Reuters (Legal) Limited / Paloma Durán y Lalaguna y otros]
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Index
Page

Author list  ......................................................................................... 21
Abbreviations  .................................................................................... 27
Previous note  .................................................................................... 33
Chapter 1
The
sustainable
development
goals:
an
introduction  ................................................................................... 35
Paloma Durán y Lalaguna

1. What’s new in the new development agenda?  ......................... 36
2. Universality: What does it mean?  ................................................. 40
3. Private sector as an engine of sustainable development  ......... 42
4. Universities: Getting ready for SDGs  .......................................... 44
5. Conclusions: the road ahead  .......................................................... 46
References  ................................................................................................. 46
Chapter 2
Sustainable development goals: a principle and
several dimensions  ..................................................................... 49
Cástor Miguel Díaz Barrado

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 50
2. Features of the evolution of sustainable development  ............ 52
3. Structure of the principle of sustainable development  ............ 55
4. Principal dimensions of sustainable development  ................... 61
5. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 69
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Chapter 3
Sustainable development in international law:
general issues  ................................................................................. 73
Carlos R. Fernández Liesa

1. Approach to the notion of sustainable development  ............... 74
2. An integrated challenge for the international community  ...... 76
3. The nature of sustainable development  ...................................... 78
4. The
governance
of
sustainable
development
in
globalization  ..................................................................................... 82
5. Privatization and sustainable development  ............................... 86
6. Transnational corporations, human rights and development  . 87
7. International law by objectives  ..................................................... 89
8. Sustainable development as a myth and utopia  ........................ 91
9. Sustainable development: between soft law and hard law  ..... 94
Chapter 4: goal 1
Goal I of the sustainable development goals
(SDG1)  ....................................................................................................... 99
Augustin Kwasi Fosu

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 100
2. The concept, measurements and trends in poverty  ................... 101
3. A Focus on the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)  .................. 106
4. The Determinants of Poverty  ........................................................ 108
4.1. Gender inequality  ........................................................................ 119
4.2. Political Economy  ........................................................................ 121
4.3. Market imperfections and service delivery  .................................. 129
5. Assessment of progress towards structural transformation:
the case of LDCs  ............................................................................... 137
6. Conclusion: Eradicating poverty – Implications for policy  ..... 141
References  ................................................................................................. 145
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Chapter 5: goal 2
Getting to zero hunger: learning form the MDGs
for the SDGs  ...................................................................................... 173
Prabhu Pingali
Megan Witwer
Mathew Abraham

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 174
2. Global trends in progress toward reducing hunger and
malnutrition 1990-2015  .................................................................... 175
3. Sustainable Development goals– new targets and challenges  .. 180
4. A food systems approach towards achieving the SDGs  .......... 186
5. Small producer productivity in food systems  ............................ 187
6. Policy options by stage of structural transformation  ................ 189
7. Low productive agricultural systems  ........................................... 190
8. Modernizing agricultural systems  ................................................ 193
9. Complementary policies to promote sustainable food
systems  ............................................................................................... 195
10. Conclusion  ........................................................................................ 196
References  ................................................................................................. 197
Chapter 6: goal 3
Good health and well-being. Ensure healthy lives
and promote well-being for all at all ages  ............. 201
Christina Binder
Jane Alice Hofbauer

1. Good Health: From MDGs to SDGs  ............................................ 202
2. Targets and Indicators of SDG 3 – Overview and Challenges  .. 207
a. Targets for Goal 3  ........................................................................ 207
i. Overarching Objective  ...................................................... 208
ii. Specific Targets  .................................................................. 209
b. Indicators for Goal 3  .................................................................... 211
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3. The Role of the World Health Organization as the Lead
Agency in SDG 3  .............................................................................. 213
4. SDGs and Human Rights – A Right to Good Health and WellBeing?  ................................................................................................. 215
a. Human Rights and SDG 3  .......................................................... 216
b. Good Health and Well-Being for All Through a Human Rights
Lens – Overview of Normative Content and Examples of
Implementation  ........................................................................... 218
c. Measuring the Right to Health in the SDGs  .............................. 223
5. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 228
Chapter 7: goal 4
SDG 4: Lifelong, inclusive and equitable
education  ........................................................................................... 231
J. Paul Martin

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 232
2. Education as a Basic Social Institution  ........................................ 234
3. The Formal Education Tradition  ................................................... 236
4. Emerging New Perspectives  .......................................................... 238
5. The Challenges Faced by the SDGs  ............................................. 241
6. The Gender Factor  ........................................................................... 243
7. The Resource Factor  ........................................................................ 244
8. Content and Quality Factors  .......................................................... 245
9. Conclusion: Immediate Priorities and Long-term Goals  ......... 246
Chapter 8: goal 5
Gender equality. Achieve gender equality and
empower all women and girls  ........................................... 249
Paloma Durán y Lalaguna

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 250
2. Sustainable Development Goal 5: debate and consensus  ....... 251
a. Gender equality and women’s empowerment as a stand-alone
goal  .............................................................................................. 251
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i. Freedom from violence against women and girls  ........ 253
ii. Equality in human capabilities, access to opportunities
and resources  ..................................................................... 253
iii. Equality in agency, voice and participation across the
full range of decision-making arenas  ............................. 254
b. Gender equality and women’s empowerment as a crosscutting
issue in the 2030 Agenda  ............................................................ 257
3. Progress and current situation related to women and girls  ..... 260
Where Women Stand  ........................................................................... 260
The Role of National Governments and their Policies  ........................ 262
Health  .................................................................................................. 263
Education  ............................................................................................. 263
Labour and Income  .............................................................................. 263
4. Implementing and Monitoring Goal 5. The experience of the
UN Sustainable Development Goals Fund (SDGF)  ................. 265
5. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 269
Chapter 9: goal 6
Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable
drinking water by 2030  ............................................................... 271
Regina Gallego Piñero

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 272
2. The SDG 6. A historical review from Rio 92 to the SDGs
Agenda  ............................................................................................... 273
3. The SDG 6. Progress and Key Challenges  .................................. 274
3.1. Access to safe Drinking Water  .................................................... 277
3.2. Access to Sanitation  .................................................................... 278
3.3. Water Quality  ............................................................................. 280
3.4. Water Use Efficiency  ................................................................... 281
3.5. Integrated Resources Management  ............................................. 283
3.6. Protection of Water-related Ecosystems  ...................................... 285
3.7. Capacity Building and Technology Transfer  ............................... 286
3.8. Community Participation  ........................................................... 289
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4. Challenges of Metrics and accountability for the SDG 6  ........ 290
5. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 292
References  ................................................................................................. 294
Chapter 10: goal 7
Ensure
access
to
affordable,
reliable,
sustainable and modern energy for all  .................... 303
Jorge León

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 304
2. Energy access and human development  ...................................... 306
3. Energy access and a cleaner environment  ................................... 310
4. Specific targets  .................................................................................. 311
5. Tracking progress  ............................................................................. 317
6. Conclusion  ........................................................................................ 320
References  ................................................................................................. 320
Chapter 11: goal 8
Implementing the human right to decent work
through the UN Sustainable Development Goals
(«SDGs»)  .................................................................................................. 323
Francesco Seatzu

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 324
2. The Emergence of Working Rights as Human Rights  .............. 324
3. The notion of «decent work»  ......................................................... 329
4. The ILO’s Strategy on Decent Work  ............................................. 331
5. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): An
Overview  ........................................................................................... 334
6. Minding the Gap: The Limited Scope of the Protection of
Decent Work and Employment Under the SDGs  ...................... 337
7. Filling the Gap: Aligning the Interpretation of the SDGs Goal
No. 8 to the ILO’s Strategy on the Right to Decent Work  ........ 341
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Chapter 12: goal 9
Fostering industrial development in the frame
of the UN Agenda 2030 – Understanding the
Sustainable Development Goal 9  ...................................... 345
Alejandro Rada

1. Introduction. The Role of Industry in Sustainable
Development  .................................................................................... 346
2. Industrial Policy as a key driver of Industrial Development  . 348
3. Global industrial goals and its shaping in UN fora  .................. 351
4. Industrial Development within the Agenda 2030.Major
Potentials and Challenges for Industrial Policies  ..................... 355
4.1. The SDG 9 in the frame of the Agenda 2030  .............................. 356
4.2. Potentials of the SDG 9 with the Agenda 2030.  ......................... 359
4.3. Major challenges and trade-offs of SDG 9 within the Agenda
2030.   ........................................................................................... 361
5. Concluding remarks  ........................................................................ 363
References  ................................................................................................. 365
Chapter 13: goal 10
Sustainable Development Goal 10: Reduced
inequalities reduce inequality within and
among countries  .......................................................................... 371
Anne Gilles Yeum

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 372
2. An enhanced framework of global financial markets  .............. 375
3. A greater attention towards developing countries  .................... 378
a. Enhanced representation for developing countries in decisionmaking in global international economic and financial
institutions  .................................................................................. 379
b. Special and differential treatment for developing countries  ........ 384
c. Encouragement of official development assistance and financial
flows, including foreign direct investment  .................................. 389
4. Improving migration policies  ........................................................ 391
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Chapter 14: goal 11
Sustainable cities and communities. Make cities
inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable  ................. 395
Karsten Zimmermann

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 395
2. Global urban policy – a network of documents and
initiatives  ........................................................................................... 396
3. The Urban dimension of the Sustainable Development
Goals  ................................................................................................... 399
3.1. Comment on the goals  ................................................................. 401
4. Implementation and Governance of a global Urban Agenda  . 403
4.1. National Urban Policies  .............................................................. 405
4.2. Excursus: implementation of the EU Urban Agenda  ................. 406
4.3. Decentralization  .......................................................................... 407
4.4. Cities in city regions: metropolitan governance  .......................... 408
4.5. Local Governance  ........................................................................ 410
5. Conclusion  ........................................................................................ 415
References  ................................................................................................. 416
Chapter 15: goal 12
Responsible
consumption
and
production.
Ensure sustainable consumption and production
patterns  ............................................................................................... 421
Vincent Correia

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 422
2. The international efforts to foster responsible consumption
and production  ................................................................................. 425
2.1. Agenda 21 and sustainable consumption and production  .......... 425
2.2. The «10-year framework of programmes on sustainable
consumption and production»  ..................................................... 428
2.3. The lack of binding obligations on sustainable consumption and
production  ................................................................................... 430
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3. Addressing responsible consumption and production as a
global issue  ....................................................................................... 433
3.1. Responsible consumption and production for both developed and
developing countries  .................................................................... 434
3.2. Responsible consumption and production and «environmental
governance»  ................................................................................. 437
4. Conclusion  ........................................................................................ 444
Chapter 16: goal 13
Climate Action. Take urgent action to combat
climate change and its impacts  ........................................ 445
Sabrina Robert-Cuendet

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 446
2. The international architecture on climate change: the UNFCC
is insufficient to support Goal 13  .................................................. 450
2.1. The climate change architecture before the 2015 Paris
Agreement  ................................................................................... 451
2.2. The new climate change architecture settled by the Paris
Agreement  ................................................................................... 454
3. The adaptation of international economic law regime as a
necessity to complete and support the international climate
change regime  ................................................................................... 458
3.1. The double-edged relationship between international economic
law and climate change challenge  ............................................... 459
3.2. Goal 13 as the occasion to adapt trade and investment
international agreements to climate change challenge  ................ 466
Chapter 17: goal 14
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,
seas, and marine resources for sustainable
development  ..................................................................................... 471
Julián Botero

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 472
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2. On marine pollution  ........................................................................ 474
3. On the protection of the marine and coastal ecosystems  ......... 479
4. On ocean acidification  ..................................................................... 482
5. On fisheries management  ............................................................... 488
6. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 494
References  ................................................................................................. 495
Chapter 18: goal 15
Life on land. Sustainably manage forests,
combat desertification, halt and reverse land
degradation, halt biodiversity loss  ............................ 497
Thomas Brooks
Stuart Butchart
Diego Juffe-Bignoli
Naomi Kingston
Constanza Martínez

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 498
2. Forest area as a proportion of total land area (indicator 15.1.1)  ... 502
3. Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater
biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem
type (indicator 15.1.2)  ...................................................................... 503
4. Progress towards sustainable forest management (indicator
15.2.1)  .................................................................................................. 506
5. Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area
(indicator 15.3.1)  ............................................................................... 508
6. Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain
biodiversity (indicator 15.4.1)  ........................................................ 508
7. Mountain Green Cover Index (indicator 15.4.2)  ........................ 509
8. Red List Index (indicator 15.5.1)  .................................................... 510
9. Number of countries that have adopted legislative,
administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and
equitable sharing of benefits (indicator 15.6.1)  .......................... 511
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10. Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly
trafficked (indicator 15.7.1 and 15.c.1)  .......................................... 512
11. Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation
and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of
invasive alien species (indicator 15.8.1)  ....................................... 513
12. Progress towards national targets established in accordance
with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for
Biodiversity 2011-2020 (indicator 15.9.1)  ...................................... 514
13. Official development assistance and public expenditure
on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and
ecosystems (indicator 15.a.1 and 15.b.1)  ...................................... 515
14. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 516
Literature cited  ......................................................................................... 517
Chapter 19: goal 16
Peace, justice and strong institutions. Promote
just, peaceful and inclusive societies  ........................... 523
Géraldine Giraudeau

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 524
2. The legal and practical interactions between peace, justice,
strong institutions and sustainable development  ..................... 525
A. The inclusive approach as established in the texts  ...................... 526
B. The practical and legal challenges at stake  .................................. 528
a. Peace and Sustainable Development  ............................. 528
b. Justice and Sustainable Development  ............................ 531
c. Strong institutions and sustainable development  ........ 536
3. The need for law enforcement to realize peaceful, just and
inclusive societies  ............................................................................ 538
4. Conclusion  ........................................................................................ 544
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Chapter 20: goal 17
Sustainable
development
goals.
SDG
17:
Partnerships for the goals  .................................................. 547
Andrea Guerrero García

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 547
2. The creation of a Goal to support the Agenda 2030
implementation  ................................................................................ 548
3. SDG 17  ............................................................................................... 553
3.1. Finance  ........................................................................................ 554
3.2. Technology transfer  ..................................................................... 554
3.3. Trade  ............................................................................................ 555
3.4. Systemic Issues  ............................................................................ 555
4. Implementation of SDG 17 a year since the adoption of the
2030 Agenda  ...................................................................................... 557
5. Conclusions  ....................................................................................... 560
Chapter 21
Implementation of Sustainable Development
Goals: Crosscutting analysis  ............................................. 561
Rosana Garciandía

1. Introduction  ...................................................................................... 562
2. The UNGA Resolution: The role of States and international
actors in the implementation of SDGs  ........................................ 563
2.1. What role for national actors?  ..................................................... 565
2.2. The United Nations Development Group and its contribution to
the SDGs  ..................................................................................... 567
2.3. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda: a precondition for
implementation of the SDGs  ....................................................... 570
3. The Technology Facilitation Mechanism  .................................... 571
3.1. A UN inter-agency task team on science, technology and
innovation for the SDGs  ............................................................. 572
3.2. A collaborative Multi-Stakeholder Forum on Science, Technology
and Innovation (STI) for the SDGs and an online platform  ....... 574
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3.3. A high-level political forum on sustainable development  ........... 576
4. Follow-up and review  ..................................................................... 577
4.1. Global indicator framework  ......................................................... 578
4.2. The UN Secretary-General’s report and the 2016 Global
Sustainable Development Report  ................................................ 579
5. Concluding remarks  ........................................................................ 581
Reference list  .................................................................................... 583

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