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Formula Sheet 4 CXC

Area and Perimeter Formula


Perimeter = distance around the outside
(add all sides).

Trigonometric Formula
Opposite side
opposite to angle
Adjacent side beside
(adjacent) to angle

hyp

Hypotenuse- longest
side
opposite
sin =
hypotenus
adjacent
cos =
hypotenus
opposite
tan =
adjacent

adj
a

hyp

opp
b
Remember: works only
on right angle triangles

Pythagorean Theorem
Triples: 3,4,5

5,12,13

8,15,17

C is the hypotenuse, a and b are the other sides.


Remember: works only on right angle triangles

Coordinate Geometry Formula


Volume and Surface Area

Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Gradient Formula:

Equation of a line
Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

Point-Gradient Method:

Parallel lines have equal slope.


Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal
gradients.

Parallel lines

Angle Information
Complementary angles - two angles whose
sum is 90.
Supplementary angles - two angles whose
sum is 180.

Corresponding angles are equal.


2=

General Triangle Information


Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

3=

7,

4=

Alternate Interior angles are equal.

Measure of exterior angle of triangle = the


6,
sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles.
The sum of any two sides of a triangle is
greater than the third side.

6,

1=

4=

5,

8
3=

Alternate Exterior angles are equal.


1=
8,
2=
7
Same side interior angles are supplementary.
m
3+m
5=180, m
4+m
6=180

Solving triangles
A
Polygons

Sum of Interior Angles:

B
a

Sum of Exterior Angles:


Each Interior Angle (regular poly):

Each Exterior Angle (regular poly):

Sine rule
a
b
c
sin A sin B sin C
=
=
=
=
or
a
b
c
sin A sin B sin C
Used when any two sides and their corresponding
angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

Cosine rule
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A
b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

Quadratic Formula

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

If

Used when three sides and an angle between them


are given to find the other side
Herons Formula
Area of a triangle given only the length of the
sides
A = s( s a )( s b)( s c )

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

then

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

a+b+c
2
Capital letters represent Angles
Common letters represent sides
where s =

Tangent

Circle Facts

5. Radius to tangent is 90o at point of contact.


6. The tangents to a circle from an external
point T are equal in length.

radius

7. Angle between tangent to circle and chord


at the point of contact is eqaual to the to
the angle in the alternet segment

diameter

2.

segment
1a.
O
Sector

4.

Diameter = 2 radius

3.

Area of circle = r2
Circumference of circle = 2r or d

360

2
Area of sector = r
360
Length of arc = 2r

6.
5.

Area of Segment = Area of sec tor Area of triangle

1 2

= r 2
r sin
360

7.

Angles in circles
A

E
D

1. a,b,c,d Angle at the center in twice

1b.

1c.

angle at the circumference.


2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o
3. Angles in the same segment are equal
1d.
4. opposite angles in a cyclic
Quadrilateral are supplimentary( add
up to 180o)

Transformational Matrices

Matrices
Adding or subtracting matrices
a b e f a e b f

c d g h c g d h
Multiplying Matrices
a b e f ae + bg af + bh

c d g h ce + dg cf + dh
Determinant of 22 Matrix
a b
A=

If
c d
A = ad cb
A singular matrices has a determinant of 0

REFLECTION
Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis

y- axis

y=-x
1

TRANSLATION

Movement of x in x direction and y in ydirection add matrix

y
to eack point to get its image.

ROTATION
Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise
about origin (0,0)

Adjoint of 22 matrix
a b
A=

c d

cos
R
sin

sin

cos

d b
A adjo int =

c a

1
R180
0

Inverse of 22 matrix

y=x

0
R90
1

0
R270
1

Enlargment
Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the
point for an enlargment from the origin.

Sets

= universal set
= is a member of
= is not a member of
= union
= intersect
= null set
A' = Elements not in set A

a b
A=

c d
1
A 1 =
A adjoint
A
or
A 1 =

d b
1

ad bc c a

Reverse oppertions
+
_

sin

sin 1

cos

cos 1

tan

tan 1

f ( x)

f 1 ( x )

ax

Shape

Volume

Surface Area

Cube
lll=l3

6l2

1
l
l
Cuboid
lwh

2lw+2hw+2lh

h
l
w
Prism
bh + lb + sl + shl
h

1
bhl
2

l
b
Cylinder
r

2 2
2r
r+ 2hrh

h
or
2r ( r + h )

Cone
1

3r 2r+ hrs
2

Sphere
4
r 3
3 2
4r

2006 D. Ferguson