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Perimeter = distance around the outside

(add all sides).

Trigonometric Formula

Opposite side

opposite to angle

Adjacent side beside

(adjacent) to angle

hyp

Hypotenuse- longest

side

opposite

sin =

hypotenus

adjacent

cos =

hypotenus

opposite

tan =

adjacent

adj

a

hyp

opp

b

Remember: works only

on right angle triangles

Pythagorean Theorem

Triples: 3,4,5

5,12,13

8,15,17

Remember: works only on right angle triangles

Volume and Surface Area

Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Gradient Formula:

Equation of a line

Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

Point-Gradient Method:

Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal

gradients.

Parallel lines

Angle Information

Complementary angles - two angles whose

sum is 90.

Supplementary angles - two angles whose

sum is 180.

2=

Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

3=

7,

4=

6,

sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles.

The sum of any two sides of a triangle is

greater than the third side.

6,

1=

4=

5,

8

3=

1=

8,

2=

7

Same side interior angles are supplementary.

m

3+m

5=180, m

4+m

6=180

Solving triangles

A

Polygons

B

a

Each Interior Angle (regular poly):

Sine rule

a

b

c

sin A sin B sin C

=

=

=

=

or

a

b

c

sin A sin B sin C

Used when any two sides and their corresponding

angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

Cosine rule

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

Quadratic Formula

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

If

are given to find the other side

Herons Formula

Area of a triangle given only the length of the

sides

A = s( s a )( s b)( s c )

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

then

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

a+b+c

2

Capital letters represent Angles

Common letters represent sides

where s =

Tangent

Circle Facts

6. The tangents to a circle from an external

point T are equal in length.

radius

at the point of contact is eqaual to the to

the angle in the alternet segment

diameter

2.

segment

1a.

O

Sector

4.

Diameter = 2 radius

3.

Area of circle = r2

Circumference of circle = 2r or d

360

2

Area of sector = r

360

Length of arc = 2r

6.

5.

1 2

= r 2

r sin

360

7.

Angles in circles

A

E

D

1b.

1c.

2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o

3. Angles in the same segment are equal

1d.

4. opposite angles in a cyclic

Quadrilateral are supplimentary( add

up to 180o)

Transformational Matrices

Matrices

Adding or subtracting matrices

a b e f a e b f

c d g h c g d h

Multiplying Matrices

a b e f ae + bg af + bh

c d g h ce + dg cf + dh

Determinant of 22 Matrix

a b

A=

If

c d

A = ad cb

A singular matrices has a determinant of 0

REFLECTION

Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis

y- axis

y=-x

1

TRANSLATION

y

to eack point to get its image.

ROTATION

Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise

about origin (0,0)

Adjoint of 22 matrix

a b

A=

c d

cos

R

sin

sin

cos

d b

A adjo int =

c a

1

R180

0

Inverse of 22 matrix

y=x

0

R90

1

0

R270

1

Enlargment

Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the

point for an enlargment from the origin.

Sets

= universal set

= is a member of

= is not a member of

= union

= intersect

= null set

A' = Elements not in set A

a b

A=

c d

1

A 1 =

A adjoint

A

or

A 1 =

d b

1

ad bc c a

Reverse oppertions

+

_

sin

sin 1

cos

cos 1

tan

tan 1

f ( x)

f 1 ( x )

ax

Shape

Volume

Surface Area

Cube

lll=l3

6l2

1

l

l

Cuboid

lwh

2lw+2hw+2lh

h

l

w

Prism

bh + lb + sl + shl

h

1

bhl

2

l

b

Cylinder

r

2 2

2r

r+ 2hrh

h

or

2r ( r + h )

Cone

1

3r 2r+ hrs

2

Sphere

4

r 3

3 2

4r

2006 D. Ferguson

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