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# Formula Sheet 4 CXC

## Area and Perimeter Formula

Perimeter = distance around the outside

Trigonometric Formula
Opposite side
opposite to angle

hyp

Hypotenuse- longest
side
opposite
sin =
hypotenus
cos =
hypotenus
opposite
tan =

a

hyp

opp
b
Remember: works only
on right angle triangles

Pythagorean Theorem
Triples: 3,4,5

5,12,13

8,15,17

## C is the hypotenuse, a and b are the other sides.

Remember: works only on right angle triangles

## Coordinate Geometry Formula

Volume and Surface Area

Distance Formula:

Midpoint Formula:

Equation of a line
Slope-Intercept Method:

y = mx + c

## Parallel lines have equal slope.

Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal

Parallel lines

Angle Information
Complementary angles - two angles whose
sum is 90.
Supplementary angles - two angles whose
sum is 180.

2=

## General Triangle Information

Sum of angles of triangle = 180.

3=

7,

4=

## Measure of exterior angle of triangle = the

6,
sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles.
The sum of any two sides of a triangle is
greater than the third side.

6,

1=

4=

5,

8
3=

## Alternate Exterior angles are equal.

1=
8,
2=
7
Same side interior angles are supplementary.
m
3+m
5=180, m
4+m
6=180

Solving triangles
A
Polygons

B
a

## Sum of Exterior Angles:

Each Interior Angle (regular poly):

## Each Exterior Angle (regular poly):

Sine rule
a
b
c
sin A sin B sin C
=
=
=
=
or
a
b
c
sin A sin B sin C
Used when any two sides and their corresponding
angles are involved to find one missing side or angle.

Cosine rule
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A
b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ac cos B

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos C

If

## Used when three sides and an angle between them

are given to find the other side
Herons Formula
Area of a triangle given only the length of the
sides
A = s( s a )( s b)( s c )

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

then

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

a+b+c
2
Capital letters represent Angles
Common letters represent sides
where s =

Tangent

Circle Facts

## 5. Radius to tangent is 90o at point of contact.

6. The tangents to a circle from an external
point T are equal in length.

## 7. Angle between tangent to circle and chord

at the point of contact is eqaual to the to
the angle in the alternet segment

diameter

2.

segment
1a.
O
Sector

4.

3.

Area of circle = r2
Circumference of circle = 2r or d

360

2
Area of sector = r
360
Length of arc = 2r

6.
5.

## Area of Segment = Area of sec tor Area of triangle

1 2

= r 2
r sin
360

7.

Angles in circles
A

E
D

1b.

1c.

## angle at the circumference.

2. Angle formed on the diameter in 90o
3. Angles in the same segment are equal
1d.
4. opposite angles in a cyclic
up to 180o)

Transformational Matrices

Matrices
a b e f a e b f

c d g h c g d h
Multiplying Matrices
a b e f ae + bg af + bh

c d g h ce + dg cf + dh
Determinant of 22 Matrix
a b
A=

If
c d
A singular matrices has a determinant of 0

REFLECTION
Multiply matrices by each point to get reflection in

x- axis

y- axis

y=-x
1

TRANSLATION

## Movement of x in x direction and y in ydirection add matrix

y
to eack point to get its image.

ROTATION
Multiply by matrices to get rotation of -degrees clockwise

a b
A=

c d

cos
R
sin

sin

cos

d b

c a

1
R180
0

Inverse of 22 matrix

y=x

0
R90
1

0
R270
1

Enlargment
Multiply each point by scale factor K to get the image of the
point for an enlargment from the origin.

Sets

= universal set
= is a member of
= is not a member of
= union
= intersect
= null set
A' = Elements not in set A

a b
A=

c d
1
A 1 =
A
or
A 1 =

d b
1

Reverse oppertions
+
_

sin

sin 1

cos

cos 1

tan

tan 1

f ( x)

f 1 ( x )

ax

Shape

Volume

Surface Area

Cube
lll=l3

6l2

1
l
l
Cuboid
lwh

2lw+2hw+2lh

h
l
w
Prism
bh + lb + sl + shl
h

1
bhl
2

l
b
Cylinder
r

2 2
2r
r+ 2hrh

h
or
2r ( r + h )

Cone
1

3r 2r+ hrs
2

Sphere
4
r 3
3 2
4r

2006 D. Ferguson