In the present work, we make a theoretical study of the wavelength effect on the capacity of a solar cell based on CIGS subjected to horizontal monochromatic light in frequency modulation. Based on the expression of the density of minority charge carriers, we study the photovoltage and capacity. A gap of 1.34eV corresponding to gallium ratio of 0.28 is selected. We find that efficiency is reduced by the increase in wavelength. Thus diffusing capacity results from the variation of the minority charge carriers in the base of the solar cell. The results show that the effectiveness of capacity decreases when the wavelength increases.

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In the present work, we make a theoretical study of the wavelength effect on the capacity of a solar cell based on CIGS subjected to horizontal monochromatic light in frequency modulation. Based on the expression of the density of minority charge carriers, we study the photovoltage and capacity. A gap of 1.34eV corresponding to gallium ratio of 0.28 is selected. We find that efficiency is reduced by the increase in wavelength. Thus diffusing capacity results from the variation of the minority charge carriers in the base of the solar cell. The results show that the effectiveness of capacity decreases when the wavelength increases.

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Journal Homepage: - www.journalijar.com

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/2136

RESEARCH ARTICLE

STUDY OF THE CAPACITY OF A MANOFACIAL SOLAR CELL BASED ON CIGS UNDER

HORIZONTAL MONOCHROMATIC ILLUMINATION IN FREQUENCY DYNAMIC MODE: THE

EFFECT OF THE WAVELENGTH.

Jean Jude Domingo, Alain Kassine Ehemba, Demba Diallo, Ibrahima Wade and Moustapha Dieng.

Laboratory of semiconductors and solar energy, physics department, faculty of science and technology, university

cheikh anta diop Dakar.

....

Manuscript Info

Abstract

.

effect on the capacity of a solar cell based on CIGS subjected to

horizontal monochromatic light in frequency modulation. Based on

the expression of the density of minority charge carriers, we study the

photovoltage and capacity. A gap of 1.34eV corresponding to gallium

ratio of 0.28 is selected. We find that efficiency is reduced by the

increase in wavelength. Thus diffusing capacity results from the

variation of the minority charge carriers in the base of the solar cell.

The results show that the effectiveness of capacity decreases when the

wavelength increases.

Manuscript History

Received: 25 September 2016

Final Accepted: 27 October 2016

Published: November 2016

Key words:Capacity, CIGS, monofacial solar cell,

wavelength.

....

Introduction:The development of solar PV is characterized by the diversity of these technologies. Among these, the solar cells in

thin layers, in particular those based on CIGS offer significant advantages with a 21.7% record yield obtained by

laboratory, 15.9% for large modules and 12.13% for commercial modules [1], [2] and [3]. The composition of a

CIGS solar cell is through the determination of certain properties, such as optical, structural and electrical ones [4],

[5] and [6].

The electrical properties are based generally on the determination of the photocurrent, the photo voltage, series and

shunt resistors and the capacity of the solar cell [3]. The parameters usually employed are:

the diffusion length (L), the diffusion coefficient (D), the recombination rates at the front side (Sf) and the rear side

(Sb),

the

reflection

coefficient

(R)

and

the

absorption

coefficient

()

[4].

In this present article, the ability of a CIGS solar cell and effectiveness will be determined from the density of

minority charge carriers. The influence of the wavelength is highlighted.

Theoretical study:In our study, we consider a solar cell presented by the figure 1. The contribution of the transmitter is ignored and we

consider the quasi-neutral basis (QNB). When the solar cell is illuminated, there is creation of electron-hole pairs in

the active database. The density of generated minority charge carriers follows the next continuity equation [4]:

2 ( x ,t )

x 2

(1)

Address:- Laboratory of semiconductors and solar energy, physics department, faculty of science and

technology, university cheikh anta diop Dakar.

711

ISSN: 2320-5407

(x, t) and G (x, t) are respectively, the density and the generation rate of minority charge carriers in function of the

thickness x and the time factor t. Their expressions are [4]:

( x, t ) ( x) exp(it ) (2)

G( x, t ) g ( x) exp(it ) (3)

(x) and g (x) are the respective spatial components of the density and the generation rate.

Figure 1:- The solar cell (CIGS n + -p-p +) under illumination monochromatic to the front side.

The generation rate of electron-hole pairs per the wavelength is equal to the photons rate of disappearance of the

material [5]:

(4)

g ( x) ( ) ( ) (1 R( )) exp( ( ) x)

With: ( ) = the incidental monochromatic flux

( ) = the coefficient of monochromatic absorption

R( ) = the coefficient of monochromatic reflection

L( ) and D( ) respectively are the diffusion length and the diffusion coefficient, complex functions of the

angular frequency, given by the following reports:

L( ) DO

1 i

(5)

1 ( ) 2

1 2 2

D D0

2

2

1 2 2 2

And

(6)

L0 and D0 represent the intrinsic diffusion length and the intrinsic diffusion coefficient. The term D 0 is given by the

Einstein formula [7]:

D0

with

Kb T

q

(7)

which represents the mobility of the material, K b the Boltzmann constant, T the temperature of the cell and

the elementary electron charge. The general solution of the continuity equation is the equation (8):

x

x . .1 R .L 2

B.Sin

exp .x

2

2

D . .L 1

L

L

x A.Cos

(8)

712

ISSN: 2320-5407

The coefficients A and B are obtained from the following boundary conditions: [4]

( x, )

x

- At the junction at x = 0

( x, )

x

Sf

and

x 0

Sf

D( )

xH

( x, ) x 0

(9)

Sb

(10)

( x, )

D( )

xH

S b respectively represent the recombination speeds at the front side and the rear side of the absorber.

Absorption coefficient:CIGS is used in photovoltaic devices due to its direct gap [8]. Thus, we represent the CIGS absorption coefficient as

a function of the wavelength of the incident photons in Figure 2:

-1

AbsorptionCoefficient (cm )

5x10

4x10

3x10

2x10

1x10

0

-1

4,0x10

-1

6,0x10

-1

8,0x10

1,0x10

1,2x10

Wavelength (m)

This figure shows that the absorption coefficient decreases with increasing wavelength. Consequently the generation

of electron-hole pairs increases with the increasing of the wavelength. The magnitude of the CIGS absorption

coefficient is of 104cm-1, which explains its use in thin layer. Therefore, it takes some micrometer CIGS to absorb

the entire incident light [9].

Study of the density of minority charge carriers:We present in the following four figures the density of minority carriers according to the base thickness x with

different wavelengths of visible range and infrared range respectively open circuit and short circuit.

713

ISSN: 2320-5407

13

4,0x10

12

3,5x10

m

m

m

m

12

3,0x10

13

-3

3,0x10

-3

13

3,5x10

13

2,5x10

13

2,0x10

13

1,5x10

13

1,0x10

12

5,0x10

12

2,5x10

12

2,0x10

12

1,5x10

12

1,0x10

11

5,0x10

0,0

0,0

0,0

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

-4

2,0x10

2,5x10

0,0

-4

3,0x10

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

2,0x10

-4

2,5x10

-4

3,0x10

according to the thickness in the base for different

wavelength values of the visible.

Sf = 10cm.s-1 (open-circuit)

depending on the thickness in the base for different

wavelength values of the visible.

Sf = 6.106cm.s-1(Short- circuit)

12

5x10

13

3,5x10

m

m

13

m

m

12

4x10

-3

-3

3,0x10

Minority carries density (cm

-4

1,0x10

13

2,5x10

13

2,0x10

13

1,5x10

13

1,0x10

12

12

3x10

12

2x10

12

1x10

5,0x10

0,0

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

2,0x10

-4

2,5x10

-4

3,0x10

carriers in function of the thickness in the base for

different wavelength values of the infrared. Sf =

10cm.s-1 (open-circuit)

0,0

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

2,0x10

-4

2,5x10

-4

3,0x10

depending on the thickness in the base for different

wavelength values of the infrared.

Sf = 6.106cm.s-1 (Short- circuit)

714

ISSN: 2320-5407

To Figures 3 and 4, all the curves start with a maximum and then decrease gradually. The maximum density

corresponds to a gradient of carries equal to zero. Then this density decreases with the depth x in the database of the

base. Therefore, carriess can not cross the junction to generate a photocurrent. They will recombine. This decrease

or the negative gradient corresponds to the recombination of minority carriers in the basis. [11]

To Figures 5 and 6, for a given wavelength, we find two levels:

At the first level, the density of minority carriers increases with the thickness in the basis to a maximum; this

corresponds to the crossing of minority carriers at the junction to participate in the generation of photocurrent. [12]

At the second level, the density of minority carriers decreases with the basis thickness; this corresponds to the

recombination surface and volume of carriers that do not cross the junction. [12]

The modulus of the density of minority carriers at short-circuit as open-circuit increases with the wavelength. The

increase in the module of the density with wavelength corresponds to an increase of the carriers generated in the

basis since the absorption decreases with the increasing wavelength. It is also seen that for low values of the

wavelength (), the absorption is near the junction while for large values of , the absorption moves in depth. The

obtained profiles of the figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 are due to the fact that CIGS has a reduced thickness in the micrometer

range. [4]

To Figures 7 and 8, we represent the relative density of minority charge carriers in function of the thickness in the

base to the various wavelength values respectively in open circuit and short circuit:

Relative density of minority charge carries (cm

-3

1,1x10

m

m

m

m

1,0x10

-1

9,0x10

-1

8,0x10

-1

7,0x10

-1

6,0x10

-1

5,0x10

-1

4,0x10

-1

3,0x10

0,0

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

2,0x10

-4

2,5x10

-4

3,0x10

Figure 7:- Density profile on minority charge carriers in function of the thickness in the base for different values o

the wavelength. Sf = 10cm.s-1 (open-circuit)

715

m

m

m

m

-3

ISSN: 2320-5407

1,0x10

-1

8,0x10

-1

6,0x10

-1

4,0x10

-1

2,0x10

0,0

0,0

-5

5,0x10

-4

1,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

2,0x10

-4

2,5x10

-4

3,0x10

Figure 8:- Density profile of minority charge carriers in function of the thickness in the base for different values of

the wavelength.

Sf = 6.106cm.s-1(Short-circuit)

The figures 7 and 8, the thickness of the cell where the modulus of the density of minority carriers is maximal

corresponds to the extension of the space charge zone. It is noted that the thickness of the latter expands with

increasing the recombination rate at the junction Sf. This is due to the fact that carriers are stored in open circuit in

short circuit [5]. To a recombination velocity value Sf junction fixed in the vicinity of the short circuit (figure8)

enlargement of the space charge zone is more important with large wavelength values. We can say that the short

wavelengths provide a thickness of the space charge region reduced compared to longer wavelengths.

V ph VT ln 2b (0) 1

ni

(11)

N b and ni are respectively the doping density and the intrinsic density of minority charge carriers is given by the

Eg

2

(12)

k T

b

N C and NV

are respectively the densities of states in the conduction band and valence band. E g is the energy

VT

K bT

q

(13)

Diffusion capacity:When excess minority carriers diffuse into the base of a solar cell, they do not pass through all, the junction.

Therefore they induce in the base equivalent capacity which is diffusing capacity whose expression is given as

follows [5]:

where: Q q (0)

dQ

dV ph

is

(14)

the

number

of

carriers

per

unit

area.

(b)

716

ISSN: 2320-5407

Cq

d (0)

(15)

dV ph

Cq

d (0) 1

dS f dS f

(16)

dV ph

From the expression of the photo voltage, we finally get the following equation:

Cq

ni2

(0)

q

N bVT

VT

(17)

-4

2,5x10

0,48m

0,58m

0,88m

-4

-2

Capacity(F.cm )

2,0x10

-4

1,5x10

-4

1,0x10

-5

5,0x10

0,0

0

6

P

-1

Figure 9:- Capacity as a function of the recombination rate at the junction for different values of the wavelength.

The capacity decreases with the increase of the recombination velocity at the junction. It is maximum open circuit

almost zero shorted. This can be explained in part by the shape of the density of minority charge carriers is

maximum open circuit and secondly by the fact that the capacity is proportional to the photo voltage. This last is

maximum open circuit and minimum shorted. Referring to a plane capacitor, the capacity is inversely proportional

to the thickness of the capacitor. Now we have found that open circuit, the thickness of the space charge zone is

minimum contrast shorted wherein the thickness of the space charge zone is maximal. The capacity increases with

the wavelength. Increasing the capacity in the wavelength can be explained by the optical properties of CIGS, for

example the wavelength and the absorption coefficient.

Effectiveness of capacity:The area of collection of minority charge carriers corresponds to an extension of the space charge zone X 0 which

depends on the rate of recombination at the junction. However, when the space charge region is considered a planar

capacitor, we can write:

U cc

U cc

X 0,co

X 0,cc

U co

(18)

and U co are respectively, the energy when the solar cell is short-circuited and open-circuited. X 0,co and

X 0,cc

represent respectively, the thicknesses of the space charge zone when the solar cell is open-circuited and

C ( , )

.S

X o ( , )

(19)

717

ISSN: 2320-5407

U

U oc

(20)

with U the energy difference in open circuit and short circuit. Thus, the expression efficiency becomes:

( , ) 1

X o,co ( , )

X o,cc ( , )

(21)

The Table 1 summarizes the values of the maximum density of the minority carriers, the thickness of the space

charge zone and the capacity for different values of the wavelength.

Table 1:- Values of maximum density of the minority carriers, thickness of the space charge zone and capacity

according to the wavelength

(nm)

max,co

max,co

Xo,co

Xo,cc

Cco

Ccc

(%)

(1013cm-3)

(1012cm-3)

(10-2.m)

(10-2.m)

(mF.cm-2)

(F.cm-2)

480

3,19

2,41

4,13

75,64

2,14

117,00

94,54

580

3,60

3,13

4,94

84,24

1,79

105,06

94,34

880

3.177

4,19

8,83

115,20

1,00

76,82

92,33

980

2.18

3,42

11,59

130,31

0,76

67,91

91,10

The capacity in open circuit as short-circuit decreases as the wavelength increases. This ability is very low short

circuit. It is also noted that the thickness of the space charge zone in open circuit as short circuit increases as the

wavelength increases. We also find that the performance of the capacity for long wavelengths is higher than for

short wavelengths.

Conclusion:In this work, we presented a simulation study using the wavelength effect on the ability of a solar cell based on

CIGS subjected to horizontal monochromatic light frequency modulation. The result obtained in this study is the

reduction of the efficiency of cell capacity with the increase in wavelength. Thus diffusing capacity results from the

variation of the minority charge carriers in the base of the solar cell. Usually the considered parameter in diffusion

capacity studies is the characteristics of the junction. In the end we can say that the capacity, which is proportional

to the density of minority charge carriers increases with the wavelength

References:1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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F. Kessler, D. Rudmann, 2004. Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules. Sol. Energy,

77, 685695.

M. Powalla, W. Witte, P. Jackson, S. Paetel, E. Lotter, R. Wuerz, F. Kessler, C. Tschamber, W. Hempel, D.

Hariskos, R. Menner, A. Bauer, S. Spiering, E. Ahlswede, T.M. Friedlmeier, D. Blazquez-Sanchez, I. Klugius,

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(77), 685695.

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10. M. Powalla, W. Witte, P. Jackson, S. Paetel, E. Lotter, R. Wuerz, F. Kessler, C. Tschamber, W. Hempel, D.

Hariskos, R. Menner, A. Bauer, S. Spiering, E. Ahlswede, T.M. Friedlmeier, D. Blazquez-Sanchez, I. Klugius,

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