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Pro/ENGINEER 2001

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Parametric Technology Corporation

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Parametric Technology Corporation, 128 Technology Drive, Waltham, MA 02453-8905

6 September 2000

Table of Contents
About Holes........................................................................................................ 23
To Create a Straight Hole.................................................................................. 23
Example: Creating a Straight Hole................................................................... 24
To Create a Sketched Hole ............................................................................... 25
To Create a Standard Hole................................................................................ 26
Hole Charts......................................................................................................... 26
Thread Note Formatting .................................................................................... 27
To Place a Hole .................................................................................................. 28
Specifying Dimension References for Placing a Hole ................................... 28
To Specify References for a Radial Hole......................................................... 29
Tip: Placing a Hole on a Concave Surface ...................................................... 29
To Create a Shaft ............................................................................................... 30
Example: Creating a Shaft ................................................................................ 30
To Create a Neck................................................................................................ 30
Example: Neck Feature ..................................................................................... 31
To Create a Flange............................................................................................. 31
Example: Creating a Flange.............................................................................. 32
To Create an Edge Chamfer.............................................................................. 33
Example: Defining an Edge Chamfer............................................................... 33
To Create a Corner Chamfer............................................................................. 33
Example: Corner Chamfer ................................................................................ 34
About a Rib Feature........................................................................................... 34
Example: Straight and Rotational Ribs ........................................................... 35

Part

About the Copy Command ............................................................................... 38


To Copy Features .............................................................................................. 39
Using the COPY FEATURE Menu..................................................................... 39
To Copy Features within the Same Model....................................................... 40
Copying Features Using New References ...................................................... 40
To Copy Features with SameRefs, FromDifVers ............................................ 40
Tip: Part Accuracy for Copying with SameRefs, FromDifVers ..................... 41
To Copy Features with New Refs, FromDifModel or FromDivVers............... 41
To Copy Features by Mirror.............................................................................. 42
Copying Features by Mirror.............................................................................. 42
To Copy Features by Moving............................................................................ 42
Copying Features by Translating..................................................................... 43
To Redefine the Copied Element...................................................................... 43
To Make a Dependent Copy Independent ....................................................... 43
About Datum Curves ......................................................................................... 43
Sketched Datum Curves ................................................................................... 43
To Create a Sketched Datum Curve................................................................. 43
To Create a Sketched Datum Curve (streamlined) ......................................... 44
To Create a Datum Curve at Surface Intersections ........................................ 44
Importing a Datum Curve.................................................................................. 44
Example: Sample Datum Curve File ................................................................ 45
To Import a Datum Curve.................................................................................. 45
To Create a Datum Curve Using a Cross Section .......................................... 45
To Create a Split Datum Curve ......................................................................... 46
To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface ............................................ 46

Part

Modifying a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface............................................ 46


Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface ............................. 47
Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a Curve ................................ 48
To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Curve ............................................... 48
Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface Boundary ........... 48
To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface Boundary .......................... 49
To Create a Two-Projection Datum Curve....................................................... 50
To Create a Datum Curve from Equations ...................................................... 50
Copying Datum Curves in Assembly Mode .................................................... 50
To Copy a Datum Curve .................................................................................... 50
About Coordinate Systems in Part Modeling.................................................. 51
Creating a Coordinate System ......................................................................... 52
To Create a Coordinate System (basic)........................................................... 53
To Create an Offset Coordinate System.......................................................... 53
To Create a Coordinate System from a File .................................................... 53
Example: Transformation File Format ............................................................. 54
About Graphs..................................................................................................... 55
To Create a Graph.............................................................................................. 55
Example: Creating a Graph............................................................................... 55
To Redefine a Graph.......................................................................................... 56
About an Evaluate Feature ............................................................................... 56
To Create an Evaluate Feature ......................................................................... 56
Using Relations with an Evaluate Feature ...................................................... 57
Creating Features .............................................................................................. 57
To Create a Protrusion (basic) ......................................................................... 57

Part

Example: Different Protrusion Features.......................................................... 58


To Specify the Direction of Feature Creation ................................................. 61
Creating a Thin Protrusion ............................................................................... 61
Tip: Sketching Multiple Contours .................................................................... 62
To Create a Groove............................................................................................ 62
Example: Creating a Groove............................................................................. 63
About Tweak Features ...................................................................................... 63
About Drafts ....................................................................................................... 64
Intersect Drafts .................................................................................................. 66
Neutral Plane Drafts .......................................................................................... 67
Example: Neutral Plane Drafts ......................................................................... 67
To Create Neutral Plane Drafts (basic) ............................................................ 68
To Create a No-Split Neutral Plane Draft ......................................................... 69
To Create a Split-at-Plane Neutral Plane Draft................................................ 69
Creating a Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft ............................................... 70
To Create a Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft ............................................. 70
Example: Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft ................................................. 71
Tip: Multiple Draft Areas ................................................................................... 71
Neutral Curve Drafts.......................................................................................... 73
Example: Neutral Curve Drafts......................................................................... 74
To Create Neutral Curve Drafts (basic)............................................................ 78
About Toroidal Bends ....................................................................................... 79
To Create a Toroidal Bend ................................................................................ 80
Example: Creating a Toroidal Bend ................................................................. 80
To Create a Spinal Bend ................................................................................... 82

Part

Example: Creating and Modifying a Spinal Bend ........................................... 83


To Redefine a Spinal Bend ............................................................................... 85
About Rounds .................................................................................................... 85
To Select References with Edge Chain ........................................................... 86
Intent Chain and Intent Surfs............................................................................ 86
To Select an Intent Chain.................................................................................. 87
To Select an Intent Surface............................................................................... 87
To Create a Reference Feature......................................................................... 87
Reference Features ........................................................................................... 87
To Enter Radius Values..................................................................................... 88
To Resolve Placement Ambiguity .................................................................... 88
Example: Resolving Placement Ambiguity ..................................................... 88
To Specify the Round Extent Element............................................................. 89
Example: Specifying the Round Extent Element............................................ 89
Creating a Variable Radius Round................................................................... 90
To Create a Variable Radius Round................................................................. 91
Example: Variable Radius Round .................................................................... 92
About Patterns ................................................................................................... 92
To Modify Pattern Relations ............................................................................. 93
To Redefine Patterns......................................................................................... 94
To Change from Value to Relation and Vice Versa ........................................ 94
To Restore Pattern Relations ........................................................................... 94
Restoring Pattern Relations in the Backup Model ......................................... 95
About Dimension Patterns................................................................................ 95
To Create a Dimension Pattern (basic)............................................................ 95

Part

To Create a Rotational Pattern of Holes and Shafts ...................................... 96


Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Holes and Shafts ....................... 96
To Create a Rotational Pattern of Sketched Features.................................... 97
Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Sketched Features..................... 97
To Create a Pattern by Using an Angular Reference ..................................... 98
Example: Creating a Pattern of Cylindrical Protrusions................................ 98
To Vary a Dimension Pattern.......................................................................... 100
Pattern Increment Relations ........................................................................... 101
To Create a Dimension Pattern By Entering a Relation ............................... 101
Example: Pattern Driven by a Relation.......................................................... 102
Tip: Recommendations for Creating Dimension Patterns........................... 104
To Modify a Pattern by Changing its Parameter........................................... 105
To Delete a Pattern .......................................................................................... 105
About Reference Patterns............................................................................... 105
About Table-Driven Patterns .......................................................................... 105
To Create a Table-Driven Pattern ................................................................... 106
To Convert a Value-Driven Pattern into a Table-Driven Pattern ................. 106
To Modify a Table-Driven Pattern................................................................... 106
Modifying a Table-Driven Pattern................................................................... 107
Variations of Pattern Driven by the Same Dimension.................................. 107
Example: Table-Driven Pattern....................................................................... 108
To Make Features Read-Only ......................................................................... 110
Modifying Feature Names ............................................................................... 110
To Modify Feature Names ............................................................................... 111
To Modify Features with Multiple Sections ................................................... 111

Part

Modifying Features with Multiple Sections ................................................... 111


To Modify Merged Features ............................................................................ 111
To Modify the Line Style of a Datum Curve................................................... 112
To Move the Text of Datum Planes and Coordinate Systems..................... 112
To Modify a Datum or Axis ............................................................................. 112
About Modifying Dimensions ......................................................................... 112
To Modify Dimension Values.......................................................................... 113
To Modify the Number of Decimal Places in a Dimension .......................... 113
To Add Text to a Dimension ........................................................................... 114
To Modify a Dimension Symbol ..................................................................... 114
Modifying a Dimension Symbol ..................................................................... 114
Making Copied Feature Dimensions Independent ....................................... 114
To Make Copied Feature Dimensions Independent ..................................... 114
Modifying the Dimension Format................................................................... 115
To Modify the Dimension Format................................................................... 115
To Modify Dimension Locations .................................................................... 115
To Move Dimension Text ................................................................................ 115
To Switch Dimension Arrowheads................................................................. 116
About Redefining Features............................................................................. 116
To Redefine Features with Elements ............................................................. 116
To Redefine Features with No Elements ....................................................... 116
To Redefine Imported Geometry .................................................................... 117
To Redefine Merged Surface Features .......................................................... 117
To Redefine a Merged Part ............................................................................. 117
About Simplified Representations ................................................................. 118

Part

To Create a Simplified Representation (basic) ............................................. 119


To Use the Features Option............................................................................ 119
To Edit a Simplified Representation Using the Model Tree......................... 120
To Use the Work Region Option..................................................................... 120
To Use the Surfaces Option............................................................................ 120
To Create an Accelerated Simplified Representation .................................. 121
To Update an Accelerated Simplified Representation ................................. 121
To Create a Geometric Snapshot ................................................................... 121
To Erase a Simplified Representation ........................................................... 121
Changing Part Accuracy ................................................................................. 122
To Modify the Part Accuracy .......................................................................... 122
Modifying the Part Accuracy .......................................................................... 123
To Specify Relative Accuracy......................................................................... 123
To Specify Absolute Accuracy ....................................................................... 123
About Resolving Feature Failures ................................................................. 123
To Use the FEAT FAILED Menu...................................................................... 124
The Resolve Environment............................................................................... 124
To Use the RESOLVE FEAT Menu ................................................................. 125
To Use the INVESTIGATE Menu ..................................................................... 125
To Use the FIX MODEL Menu ......................................................................... 126
To Reduce the Regeneration Time................................................................. 127
To Use the Regen Info Option ........................................................................ 127
To Use Geometry Checking............................................................................ 129
Example: Misalignment Example ................................................................... 129
Example: Local Push....................................................................................... 130

10

Part

To Create a Local Push ................................................................................... 131


Defining a Local Push ..................................................................................... 131
Example: Radius Dome................................................................................... 132
To Create a Radius Dome ............................................................................... 132
About Section Domes ..................................................................................... 133
To Create a Section Dome (basic).................................................................. 133
Example: Swept Section Dome ...................................................................... 134
To Create a Swept Section Dome................................................................... 134
To Create a Blended Section Dome with No Profile..................................... 134
Example: Blended Section Dome without a Profile ..................................... 135
Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile ................................................ 135
To Create a Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile............................ 136
Example: Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile ............................... 136
To Create an Offset.......................................................................................... 137
Example: Offset Feature ................................................................................. 137
To Create an Ear Feature ................................................................................ 138
Example: Dimensioning an Ear Feature ........................................................ 138
Sketching the Ear Section .............................................................................. 139
About a Lip Feature ......................................................................................... 140
To Create a Lip Feature................................................................................... 140
Example: Lip Feature ...................................................................................... 141
About Sweeps .................................................................................................. 142
To Create a Swept Feature.............................................................................. 143
Example: Sweeps ............................................................................................ 144
Sweep Geometry.............................................................................................. 146

Part

11

Example: Three-Dimensional Sweep ............................................................. 147


To Create a Three-Dimensional Sweep ......................................................... 147
About Blends ................................................................................................... 147
Example: Different Blend Geometries ........................................................... 148
Techniques Common to All Blend Types...................................................... 149
To Create a Blend (basic)................................................................................ 149
Using a Blend Vertex....................................................................................... 150
To Add a Blend Vertex .................................................................................... 150
Example: Adding a Blend Vertex ................................................................... 150
To Import a Blend ............................................................................................ 150
Example: Importing Blend File ....................................................................... 151
Importing a Blend Feature .............................................................................. 152
About Parallel Blends...................................................................................... 152
To Create a Parallel Blend with a Regular Section....................................... 153
To Create a Parallel Blend with a Projected Section.................................... 153
About Non-Parallel Blends ............................................................................. 153
To Specify Tangency Conditions for Non-Parallel Blends .......................... 154
Example: Specifying Tangency Conditions for Non-Parallel Blends ......... 154
To Import a Section for a Non-Parallel Blend ............................................... 155
Creating Non-Parallel Blend with an Imported Section ............................... 155
Capping a Blend .............................................................................................. 155
To Cap a Blend................................................................................................. 155
Creating a Rotational Blend............................................................................ 156
To Create a Rotational Blend.......................................................................... 156
Example: Creating a Rotational Blend........................................................... 156

12

Part

To Create a General Blend.............................................................................. 157


Example: Creating a General Blend............................................................... 157
About a Variable Section Sweep .................................................................... 159
Example: Variable Section Sweeps ............................................................... 160
Variable Section Sweeps ................................................................................ 162
To Create a Variable Section Sweep.............................................................. 162
Tip: About the Variable Sweep Geometry ..................................................... 163
To Specify Tangency Conditions ................................................................... 165
Example: Specifying Tangency Conditions .................................................. 165
Using Relations in Sweeps ............................................................................. 166
To Create Parametric Graph Relations.......................................................... 166
About Swept Blends........................................................................................ 167
To Create a Swept Blend (basic) .................................................................... 167
Example: Creating a Swept Blend.................................................................. 169
To Control the Perimeter of a Swept Blend................................................... 170
Modifying a Swept Blend Using an Area Graph ........................................... 170
Example: Controlling the Perimeter of a Swept Blend ................................ 171
About Helical Sweeps ..................................................................................... 172
To Create a Helical Sweep with a Constant Pitch Value.............................. 172
Example: Creating a Helical Sweep ............................................................... 173
Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch Value ................................. 174
To Create a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch Value ............................... 174
Example: Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch ........................... 175
About Formed Datum Curves......................................................................... 177
To Create a Formed Datum Curve on a Solid Surface ................................. 177

Part

13

Example: Creating a Formed Datum Curve .................................................. 178


To Create a Formed Datum Curve on a Quilt ................................................ 178
About Projected Datum Curves...................................................................... 179
Example: Creating a Projected Datum Curve by Sketching........................ 179
To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Sketching ....................................... 181
To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Selecting Entities .......................... 181
To Create a Datum Curve Through Points (basic) ....................................... 182
Creating a Curve by Connecting Points ........................................................ 183
To Create a Datum Curve Through Points that Lie on a Surface................ 184
Rules for Creating a Datum Curve with the On Surface Option.................. 184
About Composite Datum Curves ................................................................... 184
To Create an Exact Composite Datum Curve ............................................... 185
To Create an Approximate Composite Datum Curve ................................... 185
Using Approximate Curves............................................................................. 185
To Select a Chain of Edges and Curves ........................................................ 186
Redefining and Naming Composite Datum Curves ..................................... 187
About Advanced Rounds................................................................................ 187
Example: Sample Round Sets ........................................................................ 188
To Work with Round Sets ............................................................................... 188
To Create an Advanced Round (basic).......................................................... 188
To Define the Round Shape Element............................................................. 189
Defining the Transitions Element................................................................... 189
Example: Defining the Transitions Element.................................................. 190
Tip: Defining the Transitions Element ........................................................... 193
To Define Transitions By Type ....................................................................... 193

14

Part

Example: Defining the Corner Transitions.................................................... 194


To Set the Default Corner Transition ............................................................. 196
To Define a Patch Transition .......................................................................... 196
To Define a Stop Transition ............................................................................ 196
Creating a Corner Transition with Existing Geometry ................................. 197
To Create a Corner Transition with Existing Geometry ............................... 197
Example: Creating a Corner Transition with Existing Geometry................ 197
To Change the Attachment Type.................................................................... 198
Changing the Attachment Type...................................................................... 199
Tip: Resolving Failed Rounds Using Capping.............................................. 200
To Define Transitions By Select..................................................................... 200
To Redefine Sections ...................................................................................... 200
To Replace Section Entities............................................................................ 200
Example: Replacing Section Entities............................................................. 201
To Add or Remove a Section in a Blend........................................................ 201
To Redefine a Section in a Parallel Blend ..................................................... 202
To Add or Remove a Section in a Nonparallel Blend ................................... 202
To Redefine a Dimensioning Scheme............................................................ 203
Side Effects of Modifying a Dimensioning Scheme ..................................... 203
Options for Redefining Datum Curves from File .......................................... 203
To Decrease the Number of Spline Points Using Deviation........................ 204
To Make a Spline Smoother............................................................................ 204
To Add Points to a Spline ............................................................................... 205
To Decrease the Number of Spline Points by Deleting Points.................... 205
To Move Curve Points ..................................................................................... 205

Part

15

Example: Adjusting the Curve........................................................................ 206


To Adjust a Curve ............................................................................................ 206
To Split a Curve ............................................................................................... 207
To Trim or Extend a Curve.............................................................................. 207
To Merge Curves.............................................................................................. 207
Example: Merging Curves............................................................................... 208
To Insert Features............................................................................................ 208
Reordering Features........................................................................................ 209
To Reorder Features........................................................................................ 209
About Suppressing and Resuming Features................................................ 209
To Suppress Features ..................................................................................... 210
To Resume Features ....................................................................................... 210
About Deleting Features ................................................................................. 210
To Delete Features........................................................................................... 211
Deleting Suppressed Features ....................................................................... 211
About the Reroute Command......................................................................... 211
To Reroute Features........................................................................................ 212
To Create a Shell.............................................................................................. 212
Example: Creating a Shell............................................................................... 213
Restrictions ...................................................................................................... 214
To Create a Pipe............................................................................................... 214
Example: Pipe .................................................................................................. 216
Pipes ................................................................................................................. 217
About Sketched Cosmetic Features .............................................................. 219
Regular Section Sketched Cosmetic Feature ............................................... 219

16

Part

To Create a Regular Section Cosmetic Feature ........................................... 219


Example: Creating a Regular Section Cosmetic Feature ............................ 220
To Create a Projected Section Cosmetic Feature ........................................ 220
Example: Creating a Projected Section Cosmetic Feature ......................... 220
About Cosmetic Threads ................................................................................ 221
To Create Cosmetic Threads .......................................................................... 221
Creating Cosmetic Threads ............................................................................ 222
Example: Creating Cosmetic Threads ........................................................... 222
Creating Custom Cosmetic Threads.............................................................. 224
To Create Custom Cosmetic Threads............................................................ 224
About User-Defined Features ......................................................................... 224
To Create a UDF (basic) .................................................................................. 225
To Define Variable Elements in the UDF ....................................................... 227
To Define Variable Dimensions in the UDF ................................................... 227
To Activate Pro/PROGRAM in the UDF.......................................................... 227
To Define External Symbols ........................................................................... 228
To Use the DBMS Menu .................................................................................. 228
To Create a UDF Library.................................................................................. 229
Placing a UDF in a Model ................................................................................ 229
To Change the Group Type............................................................................. 229
To Place a UDF (basic) .................................................................................... 230
To Redefine the References Element ............................................................ 231
To Define Skipped References ....................................................................... 231
To Resolve a Failed Regeneration ................................................................. 232
Feature and Dimension Names in a Group ................................................... 232

Part

17

About Local Groups ........................................................................................ 233


To Create a Local Group ................................................................................. 233
Working with Groups ...................................................................................... 233
Replacing a Group........................................................................................... 234
To Replace a Group......................................................................................... 234
To Pattern a Group .......................................................................................... 235
Tip: Patterning a Group................................................................................... 235
To Use the GROUP Menu................................................................................ 235
Rules for Patterning Groups........................................................................... 236
To Mirror the Model ......................................................................................... 236
Example: Mirroring the Model ........................................................................ 236
About Suppressing Individual Group Members ........................................... 237
Selecting Groups with Suppressed Group Members .................................. 238
Tip: Manipulating Groups Within Family Tables .......................................... 238
To Suppress Individual Group Members....................................................... 238
To Resume Individual Group Members ......................................................... 238
Using Pro/PROGRAM to Suppress and Resume Group Members ............. 239
To Create a Cut or Slot.................................................................................... 239
To Create a Cut (streamlined)......................................................................... 239
Example: Specifying the Side for a Cut Feature........................................... 240
Indicating the Location of a Cut ..................................................................... 240
About an Extruded Feature............................................................................. 241
To Create a Thin Extruded Feature ................................................................ 241
To Specify the Depth Attribute ....................................................................... 241
The "Through" Options................................................................................... 241

18

Part

The "Up To" Options ....................................................................................... 242


Example: Extruded Features .......................................................................... 243
To Create an Extruded Feature ...................................................................... 247
To Create an Extruded Feature (streamlined)............................................... 247
Attributes of an Extruded Feature.................................................................. 248
Open and Closed Sections for Extruded Features....................................... 248
To Create a Revolved Feature ........................................................................ 248
To Create a Revolved Feature (streamlined) ................................................ 248
Attributes of a Revolved Feature ................................................................... 249
Sketching the Revolved Feature Section ...................................................... 249
Specifying the Angle of Revolution ............................................................... 249
Example: Creating a Revolved Feature ......................................................... 250
Rules for Creating a Full Round..................................................................... 252
To Create an Advanced Full Round ............................................................... 252
Example: Creating a Round Through a Curve .............................................. 253
Differences Between Round Types................................................................ 254
Example: Creating an Advanced Full Round ................................................ 256
Example: Simple Full Round .......................................................................... 257
Example: Creating a Simple Variable Radius Round ................................... 257
To Create a Round Through a Curve ............................................................. 258
To Create a Simple Round .............................................................................. 258
To Create a Simple Edge Round (streamlined) ............................................ 259
Starting Out in Part Mode ............................................................................... 259
To Create the First Feature ............................................................................. 259
To Create Incomplete Features ...................................................................... 259

Part

19

Using the ODUI Dialog Boxes......................................................................... 260


Parent-Child Relations .................................................................................... 260
To Control Datum Display............................................................................... 261
About Datum Planes........................................................................................ 261
To Change the Display Size of Datum Planes .............................................. 262
To Create a Datum Plane (basic).................................................................... 262
To Create a Datum Plane (streamlined)......................................................... 263
Tip: How to Create a Series of Datum Planes ............................................... 263
To Create Default Offset Datum Planes......................................................... 263
Datum Constraints........................................................................................... 263
To Redefine Datum Planes ............................................................................. 264
Possible Effects of Redefining Datum Planes .............................................. 265
About Datum Axes........................................................................................... 265
Example: Using Datum Axes in Modeling ..................................................... 265
To Create a Datum Axis .................................................................................. 266
To Create a Datum Axis (streamlined)........................................................... 267
About Datum Points ........................................................................................ 267
To Create Datum Points (basic) ..................................................................... 267
Datum Point Array Options............................................................................. 268
To Create a Datum Point Array....................................................................... 269
To Create a Sketched Datum Point ................................................................ 269
To Create a Datum Point on a Curve or Edge ............................................... 269
To Create a Datum Point On-the-Fly .............................................................. 270
To Create an Offset Datum Point ................................................................... 270
To Modify Points in a Datum Point Array ...................................................... 271

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Part

Using the Table Option to Modify a Datum Point Array............................... 271


To Redefine Datum Points .............................................................................. 271

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21

About Holes
Use the Hole dialog box to create many types of axially-revolved cutout geometries. Holes can be straightsided, user-sketched custom shapes, or based on engineering standard fasteners. Holes can be treated with
standard counterbores and countersinks, can extend to many different depth constraints, and can have
different tip geometries. Holes by definition create axes of revolution. The user can choose whether to
create surfaces that represent threads.
- Straight holeAn extruded cut with a circular section. It begins at the placement surface and
extends to the specified end surface or user-defined depth.
- Sketched holeA revolved feature defined by a sketched section. A tapered hole could be created
as a sketched hole.
- Standard holeA combination of sketched and extruded geometry. It is based on industrystandard fastener tables. You can calculate either the tapped or clearance diameter appropriate to
the selected fastener. You can use system-supplied standard lookup tables for these diameters or
create your own.
The Hole feature is different from a cut in the following ways:
- The Hole feature has a predefined placement scheme that can be more desirable than the
dimensioning scheme of a cut.
- Straight holes do not require a sketch.
You must select the options to determine the dimensioning scheme for placement, whether it is straight or
sketched. If you choose straight or standard, you must also specify where the hole terminates. You can
change the placement constraints for an existing hole and the dimensioning scheme for a blind hole.

To Create a Straight Hole


All straight holes are created with a constant diameter.
1. Choose PART > Feature > Create > Hole, or choose Insert > Hole.
2. The HOLE dialog box appears. In the Hole Type area, select Straight.
3. In the Hole Dimension area, enter the Diameter.
4. Select the depths for Depth One and Depth Two. The depth options are as follows:
- VariableCreate a hole with a flat bottom. If you select this depth option, you must then specify
the Depth Value.
- Thru NextCreate a hole that continues until it reaches the next part surface.
- Thru AllCreate a hole that intersects all the surfaces.
- Thru UntilCreate a hole that goes through all the surfaces until it reaches the specified surface.
If you select this depth option, you must also select the surface.
- To ReferenceCreate a hole with a flat bottom that continues until it reaches the specified point,
vertex, curve, or surface. If you select this depth option, you must also select the reference.
- Symmetric(Depth Two only, when Depth One is variable) Create a two-sided hole that has
equal depth on either side of the sketching plane.
5. In the Placement area, select the primary placement reference, which is the surface on which the hole
will exist. Then select the placement type. The placement types are as follows:
- LinearCreate a hole that is a specified distance from two linear references. If you select this
placement type, you must then select the references and enter the distances from the references.
- RadialCreate a hole that you can dimension relative to a reference axis. If you select this
placement type, you must then select an axial reference and an angular reference.
- DiameterCreate a hole that you can dimension relative to a reference axis. If you select this
placement type, you must then select an axial reference and an angular reference.
- CoaxialCreate a hole that is on the same axis as a specified reference axis. If you select this
placement option, you must then select the axial reference.

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6. Click the checkmark button at the bottom left of the dialog box to create the hole. If you want to create
another hole, click the repeat button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

Example: Creating a Straight Hole


Straight Hole End Constraint Types
a

a. Hole drilled up to point PNT0 on front surface of part


b. Hole drilled up to datum plane DTM8
c. Hole drilled up to datum curve on front surface of part
d. Blind hole, drilled to specified depth

Different Hole Types


A counterbored hole, which is a standard hole, is shown straight down from the top surface. A Thru All
Straight hole is at an angle from the right face of the block.

Sketched Hole Placement Conventions


Wrong
The hole cannot be placed (there is no normal surface to align with the primary reference).

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Part

Right
The bottom surface will be aligned with the primary reference and the hole cut from the part interior.

Right
The "top" surface will be aligned with the primary reference.

To Create a Sketched Hole


A sketched hole is created by sketching a section for revolution in Sketcher mode, and then placing the hole
onto the part. Sketched holes are always blind and one-sided.
1. Choose PART (or ASSY) > Feature > Create > Hole, or choose Insert > Hole.
2. The HOLE dialog box appears. In the Hole Type area, select Sketched.
3. Pro/ENGINEER displays a grid in a subwindow. First sketch a centerline about which the section will
revolve. Then sketch the cross section of the hole and dimension it. If necessary, modify the
dimensions. Click the checkmark button.
4. In the Placement area, select the primary placement reference, and the placement type. The placement
types are as follows:
- LinearCreate a hole that is a specified distance from two linear references. If you select this
placement type, you must then select the references and enter the distances from the references.
- RadialCreate a hole that you can dimension relative to a reference axis. If you select this
placement type, you must then select an axial reference and an angular reference.
- DiameterCreate a hole that you can dimension relative to a reference axis. If you select this
placement type, you must then select an axial reference and an angular reference.
- CoaxialCreate a hole that is on the same axis as a specified reference axis. If you select this
placement option, you must then select the axial reference.
5. Click the checkmark button at the bottom left of the dialog box to create the hole. If you want to create
another hole, click the repeat button at the bottom right of the dialog box.
Sketched holes must have a vertical centerline, with at least one entity normal to this axis of revolution.
The system aligns this entity with the placement plane and the remainder of the sketched features cut from
the part, as a revolution of the sketched profile.
When two normal entities exist in the sketch, the "top" entity (when looking at the sketch in the default
sketch orientation) is aligned with the placement plane.

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25

To Create a Standard Hole


Standard holes are either tapped holes or clearance holes that have a basic shape.
1. Choose PART > Feature > Create > Hole, or choose Insert > Hole.
2. The system displays the HOLE dialog box. In the Hole Type area, select Standard.
3. From the Standard Hole list box, select the thread series to use (for example, UNC, UNF, or ISO).
4. Select one of the following two options:
- TappedUse the standard lookup tables to suggest a diameter based on a threaded fastener being
used in the hole. Assumes a nominal percentage of thread engagement. The drill depth for tapped
holes can be Thru All or Variable.
- ClearanceUse the standard lookup tables to suggest a diameter based on a threaded fastener
being used in the hole. Assumes that the thread will not be engaged. Clearance holes by default
go Thru All.
5. If you are defining a clearance hole, select the type of fit (for example, Close Fit, Medium Fit, or Free
Fit).
6. From the Screw Size list box, select the screw size.
7. Select Add Thread Surface if you are defining a tapped hole and want the system to create a surface in
the model to represent the internal threads of the hole.
8. Select Add Counterbore and/or Add Countersink to add these features to the geometry to be
revolved. If you select these options you must fill in the appropriate fields in the graphical dimension
area.
9. In the Dimensions area, enter the dimensions to define the hole geometry.
10. In the Placement area, select the references and dimensions to place the hole.
11. Verify the note in the Hole Note Preview area to make sure that it shows the hole as you expect.
Note: To change the content of the Hole Note (for example, the number of decimal places displayed),
finish creating the hole, then click Setup > Notes > Modify, select the note, and edit the text. These
changes will not modify the geometry unless you regenerate the part.
12. Click the checkmark button at the bottom left of the HOLE dialog box to create the hole.

Hole Charts
Hole charts are used to lookup diameters for a given fastener size. You can create custom hole charts and
specify their directory location with the configuration file option hole_parameter_file_path.
Note: UNC, UNF and ISO hole charts are supplied with Pro/ENGINEER. These charts are located in the
loadpoint and should not be changed.
Create hole charts as space-delimited text files with names in the following format:
????.hol
where '????' is a string of no more than four characters that appears in the Thread Series list box in the
HOLE dialog box (for example, UNC), and is usually the thread series for the chart.
Hole charts have two main portions, TABLE_DATA and THREAD_DATA.

TABLE_DATA portion
TABLE_DATA contains the following rows:
PROE_VERSIONThe release for which the hole chart was created (for example, 2000i2).
THREAD_SERIESThe name of the hole chart; this usually corresponds to the filename.
THREAD_CLASSThe tolerance class for the hole chart and a parameter that will be visible in the
Thread Note (for example, 2b or H).
TABLE_UNITSThe measurement system for the hole chart; value is either inch or metric.
DEPTH_RATIOThe relationship between the thread depth and the drill depth (for example, 1.25).
When you enter either the thread depth or the drill depth in the HOLE dialog box, the other value is
calculated automatically using this ratio. Drill Depth is Thread Depth multiplied by Depth Ratio.

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Part

Note: You can override the default relationship of the depth ratio by entering both the Drill Depth and
the Thread Depth values in the HOLE dialog box. The limit on the values is as follows:
- Drill Depth must be greater than or equal to Thread Depth.
CALLOUT_FORMATThe format of thread notes created or shown in the model and drawing. This is
not a place to add text to a note, but a place to define the way that the text of a note appears.

THREAD_DATA portion
THREAD_DATA is a table of the values for the hole parameters. The first row of this portion is the
column headers, and the following rows are unique records whose first column represents the screw sizes
that will appear in the Screw Size list in the HOLE dialog box according to the chosen standard. The
column headers are:
FASTENER_IDWhat shows in the Screw Size list in the HOLE dialog box.
BASIC_DIAMThe fastener diameter.
THREADThreads per inch, or pitch (if metric).
TAP_DRLetter, fraction, number, or metric drill standard size.
TAP_DECDecimal size in inch or metric of the tap drill. This value appears in the diameter list box
in the Dimension area of the HOLE dialog box. (See Note below.)
PERCENT_THREADRatio describing the actual engagement of fastener threads.
CLEAR_DR_CLOSEClearance drill, for close clearances.
CLOSE_DEC Decimal size in inch or metric of the close clearance drill. This value appears in the
diameter list box in the Dimension area of the HOLE dialog box. (See Note below.)
CLEAR_DR_MEDClearance drill, for medium clearances.
MEDIUM_DEC Decimal size in metric of the medium clearance drill. This value appears in the
diameter list box in the Dimension area of the HOLE dialog box. (See Note below.)
CLEAR_DR_FREEClearance drill for free clearances.
FREE_DEC Decimal size in inch or metric of the free clearance drill. This value appears in the
diameter list box in the Dimension area of the HOLE dialog box. (See Note below.)
Each row requires a value in each column.
If a value requires spaces, fill the space with a dash. For example, the screw size 1.125 inch (1 and 1/8
inch) should look like 1-1/8 in the THREAD_DATA table.
Note: For the TAP_DEC, CLOSE_DEC, MEDIUM_DEC, and FREE_DEC values, the user cannot edit
the value in the list box, unless the configuration file option hole_diameter_override is set to
yes. The default for this configuration file option is no. To prevent overrides of the system setting,
include the hole_diameter_override option in a config.sup file.

Thread Note Formatting


Super users and system administrators can determine the way that thread notes appear in the Note Preview
area of the HOLE dialog box. The format of the thread note is in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field in the Hole
Chart.
The thread note is a combination of the values listed in the hole chart for that hole. Use the following
principles to construct a thread note:
Each parameter is preceded by an ampersand (&).
A space should always follow a parameter name.
Note: An onscreen space that follows a parameter value should have two spaces in the formatting.
Indicate line breaks with a slash (/).
Use control characters (for example, <CTRL-a>) to get an extended ASCII character.
If the hole is a member of a pattern, use the Pattern_No parameter in the thread note to indicate the

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27

number of pattern holes in the pattern.


Note: You can edit thread notes after exiting the HOLE dialog box. They are 3-D notes that are attached
to the hole features.
Example of UNC Note
To display the following note,

Use the following text in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field of the hole chart:
&Screw_size &Thread_Series - &Thread_Class TAP <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b>
&Thread_depth / &Number_Size DRILL (&Diameter ) <CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b>
&Drill_Depth -- (&Pattern_No ) HOLE
Example of Metric Countersink Note
To display the following note,

Use the following text in the CALLOUT_FORMAT field of the hole chart:
&Diameter DRILL THRU, <CTRL-a>?<CTRL-b> - &Cbore_diameter x
&Cbore_angle <CTRL-a>?<CTRL-b> / &Metric_size x &Pitch PLUG TAP
<CTRL-a>x<CTRL-b> &Tap_Depth

To Place a Hole
The placement sequence involves two stepsselecting the placement surface on which the feature is
created and determining the dimension references.

Selecting the Placement Surface


Holes are placed on datum planes or planar part surfaces. The hole is always placed normal to the
placement surface. To create a hole directly on a curved surface, the hole must be a radial hole and the
surface must be convex (cones or cylinders).
To place a hole on a datum plane:
1. Select the datum plane name.
2. Select a point on the datum plane.
3. For a One Side hole, the system displays a red arrow. Choose the direction of hole creation using either
the Depth One or Depth Two option.

Determining Dimension References


After you position the hole on a plane, Pro/ENGINEER prompts you to specify the dimensioning
references that correspond to the chosen option. The placement types are as follows:

LinearDimension the hole from two edges (using linear dimensions).


RadialPlace the hole around an axis (using polar dimensions).
DiameterPlace the hole around an axis (using polar dimensions).
CoaxialPlace the hole coaxially, by using an existing axis (no placement dimensions will be created).

Specifying Dimension References for Placing a


Hole
When you select axial references, pick on the dashed line of the existing axis. When you select other
references, you can pick the following:

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Part

Any edge in a plane normal to the placement surface


Any plane normal (perpendicular) to the placement surface, including datum planes
When you place a hole very close to a dimension reference, the system asks you to confirm if the hole is to
be aligned to the reference. Upon confirmation, the system aligns the hole. If you choose not to align the
hole, the system prompts you to specify the dimension of the hole, relative to the reference.

Linear References
To specify the references for a linear scheme, pick two edges, planar surfaces, or axes, or any combination
thereof (see the next figure).

Radial and Diameter References


When you create a radial or diameter hole, you can dimension the hole relative to a reference axis by using
the radial, diameter, or linear dimension type. You can redefine the dimension type by choosing the Dim
Type element from the dialog box for this feature.
For diameter holes, the placement dimension locates the hole with the dimension centered on the central
axis.

To Specify References for a Radial Hole


1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the placement plane.


Select the reference axis.
Select the reference plane.
Specify the angle that defines the placement of the hole relative to the reference plane.

Tip: Placing a Hole on a Concave Surface


Pro/ENGINEER does not allow you to place radial holes directly on concave cylindrical or conical
surfaces, because the hole does not completely intersect the concave surface.
To place a hole on a convex surface, use the linear dimensioning scheme.
Note that for a cylindrical concave surface, you can use the Through > Axis, Angle > Plane datum to
place the hole (specify the hole as One Side). In this case, the angular dimension driving the hole
placement will be at 90 degrees to the holes axis.

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29

To Create a Shaft
Shafts are analogous to sketched holes. Both are created by sketching sections of revolution then placing
them on the model. However, shafts add material instead of removing it.
1. As with sketched holes, you must sketch the centerline axis of revolution as vertical, and
2. Place the topmost portion of the section on the placement plane.
3. Because material is added for a shaft, the shaft projects away from the part instead of into the part.
Note: The Shaft option on either the SOLID menu or the Insert menu is available when the configuration
file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

Example: Creating a Shaft


The following figure illustrates a shaft feature.

To Create a Neck
A neck is a special type of revolved slot that creates a groove around a revolved part or feature.
You always create a neck on a Through > Axis datum plane and sketch it inside the part. You must align
both ends of the section to the revolved surface of the parent feature.
1. Choose Neck from the SOLID menu, or choose Insert > Advanced > Neck.
2. Choose an option from the ANGLE menu to specify the number of degrees in the revolution.
3. Create or select a Through > Axis datum plane as the sketching plane.
4. Sketch the neck cross section open with the ends aligned to the silhouette edge of the part or feature.
5. Sketch the centerline that becomes the axis of rotation.
In creating a neck, Pro/ENGINEER revolves the section around the part to the specified angle measure,
removing the material inside the section.
Note: The Neck option on either the SOLID menu or the Insert menu is available when the configuration
file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

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Part

Example: Neck Feature


The following figure illustrates a neck feature.
Sketching the section

Section

Perspective view of the section

Section

The completed feature

To Create a Flange
Choose Flange from the SOLID menu, or choose Insert > Advanced > Flange.
Choose an option from the ANGLE menu to specify the number of degrees of revolution.
Set up or select a Through/Axis datum plane as the sketching plane.
Sketch the flange cross section open with the ends aligned to the silhouette edge of the revolved part or
feature.
5. Sketch the centerline that will become the axis of rotation.

1.
2.
3.
4.

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31

A flange is analogous to a neck, except it adds material to the revolved solid. Therefore, you should sketch
the section outside the part.
Note: The Flange option on either the SOLID menu or the Insert menu is available when the configuration
file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

Example: Creating a Flange


The following figure illustrates a flange feature.
Sketching the section

Section

Perspective view of the section

Section

The completed feature

32

Part

To Create an Edge Chamfer


An edge chamfer removes a flat section of material from a selected edge to create a beveled surface
between the two original surfaces common to that edge.
You can select multiple edges to create an edge chamfer.
1. Choose SOLID > Chamfer > Edge, or Insert > Chamfer > Edge Chamfer.
2. Choose the desired dimensioning scheme for the edge chamfer:
- 45 x dCreate a chamfer that is at an angle of 45 degrees to both surfaces and a distance d from
the edge along each surface. The dimension appears as "45 x d", but you can modify the distance,
d, only. You can create 45 x d chamfers only on an edge formed by the intersection of two
perpendicular surfaces.
- d x dCreate a chamfer that is at a distance d from the edge along each surface. If you modify the
chamfer, the system displays the distance as the only dimension.
- d1 x d2Create a chamfer at a distance d1 from the selected edge along one surface and a
distance d2 from the selected edge along the other surface. The system displays both distances
along their respective surfaces when you modify the chamfer.
- Ang x dCreate a chamfer at a distance d from the selected edge along one adjacent surface, at a
specified angle to that surface. The system displays both values as dimensions when you modify
the chamfer. You can use this option between two planar surfaces only.
3. Enter dimensions at the prompt.
4. Select edges to chamfer and choose Done Sel and Done Refs.
5. Click OK in the dialog box.

Example: Defining an Edge Chamfer


This diagram shows different chamfer dimensioning schemes.
d

d
d
d
45

90

45 x d

dxd

d1
d
d2
angle
Reference
surface

Reference
surface
d1 x d2

Ang x d

To Create a Corner Chamfer


A corner chamfer removes material from the corner of a part.
1. Choose SOLID > Chamfer > Corner, or Insert > Chamfer > Corner Chamfer.
2. Select the corner you want to chamfer.

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33

3. The system displays the PICK/ENTER menu, which allows you to specify the location of the chamfer
vertex on the highlighted edge. The PICK/ENTER menu options are as follows:
- Pick PointPick a point on the highlighted edge to define the chamfer distance along that edge.
- Enter-inputType in a value for the chamfer distance along the highlighted edge.
4. Pick or enter values to describe the chamfer lengths along the edge. After you have selected the first
vertex, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the other edges, one at a time, so you can place the other two
vertices
5. Click OK in the dialog box.

Example: Corner Chamfer

About a Rib Feature


A rib is a special type of protrusion designed to create a thin fin or web that is attached to a part. You
always sketch a rib from a side view, and it grows symmetrically about the sketching plane.
Because of the way ribs are attached to the parent geometry, they are always sketched as open sections. A
rib must "see" material everywhere it attaches to the part; otherwise, it becomes an unattached feature.
There are two types of ribsstraight and rotational. The following sections describe ribs in detail.

Straight Ribs
Ribs that are not created on Through/Axis datum planes are extruded symmetrically about the sketching
plane. You must still sketch the ribs as open sections.
Because you are sketching an open section, Pro/ENGINEER may be uncertain about the side to which to
add the rib. The system displays the DIRECTION menu after the rib section has been regenerated.
Pro/ENGINEER adds all material in the direction of the arrow. If the incorrect choice is made, modify the
arrow direction using the FEAT menu option Redefine.

Rotational Ribs
You create rotational ribs on Through > Axis datum planes. You sketch the rib to the silhouette of the
parent feature. To create the solid geometry, Pro/ENGINEER revolves the section about the axis of the
parent, making a wedge that is symmetrical about the sketching plane. Pro/ENGINEER then trims the
wedge with two planes parallel to the sketching surface; the distance between these planes corresponds to
the thickness of the rib.
You can place a rotational rib on any surface of revolution. Note that the angled surface of the rib is
conical, not planar.

34

Part

Example: Straight and Rotational Ribs


Straight Rib
Side view (section sketch indicated by arrow)

Front view (Material is added to both sides of the datum.)

Result

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35

Rotational rib
Top view (conical surface is indicated by arrow)

Side view (Material is added to both sides of datum.)

Result (conical surface is indicated by arrow)

36

Part

Valid rotational ribs

Invalid rotational ribs


The rib cannot be revolved about both protrusions.

The rib does not pass through the axis.

Part

37

About the Copy Command


The Copy option in the FEAT menu allows you to copy existing features of the same or a different model
and place them at a new location on the active part.
You can copy any number of features at one time. The Copy option creates a local group of the copied
features.
When you copy a feature, you can vary the following:
- References
- Dimension values
- Placement location
When you redefine a section of a feature that has a child created using Copy > Dependent, you cannot
delete entities referenced to external geometry and you cannot align entities to external geometry.

Terms and Definitions


The following table presents definitions of and uses for the feature copying functionality.
COPYING
FEATURES

Definition
Uses

USER-DEFINED
FEATURE (UDF)

GROUP

Definition

Copy features from any model by selecting new


references, translating, rotating, or mirroring.
Save time by reusing features from any model.
Establish dependency between dimensions of
different features in the same model.
A set of features from any part that can be placed
in any other part by specifying new references.

Uses

Establish a library of commonly placed features.


Reuse features from any part.
Enforce consistent design techniques by
creating dependencies for a UDFs parent model.

Important aspects
of UDFs

User-specified prompts for defining references


guide you in placing the UDF.
Let you specify new values for dimensions
when placing the UDF with "variable
dimensions."
Provide a simple way to create variations of
features in the UDF with Family Tables.
Let you incorporate Pro/PROGRAM into the
UDF for further customization.

Definition

Uses

A named set of consecutive features that is the


result of copying features, placing a UDF, or
creating a local group.
Simplify selection for operations involving
multiple features such as: Pattern, Delete, Copy,
Suppress, and Reorder.
Help organize the model tree by collapsing
related features into a single node.

Rules for Copying Features


Consider the following rules for the copy operation:
- If you copied geometry with Copy, Mirror, All Feat, any features inserted after you created the

38

Part

copy feature will not be copied. To avoid this, use Mirror Geom.
- You may not mirror or use the Same Refs option without also copying the features that own the
references if those references have been consumed in the process of feature creation (for example,
the edge reference of a round is consumed after the round is created).
- When you copy a round with user-modified transitions, only default transitions are copied with the
round.
- If there is ambiguity between the new and old references, the system will issue additional prompts
(for example, if one of references is a datum plane, the system will ask you to select the side of the
plane to use).
For specifics of copying features in Assembly mode, see the following section.

Using the Copy Command in Assembly Mode


To copy features in Assembly mode, choose Copy from the ASSY FEAT menu; this displays the COPY
FEAT menu.
Consider the following restrictions in Assembly mode:
- In Assembly mode, the All Feat option is dimmed in the COPY FEATURE menu.
- You cannot mirror assembly components using Feature, Copy. Instead, use Component > Create
> Mirror.
- A feature that contains external references to a different assembly component must either be
copied in the assembly that contains the external reference, or be redefined in that assembly to
eliminate the external reference.

To Copy Features
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose FEAT > Copy.


Select options from the COPY FEATURE menu and choose Done.
Select features to be copied.
The Group Elements dialog box appears, listing elements for the specified copy method.
Define all elements in the dialog box.

Using the COPY FEATURE Menu


You can copy features into the current part, with or without external references, from parts or assemblies.
You can copy features from a different model by using new references.
You can also copy features from another version of the same model by using the same or new references.
When you copy a feature with new references, Pro/ENGINEER makes all the necessary prompts,
highlighting each placement reference so you can enter the corresponding reference.
The COPY FEATURE menu lists different options for copying features. They are:
Specify the placement method by choosing one of the following options:
- New RefsCopy features with an option to select new references for the copied features.
- Same RefsCopy features using the same references as the original features. You can vary
dimensions in the copied features.
- MirrorCopy features by mirroring about a planar surface or a datum. Pro/ENGINEER mirrors
the features automatically without displaying a dialog box.
- MoveCopy features by specifying translation and rotation. This option allows for additional
transformation beyond what you can achieve by varying dimensions.
Specify features to copy by choosing one of the following options:
- SelectSelect features from the active model to copy.
- All FeatSelect all the features to copy.
- FromDifModelSelect features from a different model to copy. This option is available with New

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39

Refs only. See the Independent option.


- FromDifVersSelect features from a different revision of the current model to copy. This option
is available with either New Refs or Same Refs. See the Independent option.
Specify whether the resulting features should be independent by choosing one of the following options:
- IndependentMake the dimensions of the copied feature independent of the dimensions of the
parent. A feature that is copied from a different model or version is automatically independent.
- DependentMake the dimensions of the copied feature dependent on the dimensions of the
parent. When you redefine the section of the dependent copy, all the dimensions show up on the
parent. When you modify the original section, the system also updates the dependent copy. This
option refers to sections and dimensions only. All other references and attributes are not
dependent.

To Copy Features within the Same Model


Use the New Refs and Same Refs options to create a copy by using the placement references (modified or
the same) of the features selected for copy.
1. Choose Copy from the FEAT menu.
2. Choose New Refs or Same Refs, Select, Independent or Dependent, and Done from the COPY
FEATURE menu.
3. Select features that you want to copy and choose Done from the SELECT FEAT menu.
4. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Group Elements dialog box.
5. The system shows the dimensions for the selected features and displays the GP VAR DIMS menu, which
lists the dimensions. As you scroll down the list, the system highlights the corresponding dimension on
the model. Select dimensions to vary by picking the feature dimensions from the screen or by placing a
check mark in front of them in the GP VAR DIMS menu. When you have finished, choose Done.
6. At the prompts, enter the new values. If you chose Same Refs, the system copies the selected features.
7. If you choose New Refs, the system displays the WHICH REF menu and highlights each planar or linear
reference for every selected feature, sequentially, in the reference color. Choose one of the following
options:
- AlternatePick a new reference for the copied feature.
- SameIndicate that the original reference should be used for the copied feature.
- SkipSkip the current reference so you can redefine it later.
- Ref InfoProvide information explaining the placement reference.
When you have specified all the references, Pro/ENGINEER copies all the selected features.
8. At this point, you can redefine the dimensions or references, if desired, or choose Done from the GRP
PLACE menu.

Copying Features Using New References


If you copy a feature and choose new references (sketching plane and reference plane) for the resulting
feature, two different arrows appear to indicate the direction of the new planar references.
The system highlights the original reference plane and its corresponding new reference plane in the
reference color.
The original reference has a reference color arrow attached to it, pointing in the viewing direction for that
plane. The new reference has a red arrow attached to it.
Flip the direction of the red arrow if necessary, then choose Okay from the DIRECTION menu to indicate
which side of the new reference corresponds to the original reference with the reference color arrow.

To Copy Features with SameRefs, FromDifVers


You can copy features from a different model (part or assembly) or from another version of the same model
by using the FromDifModel or FromDifVers options, respectively. You can copy features with or without

40

Part

external references.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Retrieve the part or assembly from which you want copy features.
Return to your destination model and choose FEAT > Copy.
Choose Same Refs, FromDifVers, and Done from the COPY FEATURE menu.
Select a model from which to copy the features. To indicate the source model, the system prompts you
to click in the model window; this activates this model so you can select the features to copy.
5. Select the features to be copied and choose Done from the SELECT FEAT menu. After you select the
features, the destination model becomes active again.
6. The dialog box appears.
7. The system prints the units in the Message Window. Specify the placement scale. Choose Done from
the SCALE menu.
8. Choose OK from the dialog box. The system copies the selected features into the current model,
keeping the same references.
Note: If a reference is missing in the destination model, the system instructs you to respecify all feature
references. To define a missing reference, choose Alternate and pick a reference on the model.

Tip: Part Accuracy for Copying with SameRefs,


FromDifVers
When you copy a feature from one model to another, the feature will regenerate with the accuracy of the
model into which it is copied.
It is best, if possible, to have similar part accuracy in both models.

To Copy Features with New Refs, FromDifModel


or FromDivVers
Choose Copy from the FEAT menu.
Choose New Refs, FromDifModel or FromDifVers, and Done from the COPY FEATURE menu.
Select a model from which to copy the features.
Select the features to be copied. Choose Done from the SELECT FEAT menu.
The dialog box appears.
The system prints the units in the Message Window. Choose Done from the SCALE menu.
The system displays the WHICH REF menu. As the system prompts you to select a reference that
corresponds to the highlighted reference in the source model, choose an option from the WHICH REF
menu. Choose Same to keep the same reference, Alternate to choose a new reference, or Skip to skip
the current reference so you can redefine it later.
Note: When you use the New Refs option to copy a feature and a feature reference is missing in the
other version, use Alternate to select a new reference.
8. If any of the references are missing, an Information Window appears with a list of the skipped
references. At this point you can do one of the following:
If you want to redefine the missing references, choose Confirm from the CONFIRMATION menu. The
system places you in the feature creation environment so you can redefine the feature element that uses
the skipped reference.
If you do not want to redefine the missing references, choose Cancel from the CONFIRMATION menu.
The system displays the GP REFS menu. Place a check mark in front of the references that you want to
specify and choose Done. The system brings up the WHICH REF menu with the Alternate, Same, and
Skip options so you can resume the process of specifying the references which you identified with the
checkmarks.
9. To complete the procedure, choose Done from the GRP PLACE menu, or choose any of the following
options in the GRP PLACE menu:
- RedefineRedefine the group elements.
- Show ResultPreview the geometry.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

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41

- InfoShow the current status of the group prompts.

To Copy Features by Mirror


The Mirror option in the COPY FEATURE menu adds geometry to the part by creating a mirrored copy of
existing features and intersecting them with the part.
1. Choose FEAT > Copy > Mirror.
2. Select the features to copy, or choose All Feat.
3. Choose Independent or Dependent to establish whether the dimensions of the mirrored feature depend
on those of the parent, then choose Done.
4. If you chose Select, when you have selected all the features you want, choose Done from the SELECT
FEAT menu.
5. Select or create the mirror plane.

Copying Features by Mirror


Consider the following information about the features copied with the Mirror command:
Sections always regenerate at the pre-mirror location, using the original references.
If features are mirrored about a datum created with Make Datum, the datum plane becomes an
independent feature in the model, providing a visual reference for the mirrored copy.
Mirroring with All Feat creates an additional merge feature that is interdependent with the copied
features. The merge feature is both a parent and a child of the copied features.
Mirroring with All Feat mirrors suppressed features.
Mirroring coordinate systems always preserves the right-hand rule. Pro/ENGINEER mirrors the X- and
Y-axes of the coordinate system appropriately and then determines the Z-axis.

To Copy Features by Moving


You can copy features to new locations on the part by translating them with respect to a coordinate system.
1. Choose Copy from the FEAT menu, then Move from the COPY FEATURE menu.
2. Choose Select to select individual features to copy, or All Feat to copy all features.
3. Choose Independent or Dependent to establish whether the dimensions of the translated feature
depend on those of the parent. When you have finished, choose Done from the COPY FEATURE menu.
After you have selected the features, choose Done from the SELECT FEAT menu.
4. Use the MOVE FEATURE menu to define the movement of the copied features. You can use the options
Translate and Rotate together to define a single movement. The MOVE FEATURE options are as
follows:
TranslateMove (translate) the copied features using the GEN SEL DIR menu to specify the direction.
Then, enter the translation (offset) distance.
RotateRotate the copied features using the GEN SEL DIR menu to specify the direction. Then, enter
the rotation angle. The GEN SEL DIR options are as follows:
- PlaneSelect a plane, or create a new datum plane to which the direction will be normal.
- Crv/Edg/AxisSelect as the direction an edge, curve, or axis. If you select a non-linear edge or
curve, the system prompts you to select an existing datum point on the edge or curve to specify a
tangent.
- CsysSelect an axis of a coordinate system as the direction, then enter the translation value for
the coordinate system type.
For features created by translating copies of two other features (for which the dimensions of one of the
original features is only referenced to the other feature being copied), Pro/ENGINEER translates the copied
dimension references, along with the geometry.

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Part

The copy and translation process automatically creates a group for the geometry and its dimensions. You
can use the Ungroup option in the GROUP menu to allow independent selection of the individual
dimensions and redefinition of the features.

Copying Features by Translating


For features created by translating copies of two other features (for which the dimensions of one of the
original features is only referenced to the other feature being copied), Pro/ENGINEER translates the copied
dimension references, along with the geometry.
The copy and translation process automatically creates a group for the geometry and its dimensions.
You can use the Ungroup option in the GROUP menu to allow independent selection of the individual
dimensions and redefinition of the features.

To Redefine the Copied Element


You can redefine a copied feature while you are in the copy environment only.
1. Highlight the element in the dialog box that you want to modify and click Define.
2. If you selected the variable dimensions, the system displays the GP VAR DIMS toggle menu. If you
selected the references, Pro/ENGINEER displays the GP REFS toggle menu. In either case, toggle on
the items you want to change, then choose Done.
3. Enter the new values, as prompted.
4. Click OK in the dialog box to regenerate the part.

To Make a Dependent Copy Independent


1. Choose Modify > Make Indep.
2. The system to display the MAKE INDEP menu, which enables you to make a dependent copied feature
independent of its parent, as if it had been copied using the Independent option

About Datum Curves


You use datum curves to create surfaces and other features, or as sweep trajectories.
By default, Pro/ENGINEER displays datum curves in orange. You can modify this color using either the
Appearances dialog box, or by setting the configuration file option system_curves_color
percentages for red, green, and blue.

Sketched Datum Curves


You sketch datum curves in the same manner as any other features. Sketched curves can consist of one or
more sketched segments and of one or more open or closed loops. However, using datum curves for other
features is usually restricted to a single curve (which can consist of many segments) of an open or closed
loop.
As you sketch the datum curves, Pro/ENGINEER creates a single composite datum curve on top of discrete
sketched datum curves. For this type of composite curve, you cannot redefine a start point.
The composite curve created from a sketched curve can be selected as a trajectory, for example as a sweep
trajectory. Use Query Sel to select underlying sketched curve entities.

To Create a Sketched Datum Curve


1. Choose Insert > Datum > Sketched Curve.
2. The feature creation dialog appears with two elements:
- SectionSketch datum curves.

Part

43

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

- X-hatching(Optional) Add cross-hatching to the area bounded by the curve. This element is
available only for closed sections.
Set up a sketching plane using the SETUP SK PLN and SETUP PLANE menus.
Select the direction of viewing by choosing Flip or Okay from the DIRECTION menu.
Set up a horizontal or vertical reference for sketching.
Sketch the curve and dimension it. Choose Done to exit Sketcher.
To add cross-hatching, choose X-hatching and Define from the dialog box. Choose one of the options
in the DISPLAY HATCH menu, followed by Done. The options are as follows:
- DisplayCrosshatch the area bounded by a closed loop section. The cross-hatch will be visible in
all modes (if you have Pro/DETAIL), but is modifiable in Drawing mode only.
- No DisplayDo not create any crosshatching.
Choose OK from the dialog box.

To Create a Sketched Datum Curve (streamlined)


1. Select a datum plane or planar surface.
2. Select Insert > Datum > Sketched Datum Curve, or click the Sketched Datum Curve button on the
Datums toolbar. Sketcher opens.
3. Sketch the datum curve.
4. Click Done to exit Sketcher. The new sketched datum curves appears in the graphics window and the
Model Tree.
Note: If Pro/ENGINEER cannot show the default view orientation, a dialog opens to set the view.

To Create a Datum Curve at Surface Intersections


You can create datum curves at the intersection of any part surface or surface feature and a datum plane or
at the intersection of any two surface features.
Each pair of intersected surfaces produces a separate segment of the curve. Pro/ENGINEER combines each
connected segment loop into a composite curve.
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Curve.
2. Choose Intr. Surfs, then Done.
3. For each surface, choose one of the following options from the INTR SURFS menu and select the
appropriate references:
- SingleSelect single surfaces from a part surface or a quilt and choose Done. You can select
several surfaces at one time with this option.
- WholeSelect a whole quilt or all the surfaces on a part and choose Done. You can select only
once with this option.
Notes:
If the first surfaces selected are solid, the second surface selection can not be solid.
Datum curves can not be created at the intersection of two datum planes.

Importing a Datum Curve


An imported datum curve can consist of one or more segments. Multiple segments are not necessarily
connected.
The From File option imports a datum curve from a Pro/ENGINEER ".ibl", IGES, SET, or VDA file.
Pro/ENGINEER does not automatically combine the curves imported using From File into a composite
curve.
Pro/ENGINEER reads all the curves from an IGES or SET file, then converts them to spline curves. When
you import a VDA file, the system reads the VDA spline entities only.

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Part

The ".ibl" file format is very much like that of a blend file, except you should precede the coordinates of
each segment of the curve with both "begin section" and "begin curve". Two points in a section define a
line, while more than two define a spline.
To connect curve segments, make sure the coordinates of the first point are the same as the last point in the
previous section.
You can redefine datum curves that are created from a file and you can trim or split them with other curves
that are imported from a file.

Example: Sample Datum Curve File


Note that the point numbering (the first column of numbers) in an .ibl file is optional.
open
arclength
begin section ! 1
begin curve
1 20 30 40
2 40 50 70
3 30 60 80
begin section ! 2
begin curve
1 30 60 80
2 40 70 40
3 50 40 60
begin section ! 3
begin curve
1 50 40 60
2 40 20 30

To Import a Datum Curve


1. Choose Insert > Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose From File, then choose Done.
3. The system displays the GET COORD S menu. Create or select a coordinate system that the curve will
reference.
4. Select the file to open.

To Create a Datum Curve Using a Cross Section


Use the Use Xsec option to create a datum curve from a planar cross section boundary (that is, the
intersection of the planar cross section with the part outline).
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Insert > Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
Choose Use Xsec and Done from the OPTIONS menu.
Select a planar cross section from the namelist menu of all the available cross sections.
The cross-section boundary is used to create a datum curve. If a cross section has more than one chain,
each chain has a composite curve.
Note: You can not use a boundary from an offset cross section to create a datum curve.

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45

To Create a Split Datum Curve


A split datum curve is a copy of another curve. The new datum curve terminates at the intersection with a
surface, datum point, or datum plane. Once you create a split curve, the original curve becomes invisible.
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Curve > Split .
2. The dialog box lists the following elements:
- CurveDefine the datum curve to split.
- DividerSelect the dividing entity.
- FlipDefine which portion of the curve to keep.
3. Select a datum curve to split. The curve can not form a closed loop.
4. Select the dividing entity. You can pick a surface (solid surface or surface feature), datum point, or
datum plane.
5. A green arrow indicates the portion of the curve to keep. Select an option from the TRIM CURVE menu:
- BothSelect the entire curve.
- FlipFlip the direction of the arrow to select the other portion of the curve.
- OkayAccept the selection.
6. Choose OK from the dialog box.

To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface


You can create a datum curve at an offset from an existing curve, and normal to a surface. A datum curve
uses a reference curve, a surface from which to offset, and an existing graph feature to specify the offset
values.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Create a graph feature.


Choose Insert > Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
Choose OffsetFromSrf from the OPTIONS menu.
Select the reference datum curve to copy. It must lie on the surface or plane from which the offset will
be determined.
5. Select the start point for the curve using Flip and Okay. This is the origin for the graph offsets.
6. Select a surface or plane from which to offset, then specify the direction in which to offset.
7. Select the graph feature that determines the offset values. Use Sel By Menu and select its name.
8. Enter a scale factor for the offset. Pro/ENGINEER creates the curve.
Notes:
Graphs used for creating offset datum curves should have X-axis values ranging only from 0 to 1. If the
range extends beyond 1, only the portion from 0 to 1 is used.
The graph curve can consist of one entity only.

Modifying a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface


To modify the scale factor of a curve created using the option OffsetFromSrf, use the Modify command.
Using Redefine and References, you can change the start point of the curve (using Point), the surface
offset (using Surface), or the values of the offset (using Graph and Scheme).
If you try to redefine the graph section, the system displays the CHILD OPTS menu. This menu allows you
to delete or suspend the corresponding data curve, which is a child of the graph feature.

46

Part

Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a


Surface
Original curve

a. Offset direction
b. Reference curve, on surface
c. Surface from which to offset
d. Start point
The graph feature controls the offsets from the surface. A value of 0 on the graph causes the curve to touch
the surface.

a.

Start point

a.

Part

Start point

47

Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a


Curve

a.
b.

Reference curve, on surface


Resulting offset curve with offset value of "1"

To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Curve


You can create a datum curve at an offset from an existing curve along a surface. You can modify both the
direction and offset distance using either a positive or negative dimension value.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Insert > Datum > Curve > From Curve > Done.
Select a curve to offset from.
Select a surface along which to offset the curve.
A red arrow shows the direction of offset. Choose Flip or Okay from the DIRECTION menu.
Enter the offset distance.

Example: Creating a Datum Curve Offset from a


Surface Boundary
Before
For the vertices, the distance was measured using Along Edge.
a

a.
b.

48

Reference boundary
Vertices

Part

After

a. Resulting datum curve

To Create a Datum Curve Offset from a Surface


Boundary
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Curve > From Bndry > Done.
2. Use options in the CHAIN menu to select surface edges. You can only select edges that belong to one
surface. When finished selecting edges, choose Done form the CHAIN menu.
3. Indicate where you want to specify the offset by selecting an option from the GET EXT DIST menu. The
options are as follows:
- Vert By VertSpecify the offset distance for vertices in the selected chain of edges. The system
highlights each vertex in the selected chain consecutively to allow you to specify the offset.
- Sel Pnt/VertSelect a datum point or vertex for which the offset will be specified.
4. For the selected point, specify the offset distance using the MEASURE DIST menu. A positive value
offsets the curve inside the boundary, while a negative value offsets the curve outside the boundary.
Select from the mutually exclusive pairs of options available for this operation.
Select one of these options:
- Specify DistOffset at a specified distance.
- Up To VertexOffset up to a vertex and choose from the MEASURE DIST menu. After the system
highlights the vertex, choose Accept.
Select one of these options:
- Norm To BndMeasure the offset distance normal to the boundary. This option is for Specify
Dist only.
- Along EdgeMeasure the offset distance along the highlighted edge (see the following figure).
Once the reference is established, choose Accept and enter an offset value.
Select one of these options (available for Specify Dist only):
- Next NormalIndicate another boundary to reference multiple surface boundaries.
- Next AlongIndicate another edge to reference multiple edges.
Select one of these options:
- SkipSkip a point and move to the next one.
- AcceptAccept the specified options.
5. To continue specifying offsets at other points, repeat Steps 3 and 4.
6. When finished specifying the offset distance, choose Done/Return from the GET EXT DIST menu.
7. If you want to redefine the offset curve, choose Define from the SURF EXTEND menu. To obtain
information about the offset curve, choose Info from the SURF EXTEND menu.
8. To complete the feature, choose Done Extend from the SURF EXTEND menu.
Note: You cannot successfully define a curve from a boundary (From Bndry) when your intent is not
clear.

Part

49

For example, when three patches meet at a common vertex on the boundary of a quilt and there is more
than one two-sided edge at the vertex, the system will not know your design intent if you are trying to
offset inside the boundaries.

To Create a Two-Projection Datum Curve


The 2 Projections option enables you to create a projected datum curve from two sections on non-parallel
sketching planes. The system extrudes (or projects) these sections until they intersect and it creates a datum
curve at the intersection.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Insert > Datum > Curve > 2 Projections > Done.
Select a sketching plane and reference plane for the first curve.
Sketch the curve and choose Done.
Select a sketching plane and reference plane for the second curve. Sketch the curve and choose Done.
Pro/ENGINEER creates the two-projection datum curve.

To Create a Datum Curve from Equations


You can create a datum curve from an equation using the option From Equation as long as the curve does
not intersect itself.
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose From Equation and Done.
3. A curve creation dialog box comes up with the following elements:
- CsysDefine the coordinate system.
- Csys TypeSpecify the type of the coordinate system.
- EquationEnter an equation.
4. Use options in the GET COORDS menu to create or select a coordinate system.
5. Use options in the SET CSYS TYPE to specify the type of the coordinate system. The options are:
Cartesian, Cylindrical, Spherical.
6. The system displays an editor window so you can enter the curve equation as a regular feature relation.
The editor window header contains instructions for specifying the equation, depending on the type of
coordinate system you have chosen.
The equation is specified in terms of parameter t, which varies from 0 to 1, and three coordinate system
parameters: X, Y, and Z for Cartesian; r, theta, and Z for cylindrical; and, r, theta, and phi for spherical.
Note: You can not use the following statements in an equation that defines a datum curve: abs, ceil, floor,
else, extract, if, endif, itos, and search.

Copying Datum Curves in Assembly Mode


In Assembly mode, you can create a datum curve on any part in the assembly.
In the process of defining the datum curve, the CURVE OPTS menu contains an additional option, the Copy
command. This command copies composite curves from one of the members of the assembly.
Pro/ENGINEER creates the resulting assembly datum curve in exactly the same location as the datum
curve from which it was copied. The system also copies the referenced edges and adjacent surfaces of the
datum curve to the new datum curve features.
You can then use the copied curve as a sweep trajectory with normal surfaces defined.

To Copy a Datum Curve


1. Choose Copy from the CURVE OPTS menu.
2. Pick a datum curve or composite curve to copy. The system creates the new curve in the assembly.

50

Part

About Coordinate Systems in Part Modeling


Coordinate systems are reference features that can be added to parts and assemblies to do the following:

Calculate mass properties.


Assemble components.
Place constraints for Finite Element Analysis (FEA).
Provide manufacturing operation reference for tool paths.
Use as a reference for locating other features (coordinate systems, datum points, planes and axes,
imported geometry, and so on).

Cartesian, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinate Systems


Pro/ENGINEER always displays coordinate systems with an X-, Y-, and Z-axis. When referencing a
coordinate system to make other features (for example, a datum point array), the system can interpret the
coordinate system in three ways:
CartesianThe system interprets the coordinate values as X, Y, and Z.
CylindricalThe system interprets the coordinate values as radius, theta (q), and Z.
SphericalThe system interprets the coordinate values as radius, theta (q), and phi (f).
The following figure illustrates how these values are applied to the standard X, Y, and Z coordinate system.
Cartesian

Z
Z

Cylindrical

Z
Z

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51

Spherical

Creating a Coordinate System


Normally, you can create only a single coordinate system, then you have to redo the menu picks Datum >
Csys, and so on. If you set the configuration file option repeat_datum_create to yes, you can to
continue to make the same type of datum feature until you choose to end the process.
You use the following options to reference model geometry:
3 PlanesSelect three planes (planar surfaces or datum planes), with their intersection as the origin of
the coordinate system. The planes do not have to be orthogonalthe normal to the first plane selected
defines a direction for one axis, the normal for the second direction defines the approximate direction
for another axis, and the system determines the third axis using the right-hand rule.
Pnt + 2AxesSelect a point as the origin, then define the direction of one coordinate axis. The third
pick defines the orientation of a plane through the origin and the first axis (the plane will be parallel to
the second axis). If you select a coordinate system as the origin (the first pick for Pnt + 2Axes), the
system displays the TRANS DIR menu. This menu allows you to translate the origin of the new
coordinate system with respect to the old one.
2 AxesSet the origin at the intersection of the two axes, then define the orientation of a plane through
the origin and the first axis (the plane will be parallel to the second axis).
OffsetCreate a coordinate system by offsetting from a reference coordinate system. Select a
coordinate system to offset from. To specify the location of the new coordinate system, use the
Translate or Rotate option from the MOVE menu.
Offs By ViewCreate a coordinate system that is orthogonal to the screen (Z-axis normal to the screen
and pointing at you) by offsetting from a reference coordinate system. The system asks you to select the
reference coordinate system and then prompts you to specify two rotation angles and an additional
translation.
Pln + 2AxesDefine the origin as the intersection of the plane and the first selected axis. The third
pick defines the orientation of a plane through the origin and the first axis (the plane will be parallel to
the second axis).
Orig + ZAxisSelect a point as the origin, then define the direction of the Z-axis first. Define the
direction of the
X-axis. The system determines the Y-axis using the right- hand rule.
From FileUse a data file to construct a new coordinate system relative to an existing coordinate
system.
DefaultUse a default location for the coordinate system. If the base feature is a solid feature, the
default location is the anchor point of the section belonging to that feature. The X-axis will point right
along the section horizontal, while the Y-axis will point up along the section vertical. The Z-axis is
created using the right hand rule.

52

Part

To Create a Coordinate System (basic)


1. Choose Datum > Csys or click the csys button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose one of the following: 3 Planes, Pnt + 2Axes, 2 Axes,
Pln + 2Axes, Orig + ZAxis, From File, or Default. Then choose Done.
3. Select the appropriate geometry. If an axis selection is required, the system displays the SET AXIS
menu. The SET AXIS menu lists the following options:
- Entity/EdgeSelect a datum axis, straight edge, or straight curve.
- Plane NormUse the normal to a plane. This option is not available while the origin is undefined.
- 2 PointsSelect two points to define a vector.
- Orig + PntUse the coordinate system origin and a point to define a vector. This option is not
available while the origin is undefined. Note that whenever a point is required, you can select a
datum point, vertex, curve end, or another coordinate system.
4. Except for Orig + ZAxis, once you select all the entities successfully, the system draws three arrows at
the origin of the coordinate system, indicating the default direction of the axes. One of the arrows is red.
The system displays the COORD SYS menu, which allows you to specify the orientation and direction of
an axis. The choices are as follows:
- X-AxisSet the highlighted arrow to be the X-axis.
- Y-AxisSet the highlighted arrow to be the Y-axis.
- Z-AxisSet the highlighted arrow to be the Z-axis.
- NextHighlight another arrow (without designating the current one).
- PreviousHighlight the previous arrow (without designating the current one).
- ReverseReverse the direction of the highlighted arrow.
5. Choose which axis you want the red arrow to represent.
6. The red arrow shifts to another axis. Repeat the process for the second axis.
7. Pro/ENGINEER creates the coordinate system. The system determines the direction of the third axis
using the right-hand rule.

To Create an Offset Coordinate System


1. Choose Datum > Csys or click the csys button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose one of the following options in the OPTIONS menu:
- OffsetCreate a coordinate system that is offset from another.
- Offs By ViewCreate a coordinate system whose XY-plane lies in the plane of the screen and
whose origin is offset from another, but lies in the same plane (which is parallel to screen when the
coordinate system is created).
Choose Done.
3. Select a reference coordinate system by picking on its name.
4. Choose Translate or Rotate from the MOVE menu.
5. Select a translation or rotation axis from the corresponding menu. Enter the values for the offset and
angle.
6. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 as many times as desired. The process has a cumulative effect.
7. When you have finished, choose Done from the MOVE menu to create the coordinate system with the
specified offset, or Quit to abort the creation of the coordinate system.

To Create a Coordinate System from a File


A coordinate system that is created using a transformation matrix uses a data file to construct a new
coordinate system relative to an existing coordinate system. The file data defines two vectors, as follows:
The first vector specifies the X-axis direction.
The second vector, which is in the XY-plane (in the general direction of the new Y-axis), determines
the new coordinate system origin. Pro/ENGINEER constructs the Z-axis using the right-hand rule.

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53

The following figure illustrates the transformation of the coordinate system.


Coordinate System Transformation

New coordinate
system origin

Y
Ty
Tz

Tx
Y1

X1

Z1

The X-axis direction is determined from the matrix file and is then translated to the new coordinate system
origin.
The XY-plane is constructed from the second vector in the file and translated to the new coordinate system
origin.

Example: Transformation File Format


The transformation file, with the name filename.trf, has the following format:
Transformation File Format

X1 X2 X3 TX
Y1 Y2 Y3 TY
Z1 Z2 Z3 TZ
d
c
b
a
a. Determines the X-axis direction.
b. Determines the vector that lies in the XY-plane and the general direction of the Y-axis.
c. Can be anything, because the Z-axis is determined using the right hand rule.
d. Translation coordinate locates the origin of the new coordinate system.
For example, the file below creates a new coordinate system with the origin at (200, 0, 150), as determined

54

Part

from the reference coordinate system. The new X-axis is pointing in the negative X-direction and the new
Y-axis is pointing in the positive Z-direction, all relative to the reference coordinate system.
Sample Transformation File

! Comments can be added to the file with "!".


! X
Y
Z
T
-1
0
0 200
0
0
0
0
0
1
0 150

About Graphs
A graph feature allows you to associate a function with the part. Graphs are intended for use in relations,
especially in multi-trajectory sweeps.
Pro/ENGINEER usually evaluates a graph feature for its defined X-axis values. When the graph is
evaluated beyond the defined range, Pro/ENGINEER extrapolates the Y-axis values.
The system calculates the extrapolated value for values of X lower than the initial value by extending a
tangent line back from the initial point.
Similarly, the system calculates the extrapolated value for values of X greater than the final value by
extending a tangent line out from the final point.
A graph feature is not displayed anywhere on the partit is not part geometry. Its existence is reflected in
the part information. Use Sel By Menu to pick the name of the graph feature.
You can view or modify existing graph features using the Modify and Redefine commands.

To Create a Graph
1. Choose Datum > Graph.
2. Enter a name for the graph.
3. Sketch the graph. The section must be open and can contain only one contour (chain) that can consist of
lines, arcs, splines, and so on. Each point along the X-axis can have only one corresponding Y value.
4. Create a coordinate system.
5. Choose Done to exit Sketcher. Pro/ENGINEER creates the graph feature.

Example: Creating a Graph


Valid graph

y
x

Part

55

Invalid graph

Multiple solutions

y
x

To Redefine a Graph
Redefining a graph feature allows you to change its name as well as its section.
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu.
2. Select the graph feature using the options Sel By Menu and Name. Select the name from the NAMES
menu.
3. The system prompts you to enter a new name for the graph. You can enter a new name without
invalidating relations. To keep the same name, press ENTER.
4. Choose one of the following options from the REDEFINE menu, followed by Done:
- SectionRedefine the section of the graph. This allows you to modify sketcher geometry.
- SchemeRedefine the dimensioning scheme for the graph.
5. Modify the section or dimensioning scheme.

About an Evaluate Feature


Use the Evaluate option in the DATUM menu to create an evaluate feature. An Evaluate feature consists of
one or more parameters, each of which gets its value from a measurement you perform on the model.
These measurement parameter values are updated when you regenerate the feature. The Evaluate option is
available in Part, Assembly, Manufacturing, Mold, and Dieface modes.

To Create an Evaluate Feature


Note: The Evaluate option on the DATUM menu is available when the configuration file option
allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.
1. Choose Evaluate from the DATUM menu.
2. Enter a name for the evaluate feature. The system displays the MEASURE PARAM menu with the
following options:
CreateCreate and name a measurement parameter. When you name the measurement, the system
displays the GET MEASURE menu. The options are as follows:
- Edg/Crv LenMeasure an edge or a curve length using the GET SELECT menu.
- Edg/Crv CurvMeasure the curvature of an edge or curve at a point on the edge or curve using
the GET SELECT menu.
- AngleMeasure the angle between two selected planes, axes, planar edges, and curves.
- DistanceMeasure the distance between any combination of two points, vertices, planes, axes,
and coordinate systems using the FROM and TO menus.
- AreaMeasure a surface or quilt area using the
EVAL AREA menu.
- DiameterMeasure the surface diameter of any revolved surface of a part.

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Part

- Min RadiusMeasure the minimum radius of any revolved surface using the MIN RADIUS and
GET SELECT menus. The system places a red circle or cross hair marker temporarily at a location
on the minimum radius.
- Srf ClearanceMeasure the clearance between two surfaces.
DeleteDelete an existing measurement parameter.
RedoRedefine a measurement parameter.
InfoDisplay measurement information for all the parameters.
ShowHighlight the references of the selected measurement parameters.
3. Choose Create from the MEASURE PARAM menu and name the measurement parameter.
4. Choose the GET MEASURE option.
5. When you have made all the desired measurements, choose Done from the MEASURE PARAM menu.

Using Relations with an Evaluate Feature


Using relations, the Evaluate feature is used to create features in other models that are dependent on the
measurement parameters.
Use one of the following formats to access measurement values in relations:
measurement_name:fid_N
...or...
measurement_name:fid_feature_name
In these formats, measurement_name is the name of the measurement within the evaluate feature, N is the
internal feature identifier number (obtained by using Info), and feature_name is the name of the evaluate
feature.

Creating Features
There are many kinds of features that you can create on a part. There are solid features and surface
features, and features specific to applications. Part modeling refers to the creation of solid features and
some user-defined features.
Some features add material and some remove material. The most basic way to add material is through a
protrusion. The most basic way to remove material is through a cut. Click the See Also link to access help
on these features.

To Create a Protrusion (basic)


1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Protrusion.
2. Specify a method of adding material by choosing an option from the SOLID OPTS menu. The options
are
- ExtrudeCreate a feature by extruding its section.
- RevolveCreate a feature by revolving its section.
- SweepCreate a feature by sweeping a section along a trajectory.
- BlendCreate a feature by blending multiple sections.
- Use QuiltCreate a feature by adding material to a quilt.
- AdvancedCreate features using advanced feature forms.
3. Select an option from the lower portion of the SOLID OPTS menu:
- Solid(Default) Create a feature as solid.
- ThinCreate a thin feature by specifying the features thickness as a parameter.
Choose Done from the SOLID OPTS menu.
4. Define the feature as prompted by the system.

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57

Example: Different Protrusion Features


The following figures show the different protrusion features. Sections are on the left, and the resulting
protrusions are on the right.

Extrude

Revolve
1

Axis of revolution

Smooth Blend
1
2

58

Subsection 1

Part

2
3

Subsection 2
Subsection 3

Straight Blend

1
2

1
2
3

Subsection 1
Subsection 2
Subsection 3

Sweep

Trajectory

Extruded Thin Feature


The thickness is to the outside.

Part

59

Revolved Thin Feature


The thickness is to the inside.

Thin features follow the contour of the part if an endpoint of the section is on a part edge.

Terminating Thin Feature Edges


2

1 Sketch this line


2 Create this feature
3 Note that the thickened line follows the base feature contour
If only one endpoint is on the part edge, the corresponding created surface will follow that edge.

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Part

Thin Feature Endpoint on a Single Edge

1
2
3

Thin feature surface automatically follows the edge


Endpoint of original section
Original section

To Specify the Direction of Feature Creation


Before you start, Pro/ENGINEER prompts you to specify in which direction the feature should extend, or
the direction of viewing the sketching plane.
1. Pro/ENGINEER displays a red arrow on the selected sketching plane to indicate the default direction of
feature creation. The direction of the arrow depends on the part orientation.
If the part is oriented such that the feature will be created "into" the screen, the arrow points directly
into the screen with the "feathered end" closest to you.
If the part is oriented such that the feature will be created "out of" the screen, the arrow points out of the
screen with the rounded "head end" towards you.
In any other orientation, you will see the arrow from the side.
Direction Arrows

Into screen

Out of screen

2. Pro/ENGINEER also displays the ARROW FLIP menu. Choose Flip to reverse the direction of feature
creation, or Okay to accept the direction shown.
Note: To reset the size of the flip arrow, set the configuration option "flip_arrow_scale". The default
size is 1.
After you specify the reference plane, the system orients the sketching plane so it is parallel to the
screen.
If you are creating a feature that adds material to the part (such as a protrusion), the system orients the
plane so the feature "grows" towards you.
If you are adding a feature that removes material (such as a slot), Pro/ENGINEER orients the plane so
the feature extends away from you.

Creating a Thin Protrusion


Use the Thin option in the SOLID OPTS menu to create simplified section sketches with a uniform
thickness by applying a thickness to the section as it is extruded, revolved, swept, imported, or blended (for
blends that are general, rotational, or closed).

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61

Thin features can be used as a base feature or as cuts, slots, and protrusions in secondary features. You can
add material to create a thin feature to either side of the sketched section. Choose Flip or Okay from the
THIN OPT menu to specify the side or Both to add material equally to both sides of the section. You can
modify both the section and thickness after the feature is created.
Thin features follow the contour of the part if an endpoint of the section is on a part edge.
If only one endpoint is on the part edge, the corresponding created surface will follow that edge.
If a thin section endpoint is located at a vertex, it lies on multiple edges. In this case, Pro/ENGINEER
prompts you (with a small red circle and crosshair at the section endpoint) to select the edge that the end
surface will follow.
You cannot include text in a sketch of a thin feature.

Tip: Sketching Multiple Contours


After you have created the initial solid feature, you can add material by creating secondary features with
the Protrusion option in the SOLID menu. In creating a protrusion, you choose one of the forms.
A protrusion cannot be unattached with one-sided edges.
When you sketch a protrusion, it is possible to sketch several sections or contours on the same sketching
plane (see the following figure). These contours may not overlap, but they can be nested.
Two contours must be separate from each other and behave like two different protrusions. However, they
have the same depth and will always be selected together.
You can also sketch geometry to create a void inside a protrusion. You can sketch one or more loops within
this outside loop to create voids in the protrusion.

To Create a Groove
A groove is a projected cosmetic feature. You create a groove by making a sketch and projecting it onto a
surface. However, the groove feature cannot cross surface boundaries.
You can use the groove feature in the manufacturing process with the Groove option, where the tool
follows the groove path.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Feature > Create > Cosmetic > Groove, or Insert > Cosmetic > Groove.
Select the surface onto which to project the feature.
Set up the sketching plane and reference.
Sketch the groove section.
Choose Done after the section is successfully regenerated. The groove feature is projected onto the
selected surface and has no depth.
Note: Because a groove is a cosmetic feature, you can modify the display of its geometry using Redefine >
Line Style. Groove features can be patternized.

62

Part

Example: Creating a Groove


The following figures illustrate how to create a groove feature.
Sketching the groove feature

Result

User-Defined Cosmetic Features


The option User Defined accesses groups from the FEAT CLASS menu. It functions like the option Create
from the GROUP menu.

About Tweak Features


Pro/ENGINEER offers several features to deform or alter ("tweak") the surface of a part. The TWEAK
menu contains the following options:
DraftAdd a taper of a specific angle to a surface. You must have a Pro/FEATURE license to create
any drafts except Neutral Plane (with constant draft angle).
Local PushDeform a surface by pushing or pulling on a circular or rectangular region of a surface.
For this option to be available, you must set the configuration file option
allow_anatomic_features to yes.
Radius DomeCreate a dome on a limited region of a surface. For this option to be available, you
must set the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features to yes.
Section DomeCreate a dome from sketched sections. For this option to be available, you must have a
Pro/FEATURE license, and set the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features to yes.
OffsetCreate a feature by offsetting either a whole surface or a specified area with a constant

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63

thickness. You must have a Pro/FEATURE license to create an offset feature.


ReplaceReplace a part surface with a surface feature. You must have a Pro/SURFACE license to use
this option.
EarCreate a protrusion that is extruded along the top of a surface and bent at the base. For this
option to be available, you must set the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features to
yes.
LipCreate a lip on selected edges that can be used for interlocking parts. This feature cannot be
created as an Assembly feature, but the dimensions on mating parts can be controlled through relations.
For this option to be available, you must have a Pro/FEATURE license, and set the configuration file
option allow_anatomic_features to yes.
PatchReplace a part of a surface (or surfaces) by a surface feature. You must have a Pro/SURFACE
license to use this option.
ToroidalBendBend a selected solid, surface, or datum feature in two directions to produce a toroidal
or revolved shape. You must have a Pro/FEATURE license to use this option.
Spinal BendBend an object about a curved spine by continuously repositioning cross-sections along
a curve. You must have a Pro/SURFACE license to use this option.
Free FormTweak a surface by dynamic manipulation. You must have a Pro/SURFACE license to
use this option.
Draft OffsetCreate a surface offset with drafted surfaces. You must have a Pro/FEATURE license to
use this option.
Solid BendBend solids or curves using the references of a flatten quilt feature.
Flatten QuiltFlatten surfaces by transformation.

About Drafts
The Draft feature adds a draft angle to individual surfaces or to a series of selected planar surfaces.
The following table lists the terminology used in drafts.
TERM

DEFINITION

Draft surfaces

Model surfaces selected for drafting.

Neutral plane
(or Pivot plane)

Draft surfaces are pivoted about the intersection


of the neutral plane with the draft surfaces.

Neutral curve

The curve on the draft surfaces that is used as


an axis of rotation for draft surfacesdraft
surfaces are rotated about the neutral curve.

Draft direction

Direction that is used to measure the draft


angle. It is defined as normal to the reference
plane.

Draft angle

Angle between the draft direction and the


resulting drafted surfaces. If the draft surfaces
are split, you can define two independent
angles for each portion of the draft.

Direction of rotation
(or Reference
direction)

Direction that defines how draft surfaces are


rotated with respect to the neutral plane or
neutral curve.

Split areas

Areas of the draft surfaces to which you can


apply different draft angles.

Consider the following when creating drafts:

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Part

- You can draft only the surfaces that are formed by tabulated cylinders or planes.
- The draft direction must be normal to the neutral plane if a draft surface is cylindrical.
- You cannot draft surfaces with fillets around the edge boundary. However, you can draft the
surfaces first, then fillet the edges.
Drafts are created by pivoting draft surfaces around a neutral plane or a neutral datum axis. Choosing Draft
from either the Insert menu or the TWEAK menu brings up the DRAFT OPTS menu with the following
options:
Neutral PlnDraft the surfaces by pivoting around a neutral plane.
Neutral CrvDraft the surfaces by pivoting about a neutral datum curve or edge.
Surfaces selected for drafting can be split; the following types of split drafts are supported:
Drafts that are split at a plane
Drafts that are split at the neutral curve:
- one-sided Split at Crv drafts
- two-sided Split at Crv drafts with one dependent angle
- two-sided Split at Crv drafts with two independent angles
Drafts that are split at a parting quilt:
- one-sided Split at Srf draft
- two-sided Split at Srf drafts with one dependent angle
- two-sided Split at Srf drafts with two independent angles
Drafts that are split using sketched geometry
Different variations of the draft feature are shown in the following figure.

No Split

Neutral Plane

Split at Plane

Split at Sketch

Drafts (Tweak or Intersect)

(All drafts use Constant or Variable


angle options except Split at Skt)

No Split

One Side
Neutral Curve

Independent Angle

Split at Curve
Both Sides
Dependent Angle

One Side

Independent Angle

Split at Surface
Both Sides
Dependent Angle

Drafts may use a variable or constant draft angle. Specify the type of angle by selecting one of the

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65

following options in the ATTRIBUTES menu:


ConstantApply a constant angle to the draft along the entire drafted surface.
VariableApply a variable draft angle at discrete points along the drafted surface. Pro/ENGINEER
prompts you to enter a value for the vertices at the intersection between the draft direction plane and the
draft surfaces. Optionally, you can select or create additional datum points, and then specify a draft
angle at those locations. To select existing datum points, choose Select from the GEN PNT SEL menu.
To add datum points, choose Create Point from the GEN PNT SEL menu.
Note: Variable draft angle cannot be used with Split at Skt drafts.
For the chosen draft type, specify the corresponding attributes by using the ATTRIBUTES menu.

Intersect Drafts
Use the Intersect draft option when a resulting draft surface will encounter an edge of the model. The
Extend option and the No Extend option are available for intersect drafts.
Extendcreates an intersection with an existing edge of the model. If possible, the draft will extend to
meet the adjacent surface of the model. If the draft cannot extend to the adjacent model surface, then
the model surface extends into the draft surface. If neither of these cases exist, the system will create
the same overhang created by the No Extend option.
No Extendcreates a draft surface that overhangs the edge of the model.
In the following pictures, a draft surface is added to a cylindrical protrusion near the edge of a box.
The draft below was created with the Extend option. The surface that would be overlapped by the draft is
extended so that the draft intersects that surface.

The draft below was created with the No Extend option. The draft surface overhangs the model surface.
There is no intersection; the model surface is not extended to the draft, and the draft is not extended to the
model. The model face that is overlapped by the draft keeps the same dimensions.

66

Part

Neutral Plane Drafts


Pro/ENGINEER rotates the surfaces being drafted around their intersection with the neutral (pivot) plane.
When creating a neutral plane draft, you need to define the type of split by choosing one of these options in
the ATTRIBUTES menu:
No SplitDo not split the selected surfaces when creating the draft.
Split at PlnSplit the draft surfaces at the neutral plane.
Split at SktSplit the draft surfaces using a sketch.

Example: Neutral Plane Drafts


This figure shows different types of neutral plane drafts.
Original Part
a

a. Draft surface

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67

Using No Split
a

a. Neutral plane
Using Split at Pln
b

a. Neutral plane
b. Reference plane for defining the draft direction
Using Split at Skt

a.
b.

Neutral plane
Sketch of the split

To Create Neutral Plane Drafts (basic)


1.
2.
3.
4.

68

Choose Feature > Create > Tweak > Draft, or Insert > Draft.
From the DRAFT OPTS menu, choose Neutral Pln and Done.
Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box for drafts.
Using the ATTRIBUTES menu, select the draft options as follows:
- Choose the type of draft by selecting Tweak or Intersect.
- (Intersect only) Choose the type of intersect by selecting Extend or No Extend.
- Choose the type of split by selecting No Split, Split at Pln, or Split at Skt.
- Choose the type of draft angle by selecting Constant or Variable.
- Choose Done.

Part

5. Select the draft surfaces to include using the SURF OPTIONS menu.
6. Select or create the neutral plane for the draft using the Plane or Make Datum option in the SETUP
PLANE menu. The intersection of the neutral plane and draft surfaces determines the axis of rotation.
7. Continue with the specific procedure for the required draft type.

To Create a No-Split Neutral Plane Draft


1. Choose Feature > Create > Tweak > Draft, or Insert > Draft.
2. Choose DRAFT OPTS > Neutral Pln > Done. Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box
for drafts.
3. From the ATTRIBUTES menu, select the draft options as follows:
- Choose the type of draft by selecting Tweak or Intersect.
- (Intersect only) Choose the type of intersect by selecting Extend or No Extend.
- Choose the type of split by selecting No Split
- Choose the type of draft angle by selecting Constant or Variable
- Choose Done
4. Specify your draft surface or surfaces.
5. Select or create the neutral plane for the draft using the Plane or Make Datum option in the SETUP
PLANE menu. The intersection of the neutral plane and draft surfaces determines the axis of rotation.
6. Choose an option from the REF DIR menu:
- Use Neut PlnUse the neutral plane as the reference plane.
- SelectSelect a reference plane. Pro/ENGINEER displays the GEN SEL DIR and SETUP PLANE
menus so you can set up the reference plane. You can select a datum plane as the reference plane.
7. If you choose Variable, specify datum points for which you want to enter the draft angle value.
8. A green arrow displays the positive direction of rotation axis. Enter the value for the draft angle.
9. Click Preview to check whether the draft can be constructed. If not, redefine the appropriate elements.
10. To complete the feature creation, click OK in the dialog box.

To Create a Split-at-Plane Neutral Plane Draft


1. Choose Feature > Create > Tweak > Draft, or Insert > Draft.
2. Choose DRAFT OPTS > Neutral Pln > Done. Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box
for drafts.
3. From the ATTRIBUTES menu, select the draft options as follows:
- Choose the type of draft by selecting Tweak or Intersect.
- (Intersect only) Choose the type of intersect by selecting Extend or No Extend.
- Choose the type of split by selecting Split at Pln
- Choose the type of draft angle by selecting Constant or Variable
- Choose Done
4. Specify a draft surface or surfaces.
5. Specify a reference plane. The reference plane is used to determine the direction from which the draft
angle is measured. If the reference plane intersects the draft surface, the draft angles equally on either
side of the reference plane. Choose an option from the REF PLANE menu:
- Use Neut PlnUse the neutral plane as the reference plane. This option is available only when the
neutral plane is adjacent to draft surfaces.
- SelectSelect a reference plane. Pro/ENGINEER displays the GEN SEL DIR and SETUP PLANE
menus so you can set up the reference plane.
Note: The reference plane cannot be a datum plane.
6. If you chose Variable, specify datum points for which you want to enter the draft angle value.
7. A green arrow displays the positive direction of rotation axis. Enter the value for the draft angles.
8. To complete the feature creation, click OK in the dialog box.

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69

Creating a Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft


The Split at Skt option creates drafts that are divided by sketched "parting lines". Each side of the parting
lines has a separate draft angle.
You create a split at sketch draft by specifying the neutral plane and sketching the split lines (the lines
where the drafted surface will be divided into two areas).
Split lines can be sketched either directly on the part surface or on a datum plane. After you have created
the draft section, it is projected through the part, in the direction normal to the sketching plane.
You can specify any surfaces onto which the draft section can be projected so the surfaces are completely
divided by the split lines, including surfaces normal to the sketching plane (where the split line is projected
as a point).
The neutral (pivot) plane in split-at-sketch drafts always serves as the draft direction reference; you cannot
select a separate draft direction reference.
Pro/ENGINEER rotates the surfaces to be drafted around the intersection with the neutral plane. The
direction of rotation depends on the sign of the draft angle and the indicated positive direction of the
rotation axis.

To Create a Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft


1. Choose Feature > Create > Tweak > Draft, or Insert > Draft.
2. Choose DRAFT OPTS > Neutral Pln > Done. Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box
for drafts.
3. From the ATTRIBUTES menu, select the draft options as follows:
- Choose the type of draft by selecting Tweak or Intersect.
- (Intersect only) Choose the type of intersect by selecting Extend or No Extend.
- Choose the type of split by selecting Split at Skt
- Choose Done
4. Specify a draft surface or surfaces.
5. Select or create the sketching plane using the SETUP SK PLN and SETUP PLANE menus.
6. Sketch the split lines. The draft section may be open or closed.
7. Pro/ENGINEER indicates one side of the sketch with a red arrow, and indicates the positive direction
of the rotation axis with the green arrow. Enter a draft angle with the appropriate sign, using the righthand rule.
8. As you are prompted, enter the draft angle for each section of the draft surface created by the sketch.
9. When you have finished, select OK from the dialog box.

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Part

Example: Split-at-Sketch Neutral Plane Draft


Open section

b
a

a. Sketched parting lines


b. Neutral plane

Closed section

a. Sketched parting lines


b. Neutral plane

Tip: Multiple Draft Areas


You can create more than two draft areas on one surface in stages. First, sketch two areas and create a split
at sketch draft. Then, create a second split at sketch draft on the same surface. Finally, sketch the third area
and, for the rest of the surface, specify a draft angle of 0 degrees.

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71

Multiple Draft Areas

a.
b.
c.

Parting lines for first draft


Surface selected for second draft (draft angle for this area is 0)
Parting lines for second draft

Using the Loops Surfs Option to Select Draft Surfaces


When selecting draft surfaces, you can use the Loop Surfs option from the Surf Option menu to select
surfaces for drafting (see the following figure). When the draft surfaces form a single continuous loop, the
same draft angle is added to all of the surfaces.

Sample No Split Draft with the Loop Surfs Selection Option


Original part

a.
b.

72

Face for loop and neutral plane


Loop edge

Part

Part with drafts (The draft angle is the same for all the surfaces.)

a. Material added
When you select multiple loops, the system rotates the inner and outer surfaces in the opposite directions
(see the next figure).
Part with Two Draft Loops

b
a

a.
b.
c.

Loop edge
Face for loop and reference plane
Material removed

Neutral Curve Drafts


You create a neutral curve draft using the Neutral Crv option to pivot draft surfaces about a neutral datum
curve or edge.
You would use a neutral curve draft if the neutral and reference planes are not parallel. In addition, neutral
curve drafts allow the use of non-planar curves while in plane driven drafts the intersection of the neutral
plane and draft surfaces is always planar.
Neutral curve drafts may have split and non-split draft surfaces. To determine the type of split, choose one
of the following options in the ATTRIBUTES menu:
No SplitDo not split the selected surfaces when creating the draft.
Split at CrvSplit the draft surfaces at a neutral curve to create one-side or two-side draft, while the
neutral curve remains fixed.
Split at SrfSplit the draft surfaces at a parting quilt on one side or both sides of the parting quilt,
while each neutral curve remains fixed. The quilt should intersect the drafted surfaces and split them.
For this type of draft, you need to specify two neutral curves, on both sides of the split.

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73

Drafts created with Split at Crv or Split at Srf option can be one-sided or two-sided. Select the desired
type by choosing one of these options in the ATTRIBUTES menu:
Both SidesCreate a draft on both sides of the neutral curve (if you are using Split at Crv) or parting
quilt (if you are using Split at Srf).
One SideCreate a draft on one side of the neutral curve (if you are using Split at Crv) or parting
quilt (if you are using Split at Srf).
For drafts created on both sides of the split, you can specify a single or two independent draft angles for
both portions of the split draft. To indicate how you want to enter the draft angle, choose one of the
following options in the ATTRIBUTES menu:
IndependentSpecify a draft angle on each side of the split. The angles are independent of each other
such that the drafts do not necessarily meet at the parting curve or quilt. The surfaces pivot about the
neutral curve.
DependentSpecify a draft angle on one side of the split. The system determines the other draft angle
such that the two drafts meet at the parting curve or quilt.

Example: Neutral Curve Drafts


The following figures illustrate one- and two-sided Split at Srf drafts.

One Side Split at Srf Draft


a

b
c
d

a. Draft angle (q= 14)


b. Parting quilt
c. Draft surface
d. Neutral curve
e. Draft direction

Both Sides Split at Srf Draft with Two Independent Angles


a

c
d
e

a. Draft angle 1 (q = 14)


b. Draft surface
c. Parting quilt
d. Draft angle 2 (q = 8)
e. Neutral curve 2

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Part

f.
g.

Neutral curve 1
Draft direction

No-Split Neutral Curve Draft


d
c

a. Neutral curve
b. Draft surface
c. Draft angle (q = -15)
d. Draft direction

Different Types of Split Drafts

a.

Draft surfaces

Using No Split

a.

Part

Neutral curve

75

Using Split at Crv

a.

Neutral curve

Using Split at Srf

a. Parting quilt
b. Neutral curves

A sample draft feature created with a neutral plane and a draft angle -8o.
Original part
a

b
c

a. Neutral plane
b. Draft direction
c. Positive direction of rotation (yellow arrow)
d. Both surfaces of the cylinder are selected for drafting.

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Part

With draft

-8

Restrictions on Curve Driven Drafts


For drafts split by a quilt, the parting quilt must intersect all drafted surfaces (see the figure below).
Selecting a Parting Quilt
WRONG

a. Draft surfaces
RIGHT

A neutral curve cannot be shorter than the drafted surfaces (see the following figure).

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77

Selecting a Neutral Curve


WRONG
a

a. Neutral curve
b. Draft surface
RIGHT
a

a.

Neutral curve

To Create Neutral Curve Drafts (basic)


The following procedure explains basic steps to create a curve-driven draft.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Use the command sequence Feature, Create, Tweak, Draft.


Choose Neutral Crv and Done from the DRAFT OPTS menu.
Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box and the ATTRIBUTES menu.
From the ATTRIBUTES menu, select the following:
- Choose the type of draft by selecting Tweak or Intersect.
- (Intersect only) Choose the type of intersect by selecting Extend or No Extend.
- Specify the type of split by choosing No Split, Split at Crv, or Split at Srf.
- Specify whether the draft is to be created on one or both sides of the neutral curve/parting quilt by
selecting Both Sides or One Side.
- If you selected Both Sides, define the angle by choosing Independent or Dependent.
- Specify whether the draft angle is to be constant or variable along the neutral curve by choosing
Constant or Variable.
- Choose Done to conclude.
Note: If you selected the Variable option, you must specify at least two variable draft angle points.
5. Pro/ENGINEER displays the SURF SELECT and SURF OPTIONS menus. Select the surfaces to draft.

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When you have finished, choose Done from the SURF SELECT menu.
Specify a neutral curve using the CHAIN menu.
For a draft using Split at Srf and Both Sides, specify a second neutral curve.
For a Split at Srf draft, specify the parting quilt.
Specify the draft direction using the GEN SEL DIR menu. The menu options are as follows:
- PlaneSelect a plane or create a new datum plane to which the draft direction will be normal.
- Crv/Edg/AxisSelect an edge, curve, or axis in the draft direction. If you select a non-linear edge
or curve, the system prompts you to select an existing datum point on the edge or curve to specify
a tangent.
- CsysSelect an axis of the coordinate system to indicate the draft direction.
10. For a one-side draft, specify the side on which to create the draft. The system displays an arrow, along
with the DIRECTION menu. Choose Flip or Okay.
11. Enter the draft angle as follows:
- For a no-split draft or the draft on one side, specify the draft angle, with material removal in the
direction of a displayed arrow. To add material in the direction of the arrow, enter a negative angle.
- For a draft on both sides, specify the draft angle on each side of the neutral curve, with material
removal for each portion in the direction of a displayed arrow. To add material in the direction of
the arrow, enter a negative angle. The draft surfaces will pivot about the neutral curves at the
specified angle.
- For a draft on both sides with a dependent angle, specify the original angle. The system calculates
the draft angle that corresponds to the second neutral curve such that the two drafts meet at the
parting curve or quilt.
12. Click OK in the dialog box to create the draft.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Restrictions on Curve Driven Drafts


Consider the following restrictions when creating curve driven drafts:
- For drafts split by a quilt, the parting quilt must intersect all drafted surfaces
- A neutral curve cannot be shorter than the drafted surfaces

About Toroidal Bends


The ToroidalBend option bends solids, nonsolid surfaces, or datum curves into toroidal (revolved) shapes.
For example, you could use this option to create an automobile tire from a flat solid object. When you
include a datum curve in the bend, the system first creates its copy and then bends it.
The feature creates two bends at the same time. To define the bend profile, or sectional curvature of the
toroid shape, you sketch a chain of entities. The second bend is determined by two parallel planes that
define the radius of the toroid.
When creating a toroid, the system rotates each of the parallel planes around the intersection of the neutral
plane and the end surface by the angle specified.
To define the bend, you must select a coordinate system. The X-vector of the coordinate system defines a
neutral plane in the bent object. This point does not have to lie on the geometric entity; however, it is
recommended for geometric clarity.
Note: If the coordinate system does not lie on the profile, the sketched profile must consist of tangent
entities.
The neutral plane defines the theoretical plane of zero deformation (elongation or compression) along the
sectional thickness of the bent material.
The material that lies outside the plane is elongated to compensate for the bend deformation, and the
material that lies inside the bend is compressed to accommodate the deformation.

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To Create a Toroidal Bend


1. Choose Create > Solid > Tweak > ToroidalBend, or Insert > Advanced > Toroidal Bend.
2. The OPTIONS menu appears. Choose Variable, 90, 180, 270, or 360 to indicate the angle of the bend.
3. Choose One Side or Both Sides to indicate whether to create the feature on one side or both sides of
the sketching plane.
4. Specify whether datum curves should be contracted during bending by choosing one of the following
options:
- CrvBendContractDatum curves are contracted radially while bent.
- CrvBendExpandDatum curves are not contracted radially while bent.
- CrvFlatContractDatum curves remain planar and are contracted within the neutral plane.
- CrvFlatExpandDatum curves remain planar and are expanded within the neutral plane.
Note: Toroidal bend features created with a Flat option require all curves included in the bend to lie in
the neutral plane.
5. The DEFINE BEND menu appears with the following commands:
- AddSelect objects to bend.
- RemoveCancel the selection of objects from the bend feature.
6. Choose Add and select solid surfaces, quilts, or datum curves to include in the bend. When you bend
datum curves, they are displayed in both the bent fashion and in their original locations.
Note: The included objects must not exceed the boundaries specified by the end planes; otherwise, the
toroidal bend may fail.
7. Choose Done to finish selecting the objects to bend.
8. Pick a sketching plane and a sketcher reference plane to sketch the sectional bend profile.
9. Sketch a chain of entities (spline, arc, line, and so on) to define the shape of the cross section of the
toroid.
10. Create a sketcher coordinate system.
11. Select two parallel planes to bend toward each other at the specified angle. These parallel planes define
the radius of the toroid. For a 360-degree bend, these planes meet.

Example: Creating a Toroidal Bend


The following figures illustrate the steps for creating a toroidal bend.
1. Base object

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2. Select the features to bend.

a
b
c

a. Cuts added to base object (optional)


b. Sketching plane (DTM3)
c. Surface picked to bend (includes cuts)
3. Sketch the bend profile and the axis of revolution
a

a. Sketched 3-point arc


b. Sketcher coordinate system
The following figure shows the area of compression in a toroidal bend.
a

a.
b.
c.

Part

Neutral plane (no deformation)


Region of elongation deformation
Region of compressed deformation

81

To Create a Spinal Bend


The Spinal Bend option bends a solid or quilt about a curved spine by continuously repositioning crosssections along a curve. Planar cross-sections perpendicular to an axis are repositioned perpendicular to the
trajectory with no distortion. All compression or distortion is done longitudinally along the trajectory.
1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Spinal Bend, or Insert > Advanced > Spinal Bend.
2. Specify the feature attributes by choosing from the OPTIONS menu. The options are as follows:
Sketch SpineSketch the spine trajectory.
Select SpineSelect an edge or chain of edges to define a "spine" trajectory.
No Prop CtrlDo not adjust the resulting geometry.
SecProp CtrlAdjust the resulting geometry to control the distribution of a varying cross section mass
property along the spine. This property is defined by relations. Choose one of the following options:
- LinearThe section property varies linearly between the values at the start and end points.
- GraphThe section property varies, per the graph values, between the values at the start and end
points.
The resulting spinal bend feature is defined by the same family of cross-sections, regardless of whether
you choose No Prop Ctrl, SecProp Ctrl and Linear, or SecProp Ctrl and Graph. However, the
distribution of the cross-sections in the spinal bend differs for each of these choices.
3. Select a solid or quilt feature to bend. You can bend only one quilt feature, or you can bend all the solid
features in the part. If you select a solid feature, the system makes the original solid feature invisible
after the spinal bend feature is created. However, the feature and its geometry can still be selected. If
you select a quilt feature, the original quilt feature remains visible.
4. Sketch or select the spine, per the selection made in Step 2. The spine must be C1 continuous (tangent).
If the spine is not also C2 continuous (curvature continuous), the feature surfaces might not be tangent.
If you chose SecProp Ctrl, the plane that passes through the start point of the spine, and is normal to
the spine, must intersect the original quilt or solid feature.
5. If you chose No Prop Ctrl, go to Step 8.
6. If you chose SecProp Ctrl, Pro/ENGINEER displays the SKETCHER menu. Sketch the coordinate
system to be used in the calculation of cross section properties. This coordinate system will be projected
onto the plane of each cross section.
7. Enter feature relations that define the symbol "SEC_PROP" as a function of the mass properties of the
original quilt or solid cross-sections. The right side of the relations can include the following:
- AREA
- CENTROID_X, CENTROID_YCoordinates, with respect to the sketched coordinate system, of
the center of area of the cross section
- IXX, IXY, IYYPlanar moments of inertia of the cross section, with respect to the sketched
coordinate system
- IXX_AT_CENTROID, IXY_AT_CENTROID,
IYY_AT_CENTROIDPlanar moments of inertia of the cross section, with respect to a
coordinate system at the centroid and with axes parallel to the specified coordinate system
- PRINCIPAL1Greater planar principal moment of inertia
- PRINCIPAL2Lesser planar principal moment of inertia
8. Use the SETUP PLANE menu to specify a second plane, which must be parallel to the first, to define the
volume of the original quilt or solid to be bent. If you chose the SecProp Ctrl option, both planes must
intersect the original quilt or solid. The system creates and displays the first plane, which defines the
volume. It is normal to the spine, passes through the start point of the spine, and can be referenced
when you are creating the second plane.
9. If you chose Graph, select an existing graph feature. The graph must pass through the points (0, 0) and
(1, 1) and must be monotonically non-decreasing (that is, with no horizontal tangent to the curve) in the
interval 0 to 1.
10. If you chose SecProp Ctrl, the system places each cross section of the original quilt or solid at the
trajectory parameter (trajpar) on the spine, according to the following formula:
G(Trajpar)=(F(p) - F(0)) / (F(p1) - F(p0))

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The variables are as follows:


- G()If you chose Graph, this is the function defined by the reference graph feature. If you chose
Linear, this is the function defined by trajpar itself (the identity function).
- F()The cross section property function defined by feature relations.
- pThe properties of the original quilt or solid cross section (AREA, CENTROID_X, and so on).
- p0, p1The properties of the first and last cross sections defined by the two planes specified in
Step 8.

Example: Creating and Modifying a Spinal Bend


The following figure illustrates a linear spinal bend with SEC_PROP = AREA.

Before Spinal Bend


a

a.
b.

Feature to be bent
Spine

After Spinal Bend

Cosmetic Mesh View of Linear Spinal Bend

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83

If you use Query Select in a GET SELECT menu, you can pick on the spinal bend and choose Next to
display the original solid/quilt, highlighted in red (see the following figure).

Modifying or Redefining a Spinal Bend


1. Linear spinal bend after selecting to redefine.
a

a. Original feature appears in red. Select the spinal bend feature.


2. Redefine spinal bend to use Section Property Control and Graph.

3. Cosmetic mesh view after redefining section property control to Graph.

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4. Spinal bend redefined as No Prop Control.

To Redefine a Spinal Bend


1. Choose FEAT > Redefine.
2. From the REDEFINE menu, select one of the following elements:
AttributesRedefine the attribute value SecProp Ctrl or NoProp Ctrl; Linear or Graph. If you
choose SecProp Ctrl, Pro/ENGINEER displays a default coordinate system and asks you to sketch a
coordinate system for the first section. You can either align the sketched coordinate system to the
default one or offset it.
SectionRedefine the spine, if sketched; redefine the cross section, if you chose SecProp Ctrl.
ReferencesReselect the quilt, graph, end plane, or cross section properties. Choose one of the
following SPINAL BEND menu options:
- Quilt/SolidRedefine the spinal bend to be a quilt or solid.
- End PlaneRedefine the second plane, defining the volume of the original quilt or solid to be
bent.
- EquationsRedefine the relations.
- GraphRedefine the graph feature.

About Rounds
Use the Round option to create a round between surfaces or in place of a middle surface. Surfaces can
mean traditional Pro/ENGINEER zero-thickness quilts and surfaces, and also surfaces of solid models.
Consider these recommendations for creating rounds:
Try to add rounds as late in the design as possible (but before machining features).
You can place all the rounds on a layer and then suppress that layer to speed up your working session.
To avoid creating children dependent on the round features, do not dimension to edges or tangent edges
created by rounds.

Simple and Advanced Rounds


You can create two different types of roundssimple and advanced. Which type of round you create
depends on the complexity of the reference geometry and on your need to customize the default round
geometry supplied by the system.
Generally, after you specify placement references and the radius of the round, the system generates the
default round geometry by using some default attributes (for example, the round shape, cross section, and
so on). The system normally terminates the round geometry whenever it encounters a non-tangent edge.

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Terminating a Surf-Surf Round at a Non-Tangent Edge


a

a. Non-tangent edge
Creating a simple full round is similar to creating an advanced full round, except that when you create a
simple full round, you can specify only a single set of references and you can not modify the transition
type.
A simple round uses the rolling shape and circular cross section. When you create an advanced round, you
can define several "round sets" (segments of the round feature). The system creates default transitions
between the round sets, allowing you to modify the transitions later.

To Select References with Edge Chain


When you select reference edges with the Edge Chain option, the system displays the CHAIN menu. Note
that you can choose more than one option to continue selecting references. Choose an option, select the
references as prompted by the system, and then choose the next option.
The CHAIN menu lists the following options:
One By OneDefine a chain by selecting individual edges or curves, one at a time.
Tangnt ChainDefine a chain by selecting an edge. All tangent edges are included in the selection.
Surf ChainDefine a chain of edges by selecting a surface. The boundaries of the surface will be the
references.
Intent ChainDefine a chain by selecting a group of edges.
UnselectUnselect references selected with one of the above options.
When you finish defining the chain of edges, choose Done from the CHAIN menu.

Intent Chain and Intent Surfs


The Intent Chain and Intent Surfs options are a way to select multiple associated edges or surfaces in a
model. These options are available on the CHAIN menu (for Intent Chain) and on the SURF OPTIONS
menu (for Intent Surfs).
When you create a protrusion, you start with a sketched section or a surface and then extrude that section or
surface. Intent chains and Intent surfaces exist within this protrusion.
Also, when there is an intersection of a feature or surface, the edges created by that intersection can form an
intent chain.
Intent chains
There are three basic sets of intent chains:
START EDGESThe edges around the portion of the protrusion containing the original sketched
section.
END EDGESThe edges around the side of the protrusion where the section ended its path.

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SIDE EDGESThe edges that appear as a result of the path of the protrusion. These edges exist from
the start edges to the end edges.
In some cases, there are also other sets of intent chains:
START INTERNAL EDGESFor an extruded quilt, the edges that appear at the beginning of the
extrusion of the internal edges.
END INTERNAL EDGESFor an extruded quilt, the edges that appear at the end of the extrusion of
the internal edges.
Intent surfaces
There are three sets of intent surfaces:
START SRFSThe side of the protrusion containing the original sketched section or surface.
END SRFSThe side of the protrusion where the section or surface ended its path.
SIDE SRFSThe sides of the protrusion between the start surface and the end surface.
Note: If you create a feature based on an intent chain or surface, and the underlying edge or side changes,
the feature based on the intent chain will not fail regeneration. Only the intent object will fail, but
when you rebuild the intent object, all the associated geometry will reappear.

To Select an Intent Chain


1. Click CHAIN > Intent Chain.
2. Select one edge on the model. An intent chain associated with that edge is highlighted. Also, any other
intent chains associated with that edge appear in the dialog box.
3. Select the intent chain you want.
Note: To select intent chains in models created before Release 2000i2, you must first update the model by
setting the configuration file option logical_objects to yes and regenerating the model using
Regen Info from the Info menu.

To Select an Intent Surface


1. Click SURF OPTIONS > Intent Surfs.
2. Select one side on the model. An intent surface associated with that side is highlighted. Also, any other
intent surfaces associated with that side appear in the dialog box.
3. Select the intent surface you want.
Note: To select intent surfaces in models created before Release 2000i2, you must first update the model
by setting the configuration file option logical_objects to yes and regenerating the model
using Regen Info from the Info menu.

To Create a Reference Feature


1. Click Insert > Datum > Reference.
2. Select the edges or surfaces that you want to use to create the reference feature.
3. Click Done.
The reference feature exists as an item on the menu tree. You can rename, delete, modify, and view
reference features.

Reference Features
A reference feature is a user-defined collection of existing edges or surfaces in a model. Like an intent edge
or an intent surface, you can use the reference feature as a basis for another feature.
For example, if you want to create a round based on a set of edges in a part, you can collect that set of
edges as a reference feature, then create your round.
If the geometry within the reference feature changes, any other features based on the reference feature will
not fail regeneration. Only the reference feature itself will fail.

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To Enter Radius Values


To enter radius values for a round, use options in the RADIUS TYPE menu. They are as follows:
EnterType in the radius value. The system prompts you to enter a value. If you want to use one of
the previous values, press <Esc> and select a value from the SEL VALUE menu. The first radius value
that appears in the SEL VALUE menu is the default value calculated by the system. For a variable round,
the system places all radius values that you entered for that feature (with the Enter option) in this menu
for subsequent use.
Pick On SurfSelect a point on the surface for the round to pass through. For an Edge Chain round,
select an edge from the chain.
Thru Pnt/VtxSelect a datum point or vertex for the round to pass through.
Note: When the system prompts you to enter a radius value, the Enter option is preselected and you can
type in the value in the Input Window. If you want to use the Pick On Surf or Thru Pnt/Vtx option, press
the <Esc> key or pick the red
icon (located next to the Input Window) to cancel the input mode, then
select the desired option.

To Resolve Placement Ambiguity


When there is more than one possible placement location for the round set, the system prompts you to
indicate the desired location. This can happen when two surfaces intersect in multiple, distinct locations.
In such situations, the system displays all possible pieces of rounds, and creates the round without asking
the user to select particular locations. You can then redefine the Ambiguity element to include the proper
locations.
1. In the Round Set dialog box, select the Ambiguity element and click Define. The AMBIGUITY menu
appears. Each piece of the round is listed with a checkbox.
2. Move the cursor over the checkbox list to highlight the corresponding piece of the round in the graphic
window.
3. Clear or select the appropriate pieces. Select Set All to select all the pieces or Unset All to clear all the
pieces.
4. Click Done to accept the selections.
5. Click Preview in the Round Set dialog box to see where the round will be created.
Note: If the round is created between two datum surfaces, you can create only one piece of round.

Example: Resolving Placement Ambiguity


When there are multiple possible locations for a round set, select the desired location with Ambiguity
element in the Round Set dialog box.
The following figures show two possible locations of the round set for a round created as Surf-Surf round.
1. Select these two surfaces as placement references.

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2. Possible locations of the round set. Select the appropriate checkbox in the AMBIGUITY menu.

To Specify the Round Extent Element


Specify the optional element Round Extent if you want to extend the round feature beyond the selected
references, or to stop the round before it follows all the selected references. This element is available for
simple and advanced rounds.
1. Select the Round Extent element and click Define in the dialog box.
2. The RND EXTENT menu appears with the following options:
- Term SurfsSpecify terminating surfaces by picking on the model surfaces. You can select any
number of terminating surfaces. You cannot select surfaces that are tangent to the surfaces between
which you want to create a round.
- Auto BlendCreate blend transitions when a non-tangent edge is encountered. In effect, the
round rolls over any non-tangent edge that is encountered, either in the edge chain or in the
surfaces that are encountered in the process of round calculation.
Place a check mark in front of the option(s) that you want to specify and choose Done. You can use these
options separately or in combination.

Example: Specifying the Round Extent Element


A round without terminating surfaces
The Round Extent element is not defined.

a. Select these surfaces as Surf-Surf references. The round terminates when it encounters the sharp
edge.

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A round that uses terminating surfaces and blend transitions


The Round Extent element is defined, and Term Surfs and Auto Blend are selected.
a
b

a.
b.

Blend transition at corners


Select this rear surface as a terminating surface. The round continues across the sharp edges until
it reaches the terminating surface.

The following figures demonstrate the use of the Auto Blend option.
Original part
b

a.
b.

The system creates this round segment.


Define the round Extent element and select the Auto Blend option. The round geometry stops at
the non-tangent edges by default.

Part with Round

Note: the round is shown with a surface mesh for illustration purposes. Find this option in the View menu.

Creating a Variable Radius Round


For a variable radius round, you must specify the radii at the endpoints of the chain of edges, and,
optionally, at the selected datum points along these edges. If the edges defining the round are not explicitly
selected (for example, if you used the Surf-Surf option), you must select the spine so you can enter the
radii for its endpoints, vertices, and/or additional points.
Adding optional intermediate points provides additional control over the radius of the round.

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For an advanced variable round, within each round set the system can calculate the minimum radius of the
round between points with known radii. This can be done in one of the following waysby approximating
the radius value along the spine with a standard spline function (default), or by using the smallest userspecified value as the minimum radius value for each round set.
To select the desired method, define the Round Shape element in the Round dialog box and select Spline or
Min Radius from the ATTRIBUTES menu.
SplineTells the system to interpolate the round radius values between those specified, with a smooth
spline curve.
Min RadiusTells the system to interpolate the round radius values, restricting the round radius to
some minimum value. This effectively sets a lower bound.
When you create an advanced round with variable radii, you define the variable radii within each round set.
After you have defined the attributes for the current set, the system prompts you to do the following:
Specify the spine, if required.
Select and/or create additional points.
Enter radius values for all selected points.

To Create a Variable Radius Round


1. Start creating a round as usual. Choose Round, Simple, and Done.
2. Specify attributes and placement references for the round.
3. For placement types other than Edge Chain, define the spine for the variable round. Select continuous
curves or edges by using options in the CHAIN menu. When you finish, choose Done from the CHAIN
menu.
4. The GEN PNT SEL menu appears so you can specify additional datum point for which you want to enter
a radius value.
- If no additional points are required, choose Done from the GEN PNT SEL menu and enter the radii
only for the endpoints of the chain/spine.
- To select existing datum points, choose Select.
- To create new datum points on the spine, choose Create Point. The system automatically selects
the new datum points for the operation.
- After you finish defining intermediate points, choose Done from the GEN PNT SEL menu.
Note: To automatically select all datum points at tangent edges along the spine, choose Select All.
5. The RADIUS TYPE menu appears so you can enter the radius values for vertices and datum points that
were selected.
6. Continue creating the round as usual.

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Example: Variable Radius Round

a.
b.

Three round sets


Additional points

About Patterns
When you create a pattern, you create instances of the selected feature by varying some specified
dimensions.
Except for the pattern dimensions that describe the placement of the pattern instances, each instance in a
pattern has the identical dimensions as the pattern leader.
You can pattern most features using the Pattern options from the FEAT menu.
Patterns offer the following benefits:
Creating a pattern is a quick way to reproduce a feature.
It may be easier or more effective to perform operations once on the multiple features contained in a
pattern, rather than on the individual features. For example, you can easily suppress a pattern or add it
to a layer.
A pattern is parametrically controlled. Therefore, you can modify a pattern by changing pattern
parameters, such as the number of instances, spacing between instances, and original feature
dimensions.
Modifying patterns is more efficient than modifying individual features. In a pattern, when you change
dimensions of the original feature, the system automatically updates the whole pattern.
The system allows you to pattern a single feature only. To pattern several features, create a "local group",
then pattern this group. After the group pattern is created, you can unpattern and ungroup the instances,
then make them independently modifiable using the option Make Indep.
Notes:
The system does not transfer the line style attributes of a datum curve to its patterns.
A thin feature "remembers" the surface to which it is attached and patterns to this surface.

Pattern Types
There are two ways to pattern a feature using the PRO PAT TYPE menu:
Dim PatternControl the pattern using driving dimensions to determine the incremental changes to
the pattern. The dimension pattern must also exist before you can create the next pattern type.

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Ref PatternControl the pattern by referencing another pattern.


When you are working with features or components where it does not make sense to have both Dim
Pattern and Ref Pattern, the system does not display the PRO PAT TYPE menu.

Pattern Options
Pro/ENGINEER defines patterns based on the complexity of features and surfaces involved in the pattern
creation. Moreover, the system makes certain assumptions for each type of pattern.
The less complex the pattern is, the more assumptions Pro/ENGINEER can make and the faster it creates
the pattern. Pro/ENGINEER categorizes patterns into three types, using the options Identical, Varying,
and General (available in the PAT OPTIONS menu).
Identical Patterns
Identical patterns, the most simple, have the following restrictions:
All instances are identical in size.
All instances are placed on the same surface.
No instance intersects the edges of the placement surface, any other instance, or any feature other than
the placement surface.
Note that identical patterns regenerate the fastest of the three options. For an identical pattern, the system
generates the first feature, then copies it exactly, including all the intersections.
Varying Patterns
Varying patterns are more complicated than identical patterns. The system makes the following
assumptions about varying patterns:
Instances can vary in size.
Instances can be placed on different surfaces.
No instance intersects any other instance.
For varying patterns, Pro/ENGINEER generates geometry for each feature individually, then generates all
the intersections at one time.
A varying pattern intersects part geometry as a whole group. As a result, if you were to use Thru Next with
a varying pattern, there would be only one creation direction for determining which is the next surface and
you could get undesired results. To avoid this, use only general or identical patterns with the Thru Next
option.
General Patterns
General patterns allow you to create the most complex patterns.
The system makes no assumptions about the instances of general patterns. Therefore, Pro/ENGINEER
calculates the geometry of each individual instance and intersects each feature separately.
Use this option when you expect the feature to touch other instances, intersect itself, or cross surface
boundaries as it gets patterned. General patterns are required even if instances intersect inside the base
feature and the intersection is not visible.

To Modify Pattern Relations


1. Choose Relations from the PART (or ASSEMBLY) menu.
2. Choose Pattern Rel from the MODEL REL menu.
3. Select a pattern by picking on a feature from the pattern. If the selected feature belongs to a feature
pattern and group pattern, the PATTERN TYP menu appears with the following options:
- Feat PatSelect a feature pattern.
- Group PatSelect a group pattern.

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4. To specify the pattern direction, choose First Dir or Second Dir from the PATTERN DIR menu.
5. For the selected direction, the system lists driver dimensions in the DRIVER DIM menu. As you place
the cursor on the dimension listed in the menu, the system highlights the corresponding dimension on
the screen. Select the desired dimension.
6. The RELATIONS menu appears. Use options from the RELATIONS menu to edit the relations. When
you have finished editing, choose Done from the PATTERN DIR menu.
7. Regenerate the model to update the pattern.
Note: Pattern member relations are independent from pattern leader relations. For example, if you want
to change the relation of a pattern leader, you must change it explicitly.

To Redefine Patterns
1. Select Feature > Redefine, or Edit > Redefine.
2. Select any member of the pattern.
3. For pattern members that normally use a dialog box, the corresponding feature creation dialog box
appears. Select the Pattern element and click on Define.
For pattern members that do not use the dialog box interface, the REDEFINE menu appears; choose the
Pattern option from the menu.
4. The system displays the REDEF PATT menu, which lists the following options:
- Pat OptionsRedefine the type of pattern (identical, varying, or general).
- Pat Incr TypeSpecify whether a pattern dimension is controlled by a value or a relation.
- To TableConvert the pattern to a table-driven pattern (that is, a pattern with variable dimensions
controlled by a table). You cannot redefine a table-driven pattern to become value- or relationdriven. The system prompts you to name the table.

To Change from Value to Relation and Vice Versa


1. Choose Pat Incr Type.
2. Select the direction of the pattern that you want to redefine by choosing First Dir or Second Dir.
3. Select the pattern-driving dimension to redefine from the list in the DRIVER DIMS menu. The system
displays the REDEF INCR menu, which lists the following options:
- To ValueControl the incremental dimension with a single value. If you choose this option, the
system prompts you for an incremental value and deletes the relations that apply to the dimension.
- To RelationControl the incremental dimension with a relation. If you choose this option, the
system displays the MOD PATT REL menu, which allows you to add relations for the dimension.
4. Pro/ENGINEER dims the menu option corresponding to the current status of the dimension. Choose the
new option.
If a patterned feature fails regeneration because its parent reference entity has become unusable, the system
prompts you to delete the pattern, or abort its redefinition.
Pro/ENGINEER warns you in advance, however, if you are about to modify a feature that is referenced by
others, such as a pattern.

To Restore Pattern Relations


If a regeneration fails after you make changes to pattern relations, you can resolve the problem by restoring
pattern relations. Normally, you need not restore all the pattern relations, but only those that caused the
regeneration failure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

94

Choose Fix Model from the RESOLVE FEAT menu.


Choose Restore from the FIX MODEL menu.
Choose Relations from the RESTORE menu.
Choose Pattern Rel from the MODEL REL menu.
Choose one of the following options from the SELECT FEAT menu:
- SelectSelect from the screen and/or from the tree tool.
- Failed FeatSelect the failed pattern to have its relations restored.

Part

6. Specify pattern direction by choosing First Dir or Second Dir from the PATTERN DIR menu.
7. The DRIVER DIM menu lists driver dimensions for the selected direction. Only driver dimensions
whose relations have been modified are available for selection. Place a checkmark in front of the
dimensions that you want to restore, and choose Done.
8. Choose Done/Return from the RESTORE menu.
9. Regenerate the model to restore pattern relations.

Restoring Pattern Relations in the Backup Model


Alternatively, you can perform the restore operation in the backup model by restoring all or selected pattern
dimensions. This method gives you the benefit of seeing the failed pattern in the backup model.

To Restore Pattern Dimensions


Choose Backup Modl from the FIX MODEL menu.
Choose Confirm to continue.
Choose Restore in the FIX MODEL menu.
The Dimensions option in the RESTORE menu is active by default. To specify how you want to select
dimensions to be restored, choose an option from the RESTORE DIM menu:
SelectRestore selected dimensions by choosing them from the SEL MOD DIM menu.
By FeatureRestore all dimensions of the selected feature. Use options in the SELECT FEAT
menu to indicate the feature whose dimensions you want to restore.
AllRestore all modified model dimensions.
5. The system informs you that the modified dimensions are restored. To transfer the results into the
current model, choose Current Modl from the FIX MODEL menu.
6. Regenerate the model to restore the pattern dimensions.

1.
2.
3.
4.

About Dimension Patterns


When you use the Dim Pattern option, you use dimensions called "pattern dimensions" to drive the
direction and incremental changes of the pattern.
Patterns are defined as unidirectional (such as a linear pattern of holes) and bidirectional (such as a
rectangular array of holes). In other words, bidirectional patterns place instances in rows and columns.
Depending on what dimensions are chosen to vary, patterns can be linear or angular.

Patterning Datum Axes


You can pattern datum axes that were created using the option Two Planes that reference offset or angled
datum planes. You can select existing datum planes, or create them on-the-fly using the Make Datum
option. After you create the first axis, the dimensions that reference the datum planes will apply to the axis.
Select these dimensions as the pattern dimensions.

To Create a Dimension Pattern (basic)


1. Choose Feature > Pattern.
2. Specify the pattern leader.
3. Specify the pattern type. Select an option from the PAT OPTIONS menu: Identical, Varying, or
General.
4. Specify the location of instances. To do this, first select how the dimension will be varied. The PAT
DIM INCR menu lists the following options:
- ValueEnter an incremental value for the specified dimension.
- RelationAdd a relation to drive the dimension variation.
- TableAll dimension variations are controlled by a table. Select a dimension to drive the pattern
table.
- Redraw DimsDisplay the dimensions for the pattern leader and pattern dimension.

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5. If you are creating a table pattern, select all dimensions that you want to include in the table and choose
Done in the EXIT menu. For other than a table pattern, continue the procedure as follows.
6. Select a dimension to vary, then enter a value or relation for its increment (spacing). Repeat this for
every dimension driving the pattern in this direction.
7. When you have finished, choose Done from the EXIT menu. Enter the number of instances of the
pattern for this direction.
8. If this is a unidirectional pattern, choose Done from the EXIT menu again, and the system creates the
pattern. For a bidirectional pattern, perform Steps 4 through 6 again. Choose Done again to create the
pattern.

To Create a Rotational Pattern of Holes and Shafts


Rotational patterns use an angular placement dimension of the pattern leader to specify the location of
instances. Any dimension that controls the angular position can be used to create a rotational pattern.
Note: When you place a rotational pattern on a revolved or spline surface, always choose Varying or
General. This is necessary because revolved surfaces are divided into two halves, and increments may rest
on either one surface or both surfaces.
Rotational patterns of placed features (holes and shafts) and sketched features (slots, cuts, protrusions, and
ribs) are created slightly differently.
To make a rotational pattern of holes or shafts,
1. Use the angular placement dimension of the pattern leader as the driving dimension of the pattern.
2. This dimension is created when you place the feature using the Radial option.

Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of Holes


and Shafts
In the example below, the General option is used to create the pattern, because the instances can lie on
several surfaces.
1. Create DTM1 to be used as a reference surface for the feature location. Create the feature using the
Radial placement option. To place the feature, use d4 for an angular dimension from DTM1 and d7 for
the distance from the front surface.
2. Select d4 as a pattern dimension in the desired direction. Enter the value for the increment d13 and the
total number of instances, p0.
3. After you create the pattern, you can enter the relation "d13 =360/p0" to space the holes equally,
regardless of the number of instances you choose.

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Part

Rotational Pattern of Radially Placed Holes

To Create a Rotational Pattern of Sketched


Features
Rotational patterns of sketched features are created by patterning the angle of the sketching plane, or the
horizontal or vertical reference plane. To include the angle parameter of the datum plane as one of the
pattern parameters,
1. Create the datum on-the-fly during feature creation by choosing Make Datum from the Setup Plane
menu
2. Then choose Plane, Through/AxisEdgeCurv, and Angle/Plane
3. If the leader of a pattern is available, it is preferable to modify the dimensions of the leader rather than
modify the pattern dimensions.
4. If the feature fails regeneration as a result of modifying leader dimension values, the system aborts the
pattern creation.
Note: Do not use the angular dimensions that control centerlines of sketched features for rotational
patterns. The results may be unpredictable.

Example: Creating a Rotational Pattern of


Sketched Features
1. Create DTM1 as a reference surface prior to feature creation.
2. Create the feature, selecting the front surface as the sketching plane. To create an angular reference,
choose the Make Datum option and create a datum plane at an angle (d9) to DTM1. Sketch and
regenerate the feature.
Note: When you create a datum plane with a feature, the datum is not visible after the feature has
been created. The parameter defining the datum plane becomes part of the feature.
3. After the pattern leader has been created, you can specify the pattern type option. Choose Varying.
4. Select the angular dimension, d9, as the first pattern dimension and enter the value for the angular
spacing between the pattern features, d14. Choose Done, then enter the total number of instances in the

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97

pattern, p0. Choose Done again and the system creates the pattern.

Note: Make sure all dimensioning references still make sense when the angular dimension increases or
decreases within the range of the pattern member variation.

To Create a Pattern by Using an Angular


Reference
A sketched feature can be patterned using an angular dimension of an internal datum plane created on-thefly (either a datum plane used for sketching, or the one used for reference).
For some patterns, when you create a pattern leader, you may need to create a number of datum planes onthe-fly. To do this,
1. Choose the Setup New option in the Setup_Skn_Pln menu.
2. The last datum you create using Make Datum acts as the sketching plane, while those preceding may
be used for vertical or horizontal reference.

Example: Creating a Pattern of Cylindrical


Protrusions
1. Create a base feature and a datum plane, DTM1. Proceed to create a cylindrical protrusion by selecting
Protrusion, One Side.
2. When the system prompts you to create or select a sketching plane, use the Make Datum option to
create a datum plane, DTM2, with the Through/AxisEdgeCurve and Angle/Plane options, at an angle
d2 to DTM1.
3. When DTM2 is created, choose the Setup New option from the SETUP_SK_PLN menu. Create a new
datum, DTM3, using the options Make Datum and Offset. Enter the offset value d3 from DTM2. This
offset datum (DTM3) serves as the sketching plane.
4. Specify the depth attribute as Thru Next.
5. Specify the direction of feature creation and orient the sketching plane. Sketch the section and
regenerate the feature. After you have created the feature, DTM2 and DTM3 will not be visible on the
screen. However, the feature will retain its angular dimension, d2.
6. To create the pattern, select the feature and choose General for the pattern type. Pick the angular
dimension, d2, and enter a value for the increment and the total number of instances. Choose Done to
end the process.

98

Part

DTM3

DTM1

d2

DTM2

Pattern Directions
Unidirectional

a. direction 1
Bidirectional

a.
b.

Part

direction 1
direction 2

99

Pattern Configurations
Linear

Angular

To Vary a Dimension Pattern


1. Modify patterns by varying the spacing between instances, as well as the sizes of the instances.
2. Specify more than one dimension when you locate instances in rows and columns.
A positive or negative value for the increment determines the direction in which instances will be added.
- A positive increment causes the system to place instances in the same direction as the initial
feature was placed.
- A negative increment reverses this direction.
- You can reverse the direction in which instances are added to the pattern leader by specifying a
negative increment.

Varying the Location and Size of Instances


The following figure shows how to vary both the location and size of instances.
- To locate the holes horizontally, pick d5 as the driving dimension and enter the value for d6 (the
incremental dimension).
- To locate the holes vertically, pick d4 as the driving dimension and enter the value for d7 (the
incremental dimension).
- To vary the diameter, pick d3 as the driving dimension and enter the value for the increment in the
diameter (d8 - d3).
- Enter the total number of instances (including the original) in this direction.

100

Part

Pattern of Holes

d3

d4

d8

d7

d5
d6
P0 HOLES

Pattern Increment Relations


You can use relations to drive patterns in two ways:
At the time you select a dimension to drive the pattern in a specific direction (called the leader value),
you can add a relation for that increment. This allows the incremental value to vary for each instance of
the pattern.
You can redefine an existing pattern and use the Relation option to add relations that drive the
incremental value for each direction. This affects all the pattern instances exactly the same.

To Create a Dimension Pattern By Entering a


Relation
1. When the system displays the dimensions for the feature to be patterned, choose Relation from the PAT
DIM INCR menu.
2. Select the dimension.
3. Choose Edit. The system displays the relation window. Enter a relation for the pattern increment. You
can enter any type of relation, including adding new parameters, simultaneous equations, and so on.
You can use the following pattern parameters inside a pattern relation:
- LEAD_VParameter symbol for the leader value (the dimension you just selected to vary).
- MEMB_V Parameter symbol for instance value of the varying dimensions.
- MEMB_IParameter symbol for the incremental value of the varying dimensions with respect to
the previous instance.
- IDX1 and IDX2 Pattern instance index values, which are incremented for each calculated pattern
instance.
Note: MEMB_V and MEMB_I must appear in the relations, but they are mutually exclusivethey cannot
appear in the same pattern relation together.

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101

Example: Pattern Driven by a Relation


4

2
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Original feature; IDX1=0, IDX2=0


IDX2
IDX1
IDX1=1, IDX2=1
IDX1=1, IDX2=0
LEAD_V
MEMB_I
The following relation produces the normal incremental values of a pattern:
MEMB_V = LEAD_V + 10 * IDX1
...or...
MEMB_I=10
This relation locates each instance along this direction 10 units from the previous one. In effect, the
incremental value of this pattern is 10. Other pattern examples are described in the following section.

Example: Creating a Bidirectional Pattern Using MEMB_V in a Relation


1. Select Pattern and pick the feature to pattern.
2. Select PAT DIM INCR > Relation and then select the dimension for the first direction. In this example,
d3 is selected.

3. Enter the following relation:


INCREMENT = 10
OFFSET = INCREMENT/2
TEMP = floor(idx2 / 2)
if (TEMP * 2 != idx2)
memb_v = lead_v + idx1 * INCREMENT + OFFSET

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Part

else
memb_v = lead_v + idx1 * INCREMENT
endif
Note: The function floor returns the next integer lower than its argument.
In this example, floor is used to determine whether idx2, the row number, is an even or odd number. If
idx2 is even, then 2*TEMP will be equal to idx2. If idx2 is odd, then 2*TEMP will be one less than
idx2. Using the "if/else" statement we can control the offset for the odd rows, because idx2 starts with
zero. If idx2 is odd, then the first expression is evaluated for memb_v. If idx2 is even, then the second
expression is evaluated for memb_v.
4. Choose Done for the first direction and then select the dimension in the other direction. In this example,
d4 is selected. Enter the increment between rows. This increment is shown as d7 in the next figure.
5. Select Done for the second direction to finish the pattern.
If you want to keep the rows centered on the part, enter the following part relation.
d7 = (d0- (2*d4))/(p1-1)
In this relation d7, the incremental dimension in the second direction, is driven by the relation. d7 is
determined by subtracting twice the initial offset d4 from the width of the part d0 and dividing by the
number of holes one less in the second direction p1. With this relation, you can modify the number of holes
and/or the length of the part, and the pattern will still remain centered with respect to the width of the part.

Example: Creating a Unidirectional Pattern Using MEMB_V and MEMB_I


When you are including other pattern parameters, such as the number of instances (p#) in the relation, you
must build the relation in two steps. You can include the p3 parameter in the relation only after the pattern
is created. Therefore, you can use a placeholder, such as 10 in the example below, and then change it to p3
when the relation is created.
1. Create a relation for each dimension in the first direction, including a temporary value instead of the p#
value.
2. After regenerating the pattern, modify the pattern relations because the pattern parameter p# is p3. To
do this, select Modify, then choose a pattern member. When the system displays the dimensions, select
d4 or d5.
Modify the first line of the relation for d4 as follows:
[incr = 180/(p3-1)]
Modify the relation for d5 as follows:
[memb_i = (d1-(2*d5))/(p3-1)]
Pattern Example: Step 1
d1

memb_i = (d1-(2*d5))/10
d5

d4

incr=10
memb_v = lead_v + 5 * sin(incr*idx1)

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103

The resulting pattern for these relations is shown in the following figure. The pattern maintains the same
relationship to the part, regardless of the change in the length d1, or the change to the number of instances
in the pattern.
Resulting Pattern
a.

p3 modified to 10

b.

p3 modified to 5

Tip: Recommendations for Creating Dimension


Patterns
When you create dimension patterns, remember these tips:
You can use a feature as a pattern leader for a single pattern only. After you create the pattern, the
leader becomes part of the pattern and can no longer act independently.
When you create a pattern leader, think of the dimensions you may need to specify the location of the
increments. Keep in mind that for rotational patterns, a feature must have a built-in angular dimension.
For other patterns, create a pattern leader with meaningful dimensions that will be used later to control
the location and size of the increments.
When you create a pattern leader for a rotational pattern of sketched features, introduce an angular
dimension by creating a datum plane with the Make Datum option.
A angular dimension controlling a centerline of a sketched feature should not be used to establish an
angular reference. Only a datum plane constructed on-the-fly will set an angular dimension of the
feature.
When you select the pattern type, consider the regeneration time. For simple patterns, always use the
Identical or Varying options to speed up the regeneration of the model.
Use relations to control the location of instances when you expect the number of instances to vary.
After you have created a pattern, enter a relation (for example, a relation governing the spacing between

104

Part

instances). In this case, whenever you modify the number of instances, the system calculates the
spacing according to the formula you entered.

To Modify a Pattern by Changing its Parameter


In a pattern, all instances, including the leader, act as one element. If you modify or delete any member of
the pattern, all other members of the pattern will be modified or deleted.
To modify the number of instances in a pattern,
1. Pick the pattern quantity symbol
2. Enter a new number of instances. If you decrease the number of instances, the system removes the
members farthest from the parent. If you increase the number of instances, the system adds new
members in the appropriate direction and increment.

To Delete a Pattern
Use Del Pattern to delete the pattern without deleting the feature that was patterned.
1. Choose Del Pattern.
2. Select any member of the pattern and select any number of patterns.
3. When you have finished, choose Done.
Note: Del Pattern deletes the pattern definition. To reduce the pattern to one feature without deleting the
pattern definition, modify the pattern quantity number to 1.

About Reference Patterns


A reference pattern patterns a feature "on top of" any other patterned feature.
Some references to locate the new reference pattern feature must be to the original patterned feature only.
The instance number is always the same as the original pattern; therefore, the pattern parameter is not used
to control this pattern.
If you add a feature that does not use the originally patterned feature to get its geometry references, you can
not use reference patterning for the new feature.

About Table-Driven Patterns


You can pattern features using pattern tables.
Pattern tables allow you to create complicated or irregular patterns of features or groups by letting you
specify unique dimensions for each instance in the pattern through an editable table.
Multiple tables can be established for a pattern, so you can change the pattern by switching the table that
drives it.
You can modify a pattern table at any time after you create the pattern. Suppressing or deleting a tabledriven pattern suppresses or deletes the pattern leader, as well.
You can use pattern tables in Assembly mode to pattern assembly features and components.
Pattern tables are not family tables. Pattern tables can only drive pattern dimensions, and unless they are
unpatterned, pattern instances cannot be made independent.
You can also include pattern tables in family tables so a particular family instance can use a specified
pattern table.

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To Create a Table-Driven Pattern


1. Choose Pattern from the FEAT menu. Select the feature that you want to pattern.
2. The system displays the PAT OPTIONS menu. Choose Identical, Varying, or General, then Done. If
the pattern is identical, the system prompts you to specify the dimensions that vary the section or size of
the feature, but they will be not be used. To actually change such dimensions, the pattern must be
varying or general.
3. The system displays the PAT DIM INCR menu with the options Value, Relation, Table, and Redraw
Dims. If the dimensions of the feature are not visible, choose Redraw Dims to display the dimensions.
4. Choose Table.
5. Pick dimensions to enter into the table in order of their importance (this has no effect on the
performance of the table). When you have finished, choose Done from the EXIT menu.
6. The system displays the PATT TABLE menu. Choose Add.
7. Enter the name for the pattern table.
8. The system displays the default part table editor window. Edit the pattern table. If you are using
Pro/TABLE, the system will have already created column headings for you, with idx being the first
column, followed by each of the pattern dimensions in the order that you picked them. You must enter
the index number.
9. Choose Done from the PATT TABLE menu to create the pattern.

To Convert a Value-Driven Pattern into a TableDriven Pattern


1. Create a pattern using the Value option from the PATT DIM INCR menu and select all dimensions that
you want to appear in the pattern. If you do not select a dimension now, you can not add it later without
recreating the pattern.
2. Once the pattern is created, choose Redefine and pick a feature in the pattern.
3. Choose the Pattern element and Define in the dialog box.
4. Choose To Table from the REDEF PATT menu and enter a name for the pattern table. The system
creates a table that contains all the instances in the current pattern. You can edit this table by using
Modify > PatternTable.

To Modify a Table-Driven Pattern


1. Choose PART > Modify > PatternTable. The system displays the TABLES dialog box. The TABLES
dialog box shows all of the modifiable pattern tables in the current active object. The active object can
be the top-level assembly, a subassembly, a part, or a feature. You can change the active object by
using the active object menu. Depending on the active object selected, you may be required to make a
selection on the screen (for example, in a part, if the active object is feature, you must select a feature
that belongs to a table driven pattern).
2. Select a table to modify by picking its name in the Pattern Table Tree.
3. Use icons at the bottom of the dialog box to modify the table pattern as follows:
- To add another table to the pattern, select the pattern or one of its tables from the TABLES dialog,
and click on the

icon.

- To activate a table, select the table and click on the


- To edit a table, select a table and click on the
clicking on its name in the TABLES dialog.

106

icon.
icon. You can also select a table by double-

- To delete a table, select a table and click on the

icon.

- To rename the table, select a table and click the

icon.

Part

- To save a table to disk in a separate file, select a table and click the
icon.
- To retrieve a table from disk, select a pattern or one of its tables from the TABLES dialog, press
, and then select the .ptb from the OPEN dialog box.
4. If you want to save the changes and continue working with the TABLES dialog box, click the Apply
button. To finish and save changes to the pattern tables, click OK. To cancel and remove any changes
press Cancel.

Modifying a Table-Driven Pattern


You can modify a table-driven pattern as follows:
Select dimension values on the screen, enter new values, and regenerate the model. Modifying values
on the screen updates the pattern table.
Edit the table using Modify > PatternTable. This enables you to add or delete instances, add or delete
a table, activate a new table, save or retrieve a table.

Changing Dimension Accuracy of a Pattern Instance


By default, the accuracy of a dimension of an instant is the same as the accuracy of the corresponding
dimension of the leader. You can selectively change the dimension accuracy of a particular instance
dimension to be different from that of the pattern leader. This change will then be reflected in Pro/TABLE.
To selectively change the dimension accuracy,
1. Choose Modify > DimCosmetics > Num Digits, select a pattern dimension that you want to change,
and enter a new number of decimal places.
2. Choose Modify > Value and enter a new value for the dimension.
3. Choose Modify > Dimension, select a dimension, and enter a new number of decimal places.
Consider the following rules for changing dimension accuracy:
If a pattern has more than one table, changing dimension accuracy of an instance changes the accuracy
for all instances with the same index number in all tables associated with this pattern.
Changing the dimension accuracy of a leader dimension affects all corresponding dimensions in all
instances of this pattern. To override this rule, you can change the accuracy of a leader dimension with
Modify > Value. Before implementing the change, the system brings up a dialog box asking you if you
want to update the accuracy in all corresponding dimensions for all instances of this pattern. Pressing
"No" will limit the change to just the pattern leader.

Variations of Pattern Driven by the Same


Dimension
A pattern can have several corresponding independent pattern tables. If you modify the dimensions of one,
the corresponding feature with the same dimension symbols in the other tables will not update.
The following method allows you to create a pattern with multiple pattern tables, each representing a
variation of the original pattern. You can then define relations for the dimensions such that a change to the
dimensions for one instance of a pattern table will change for the others.
For example, suppose you have a part with the following pattern of holes:

Part

107

You want to create an instance of the part with this pattern of holes:

In addition, you want the location of each of the corresponding holes in the two patterns to be linked such
that if the location of one of the holes in either of the instances moves, the corresponding hole in the other
instance also moves.
Rather than create each hole as an independent feature, the following method allows you to use reference
patterns and a single entry in the family table, regardless of the number of instances in the pattern.

To Create a Pattern that Has Several Variations, Each of Which is Driven by the Same
Dimensions
1. Create a table-driven pattern with the maximum number of instances this pattern can possibly have, and
every dimension selected that will be changed between pattern instances or pattern table files. If you do
not enter an instance now, you can not add it later without recreating the pattern.
2. Create a relation (for example, d7=2.0) for every dimension in the pattern table.
Note: Adding a relation affects all tables that use dimensions referenced in the relation.
3. Choose Modify > PatternTable.
4. Select a table from the TABLES dialog.
5. Save the table to disk as ".ptb" file.
6. Choose Window > Open System to open a window. Copy the ".ptb" pattern table file you have just
saved to as many new names as there are different pattern table variations. You can repeat this step each
time you need more pattern tables. Exit the system window.
7. Retrieve new pattern tables, edit them, and activate the desired table.
8. Choose OK to regenerate the pattern.
The pattern table can be used in family tables. You can substitute the different variations by entering their
names as family table instances.

Example: Table-Driven Pattern


The following example illustrates how you can create a pattern using a pattern table and how you can then
modify the pattern by editing the pattern table. The part used in this example is a rectangular solid that is 20
inches wide, 20 inches long, and 2 inches thick.
The feature to be patterned is a straight, through-all hole that is 1 inch in diameter, located 1.5 inches away
from both the parts left edge and its top edge. After choosing Pattern from the Feat menu, pick this feature
as the feature to pattern. The dimensions of the hole are displayed here in symbolic format so that later you
see the order in which they are present in the table.
Pattern Leader
d23

d24

d22

To illustrate redefining patterns, this pattern is initially defined as Identical. However, in an actual
application, if you may want to vary the size of the instances, define the pattern as Varying.

108

Part

Select the hole dimensions to enter them into the pattern table. Select the diameter dimension, the distance
from the left edge, and the distance from the top edge. Choose Add from the PATT TABLE menu and enter
the name "hole_1" as the name of the pattern table.
The system displays the default part table editor window (Pro/TABLE was used for this example). Edit the
pattern table and add seven pattern instances. Enter the values for the index number (idx), diameter,
distance from the left edge, and distance from the top edge. Index numbers need not be consecutive or in
any order, but they must be unique within a table to correspond to each instance.
The figure Pattern Table for Hole_1 Example shows these values as they would appear in the Pro/TABLE
editor. To save the values, exit from Pro/TABLE. Choose Done from the PATT TABLE menu to create the
pattern (see the next figure). In this example, the pattern instances run clockwise, but it is not necessary to
create the instances in any particular order.
Pattern Table for Hole_1 Example

Hole_1 Example of Table-Driven Pattern

Later, you modify the table, as shown in the figure Modified Pattern Table for Hole_1 Example. In
addition, because the diameters of the holes in the pattern will now vary, you must redefine the pattern
options from Identical to Varying. To do this, choose Feature and Redefine and pick on a hole in the
pattern. Choose Pattern and Define in the dialog box. Choose Pat Options from the REDEF PATT menu.
In this case, choose Varying and Done from the PAT OPTIONS menu, followed by Done/Return from the
REDEF PATT menu.
Note (see the following figure) that there are fewer instances, some of the diameters and distances from
references have been changed, and one hole has been located in the middle of the part. After you edit the
pattern table, regenerate the part to implement the change.

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Modified Pattern Table for Hole_1 Example

Hole_1 Example of Modified Table-Driven Pattern

To Make Features Read-Only


You may want to ensure that certain features cannot be modified at a later time. You can protect such
features by declaring them to be read- only using the Read Only option from the FEAT menu.
The dimensions, attributes, scheme, and so on of read-only features can not be modified and are not
regenerated when the part is regenerated. However, you can add features to the parts that intersect the readonly features.
When you make a feature read-only, Pro/ENGINEER makes it, and all the features that came before it in
the regeneration list, read-only.
1. Choose Feature from the PART menu.
2. Choose Read Only from the FEAT menu.
3. To select features to make them read only, choose one of the following options from the R-ONLY FEAT
menu:
- SelectPick a feature to make it and all previous features read only.
- Feat NumEnter a feature external identifier to make it and all previous features read-only.
- All FeatMake all features read-only.
- CleanRemove the read-only setting from the features.

Modifying Feature Names


You can give names to all features, which makes selecting them easier.
For example, you could name an alignment hole for assembly "align_hole_1". When you use the Sel By
Menu option, the system displays this name in the namelist menu.
Notes:
You can not change the names of family table instances.
Names can contain up to 31 characters. They can not include spaces.

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To Modify Feature Names


1. Choose Name from the SETUP menu and select one of the following options:
- FeatureName or rename all features, including datum points.
- OtherName datum axes that were created as part of another feature (such as a hole), curve
segments making up composite curves, datum points, surface features, and feature edges.
2. Pick the feature or axis to be modified.
3. Enter the new name.
Note: If a datum point array feature contains a single point only, the name of the point and the name of the
feature are identical.

To Modify Features with Multiple Sections


You can modify sweeps, non-parallel blends, and advanced form features (such as Var Sec Swp and
Helical Swp) using all the basic methods.
The difference in the procedure is how you select the sections or profiles and how the system displays them
for modification. When you select one of these features using the Modify or Redefine/Section option, the
system displays the SEL SECTION and SPECIFY menus.
The SPECIFY menu lists all the sections in the feature. The SEL SECTION menu lists the following options:
SelectSelect the approximate location of the section to modify. The system selects the closest section
to the pick, moving in the direction towards the first section.
AllDisplay the dimensions for all the sections and trajectories in the feature.
SpecifySelect the section from a namelist. They are titled "Trajectory #" and "Section #" in the menu.
Select as many sections and trajectories for which you want to display the dimensions for, then choose
Done.
Select the option you want and proceed with modifying the feature.

Modifying Features with Multiple Sections


Note the following:
The system displays general blend sections, other than the first section, in a subwindow.
You can modify rotation angles for all blend sections except the first. The first section is fixed in the
sketching plane.
To move the complete blend feature at one time, modify the location of the coordinate system relative
to the part. If you did not use the coordinate system to locate the dimensions, use Redefine/Scheme to
change the dimensioning scheme of the coordinate system.

To Modify Merged Features


The following procedure explains how to modify a merged or cutout feature created with the Reference
option. When you modify a merged or cutout part, the change is reflected in the reference part and the
merged part.
Choose Modify from the PART menu, or Edit > Modify.
Use Query Sel to select the merge feature.
The system highlights the feature, but does not display any dimensions. This is the merge feature itself.
Continue to choose Next from the CONFIRM menu until the system displays the name of the reference
part. Choose Accept.
5. Pro/ENGINEER displays the reference part dimensions for modification. Once you modify the
dimensions, the reference part updates, and these changes are propagated to the merge feature.
1.
2.
3.
4.

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To Modify the Line Style of a Datum Curve


You can change the line style of datum curves.
1. Choose Modify, then Line Style from the MODIFY menu, or Edit > Modify.
2. Select the curve whose attributes you want to modify.
3. The system displays the Line Style dialog box (see the following figure).

The Line Style dialog box is divided into three sections: Copy From, Attributes, and command buttons.
The Copy From section contains the following test boxes:
- StyleAllows you to set the line style name by selecting a from a list of existing line style names.
- Existing LineAllows you to use Select Line... to select an existing line.
- The line style Attributes section contains the following text boxes:
- Line FontAllows you to set a line font by selecting from a list of all available line fonts.
- ColorAllows you to set the color of selected lines. The system displays the Color dialog box.
The command buttons for the dialog box are as follows:
- ApplyApplies the line style (as defined in the dialog box) to the selected lines. It does not close
the dialog box.
- CancelIf you did not make a change and did not select Apply, this option closes the dialog box
without making any changes. If you select this button after you make a change and select Apply, it
changes to Close and closes the dialog box without making further changes.
- ResetResets the dialog box controls to their initial values. If you select Apply immediately after
you select Reset, the system resets all the selected lines to the style they had before you selected
the Modify option.

To Move the Text of Datum Planes and Coordinate


Systems
1. Choose Modify, then Move Datum.
2. Pick the datum plane name text to be moved, then pick a new location. The system displays the name
with a leader line attached to the corner where the text originally appeared.
Note: Datum text cannot be moved when the datum is normal to the screen (appearing as a line).

To Modify a Datum or Axis


1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Modify > Datum/Axis.


Select the datum plane or axis to modify. The Datum dialog box or the Axis dialog box appears.
Change the name, type, and/or placement of the element you selected.
Click OK. The graphics window refreshes to reflect your changes.

About Modifying Dimensions


To modify dimensions, choose Modify then Value from the MODIFY menu and select a feature. The
system displays all the dimensions associated with the specified feature.
If you pick an edge that is shared by two features while you are using the Query Sel option, the system

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highlights the associated features in turn. The system displays the CONFIRM menu, which lets you step
back and forth through the highlighted features to accept the ones you want.
Notes:
Assembly features that are visible in Part mode do not contain dimensions unless the assembly in which
they were created is also in session.
If you created a feature using the commands Copy, Dependent, modifying the original feature changes
the copied feature.
When you select a mirror copy of a feature to modify, the system displays the dimensions and section
on the original feature.

Modifying Tolerance Values


When working with tolerances, you can modify the following:
Tolerance formatUse the options Modify, DimCosmetics, Format.
Default tolerance valuesUse the options Modify, Value. These values appear in the lower right of
the Main Window.
Global default tolerance settingsUse the appropriate options in your configuration file.
Individual tolerance values for selected dimensionsUse the options Modify, Value.

To Modify Dimension Values


To modify dimension values,
1. Choose Modify from the PART menu, or Edit > Modify.
2. Enter a new number or a relation.
3. When you have completed all the changes, choose Regenerate to recalculate the part using the new
dimension values.
Because Pro/ENGINEER supports the use of negative dimensions, the value you enter depends on the
displayed sign of the dimension. Normally, the system displays all dimensions as positive values, and
entering a negative value tells Pro/ENGINEER to create the section geometry to the opposite side.
However, when the configuration file option "show_dim_sign" is set to "yes", the system takes your input
literally. For example, if the current displayed value is negative, entering another negative number
increases or decreases the value for the section on the same side. Entering a positive value causes the
geometry to flip.

To Modify the Number of Decimal Places in a


Dimension
The default number of decimal places for dimensions is two. To increase the precision of a particular
dimension, enter a new value with the desired precision.
To decrease the precision of a particular dimension,
1. Turn the tolerances on, if desired, by choosing Display Tol from the ENVIRONMENT menu.
2. Choose Modify, DimCosmetics, Format.
3. Choose Nominal from the DIM FORMAT menu, then pick a dimension. Its tolerance display changes to
nominal.
4. To modify the number of decimal places to display for one or more dimensions (including reference
dimensions), choose Num Digits from the DIM COSMETIC menu.
5. Enter the number of significant digits (the default value is 2 for non-angular dimensions, and 1 for
angular dimensions).
6. Select the dimensions whose display is to be changed.
You can also set the default number of digits using the configuration file option "default_dec_places", with
a value in the range 0 to 14.

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Note: Modifying the number of decimal places for a dimension rounds the value of the dimension.

To Add Text to a Dimension


The Text option from the DIM COSMETIC menu allows you to add text to a dimension value (for example,
"diameter", "ref", and "typ"), as well as special symbols.
1. Choose Text from the DIM COSMETIC menu.
2. Pick the dimension to which to add the text.
3. Enter the text. You can enter several lines of text, but each line must end with ENTER.
To place the dimension within the text at other than the start of the line, enter [@D] where you want to
locate the dimension when you are typing the text.
4. To complete the text string, follow the last line with two carriage returns, just as with text notes.
You can also define your own special fonts and symbols.

To Modify a Dimension Symbol


The Symbol option in the DIM COSMETIC menu allows you to rename the symbolic name of a dimension.
For example, you can change the symbol for the diameter of the hole from d8 to hole_dia.
1. Choose Symbol from the DIM COSMETIC menu.
2. Pick the symbolic dimension to be renamed.
3. Enter the desired text followed by enter. If you select a symbolic dimension and you press ENTER for
the text input, the symbolic dimension remains unchanged.

Modifying a Dimension Symbol


When you change a dimension symbol, the system updates any relations or family tables that use that
symbol.
Pattern symbols cannot be modified. If you must name the symbol, use a parameter and establish a
relation, setting the pattern symbol to the appropriately named parameter.
You cannot modify the name of a tolerance symbol. For example, if you have a dimension d0 with
tolerances +p0 and +m0, you cannot modify the name of +p0 or +m0.

Making Copied Feature Dimensions Independent


When you use the Dependent option to create a feature by copying another feature, all the dimensions of
the parent feature (except those selected as variable when copying by References) become shared between
the parent feature and its copy.
If you modify the value of a shared dimension, both features change simultaneously.
The Make Indep option in the MODIFY menu allows you to make any shared dimension (including the
number of pattern instances) of the copied feature independent from that of the parent feature. The MAKE
INDEP menu contains the following options:
DimensionSelect the dimensions that the copied feature shares with its parent to make them
independent of the parent feature.
SectionPick a copied feature to make its section independent from its parent feature.

To Make Copied Feature Dimensions Independent


1. Choose Modify, then Make Indep.
2. Select a copied feature. The system displays all the dimensions of the features. If you copied the feature
using Dependent, the system displays the dimensions on the parent feature.
3. Select a shared dimension to make independent. Once you select a dimension, the system highlights all
the features that share the dimension in yellow.

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4. Select the features that are to have that dimension independent.


5. Choose Done Sel when you have finished. Once a dimension is made independent, modifying it for one
of the features does not affect another feature.

Modifying the Dimension Format


The system can display dimensions in decimal or fractional format. You can specify configuration file
options to cause the system to automatically use one format or the other.
If you want to convert only a few dimensions to the other format, use the Fraction and Decimal options
from the FORMAT menu.
When converting to fractions, remember the following:
The system prompts you for the value of the largest allowable denominator. Valid denominators are the
numbers by which the largest denominator can be evenly divided.
A fraction is separated with a hyphen. When you enter fraction values, always enter them as "#+#/#",
such as 1+5/8.
When converting to decimals, remember that Pro/ENGINEER uses the current number of digits of each
selected dimension. Normally, a fraction to decimal conversion is exact.
However, if the current number of digits is too small, the system truncates and changes the value. For all
exact conversions, you need a maximum of five digits only.
You can mark approximate fractional dimensions driven by a relation by setting the
"mark_approximate_dims" configuration option.

To Modify the Dimension Format


1. Choose the options Modify, DimCosmetics, and Format.
2. Select what you want as a result of the conversion, Decimal or Fraction.
3. Select any number of dimensions to convert. You can convert fraction to fraction, decimal to fraction,
and so on.
4. Choose Done Sel when you have finished.
5. If you are converting to fractions, enter the denominator you want.
Note: The specified denominator overrides any value set for the "dim_fraction_denominator" option in the
configuration file.

To Modify Dimension Locations


1. Choose Move Dim from the DIM COSMETIC menu.
2. Pick on the feature to display the dimensions, then select the dimension to be moved. Pick the new
location with the left mouse button. The dimension, the extension lines, and the leader lines
automatically adjust to the new location.
3. You can repeat this option simply by picking another dimension to be moved, then placing it in the new
location.

To Move Dimension Text


The Move Dim option moves both the dimension and its text to any new location. The Move Text option
is actually a special case of the Move Dim option for dimensions, allowing movement of the dimension
text only.
1. Choose Modify, DimCosmetics, then Move Text.
2. Pick the dimension text to be moved, and pick a new location for the text. The dimension moves only
with respect to its leader line.

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To Switch Dimension Arrowheads


Use the Flip Arrows option from the DIM COSMETIC menu to toggle the display of arrowheads between
inside and outside the extension lines.

About Redefining Features


The Redefine option in the FEAT menu (or Edit > Redefine) allows you to change how a feature is
created. The types of changes you can make depend on the selected feature. For example, if a feature was
created using a section, you can redefine the section, feature references, and so on.
Note: After redefining, features with no external reference regenerate starting from the first modified
feature, which can be other than the feature being redefined or rerouted. In calculating where to begin
regeneration during the redefining operations, Pro/ENGINEER does not consider features with an
external reference. For example, if you modify feature 10, then redefine feature 15, the regeneration
begins with feature 10.
Pro/ENGINEER recreates the feature using the new feature definitions. When you redefine the feature
sections, you may need to redefine or reroute any child feature whose reference edge or surface was
replaced. If you make any changes to the feature that causes the feature redefinition to abort, you enter the
Resolve environment.
When you use the Redefine option for a feature that was created using the options Copy, Mirror, and
Dependent, the system issues a warning message stating that the selected feature is a dependent copy of
the highlighted feature.
If you choose Continue from the WAITING menu, the system displays the REDEFINE menu with the
options Attribute, Direction, Section, and Depth. For example, if you choose Section after you select the
options to redefine, the system asks for confirmation because the section of the selected feature will
become independent.
When you preview the redefinition, the system removes the feature geometry and creates temporary
geometry for your changes. When you exit from the user interface, the system regenerates the part.
If you quit the redefinition of a feature, Pro/ENGINEER attempts to restore the part to its original state,
without regenerating the geometry of the model. After you have redefined certain part features, if you quit
the redefinition, the system must still regenerate the geometry of later features.

To Redefine Features with Elements


1. Choose the option Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine.
2. Pick the feature to be redefined.
3. Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature definition dialog box, which lists each element and its current
value. Double-click the element or select the element and click Define.
4. Pro/ENGINEER prompts you for the information needed to redefine the element.

To Redefine Features with No Elements


1. Choose the option Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine.
2. Choose the feature to be redefined.
3. The system displays the REDEFINE toggle menu, which lists the following options:
AttributesRetrieve and redefine the feature attributes.
DirectionRedefine the direction in which the feature is created, relative to the sketching plane.
SectionRedefine the feature section sketches using the SECTION submenu options:
- Sketch PlaneRedefine the sketching plane and enter Sketcher mode to define the section.
- SketchEnter Sketcher mode to redefine this section.
- SchemeEnter Sketcher mode to redefine the dimensioning scheme.
- FlipChange the side to which material is added or removed.

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- ReferencesRespecify the placement references of the feature (such as Until, From, and To
surfaces), removing edges from a round definition, and so on.
- BoundariesResize the selected surface.
- SchemeChange the dimensioning scheme without revising the feature section so there is no
chance you could delete entities referenced by other features.
- CurvesRedefine curves created from file.
- PatternRedefine the pattern type and the pattern increment options.
- Style CurvesRedefine a scan curve feature or scan curves of a blended surface.
Note: Not all options are available for all features.

To Redefine Imported Geometry


1. Choose Redefine and select the imported feature.
2. The system displays the REDEF IMPT menu, which lists the following options:
FileReplace the existing imported feature with another imported feature. Enter a new interface file
name.
DeleteSelectively delete wireframe or surface entities using the GET SELECT options.
Line StyleModify the line style of wireframe entities. The procedure is the same as for modifying the
line style of feature entities.
Exclude Srfs"Unjoin" some of the imported surfaces after they have been joined with the Join Surfs
option, or specify surfaces to which Join Surfs should not be applied. See the Interface Guide.
AttributesRedefine the surface intersection attributes of the imported surface geometry. The system
displays the INTF ATTRB menu with the following toggle options:
- Make SolidMake a solid protrusion from the imported feature.
- Join SurfsJoin together trimmed surfaces that share the same boundary curve into a single
surface. If you do not like the results, you can turn off the option and merge the surfaces using the
options Surface and Merge.
Fix BndriesManually close the gaps that remain between surfaces after using the Join Surfs option.
For detailed information, see the Interface Guide.
Modify SrfModify the shape of the surface and control the display as you do in Pro/SCAN-TOOLS.
3. Redefine the feature using any or all of the available options. When you have finished, choose
Done/Return from the REDEF IMPT menu.

To Redefine Merged Surface Features


You can redefine merged surfaces that were created by merging surface features using the References
option in the REDEFINE menu.
For the merged surface to be redefined, you can
Specify a new surface to replace the second surface of the merge (Sel Surf), or continue to use the
previous surface (Previous).
Respecify the direction arrows for the portion of the surfaces to keep.

To Redefine a Merged Part


You can redefine a merge or mold feature created using the Reference option. The redefinition allows you
to replace the reference member with another instance from the same family.
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and select a reference member feature in
the merged part.
2. Choose References and Done from the REDEFINE menu.
3. The system displays the INSTANCES menu, which allows you to select an instance or show or edit the
family table.

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4. Choose the appropriate option. As soon as you have selected an instance name, Pro/ENGINEER
replaces the reference member with the new instance.

About Simplified Representations


The design of a part can become quite complex. Pro/ENGINEER provides "simplified representation"
functionality that allows you to do the following:
- Simplify the display of a design by showing less detail by including or excluding features.
- Limit the display of a design to a selected portion of the total part geometry by specifying a "work
region."
- Exclude (or include) selected surfaces from the display of the design.
Choose Simplfd Rep from the PART menu to display the SIMPLFD REP menu, which lists the following
options:
- CreateCreate a new simplified representation of the model.
- Set CurrentSet the representation to be current. Display the SELECT REP menu, which lists all
the simplified representations that are present in the current model. Choose the representation that
you want to make current, then choose Done.
- CopyMake a copy of an existing simplified representation.
- RedefineRedefine the current simplified representation by checking (toggling) the name in the
SELECT REP menu.
- DeleteDelete a simplified representation that is present in the current model.
- ListDisplay the Information Window that lists all the existing simplified representations of the
current model. Each simplified representation includes a brief description of what it does.
- Update RepsUpdate all the outdated accelerated simplified representations that are in session.
Notes:
When you modify a feature, you must regenerate all the features after that feature, even those that have
been removed by a work region cut. To avoid regenerating features that are not visible in the specified
work region, use both the Features and the Work Region options when you create the simplified
representation.
When you create features in a simplified representation with a work region, you cannot select edges and
surfaces created by the work region cut.
You cannot use both Work Region and Surfaces in the same simplified representation.

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To Create a Simplified Representation (basic)


1. Choose Create from the SIMPLFD REP menu.
2. Enter the name for the simplified representation.
3. The REP ATTR menu appears. Select an option from each submenu and choose Done. The options are
as follows:
Set the rule for selecting features:
- Include FeatInclude all the features except those specified to be excluded.
- Exclude FeatRemove all the features except those specified to be included.
Specify how to retrieve the simplified representation:
- RegenerateRecreate the simplified representation by regenerating the master model. The master
model must be in session. The GeomSnapshot option is not valid for the Regenerate option.
- AccelerateUse the accelerator file to speed up the retrieval of the simplified representation.
Define the type of data for the simplified representation:
- Whole ModelInclude the entire model (with geometry, dimensions, parameters, and so on) in
the simplified representation. The resulting representation is fully associative and modifiable. This
option requires the presence of the master model in memory.
- GeomSnpshotCreate an independent, read-only representation of the geometry only. A snapshot
representation does not include any parametric information, such as dimensions or parameters
just visible geometry that can be used for referencing. Pro/ENGINEER can detect when a snapshot
is out-of-date, but you must explicitly initiate the update. This option is available only if you
selected Accelerate.
4. Select an option from the EDIT METHOD menu:
- AttributesUse the REP ATTR menu to set attributes of the simplified representation.
- FeaturesCreate a simplified representation by including or excluding features.
- Work RegionCreate a simplified representation by creating a work region "cut" that removes a
portion of the model from display. Each simplified representation can have its own work region.
- SurfacesCreate a simplified representation by copying part surfaces to create a surface
"envelope."

To Use the Features Option


Before you start defining a simplified representation, you can change the default rule for specifying
features.
1. Choose Features from the EDIT METHOD menu.
2. The FEAT INC/EXC menu lists the following options:
Exclude and IncludePick a feature to exclude from or include in the representation. (The opposite of
the default rule appears.)
UndoRemove an instruction for excluding or including a feature.
UpdateScreenUpdate graphical view of the model according to the specified changes.
Display ModeModify the number of features displayed in the Model Tree window. Use the
following options in the DISP MODE menu to change the structure of the tree:
- Show AllShow all features.
- Default FeatsShow only those features whose status conforms to the default rule.
- Marked FeatsShow only those feature whose status is opposite to the default rule.
3. To exclude features, choose Exclude and select features using the Pick Mdl, All, or From/To options
in the SELECT MDL menu or by selecting from the Model Tree.
4. To undo the changes, choose Undo and specify the features to unselect by using options in the
SELELCT MDL menu.
5. Choose Done from the FEAT INC/EXC menu to complete the selection.

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To Edit a Simplified Representation Using the


Model Tree
You can use the Model Tree shortcuts to edit existing simplified representations of the model by
including/excluding features.
To access simplified representations through the Model Tree, customize the Model Tree by adding columns
showing existing simplified representations with the Columns and Add/Remove options.
1. Choose Column and Add/Remove in the Model Tree.
2. Use the down arrow in the Add/Remove Columns window to select the type of information to show
choose Simplified Reps, and add columns for the simplified representations to be displayed in the
Model Tree by selecting its name and the ">>" button.
3. The Current Rep column in the Model Tree shows the name of the representation and lists its features
status.
To edit a simplified representation through the model tree,
1. In the column for the simplified representation that you want to edit, highlight a cell corresponding to
the feature you want to include or exclude in/from this simplified representation (you either include or
exclude, depending on the default rule you originally used).
2. Use the down arrow at the upper right corner of the Model Tree to open a drop-down menu, which lists
the following choices:
- DefaultUndo the include/exclude action.
- IncludeInclude this feature in the model for this simplified representation (available for the
"exclude" default rule).
- ExcludeExclude this feature from the model for this simplified representation (available for the
"include" default rule).
3. The system changes the status of the feature appropriately.

To Use the Work Region Option


1. Choose Work Region from the EDIT METHOD menu.
2. The system displays the SOLID OPTS menu. Specify the type of cut you want to create by choosing one
of the options in the SOLID OPTS menu.
3. The dialog box for defining the cut of the specified type appears. Define the cut feature.
4. When you finish defining the cut, choose OK from the dialog box.
Notes:
Work regions behave in a manner similar to cut features, except that geometry is removed from the
display only rather than physically removed from the model (that is, from the regeneration list).
When a simplified representation is active, the system applies the work region cut; otherwise, the cut is
suppressed.
Once you create a work region, you can redefine it by using the Redefine option in the WORK
REGION menu; this brings up the dialog box so you can select the feature elements that you want to
redefine.
To delete a work region, choose Delete from the WORK REGION menu.

To Use the Surfaces Option


1. Choose Surfaces from the EDIT METHOD menu.
2. The dialog box appears, listing elements for defining surfaces. Select surfaces by using options in the
SURF SELECT menu.
3. When you finish selecting surfaces, click OK from the dialog box.

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To Create an Accelerated Simplified


Representation
With the Accelerate option, you can create "accelerated" simplified representations by setting special
attributes. An accelerated simplified representation is saved to a file to make retrieval quicker.
Instead of regenerating the master representation to get a simplified representation, you can just retrieve the
(accelerated) simplified representation by itself.
Keep the following information in mind when creating accelerator files:

An accelerator file is named "part_name.xrp".


There can be only one accelerator file per part.
Accelerator files do not have version numbers.
If you use the Save As or Backup option on the master model, the corresponding accelerator files are
not created.
If you rename or delete the master model, Pro/ENGINEER automatically renames or deletes the
corresponding accelerator file.

To Update an Accelerated Simplified


Representation
1. Choose Update Reps from the SIMPLFD REP menu.
2. The system displays the UPDATE REP menu. The options are as follows:
- UpdateUpdate and save outdated accelerated simplified representations to disk.
Pro/ENGINEER updates all the outdated representations that are in the accelerator file, even if
they are not in session.
- InfoDisplay the Information Window, listing all outdated representations, including the name of
the master representation, the name of the simplified representation, and whether it is in memory.
- CancelCancel the update.
3. If you choose Update, the system displays the CONFIRMATION menu. Choose Confirm to update the
simplified representations, or Cancel to abort the process.
Note: You can also update any out-of-date representations that are in session when you save the part.

To Create a Geometric Snapshot


1. Choose Simplfd Rep from the PART menu.
2. Choose Create from the SIMPLFD REP menu.
3. Enter the name for the geometric snapshot.
4. Pro/ENGINEER displays the REP ATTR menu. Choose Accelerate and GeomSnpshot, then Done.
5. Continue creating the simplified representation using the option Features, Work Region.
The following restrictions apply to geometric snapshots in Part mode:
- You cannot make any modifications to geometric snapshots, such as changing dimensions or
parameters.
- Because no dimension or parameter information is available, you can not make any references to
them in relations.

To Erase a Simplified Representation


You can erase a simplified representation of the current object from memory with or without the current
object.
1. Choose File > Erase > Current.

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2. Choose an option from the OBJ ERASE menu:


- Current ObjErase the current object and its simplified representation.
- Simplfd RepsErase the simplified representation by placing the check mark in front of its name
in the SELECT REP menu.
3. Choose Done Sel.

Changing Part Accuracy


The Accuracy option modifies the computational accuracy of geometry calculations. Part accuracy is
relative to the size of the part. The valid range is 0.01 to 0.0001, and the default value is 0.0012. Note that
if you decrease the value of part accuracy, the regeneration time also increases.
You should use the default part accuracy unless you need to increase it. In general, you should set the
accuracy to a value less than the ratio of the length of the smallest edge on the part to the length of the
largest side of a box that would contain the part. Even so, use the default accuracy until you have a reason
not to do so.
In the following situations, you may need to change the part accuracy:
Placing a very small feature on a large part.
Intersecting (through merge or cutout) two parts of very different size.
For the two parts to be compatible, they must have the same absolute accuracy. To use the same
absolute accuracy, estimate each part size and multiply each by its respective current accuracy. If the
results differ, enter a value for the accuracy of the parts that yields the same results for each.
You may need to increase the part accuracy of the larger part by entering a smaller decimal number. For
example, if the size of the smaller part is 100 and the accuracy is .01, the product of these numbers is 1.
If the size of the larger part is 1000 and the accuracy is .01, the product of these numbers is 10. Change
the accuracy of the larger part to .001 to yield the same product.

Working with Absolute and Relative Accuracy


Absolute accuracy is the smallest size (measured in the current units) that Pro/ENGINEER can recognize.
To enable the absolute accuracy functionality, set the configuration option "enable_absolute_accuracy" to
"yes". The absolute accuracy functionality improves the matching of parts of different sizes or different
accuracies (for example, imported parts created on another system).
In general, you should use relative accuracy for most part models. You should consider using absolute
accuracy only when you are doing one of the following:
- Copying geometry from one model to another during core operations, such as Merge and Cutout.
- Designing parts for manufacturing and mold design.
- Matching accuracy of imported geometry to its destination part.
You can match the accuracies of a set of parts mainly in two ways:
- Give them all the same absolute accuracies.
- Designate one of them (perhaps the smallest) as the "base" part and assign its accuracy to the other
parts.

To Modify the Part Accuracy


1. Choose Set Up from the PART menu.
2. Choose Accuracy from the PART_SETUP menu.
3. Enter the value for the accuracy in the specified range.
Notes:
The configuration file option "accuracy_lower_bound" can override the lower boundary of this range.
The specified values for the lower boundary must be between 1.0000e-6 and 1.0000e-4.
Modifying the part accuracy causes the entire part to regenerate.

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Modifying the Part Accuracy


You can control the absolute accuracy (or resolution) of parts through the ACCURACY menu. When you
choose Accuracy from the PART SETUP menu, the ACCURACY menu appears as follows:
RelativeSpecify relative accuracy.
AbsoluteSpecify absolute accuracy.
The first time you bring up the ACCURACY menu for a part, the Relative option is active and highlighted
(because the part is initially created with Relative accuracy). Thereafter, the accuracy type you used last
will be active when you access the menu.
The configuration file option "default_abs_accuracy" sets a default value for absolute accuracy. The system
may include it in the prompt when you select Enter Value from the ABS ACCURACY menu.

To Specify Relative Accuracy


When you select the Relative option from the Accuracy menu, the system prompts you, "Enter relative part
accuracy or ESC to return to Accuracy menu [0.0012]:" The default value 0.0012 given in the brackets is the
hard-coded default value for relative accuracy.
Proceed in one of the following ways:
Enter a value for relative accuracyThe system then informs you that the part needs to be fully
regenerated and asks if you want to continue. Enter [Y] to continue, or [N] to abort.
Press ESC if you do not want to enter a valueThe system keeps the previous accuracy settings and
returns you to the ACCURACY menu.

To Specify Absolute Accuracy


If you select the Absolute option from the ACCURACY menu, the ABS ACCURACY menu appears. Choose
from the following options:
Enter ValueEnter an absolute value. The system prompts you, "Enter absolute part accuracy or ESC
to return to ACCURACY menu [nnnn units]:". If the previous accuracy type was Relative, nnnn is
the default value for absolute accuracy specified by the configuration file option
"default_abs_accuracy". (If no value for "default_abs_acuracy" is specified, then the prompt shows
only units inside the brackets.)
If the previous accuracy type was Absolute, nnnn is the current absolute value. Note that units is the
parts units (for example, inches).
Proceed in one of the following ways:
- Enter a valueThe system informs you that the part needs to be fully regenerated and asks if you
want to continue. Enter [Y] to continue, or [N] to abort.
- Press ESC if you do not want to enter a valueThe system keeps the previous accuracy settings
and returns you to the ACCURACY menu.
Select PartAssign absolute accuracy value from a different part in session. The IN SESSION namelist
menu appears with a list of parts currently in session. Select one of them.
The system informs you of that parts absolute accuracy and prompts you to accept it. If you accept it,
the system informs you that the part needs to be fully regenerated and asks if you want to continue.
Enter [Y] to continue, or [N] to abort.

About Resolving Feature Failures


Feature failures may occur during feature creation or redefinition. Depending on the type of environment
used to create a feature (that is, whether the feature uses the dialog box interface), the system has two
different ways of handling these failures:

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123

For features that use the dialog box interfaceIf the feature fails after you press OK or Preview, the
Resolve button appears in the feature creation dialog box.
You can either
- Stay in the dialog box environment and redefine feature elements with the Define button, or
- Click Resolve to access the Resolve environment so you can obtain diagnostics or make changes
to other parts of the model.
For features that do not use the dialog box interfaceIf the feature fails, the system brings up the
FAILED FEAT menu.

To Use the FEAT FAILED Menu


1. If a feature fails during creation and it does not use the dialog box interface, Pro/ENGINEER displays
the FEAT FAILED menu with the following options:
- RedefineRedefine the feature.
- Show RefDisplay the SHOW REF menu so you can see the references of the failed feature. The
system displays the reference number in the Message Window.
- Geom CheckCheck for problems with overlapping geometry, misalignment, and so on. This
command may be dimmed. If a shell, offset surface, or thickened surface fails, the system stores
information about the surfaces that could not be offset. The GEOM CHECK menu displays a list of
features with failed geometry and a Restore command.
- Feat InfoGet information about the feature.
2. If a feature fails, you can redisplay the part with all failed geometry highlighted in different colors. The
system displays the corresponding error messages in an Information Window. Features can fail during
creation for the following reasons:
- Overlapping geometryA surface intersects itself. If Pro/ENGINEER finds a self-intersecting
surface, it does not perform any further surface checks. The system highlights the overlapping
geometry in red and the corresponding points of intersection in white, and displays an error
message.
- Surface has edges that coincideThe surface has no area. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the surface
in red and displays an error message.
- Inverted geometryPro/ENGINEER highlights the inverted geometry in purple and displays an
error message.
- Bad edgesPro/ENGINEER highlights bad edges in blue and displays an error message.
- Sheetmetal formPro/ENGINEER highlights sheetmetal form features that fail in red.

The Resolve Environment


As soon as a regeneration fails, Pro/ENGINEER enters the Resolve environment, where the following
occurs:
- The File > Save command is unavailable and the model cannot be saved.
- The failed feature and all subsequent features remain unregenerated. The current model displays
only the regenerated features as they were at the last successful regeneration.
- Pro/ENGINEER displays a message that indicates the problem in the Message Window.
- Pro/ENGINEER displays the RESOLVE FEAT menu and the feature diagnostic window.
The Resolve environment allows you to do the following:
- Undo all the changes made since the last successful regeneration.
- Diagnose the cause of the model failure.
- Fix the problems within this special environment while using standard part or assembly
functionality.

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Part

- Attempt a quick fix of the problems using shortcuts for performing standard operations on the
failed feature, including redefine, reroute, suppress (for parts), and freeze (for assemblies).
For both diagnosing and fixing the problem, you can choose to work on the current (failed) model or
backup model. The backup model shows all features in their pre-regenerated state, and can be used to
modify or restore dimensions of the features that are not displayed in the current (failed) model.
If the ENVIRONMENT menu Regen Backup option is toggled on, Pro/ENGINEER uses the regenerated
backup model.
If you specify this option, the system saves a copy of the model to disk with the name
regen_backup_model####.prt prior to each regeneration and removes it after successful regeneration of the
feature. Otherwise, the system uses the last pre-failure version of the current model saved on disk.
The failed feature diagnosis window displays the following options:
- OverviewDisplay an overview of the Resolve environment.
- Feature InfoDisplay the feature Information Window.
- Resolve HintsIf a resolve hint exists, the system displays this button. Click on it to see a hint on
how to fix the problem.
If you select any of these options, Pro/ENGINEER opens a new window and displays information on the
selected topic.

To Use the RESOLVE FEAT Menu


1. After the feature fails, the system enters Resolve Feature mode.
2. Use the commands in the RESOLVE FEAT menu to fix the failed feature. The options are as follows:
Undo ChangesUndo the changes that caused the failed regeneration attempt, and return to the last
successfully regenerated model. The system displays the CONFIRMATION menu so you can confirm
or cancel this request.
InvestigateInvestigate the cause of the regeneration failure using the Investigate submenu.
Fix ModelRoll the model back to the state before failure and select commands to fix the problem.
Quick FixChoose an option from the QUICK FIX menu. The options are as follows:
- RedefineRedefine the failed feature.
- RerouteReroute the failed feature.
- SuppressSuppress the failed feature and its children.
- Clip SuppSuppress the failed feature and all the features after it.
- DeleteDelete the failed feature. To manage its children, use the Delete All, Suspend All, or
Reroute All command.
3. After you have fixed the failed feature, the system regenerates the model. Choose Yes or No from the
YES/NO menu when the system prompts you to exit Resolve Feature mode.
Note: If you want to explore alternative methods for fixing the failed feature without losing the changes
you have made, save the changes by using Save or Save As before exiting Resolve Feature mode. Then
choose No from the YES/NO menu to reenter Resolve Feature mode. Now you can try another method to
resolve the feature.

To Use the INVESTIGATE Menu


The INVESTIGATE menu lists the following options:
Current ModlPerform operations on the current active (failed) model.
Backup ModlPerform operations on the backup model, displayed in a separate window (the system
displays the current model in the active window).
DiagnosticsToggle on or off the display of the failed feature diagnostic window.

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List ChangesShow the modified dimensions in the Main Window and in a pre-regenerated model
window (Review Window), if available. Also, display a table that lists all the modifications and
changes.
Show RefDisplay the SHOW REF menu to show all the references for the failed feature in the
models, in both the Review Window and the Main Window. The system highlights the first reference in
the reference color (such as magenta), and displays the SHOW REF menu, which lists the following
options:
- NextHighlight the next reference.
- PreviousHighlight the previous reference.
- InfoDisplay an Information Window that provides information about the entity and the feature
to which it belongs.
Failed GeomDisplay the invalid geometry of the failed feature. This command may be unavailable.
The FAILED GEOM menu displays a list of features with failed geometry and a restore command.
Roll ModelRoll the model back to the option selected in the ROLL MDL TO submenu. The options
are as follows:
- Failed FeatRoll the model back to the failed feature (for the backup model only).
- Before FailRoll the model back to the feature just before the failed feature.
- Last SuccessRoll the model back to the state it was in at the end of the last successful feature
regeneration.
- SpecifyRoll the model back to the specified feature.

To Use the FIX MODEL Menu


If you choose the Fix Model option, Pro/ENGINEER displays the FIX MODEL menu. Choose either
Current Modl or Backup Modl and an appropriate option from the FIX MODEL menu.
The FIX MODEL menu has the following options:
Current ModlPerform operations on the current active (failed) model.
Backup ModlPerform operations on the backup model, displayed in a separate window from the
current model in the active window.
FeaturePerform feature operations on the model using the standard FEAT menu. The system displays
the CONFIRMATION menu so you can confirm or cancel the request only if the Undo Changes option
is not possible. However, the Undo Changes option is always possible if you used the Regen Backup
option in the ENVIRONMENT menu.
The SELECT FEAT menu Failed Feat command selects the latest failed feature. Pro/ENGINEER
displays a message in the Message Window when you successfully redefine the feature and
automatically regenerates the model.
When you choose Done from the FEAT menu, the system displays an Information Window with a
message stating that the model has been successfully regenerated.
The system also displays instructions so you can either exit the Resolve environment or continue to
make changes before you exit.
ModifyModify dimensions using the standard MODIFY menu.
RegenerateRegenerate the model.
Switch DimSwitch the dimension display from symbols to values or vice versa.
RestoreDisplay the restore menu so you can restore dimensions, parameters, relations, or all of these
to their values prior to the failure. The RESTORE menu options are as follows:
- All ChangesRestore all the changed items.
- DimensionsRestore the dimensions.
- ParametersRestore the parameters.
- RelationsRestore the relations.
RelationsAdd, delete, or modify relations, as necessary, to be able to regenerate the model, using the

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Part

MODEL REL and RELATIONS menus (for more information, see Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER).
Set UpDisplay the standard PART SETUP menu to perform additional part setup procedures.
X-SectionCreate, modify, or delete a cross-sectional view using the CROSS SEC menu (for more
information, see Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER).
ProgramAccess Pro/PROGRAM capabilities using the PROGRAM menu (for more information, see
Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER).

Relation Constraint Violation


When the part has been modified so a relation constraint has been violated, Pro/ENGINEER displays the
violated constraint in the Information Window.
After you exit the Information Window, the system prompts whether to continue regeneration. If you
answer "no," Pro/ENGINEER restores the previous dimension values. Otherwise, regeneration continues.

To Reduce the Regeneration Time


When you regenerate a part after modifying it, Pro/ENGINEER recalculates the geometry of the part. For
example, changing dimensional values, editing relations, or altering dimension tables require part
regeneration.
Pro/ENGINEER performs a fast regeneration by regenerating only the features affected by certain actions.
Pro/ENGINEER performs fast regeneration in the following situations:
- Modifying dimension valuesThe part regenerates from the earliest modified feature only.
- Resuming featuresThe part regenerates from the earliest resumed feature.
- Redefining features, and modifying schemes and patternsThe part regenerates from the earliest
modified feature only.
Pro/ENGINEER regenerates the entire part when you modify the following:
- The part accuracy
- The part unit value
You can significantly enhance regeneration time by doing the following:
- Create identical or varying patterns instead of general patterns.
- Suppress features that have not been modified since the last regeneration.

To Use the Regen Info Option


The Regen Info option on the Info menu lets you observe how a part is built and aids in the diagnosis of
bad features in a part, by allowing you to view the creation history of a model. You can use this option at
any time, or instead of the Regenerate option after you have modified the part. Clicking Info > Regen Info
opens the Model Player, whose options replace the options on the old START OPTS and INFO REGEN
menus on the Menu Manager. The Model Player is available for version 2000i2. With the Model Player,
you can go backward or forward through the feature creation history in the model in order to observe how
the model was created.
To regenerate a part using the Regen Info option,
1. Choose the option Regen Info from the INFO menu. The Model Player opens.
2. Select from the following two options for controlling feature regeneration and display:
Regenerate featuresRegenerates each feature in sequence, starting from the specified feature, as the
model moves forward. If this box is cleared, features will be rolled forward without regenerating.
Display each featureDisplays each feature in the Graphics window as it is being regenerated or
rolled forward. Future features are not displayed until they are regenerated. If this box is cleared, the
entire display is updated only when the desired feature is reached and the model playback is complete,
or when you stop model playback.

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Compute CL(Available in Manufacturing Mode only) When selected, the CL data is recalculated for
each NC sequence during regeneration. If cleared, no CL data is calculated during regeneration.
3. Select where (at which feature) to start regenerating the part by choosing one of the following options
on the Model Player:
-

Start part regeneration at the beginning of the model, with feature number 1. Then use (pic
of forward button) to step through the features one at a time. (This replaces the Beginning option
in the START OPTS menu.)

Start part regeneration at the very end of the model (at the last feature), and move
backwards through feature regeneration. Then use (pic of backward button) to step through the
features one at a time.

Step backward through the model one feature at a time. Click this button to regenerate the
preceding feature in the model. This option is new in version 2000i2.

Step forward through the model one feature at a time. Click this button to regenerate the
next feature in the model. (This replaces the Continue option in the START OPTS.)
- Slider BarDrag the slider handle to the first feature at which you want model playback to begin.
The features are highlighted in the Graphics window as you move through their position with the
slider handle. The feature number and type are displayed in the selection panel (such as #16
(CHAMFER)), and the feature number is displayed in the Feat # box.
-

Lets you select a starting feature from the Graphics window or the Model Tree. Opens the
SELECT FEAT and GET SELECT menus. After you select a starting feature, its number and ID
are displayed in the selection panel, and the feature number is displayed in the Feat # box.
- Feat #Lets you specify a starting feature by typing the feature number in the box. Then use

and
to step backward or forward through the playback operation one feature at a time.
The feature you specify becomes the starting feature, and all features that occur after it (if you are using
forward playback) or before it (if you are using backward playback) are suppressed.
- Stop the model playback at the current feature.
Pro/ENGINEER begins the model playback process.
4. To stop the playback, click the Stop button.
5. For the current feature, choose from the following options:
- Show DimsDisplay the dimensions of the current feature.
- Feat InfoProvide regular feature information about the current feature. If you choose this
option, the system displays a window with the feature information.
- Geom CheckInvestigate the geometry error for the current feature. This option is accessible
only when the system encounters a geometry error.
- Fix ModelActivate Resolve mode by forcing the current feature to abort regeneration. When
you exit Resolve mode, Pro/ENGINEER brings you back to the Model Player at the current
feature. You can then continue to move backward or forward through the model.
- CloseClose the Model Player and enter Insert mode at the current feature (the last feature to be
generated). You can choose this option at any time during model playback mode.
- FinishClose the Model Player and return to the last feature in the model (this replaces the Quit
option in the INFO REGEN menu). Pro/ENGINEER restores all features. You can choose this
option at any time during model playback mode.
Note: The preceding options replace the options found in the INFO REGEN menu. This is new for
version 2000i2.
6. If a feature is one that intersects any other feature on the part, the system displays the geometry of the
feature in red wireframe before intersection.

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Part

To Use Geometry Checking


To prevent regeneration problems, Pro/ENGINEER checks for geometry errors. If needed, the system
automatically activates the Geom Check option in the INFO and TRIM MODEL menus and in the Model
Player, if open, for those features that are successfully created.
For example, during creation or regeneration of a feature, if the system detects a geometric condition, it
issues the warning message "WARNING: Design intent is unclear. Use Info > Geometry Check for more
details."
The Geom Check option allows you to view the feature that has the possible error and then revise its
definition to eliminate the potential problem. The system displays the GEOM CHECK menu, which provides
a namelist of problem features and a Restore command.
If you choose a feature, the system displays the SHOW ERRS menu. This menu lets you highlight the
entities that cause the geometry check. The system provides corresponding messages in the Information
Window, including suggested workarounds.
The SHOW ERRORS menu lists the following options:

Prev ItemHighlight information for the previous item that causes a geometry check.
Next ItemHighlight information for the next item that causes a geometry check.
All ItemsHighlight information for all items that cause a geometry check.
Feature InfoOpen an Information Window for the selected feature.
Item InfoOpen an Information Window to describe the error.
Hide ItemSuppress the warning that the system had issued as a possible design error, because the
feature is designed as intended.
Note: The option Hide Item applies only to the SHOW ERRS window processing and does not affect
the regenerated geometry.
If you choose Restore from the GEOM CHECK menu, the system displays the RESTORE ERR menu. This
menu allows you to restore specific geometry checks that you have hidden with the Hide Item command.
The options are as follows:
Select AllRestore geometry checks for all features.
Unsel AllRemoves the checks from the entire list, allowing you to select individual features again.
For example, the following cases might cause the system to issue a geometry check warning:
Using blind features to extrude all the way through a part or intersect another surface
When the blind depth is not quite enough, there will be a little gap, which will be detected by
Pro/ENGINEER. Do not modify the extruded value onlyredefine the feature to use one of the "Thru"
depth options.
Sketching intersecting features on drafted surfaces
You may not notice the slight angle of the draft, but the feature you sketch will not quite align with the
feature to be intersected. You should either sketch the feature on the original non-drafted surface or use
the option Use Edge so the entities align exactly.

Example: Misalignment Example


In the example in the figure below, Pro/ENGINEER issues the warning because of the very small edge and
surface between the corner round cut and the revolved blind cut.
If this is what you really intended, increase the accuracy of the part. If, however, you do not want the small
surface and edge, but rather a razor-sharp edge, you must modify one of the features.
To do this, do not modify the size of either feature until the warning disappears, because adding extra digits
to the dimension may still cause problems later. Instead, do the following:
Redefine the cut and tell the system that the edges align exactly.

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129

...or...
Replace the round with a round through point. Then, no matter how the cut changes, the round will be
resized so the sharp intersection is maintained.
Checking Geometry

a.
b.
c.

Cuts
Feature creates a tiny edge
Should these be aligned at vertices?

Example: Local Push


Local Push Feature
a. Sketching plane and b. Surface to be pushed
b

a.
b.

Sketching plane
Surface to be pushed
c

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Part

c.

Sketched boundaries
d

d. Two Pushes with positive deformation

To Create a Local Push


A local push deforms a surface by pushing or pulling on a circular or rectangular region on the surface.
1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Local Push, or Insert > Advanced > Local Push.
2. Set up a sketching plane and sketch the local push boundaries (sketch the section).
3. Pick the surfaces on which to apply the local push.
Note: The Local Push option on either the TWEAK menu or the Insert > Advanced menu is available
when the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

Defining a Local Push


Sketching a local push boundary is different from all other sketches in that the system displays a
rubberband rectangle instead of a rubberband line when you click the left mouse button. All other sketcher
options are identical when creating a local push.
You can create multiple boundaries for the local push. To sketch a rectangular local push boundary, do the
following:
1. Locate the pointer on the sketching grid and click the left mouse button. The system displays a pick
box.
2. Enclose the desired area within the selection rectangle and click the left mouse button. This region can
extend beyond the surface.
To sketch a circle, use the middle button.
Pro/ENGINEER always prompts for a surface for placement of the local push for two reasons:
Local pushes can be sketched across surface boundaries and can be created on more than one surface.
The surface that is the sketching plane does not necessarily have to be the surface upon which the local
push is placed. The local push is placed upon the surface that is selected after the prompt.

Defining the Local Push Height


After you create the local push, the system gives it a default height, measured from the sketching plane.
You can modify this parameter to create the desired deformation of the surface. A positive value deforms
the local push out from the part surface, while a negative value deforms it into the surface of the part.

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Example: Radius Dome


Original part
b

a.
b.

Reference edge
Surface to be domed

Radius Dome feature


r

To Create a Radius Dome


The Radius Dome option allows you to create a dome feature. A radius dome deforms a surface and is
parameterized by one radius and one offset distance.
It is useful for creating qua7litative deformations on a surface. If you want more precise control over the
geometry, use a section dome feature.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Radius Dome, or Insert > Advanced > Radius Dome.
Pick a surface to dome. The surface to dome must be a plane, torus, cone, or cylinder.
Select a datum plane, planar surface, or edge to which to reference the dome arc.
Enter the dome radius. The radius value can be positive or negative, resulting in a convex or concave
dome.
5. Pro/ENGINEER creates the domed surface using two dimensions the radius of the dome arc and the
distance from the arc to the reference datum plane or edge. The radius of the dome is the radius of an
arc that passes through the two edges of the domed surface. Thus, a larger radius value results in less
elevation from the original surface. The placement dimension affects the dome steepness: The closer
the dome arc to the middle of the domed surface, the less the dome elevation.
6. On non-rectangular surfaces, Pro/ENGINEER trims the dome to the part edges (see the next figure).

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Part

Note: The Radius Dome option on either the TWEAK menu or the Insert > Advanced menu is available
when the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

About Section Domes


A section dome replaces a planar surface with a sculptured surface. This surface can be defined by a sweep
or a blend.
The swept dome uses two perpendicular cross-sections to create the sculptured surface. The blended dome
uses parallel sections blended together to create the new surface. With the blended dome, you can use a
reference profile to help generate the sections. A section dome is available to licensees of Pro/FEATURE
only.
Before creating the section dome feature, consider the following restrictions:
The surface to be domed must be horizontal when you sketch the sections.
Specify the sketching plane for the section dome as you would normally sketch on a part. Because the
cross-sections must be perpendicular to the profile, it may be necessary to reorient the view between
sketches using the View option.
Pro/ENGINEER adds or removes material while creating a section dome, depending on how high or
low the section is sketched in relation to the specified surface. For example, if the sections are attached
to the surface, some material around the edges will be removed.
Sections should not be tangent to the sides of the part.
You cannot add a dome to a surface that is filleted along any edge. If you want a fillet, add the dome
first, then fillet the boundary.
It is not necessary to have the same number of segments for each section.
Sections should be at least as long as the surface and do not have to be attached to the surface.
Sections must be sketched to be open.

To Create a Section Dome (basic)


1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Section Dome, or Insert > Advanced > Section Dome.
2. Specify the type of dome by selecting an option from the SECTION DOME menu:
- SweepCreate a dome by sweeping the first profile along the second profile, sweeping the second
profile along the first profile, then using the mathematical average of the two surfaces to create the
dome.
- BlendCreate a dome by blending two or more sections.
- No ProfileCreate a blended dome without using a profile. This option is not accessible when
you have selected the Sweep option.
- One ProfileCreate a dome feature using a reference profile.
Note: The Section Dome option on either the TWEAK menu or the Insert > Advanced menu is available
when the configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

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Example: Swept Section Dome


Original part
b

a.
b.

Section
Profile

Part with Swept Section Dome


c

c.

The domed surface

To Create a Swept Section Dome


You can create a swept section dome using a profile and one section that is perpendicular to it.
Choose Sweep and One Profile from the SECTION DOME menu.
Pick the planar surface to be domed.
Create the profile by indicating the sketching plane, then sketching and regenerating the section.
Return to the default view and choose Done.
Create one section perpendicular to the profile by selecting or creating a sketching plane and sketch the
section.
6. Choose Done to complete the dome.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To Create a Blended Section Dome with No Profile


You can create a blended section dome feature without using a profile. In this case, the system creates the
domed surface by blending parallel sections.
1. Choose Blend and No Profile from the SECTION DOME menu.
2. Select the planar surface to dome.
3. Specify a sketching plane for the first section and sketch the first section. When selecting a sketching

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plane, the viewing direction arrow indicates the positive direction for offset sections. Choose Done
when you have finished.
4. Enter the distance between the first section and the new section to sketch. The orientation of the
sections is the same. Sketch the new section and choose Done when you have finished. At least two
sections must be used for this option. Note that the previous sections are toggled to a light gray color
when you sketch the new section.
Be sure to orient the start points of the sections so the correct points are connected for the dome. The
start point is displayed as a small circle on the sketch. To reorient the start point, select Start Point
from the SEC TOOLS menu and pick a new start point on the section.
5. If other sections are required, enter "yes" to continue and enter in new sections as needed. If no other
sections are required, answer "no" to the prompt. Pro/ENGINEER then generates the dome.

Example: Blended Section Dome without a Profile


Original Part
b
a

a.
b.

Section 1
Section 2

Part with Blended Section Dome without a Profile

Note that the entire surface was domed, even thought only two sections were sketched.

Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile


You create a blended section dome with one profile and two or more sections. Pro/ENGINEER adds or
removes material, as necessary, from the edges of the specified surface to create the dome.

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135

Whether material is added or removed depends on the sections being sketched. A section that dips below
the surface removes material. A section that is above (to the positive side of) the surface adds material.
The profile and the sections of a single-profile blended dome are not necessarily related. This feature
allows you to dimension to the profile by selecting the horizontal and vertical centerlines displayed while
sketching a section.
The centerlines are put there for your convenience, but you do not have to dimension to them.
If you do not dimension to the profile, you can modify the profile without affecting the resulting dome. If
you dimension to the profile, modifying the profile automatically moves the sections and modifies the
dome.

To Create a Blended Section Dome with a Single


Profile
1. Choose Blend and One Profile from the SECTION DOME menu.
2. Pick the surface from which to make a dome.
3. Specify a sketching plane for the profile, sketch the section, and choose Done.
Create the first section by indicating a sketching plane that is perpendicular to the profile. The viewing
direction of the section indicates the positive offset direction for additional sections. After orienting the
sketching plane, the system displays a set of crosshairs at the intersection of the sketching plane and the
profile.
When you sketch the section, the system displays a circular start point at the beginning of the sketch.
All start points for additional sections should be lined up. When you have finished with the sketch,
choose Done.
4. Sketch the next section by choosing the sketching plane and completing the sketch. At least two
sections are required for a blended dome.
5. If another section is required for the dome, answer "yes" to the prompt asking if you want to proceed to
the next section, then sketch the next section. Note that the previous parallel sections toggle to a light
gray color. If no other section is required for the dome, answer "no" to the prompt to complete the
dome.
Note: A dome is always created over the entire specified surface. If the sections are sketched where they
do not cover the entire surface, Pro/ENGINEER extends the dome as necessary to complete it.

Example: Blended Section Dome with a Single


Profile
Original Part
d

b
a

a.

136

Section dimensioned to profile

Part

b.
c.
d.

Centerlines
Profile
Section dimensioned to part

Part with Blended Section Dome with a Single Profile

To Create an Offset
You can create an offset feature on a surface by choosing Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Offset, or
Insert > Advanced > Area Offset. This displays the OPTIONS menu. The OPTIONS menu commands are
grouped in mutually exclusive pairs, as follows:
Normal OffOffset in a direction normal to the original surface.
Transl OffFor selected surfaces, translate the offset a specified distance in a given direction. For
sketched regions, translate the offset a specified distance normal to the sketching plane. Curved
surfaces do not change shape when they are translated.
Sket RegionOffset an area of the surface defined by a section.The section of an offset feature is
sketched on a plane. The section is projected onto the selected surfaces along the sketch plane normal
direction. Then, the offset is applied to give the feature depth.
Whole SurfOffset a whole surface, defined by a loop selection.
SideNrmToSrfMake the side surfaces of an offset area normal to the original surface.
SideNrmToSktMake the side surfaces of an offset area normal to the sketching plane.
Whether you are offsetting a whole surface or an area of the surface, you can select several surfaces to
offset. A positive offset value adds material to the surface, while a negative offset value removes material
from the surface (see the following figure).

Example: Offset Feature


Offset Area Feature

Part

137

a
DTM2

a.

Section sketched on an offset datum plane

With negative offset

To Create an Ear Feature


An ear is a protrusion that is extruded along the top of a surface and can be bent at the base.
There are two types ear features:
VariableThe ear is bent at a user-specified, modifiable angle, measured from the surface from which
the ear is extruded.
90 deg tabThe ear is bent at 90. No dimension is created for the angle.
You can redefine ears from one type to another. The dimensioning of the two types of ear is as follows:
Variable earThe length of the sketched section represents the overall length of the inside edge
(including the length of the bent portion).
TabThe length of the sketched section represents the distance between the bottom and the top of the
outside edge (including the projection of the bent portion on the plane of the straight portion).
Note: The Ear option on either the TWEAK menu or the Insert > Advanced menu is available when the
configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

Example: Dimensioning an Ear Feature


Ear Feature

138

Part

b
a

a.
b.

Sketching plane (hidden surface)


Section

Dimensioning an ear to a part

a.
b.

Straight edge
Parallel lines perpendicular to edge

Bend dimensions of an ear feature

a.

Bending line (normal to page)

Sketching the Ear Section


When you sketch an ear, remember the following rules:
- The sketching plane must be perpendicular to the surface to which the ear will be attached.
- The section for the ear must be open with the endpoints aligned to the surface to which the ear will
be attached.
- The entities that are attached to the surface must be parallel to each other, perpendicular to the
surface, and long enough to accommodate the bend.

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139

The radius of the bend is measured from the sketching plane out of the screen.
Pro/ENGINEER bends the ear at the specified angle, measured from the surface from which the ear is
extruded. The ear bends towards you, out of the screen, and is extruded into the screen to the specified
thickness.

About a Lip Feature


You can create a lip feature on mating surfaces of two different parts in an assembly to ensure that the
interlock geometry is the same on both parts. A lip is created as a protrusion on one part and a cut on
another.
A lip is not an assembly featureit must be created on each part separately. You can set appropriate
connections between dimensions on both parts through relations and parameters.
A lip is constructed by offsetting the mating surface along the selected edges. The edges must form a
continuous contour, either open or closed. The top (or bottom) surface of the lip copies the geometry of the
mating surface; you can draft the side surface with respect to the lip direction.
Lip direction (the direction of the offset) is determined by the normal to a reference plane. The draft angle
is the angle between the normal to the reference plane and the side surface of the lip.
The following figure shows the lip feature parameters.
a

b
c
f

a. This surface repeats the shape of the mating surface


b. Draft angle
c. Mating surface (could be reference plane too)
d. Side offset
e. Selected edge
f. Lip offset
Usually, the reference plane is coincident with the lip (mating) surface. You must select a separate
reference plane in the following cases:
The mating surface is not a plane.
You want the lip creation direction not to be normal to the mating plane. The lip feature will then be
distorted.
At any point of lip feature creation, the normal to the mating surface must be either coincident, or form a
slight angle with the normal to the reference plane. The closer the normals, the less the lip geometry
distortion.

To Create a Lip Feature


1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Tweak > Lip, or Insert > Advanced > Lip.
2. Select adjacent edges to form a lip. You can select edges using Single, Chain, or Loop (the same way
as for a round feature). Choose Done when you have finished.
3. Select the mating surface (the surface to be offset).
4. Enter the lip offset from the selected surface.
5. Enter the side offset (from the selected edges to the draft surface).
6. Select the drafting reference plane.

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7. Enter the draft angle.


8. Pro/ENGINEER creates the lip feature.
Note: The Lip option on either the TWEAK menu or the Insert > Advanced menu is available when the
configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

Example: Lip Feature


Initial model

Enter the positive offset from the mating surface.

a.
b.

Part

Select this plane


Select this surface (and edges)

141

Enter the negative offset from the mating surface.

a.
b.

Select this plane


Select this surface (and edges)

About Sweeps
A sweep is created by sketching or selecting a trajectory and then sketching a section to follow along it.
You can create more advanced sweeps using the Advanced option.

Rules for Defining a Trajectory


A constant section sweep can use either a trajectory sketched at the time of feature creation or a trajectory
made up of selected datum curves or edges. As a general rule, the trajectory must have adjacent reference
surfaces or be planar.
When you define a sweep, the system checks the specified trajectory for validity and establishes normal
surfaces. A normal surface is the surface whose normal is used to establish the Y-axis of the trajectory.
When ambiguity exists, the system prompts you to select a normal surface.
Depending on the type of chain selected as a trajectory, the system behaves as follows:
- All chain segments reference edgesThe normal surfaces are the adjacent surfaces of the edges. If
the edges are two-sided, the system prompts you to choose one set of surfaces.
- All chain segments reference entities that belong to a datum curve, created by referencing surfaces
(for example, by using the Projected option)The normal surfaces are reference surfaces of the
curve. If the curve references two sets of surfaces, the system prompts you to choose one.
- All chain segments reference a sketched datum curvethe normal surface is the sketching plane of
the curve.
- The chain of edges/curves is planar (other than a straight line)The normal surface is the plane
defined by the chain.
- Datum curves that you select for the trajectory must be created with one of the following options:
Sketch
Intr. Surfs
Use Xsec
Projected
Formed
OffsetfromSrf
2 Projections from any curve that lies in a plane
Consider the following special cases:
- If a datum curve and its adjacent surfaces were bent by a toroidal bend feature, you can use that
curve as a trajectory.

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- If you extend the chain with Trim/Extend in the CHAIN menu, the system accepts that chain if it is
planar.
Note that a sweep may fail if
- A trajectory crosses itself
- You align or dimension a section to fixed entities, but the orientation of the section changes when
its is swept along the 3-dimensional trajectory
- An arc or a spline radius is too small, relative to the section, and the feature intersects itself
traversing around the arc.

To Create a Swept Feature


1.
2.
3.
4.

Use the command sequence Feature, Create, Solid, Protrusion.


Choose Sweep and Done from the SOLID OPTS menu.
Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature creation dialog box for sweeps.
Sketch or select the trajectory using a SWEEP TRAJ menu option. The trajectory can be open or closed.
The options are as follows:
- Sketch TrajSketch the sweep trajectory using Sketcher mode.
- Select TrajSelect a chain of existing curves or edges as the sweep trajectory. The CHAIN menu
allows you to select the desired trajectory.
5. If the trajectory lies in more than one surface, such as a trajectory defined by a datum curve created
using Intr. Surfs, the system prompts you to select a normal surface for the sweep cross section.
Pro/ENGINEER orients the Y-axis of the cross section to be normal to this surface along the trajectory.
6. Create or retrieve the section to be swept along the trajectory and dimension it relative to the crosshairs
displayed on the trajectory. Choose Done.
7. If the trajectory is open (the start and end points of the trajectory do not touch and you are creating a
solid sweep, choose an option from the ATTRIBUTES menu, then Done. The options are as follows:
- Merge EndsMerge the ends of the sweep, if possible, into the adjacent solid. To do this, the
sweep endpoint must be attached to part geometry.
- Free EndsDo not attach the sweep end to adjacent geometry.
8. If the sweep trajectory is closed, choose one of the following SWEEP OPT menu options and Done:
- Add Inn FcsFor open sections, add top and bottom faces to close the swept solid (planar, closed
trajectory, and open section). The resulting feature consists of surfaces created by sweeping the
section and has two planar surfaces that cap the open ends.
- No Inn FcsDo not add top and bottom faces.
9. Choose Flip, if desired, then Okay from the DIRECTION menu to select the side from which to remove
material for swept cuts.
10. Select OK in the dialog box to create the sweep.

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143

Example: Sweeps
Solid Sweeps with Closed Trajectories
Closed Trajectory, No Inn Fcs. Section must be closed.

Closed Trajectory, Add Inn Fcs. Section must be open.

Note: When creating a surface sweep with a closed trajectory, the No Inn Fcs option may be used with
an open or closed section, but the Add Inn Fcs option requires only an open section.
Constant Section Sweep
A constant section sweep can use either a trajectory sketched at the time of feature creation or a trajectory
made up of selected datum curves or edges. As a general rule, the trajectory must have adjacent reference
surfaces, or be planar.

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Part

The following figure illustrates a constant section sweep.

DTM1

a. Sweep uses as a trajectory a datum curve created from the intersection of two surfaces.
A sweep may fail if
A trajectory crosses itself
You align or dimension a section to fixed entities, but the orientation of the section changes when its is
swept along the 3-dimensional trajectory
An arc or a spline radius is too small, relative to the section, and the feature intersects itself traversing
around the arc (see the following illustration)
Self-Intersecting Feature
a

a.
b.

Trajectory (Radius 1.0)


Section (Radius 1.5)

Free and Merged Ends

Part

145

a.
b.
c.

Merged ends
Free ends
The trajectory ends at intersection with solid geometry, but the sweep end is unattached.

Sweep Geometry
The sweep will have a mitered corner if the trajectory has straight line segments that form an angle (see the
following illustration).
Sweep with Mitered Corner
1

Angles in sweep trajectories create sweep corners

Non-Tangent Trajectory Segments


Sweeps can be made along trajectories consisting of non-tangent entities. However, as the section is swept
along, the resulting geometry should not have any gaps. This is shown in the following illustration.
Sweeping Along Non-Tangent Entities
Correct Sweep

1
Trajectory
Incorrect Sweep

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Part

1
2

Trajectory
Gap in the sweep geometry

Three-Dimensional Sweeps
With Pro/FEATURE, sweeps can be created along a three-dimensional path with a three-dimensional
spline for the sweep trajectory. That is, Pro/FEATURE allows you to modify the Z-coordinates of spline
points. All other Sketcher entities must lie on a two-dimensional sketching plane.
In all other respects, three-dimensional sweeps are created in the same way as two-dimensional sweeps. For
such applications as creating springs, you can also create an advanced feature helical sweep by sweeping a
section along a helical trajectory.

Example: Three-Dimensional Sweep


Spring Created from a 3-D Spline

a.
b.

3-D spline
Cross section

To Create a Three-Dimensional Sweep


1. Create a two-dimensional spline and dimension it to a Sketcher coordinate system.
2. Modify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates for one or more spline points. You can modify the spline
coordinates manually, or by using a spline definition file.
Note: You cannot modify coordinates of the spline if its endpoints are attached to other entities in the
sketch.

About Blends
A blended feature consists of a series of at least two planar sections that Pro/ENGINEER joins together at
their edges with transitional surfaces to form a continuous feature.
Blends with parallel sections can be created in basic Pro/ENGINEER, but the Pro/FEATURE and
Pro/SURFACE modules are required to create blends from non-parallel sections.

Part

147

Blend Types
ParallelAll blend sections lie on parallel planes in one section sketch.
RotationalBlend sections are rotated about the Y-axis, up to a maximum of 120 degrees. Each
section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the section.
GeneralSections of a general blend can be rotated about and translated along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes.
Each section is sketched individually, and aligned using the coordinate system of the section.

Example: Different Blend Geometries


Starting Points and Blend Shape

Start points

Smooth Blend

Straight Blend

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Part

Techniques Common to All Blend Types


Consider these techniques for creating blends.

Blend Sections
With the exception of capping a blend, blends must always have the same number of entities in each
section. It is possible to make surfaces of non-parallel blends and parallel smooth blends disappear using
Blend Vertex.

Starting Point of a Section


To create the transitional surfaces, Pro/ENGINEER connects the starting points of the sections and
continues to connect the vertices of the sections in a clockwise manner. By changing the starting point of a
blend subsection, you can create blended surfaces that twist between the sections.
The default starting point is the first point sketched in the subsection. You can place the starting point at the
endpoint of another segment by choosing the option Start Point from the SEC TOOLS menu and selecting
the point.

Smooth and Straight Attributes


The following types of transition surfaces are used for creating the blend:
StraightCreate a straight blend by connecting vertices of different subsections with straight lines.
Edges of the sections are connected with ruled surfaces.
SmoothCreate a smooth blend by connecting vertices of different subsections with smooth curves.
Edges of the sections are connected with spline surfaces.

The "From To" Depth Option


The From To depth option is applicable for blends only. The From To option extrudes a feature from a
selected surface to another surface. It is designed to create features between sculptured surfaces, but can be
used for any type of surface, with the following restrictions:
Intersection surfaces must be physical surfaces, therefore datum planes are not allowed as "From" or
"To" surfaces.
The feature section must intersect the From To surfaces completely.

To Create a Blend (basic)


1. Choose Feature > Create > Solid > Protrusion > Blend > Solid or Thin > Done.
2. Choose options from the BLEND OPTS menu, then Done. The BLEND OPTS menu options are as
follows:
- ParallelAll blend sections lie on parallel planes in one section sketch.
- RotationalThe blend sections are rotated about the Y-axis, up to a maximum of 120. Each
section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the section.
- GeneralThe sections of a general blend can be rotated about and translated along the X-, Y-,
and Z-axes. Each section is sketched individually and aligned using the coordinate system of the
section.
- Regular SecThe feature uses the sketching plane.
- Project SecThe feature uses the projection of the section on the selected surface. This option is
used for parallel blends only.
- Select SecSelect section entities. This option is not available for parallel blends.
- Sketch SecSketch section entities.

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149

Using a Blend Vertex


With the exception of capping a blend, each section of a blend must always contain the same number of
entities.
For sections that do not have enough geometric entities, you can add blend vertices. Each blend vertex adds
one entity to the section. However, a blend surface can be made to disappear using a blend vertex on a
sketched or selected section.
A blend vertex acts as a terminator for the corresponding surface of the blend, but is counted in the total
number of entities for a section.
You can use a blend vertex in either a straight or smooth blend (including parallel smooth blends), but only
in the first or last section.

To Add a Blend Vertex


1. Choose Adv Geometry from the GEOMETRY menu in Sketcher.
2. Choose Blend Vertex from the ADV GEOMETRY menu.
3. Select the vertex of an existing geometry entity. A circle will be placed there. More than one blend
vertex can be created at the same point. Each additional vertex will create a concentric circle of
increasing diameter.
You can delete a blend vertex entity using Delete > Query Sel.

Example: Adding a Blend Vertex


2

2
3

+ 1

4
Section 1

2 (blend vertex)

4
Section 2

3
4

Section 3

To Import a Blend
1. Choose ADV FEAT OPT > From File.
2. Select or create a coordinate system to locate the imported blend data.
3. Enter the file name. The file's extension must be .ibl.

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Part

Example: Importing Blend File


Sample Blend File
closed
arclength
begin section ! 1
begin curve ! 1
1
2
3

20
20
30

20
30
40

0
0
0

begin curve ! 2
1
2
3

30
50
60

40
40
30

0
0
0

begin curve ! 3
1
2
3

60
60
50

30
20
10

0
0
0

begin curve ! 4
1
2
3

50
30
20

10
10
20

0
0
0

begin curve ! 1
1
2

25
30

25
30

50
50

begin curve ! 2
1
2

30
50

30
25

50
50

begin curve ! 3
1
2

50
40

25
15

50
50

begin curve ! 4
1
2

40
25

15
25

50
50

begin section ! 2

The following figure shows the resulting imported blend.

Part

151

Importing a Blend Feature


Blends can be created by reading in data points from an ASCII file. The data file defines the type of blend,
as well as the Cartesian coordinates of all the blend section points. All blend section points are located
relative to a single coordinate system.

Notes on Creating Blends:


Two points in a curve define a line; more than two points define a spline.
The endpoint of one curve and the start point of the next curve must be coincident. For closed sections,
this is true for the last point of the last curve and the first point of the first curve. There can be only one
closed curve for each section, and that curve must consist of at least two segments.
When the points that are used to create a blend section from a file do not all lie on a plane, the system
creates the best fit plane and projects the points down onto the plane.

Modifying an Imported Blend


To modify the blend created from the imported data, choose Modify and edit the blend data file. This
creates a new file, feat_#.ibl, in your current working directory. Modifications of a blend feature do
not affect the original file from which it was created.
Tip: Creating a Blend from Imported Curves
If you are importing data points from a measuring device, you should import them as curves first to insure
smoothness.
You can then make the imported curves smooth and create a blended surface from the smoothed curves.

About Parallel Blends


You create parallel blends using the Parallel option in the BLEND OPTS menu. A parallel blend is created
from a single section that contains multiple sketches, called subsections. First and last subsections can be
defined as a point or a blend vertex.
Whenever you modify or redefine the section for a parallel blend feature, the system displays the
dimensions and contours for all the subsections.
Note: If you make cuts in a parallel projected blend, the sections must be closed.

Parallel Blend Sections


A parallel blend section cannot be retrieved into Sketcher mode or into any feature other than a parallel
blend. You can retrieve a saved section using Place Section only when the blend is a secondary feature and
is going to be placed on an existing feature.
The retrieved section will be added to the current subsection and can be placed into different subsections
with variations in rotation angle and size.

Projected Section Blends


Projected section blends allow you to create a sketch on a planar surface or datum plane and project the
sections onto any two solid surfaces to create a blended feature.
Note: In Assembly mode, you cannot use an external reference as a surface to project onto.
A projected parallel blend can have only two sections, each of which must lie within the boundaries of its
selected surface, and cannot intersect other surfaces. When the sections are regenerated, the system projects
them onto their selected surfaces, normal to the sketching plane (see the following illustration).

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Part

To Create a Parallel Blend with a Regular Section


1. When you choose Done from the BLEND OPTS menu, the system displays feature creation dialog box
and the ATTRIBUTES menu. Choose either Straight or Smooth.
2. Create the first subsection using Sketcher. You determine the direction of feature creation as you set up
the sketching plane.
3. A parallel blend requires more than one subsection. To continue creating other subsections, choose Sec
Tools from the SKETCHER menu.
4. Choose Toggle from the SEC TOOLS menu. The first subsection turns gray and becomes inactive.
5. Choose Sketch and sketch the second subsection. Make sure its starting point corresponds to the
starting point of the first by selecting the Start Point from the SEC TOOLS menu. Dimension the
subsection.
6. If you are sketching more than two subsections, choose Toggle until all the current geometry is gray,
then sketch the subsection. Repeat this step until all subsections are sketched. Each subsection must be
fully dimensioned to define its geometry and to locate it with respect to the other subsections. If you
began your part with three default datum planes, every subsection can be dimensioned to them.
Otherwise, each subsection should be dimensioned to another subsection or a local coordinate system.
7. To modify an existing subsection, toggle through until the subsection you want is active. While you can
place or move the starting point of a subsection only when it is active, you can modify the dimensions
of any subsection at any time.
8. When you have sketched all the subsections, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu. Enter the
distances between each subsection in response to the prompts.
9. Specify the Depth element.
10. Choose OK from the dialog box.
Note: Parallel blend sections cannot be saved and retrieved as ordinary sections.

To Create a Parallel Blend with a Projected


Section
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Project Sec from the BLEND OPTS menu.


Select or create the sketching plane.
Select the "from" and "to" solid surfaces onto which the blend sections will be projected.
Sketch and dimension the two subsections, one for each surface, in the same order as you selected the
From To surfaces. The first sketch will be projected onto the first surface selected.

About Non-Parallel Blends


Non-parallel blends (Rotational and General options) have some particular advantages over parallel
blends:
Sections can be non-parallel, but do not have to be. Parallel blends can be created simply by entering a
0 angle between sections.
A section can be created by importing from an IGES file.

Sketched Versus Selected Sections


Non-parallel blend sections can be created by sketching them (using Sketch Sec), or by selecting threedimensional entities (using the option Select Sec).
The restrictions for selecting section entities are as follows:
All the entities must lie in the same plane.
For rotational blends, the planes of all sections must intersect at a single axis. For rotational blends with
only two sections, there is never ambiguity. However, if more than two sections are defined and they do
not form a single axis, the feature fails.

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153

Open and Closed Blends


Non-parallel blends can be open or closed. If you specify Closed, Pro/ENGINEER uses the first section of
the blend as the last section and creates a closed, solid shape.

Specifying Tangent Surfaces


You can create a smooth transition between the surfaces of a blend feature and surfaces of an adjacent
feature on the same part. Open, smooth blends can have a tangent surface specified for each segment in the
first and last sections.

To Specify Tangency Conditions for Non-Parallel


Blends
1. Choose the Tangency element and Define from the dialog box.
2. The system asks you if the blend should be tangent to any surfaces at the first end.
3. If you answer "yes", the system highlights each segment in the first section sequentially. Select a
surface for each highlighted entity. If you do not want to specify tangency for the highlighted segment,
choose Done Sel to move to the next segment.
4. Repeat the process for the other end of the blend.

Example: Specifying Tangency Conditions for


Non-Parallel Blends
The following figure illustrates tangent surfaces.
Blend Tangent to Adjacent Surfaces
Before

After

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Part

To Import a Section for a Non-Parallel Blend


Importing an IGES feature during feature creation can produce a non-parametric feature that has no
dimensions to modify interactively. You can use the imported feature to define a section.
1. When creating a non-parallel blend, select or sketch a section. If you sketch a section, create a
coordinate system and align the section to the part.
2. Choose Interface from the SEC TOOLS menu.
3. Choose Import from the INTERFACE menu and IGES from the INTF IMPORT menu.
4. Enter an IGES file name for a two-dimensional section. An Information Window displays a summary
of the IGES import data.
Note: You can create a parametric section using an IGES file by importing the section into the Sketcher,
dimensioning the entities, and regenerating the section. This type of section is more useful, because the
resulting feature is fully parametric.

Creating Non-Parallel Blend with an Imported


Section
Blends created in this way are subject to the following restrictions:
Modifying the dimensioning scheme of the feature causes Pro/ENGINEER to prompt you for a new
IGES file name. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between existing IGES entities and the
replacement IGES entities (the first entity in the IGES file replaces the first entity in the section).
The IGES entities are placed using their absolute coordinate values. There is no option to scale or
dimension the resulting sketch.
The IGES file section must be closed and all endpoints must be matched exactly with another endpoint.
Otherwise, import of an IGES file may fail.

Capping a Blend
The first and last sections of a blend can each be a point. This caps the end of the blend feature with either a
sharp or smooth transition to a tip. The end subsection of a parallel blend must always form a sharp cap.
Smooth and sharp caps create very different features. The smooth cap is created by forcing all geometry to
be tangent at the point section. The sharp cap allows the geometry to flow straight towards the point
section.
The best way to control the shape of the feature as it approaches the cap is to use as many sections as are
necessary to achieve the desired result.
Note the following information about capped blends:
The Z-axis is normal to the surface at the point entity. Entering rotation values for the X- and Y-axis
affects the feature definition of a smooth cap.
For a smooth cap, the point entity must be located within the boundaries of the previous section (picture
where it would be if you used the same dimensions, but had sketched it on the previous section).

To Cap a Blend
1. For the last section of the non-parallel blend, create a coordinate system and a point entity. Dimension
the point, if necessary.
2. Regenerate the section and choose Done.
3. Choose an option from the CAP TYPE menu:
- SmoothCreate a cap that is smooth.
- SharpCreate a cap that is sharp.

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155

Creating a Rotational Blend


A rotational blend is created by sections that are rotated about the Y-axis. You enter angular dimensions to
control section orientation and can dimension sections from their Sketcher coordinate system to control
radial placement. You must add a section coordinate system in Sketcher mode. You cannot use the default
coordinate system.
If you define a rotational blend as being closed, Pro/ENGINEER uses the first section as the last section
and creates a closed solid feature. There is no need to sketch the last section.

To Create a Rotational Blend


1. When you choose Rotational, other options, and Done from the BLEND OPTS menu, the system
displays feature creation dialog box with the required elements Attributes and Section. You can also
choose the Tangency element if you want to specify optional tangency. When you have selected all the
elements, click Define.
2. Choose from the mutually exclusive pairs of elements in the ATTRIBUTES menu, then choose Done.
The choices are as follows:
- StraightCreate a straight blend by connecting vertices of different subsections with straight
lines. Edges of the sections are connected with ruled surfaces.
- SmoothCreate a smooth blend by connecting vertices of different subsections with smooth
curves. Edges of the sections are connected with spline surfaces.
- OpenCreate an open solid shape.
- ClosedCreate a closed solid shape. Pro/ENGINEER uses the first section of the blend as the last
section.
3. Use Sketch Sec to sketch the sections of the blend, or Select Sec to select three-dimensional entities.
When sketching the section, add a coordinate system using Coord System in the ADV GEOEMTRY
menu.
4. For sketched sections, first enter the Y-axis rotation angle for the next section (120 maximum). After
regenerating the section, the system displays a separate window for you to sketch the next section. After
sketching and regenerating the section, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu. The system prompts
you whether to continue to the next section. If you reply "yes", repeat this step until you are done with
all the sections.
5. If you are creating a smooth blend and selected Tangency in the dialog box, create the blend with
surfaces tangent to adjacent geometry.
6. When you have sketched or selected all sections, select OK in the dialog box to create the feature.

Example: Creating a Rotational Blend


Sketched Rotational Blend

156

Part

a.
b.
c.

Section 3 is rotated at 90 degrees with respect to section 2 about the y-axis.


Section 2 is rotated at 45 degrees with respect to Section 1 about the y-axis.
Section 1

To Create a General Blend


1. When you choose General and Done from the BLEND OPTS menu, the system displays the feature
creation dialog box and the ATTRIBUTES menu. Choose either Straight or Smooth from the
ATTRIBUTES menu.
2. Use Sketch Sec to sketch the sections of the blend, or Select Sec to select three-dimensional entities.
When sketching the section, add a coordinate system using Coord System in the ADV UTILS menu. For
sketched sections, enter the X-, Y-, and Z-axis rotation angle (120 maximum) as prompted to
determine the orientation of the next sketch, or reply "no" to the prompt (after the second section is
defined) whether to continue to next section.
3. Repeat step 2 until you are done with all the sections.
4. After all the sections of the blend are finished, enter an offset depth value for all sections but the first.
This dimension is the straight-line distance between coordinate system origins.
5. If you are creating a smooth blend and selected the Opt Tangency element in the dialog box, create the
blend with surfaces tangent to adjacent geometry.
6. If you are creating a smooth blend, select tangency and section options. You can create the sections of
the blend by sketching (using Sketch Sec), or by selecting three-dimensional entities (using Select
Sec).
7. When you have sketched or selected all sections, select OK in the dialog box to create the feature.

Example: Creating a General Blend


General Blend
Sections

SEC1

SEC2

SEC3

Blend

Cap Type Affects the Feature Shape


"Smooth" cap

Part

157

"Sharp" cap

Open Blend

Closed Blend

158

Part

About a Variable Section Sweep


The following table lists terminology common to variable section sweeps and swept blends.

OPTION

DEFINITION

NrmToOriginTraj

The section plane remains normal to the


Origin Trajectory throughout its length. The
generic Sweep behaves this way.

Norm To Traj

Two trajectories must be selected to determine


the location and orientation of the section. The
Origin Trajectory determines the origin of the
section along the length of the feature. The
section plane remains normal to the Normal
Trajectory along the length of the feature.

Pivot Direction

The section plane remains normal to the


Origin Trajectory as it is viewed along the
Pivot Direction. The upward direction of the
section remains parallel to the Pivot Direction.

Variable Section Sweeps


A Variable Section Sweep enables you to create a feature by sweeping a section along the selected
trajectories by controlling the sections orientation, rotation, and geometry along the trajectory.
If you have a Pro/FEATURE license, you can define a solid variable section sweep feature using one or
more longitudinal trajectories and a single section. With the optional Pro/SURFACE module, you can
select trajectories instead of sketching them and you can create variable section sweeps of surfaces.
A variable section sweep allows you to create a swept feature by controlling the following characteristics:
You can specify the section orientation and rotation. The section can be normal to
- the Origin TrajectoryChoose NrmToOriginTraj from the SWEEP OPTS menu. This method
requires selecting the Origin Trajectory and the X-Trajectory. The X-Trajectory defines the
sections horizontal vector. The origin of the section (crosshairs) is always located on the Origin
Trajectory with the X-axis pointing towards the X-Trajectory.
- reference directionChoose Pivot Dir from the SWEEP OPTS menu. The Y-axis of the section is
always normal to the selected direction. The section normal trajectory is determined by projecting
the Origin Trajectory in the Pivot Direction onto a plane normal to the Pivot Direction. This
method requires selecting the Origin Trajectory and defining the Pivot Direction.
- a selected trajectory (not the Origin Trajectory)Choose Norm To Traj from the SWEEP OPTS
menu. This method requires selecting the Origin Trajectory and the trajectory to which the section
will be normal.
You can define multiple additional trajectories to which the vertices of the section can be aligned. As
the section plane is swept along the Origin Trajectory, its intersections with the longitudinal curves
represent the known points for section alignment and dimensioning.
You can specify whether you want to vary the section as it moves along the sweep trajectories by
defining the Section Type element in the Variable Section Sweep dialog box. Choose Constant from
the SECTION TYPE menu to maintain the same section, or Variable from the SECTION TYPE menu to
adjust the section size as it sweeps along the trajectory.

Part

159

Example: Variable Section Sweeps


Variable Section Sweeps
The following figure illustrates a variable section sweep that uses the Pivot Dir option. The section
remains normal to the pivot plane.
Perspective view

a. Pivot plane
Side view
a

a. Origin trajectory
The following figure illustrates a variable section sweep that uses the NrmToOriginTraj option. The
section remains normal to the Origin trajectory.
Perspective view

Side view

160

Part

a.
b.

Origin trajectory
X-trajectory

Orienting the Section Using the Pivot Direction

Pivot Direction selected as the X-direction of the CSI

a
b
c

a.
b.
c.

Projection of the Origin Trajectory in the Pivot Direction


Origin Trajectory
Pivot Direction selected as the X-direction of the CSI

Pivot Direction selected as the Y-direction of the CSI

a.
b.
c.

Projection of the Origin Trajectory in the Pivot Direction


Origin Trajectory
Pivot Direction selected as the Y-direction of the CSI

Using Additional Trajectories

Part

161

c
d

a.
b.
c.
d.

Additional trajectories
Origin trajectory
X-trajectory
Section: section vertices are aligned to trajectories.

Variable Section Sweeps


The restrictions on sweep trajectories also apply for variable section sweeps. Note the following rules for
selecting a trajectory:
For NrmToOriginTraj sweeps, the Origin Trajectory can only consist of tangent entities. For Pivot
Dir sweeps, projection of the entities must be tangent as viewed along the Pivot Direction (the entities
themselves could be non-tangent in 3-D).
When you create a variable section sweep with the Norm To Traj option, the entities in the Origin
Trajectory must be tangent.
The X-Trajectory and the origin trajectories cannot intersect, through they can meet at one of their ends.
All additional trajectories of the feature must intersect the sweeps sketching plane. The additional
trajectories do not need to be as long as the Origin Trajectory; the sweep feature will be created as far
as the endpoint of the shortest trajectory. Modifying the lengths of trajectories will modify the length of
the sweep.
All trajectories must be continuous.
You can use a composite curve as a trajectory.

To Create a Variable Section Sweep


1. Choose Advanced and Done from the SOLID OPTS or SRF OPTS menu. The system displays the ADV
FEAT OPT menu.
2. Choose Var Sec Swp, then Done from the ADV FEAT OPT menu. Pro/ENGINEER displays the feature
creation dialog box and the VAR SEC SWP menu.
3. Choose an option from the SWEEP OPTS menu, then choose Done. The options are as follows:
NrmToOriginTrajSelect the Origin Trajectory.
Pivot DirUse the GEN SEL DIR menu to specify the Pivot Direction. The options are as follows:
- PlaneSelect a plane or create a new datum plane to which the direction will be normal.
- Crv/Edg/AxisSelect as the direction an edge, curve, or axis. If you select a non-linear edge or
curve, the system prompts you to select an existing datum point on the edge or curve to specify a
tangent.
- CsysSelect an axis of the coordinate system as the direction.
Norm To TrajSelect the Origin Trajectory and an additional trajectory to which the section will
remain normal.
4. Sketch or select the Origin Trajectory using the VAR SEC SWP menu options, then choose Done. The
options are as follows:
Sketch TrajSketch a new trajectory to use for the sweep.

162

Part

Select TrajDefine a chain from curves and edges (such as a datum curve) to use as the sweep
trajectory.
Sel Tan TrajDefine a chain from curves and edges to use as a trajectory and specify a tangency
condition by selecting tangency reference surfaces.
Remove TrajRemove a trajectory that you previously sketched or selected. You cannot remove the
Origin Trajectory.
5. If you chose Pivot Dir in Step 3, go to Step 8; otherwise, proceed as follows:
Sketch or select the X-Trajectory, which defines the horizontal vector of the section. The sketching
plane is located at a datum point or the endpoint of the Origin Trajectory. The orientation of the sketch
plane is such that the positive X-axis passes from the endpoint of the Origin Trajectory through the
point at the intersection of the second trajectory with the normal plane.
6. If you chose Norm To Traj in Step 3, select the trajectory to which the section will be normal. Choose
an option in the SEC ORIENT menu, followed by Done:
Norm to SurfSelect a surface that determines the sections upward direction, then select or sketch
the trajectory that defines the section plane normal. Choose Flip an Okay to select the upward
direction. This option is available only if the Origin Trajectory belongs to a surface.
Use Norm TrajSelect a trajectory that defines the section plane normal.
7. If the Origin Trajectory has datum points, the system highlights an endpoint of the Origin Trajectory so
you can define the start point. Choose an option from the SEC POINT menu to select the start point:
Origin StartUse the highlighted endpoint as the start point for the Origin Trajectory.
Pick PointPick a datum point on the Origin Trajectory to be its start point.
Note: For a Norm To Traj variable section sweep, the system checks if the normal plane to the
selected trajectory has a defined intersection with the Origin Trajectory. If the intersection cannot
be found, the system issues a warning so you can redefine the normal trajectory.
8. You can sketch or select as many additional longitudinal trajectories as you want, such that if the
section is dimensioned to or aligned to these trajectories, the sweep feature also follows these
trajectories as it travels along the origin. The trajectories can be accessed by selecting the Trajectories
element in the dialog box. You can remove a trajectory by choosing Remove Traj from the VAR SEC
SWP menu.
9. Choose Done to complete the trajectory definitions.
10. Sketch the sweep section. The section can be dimensioned to known points (to the points of intersection
of the longitudinal curves with the sketching plane). The section remains aligned and dimensioned to
the point as it sweeps along the curve.Use relations to create a meaningful parametric section.
11. 1Choose Done to exit Sketcher.
12. 1Click OK in the dialog box.

Tip: About the Variable Sweep Geometry


If you define the Section Type element in the Variable Section Sweep dialog box as Constant, the system
maintains the same section geometry along the trajectory. This can be useful when the section geometry
references adjacent part geometry (for example, when you used Use Edge from the GEOM TOOLS to create
the section).
Depending on whether you define the section as Variable or Constant, you get two different geometries of
the variable section sweep (see the next figures).
Using the Constant Option

Part

163

a.
b.

The section created with Use Edge follows the Origin Trajectory.
Origin Trajectory

Using the Variable Option


For the Variable option, the section is constantly reevaluated along the trajectory. For the section created
with Use Edge, the system projects the referenced geometry at every point of the trajectory to define the
section.

a. Origin Trajectory

Aligning to Part Geometry


Consider the following recommendation: Do not align or dimension the section to part geometry unless the
alignment or dimensions can be held throughout the sweep, as this alignment may become invalid as the
section is swept along its trajectory (see the next figure).
Example of invalidated alignment
As the section is swept along the trajectory, alignment of the section side edge and the base side edge
becomes invalid, and the feature fails.

a
c
d
b

164

Part

a. X-trajectory
b. Origin curve
c. Sweep section
d. Aligned entities
Notes:
When you dimension the section to known points or part edges, consider the relative position of the XTrajectory throughout the length of the Origin Trajectory. Dimensions that are valid at the start point of
the sweep could become meaningless as the section turns around the origin.
To capture your design intent when sketching a variable section sweep section, you can use known
dimensions and graph evaluation. You can map a graph, or any function, along the variable section
sweep Origin Trajectory using the trajectory parameter, trajpar, in a relation.

To Specify Tangency Conditions


If you chose Sel Tan Traj to specify a tangent trajectory, you must specify a control surface for each
segment of the trajectory. When the sweep section is created, the direction tangent to the control surface
will be shown as a centerline and can be used for section dimensioning.
1. After you selected the trajectory, the system highlights default tangent surfaces.
2. The system displays the DEFAULT TAN menu. Choose Accept to accept all the default surfaces, or
choose Reject to select individual tangent surfaces.
When you start sketching the sweep section, all the specified tangencies are displayed as centerlines. You
can use them for dimensioning in Sketcher mode; this way, a sweep surface can be forced to stay tangent to
the adjacent part surface.

Example: Specifying Tangency Conditions


Sweep Tangent to a Surface
Perspective View

b
d

a. Origin trajectory
b. X-vector trajectory
c. Control surface
d. Additional trajectory
Side View

Part

165

a. Sweep section
b. Tangency centerline
After Creation
a

a.

The sweep is created tangent to the selected surface.

Using Relations in Sweeps


Using the trajectory parameter, trajpar, in a relation for variable section sweeps allows you to map a
graph, or any function, along the sweep Origin Trajectory. The value of trajpar changes from 0 to 1 as the
section is swept along the Origin Trajectory.
When a sweep is created along a composite curve, you can evaluate the trajpar of this curve at a specific
point, the trajpar_of_pnt, and use this value in relations.
If you set relations when sketching the section, connecting section dimensions with the trajectory parameter
by some function, the section changes according to this function as it is swept along the Origin Trajectory.
You can also create variable section sweep features with sections driven to zero area at the endpoint, or at
some intermediate point of the trajectory of the feature.
Note: The surface cannot be degenerate at the starting point of the trajectory. The dimension driven by
a graph must evaluate to a non-zero value when you create the sweep section.

To Create Parametric Graph Relations


If the driving graph is apt to change, you can include the dimensions of the graph instead of absolute values
in the Sketcher relations of the sweep. The sweep then updates automatically with the changes to the
driving graph.
1. Before creating the sweep, choose Feat Info for the graph feature and determine the part dimension
symbols corresponding to the appropriate section dimension of the graph.
2. When you dimension the sweep section, enter the relation for the corresponding graph dimension.

166

Part

About Swept Blends


A swept blend requires a single trajectory (the Origin Trajectory) and multiple sections. To define the
Origin Trajectory of the swept blend, you can either sketch a curve or select a chain of datum curves or
edges.
You sketch the sections to be blended at specified segment vertices or datum points on the Origin
Trajectory. To orient a section, you can specify the rotation angle about the Z-axis, and/or use the Pick
XVector or Norm to Surf options.
Note the following restrictions:
A section cannot be located at a sharp corner in the Origin Trajectory.
For a closed trajectory profile, sections must be sketched at the start point and at least one other
location. Pro/ENGINEER uses the first section at the endpoint.
For an open trajectory profile, you must create sections at the start and end points. There is no option to
skip placement of a section at those points.
Sections cannot be dimensioned to the model, because modifying the trajectory would invalidate those
dimensions.
A composite datum curve cannot be selected for defining sections of a swept blend (Select Sec).
Instead, you must select one of the underlying datum curves or edges from which a composite curve is
determined.
If you choose Pivot Dir and Select Sec, all selected sections must lie in planes that are parallel to the
Pivot Direction.
If you have a Pro/SURFACE license, you can control swept blend geometry by using an area graph and by
controlling the perimeter of the feature between the sections.
An area graph represents the exact area of the cross section of the swept blend at selected locations on the
Origin Trajectory. You can add or remove points on the Origin Trajectory at which to specify the swept
blend sectional area. You can also change the graph value at user-defined points.
The following table lists terminology common to variable section sweeps and swept blends.
OPTION

DEFINITION

NrmToOriginTraj

The section plane remains normal to the


Origin Trajectory throughout its length. The
generic Sweep behaves this way.

Norm To Traj

Two trajectories must be selected to determine


the location and orientation of the section. The
Origin Trajectory determines the origin of the
section along the length of the feature. The
section plane remains normal to the Normal
Trajectory along the length of the feature.

Pivot Direction

The section plane remains normal to the


Origin Trajectory as it is viewed along the
Pivot Direction. The upward direction of the
section remains parallel to the Pivot Direction.

To Create a Swept Blend (basic)


To create a swept blend, you can define the trajectory by sketching a trajectory, or by selecting existing
curves and edges and extending or trimming the first and last entity in the trajectory.
1. Choose Advanced from the SOLID OPTS menu, and Swept Blend and Done from the ADV FEAT OPT
menu.
2. Choose the desired options from the BLEND OPTS menu, then choose Done from the BLEND OPTS

Part

167

3.

4.

5.

6.

menu. The options are as follows:


Select SecSelect existing curves or edges to define each section using the CRV SKETCHER menu.
Sketch SecSketch new section entities to define each section.
NrmToOriginTrajSelect the Origin Trajectory.
Pivot DirUse the GEN SEL DIR menu to specify the Pivot Direction. The options are as follows:
- PlaneSelect a plane or create a new datum plane to which the direction will be normal.
- Crv/Edg/AxisSelect as the direction an edge, curve, or axis. If you select a non-linear edge or
curve, the system prompts you to select an existing datum point on the edge or curve to specify a
tangent.
- CsysSelect an axis of the coordinate system as the direction.
Norm To TrajSelect the Origin Trajectory and an additional trajectory to which the section will
remain normal.
Note: For a Norm To Traj swept blend, the system checks if the normal plane to the selected
trajectory has a defined intersection with the Origin Trajectory. If the intersection cannot be found,
the system issues a warning so you can redefine the normal trajectory.
A Swept Blend dialog box appears with the following elements:
Pivot Dir(If selected) Specify the Pivot Direction.
Normal Traj(If selected) Select the normal trajectory.
Origin TrajSpecify the trajectory that defines the section origin.
SectionsDefine the sections.
Blend Control(Optional) Define how to control the blend geometry along the Origin Trajectory.
Tangency(Optional) Specify tangency conditions for the feature.
Define the type of Origin Trajectory by choosing an option from the SWEEP TRAJ menu:
Sketch TrajSketch the Origin Trajectory.
Select TrajDefine the Origin Trajectory using existing curves and edges. Choose Done from the
CHAIN menu when finished defining the chain.
Note: The Origin Trajectory can have sharp corners (a discontinuous tangent to the curve), except
at the endpoint of a closed curve. At non-tangent vertices, Pro/ENGINEER mitres the geometry as
in constant section sweeps.
If you selected the NrmToOriginTraj option, the system brings up the SEC ORIENT menu. Select one
of these options, followed by Done:
Pick XVectorSelect an axis, straight edge/curve, or plane normal to determine the sections positive
X-axis. Use options in the GEN SEL DIR menu to select a horizontal reference. The system displays a
red arrow, indicating the positive direction for the X-vector. Choose Flip or Okay to determine the
direction for the operation.
Note: The Pick XVector option is available only for the trajectories defined with the Select Traj
option.
AutomaticThe system automatically determines the sections orientation.
If you select this option for the first section, then the X-axis is determined by the curvature vector
at the beginning of the Origin Trajectory.
When you select Automatic for a section other than the first, the system determines the X-vector
automatically based on the previous section orientation and the behavior of the Origin Trajectory.
Norm to SurfUse the adjacent surface section normal to determine the section upward direction. If
you select this option for the first section, then all sections use the same reference surfaces as the
upward direction.
If the Origin Trajectory has only one adjacent surface, then the system automatically selects this
surface, highlighted in blue, as the reference for the section orientation. A red arrow appears,
indicating the upward direction. Choose Flip or Okay to specify the upward direction.
If the Origin Trajectory has two adjacent surfaces, the system prompts you to select a surface for
the section orientation. The default surface is highlighted in blue. You can accept the default
surface or select the other one. A red arrow appears, indicating the upward direction. Choose Flip
or Okay to specify the upward direction.
The system highlights endpoints and vertices along the Origin Trajectory. Use options in the CONFIRM
menu to select points at which you want to specify additional sections.
AcceptSketch or select a section at this highlighted location.

168

Part

NextGo to the next point.


PreviousReturn to the previous point.
7. If you chose Norm To Traj in Step 6, select the trajectory to which the section will be normal. Choose
an option in the SEC ORIENT menu, followed by Done:
Norm to SurfSelect a surface that determines the sections upward direction, then select or sketch
the trajectory that defines the section plane normal. Choose Flip an Okay to select the upward
direction. This option is available only if the Origin Trajectory belongs to a surface.
Use Norm TrajSelect a trajectory that defines the section plane normal.
8. For each vertex or datum point where you define a section, specify the sections rotation angle about
the Z-axis (with a value between 120 and +120 degrees).
9. Select or sketch the entities for each section, depending on whether you chose Select Sec or Sketch
Sec, respectively. Choose Done to exit Sketcher.
10. When all cross-sections are sketched or selected, unless you want to define optional elements, select
OK in the dialog box to generate the swept blend feature.

Example: Creating a Swept Blend


Completed Swept Blend

Section Definition
The sections must be sketched at the first and last Origin Trajectory points.

a.
b.

Part

This point was added using an Area Graph.


Origin Trajectory

169

Note: Each section remains displayed as the next section is created.

To Control the Perimeter of a Swept Blend


The Blend Control element lets you select a method for controlling the shape of the swept blend between
its sections. When you choose Blend Control and Define from the dialog box, the BLEND CONTROL menu
appears with the following options:
Set PerimeterControl the shape of the feature by controlling its perimeter between the sections. If
two consecutive sections have equal perimeters, the system attempts to maintain the same cross-section
perimeter between these sections. For sections that have different perimeters, the system uses smooth
interpolation along each curve of the trajectory to define the perimeter of the feature between its
sections.
Note: You cannot specify both perimeter control and tangency conditions for the swept blendonly
one of these conditions is allowed.
Area GraphControl the shape of the feature through control points and area values.
NoneDo not set any blend control for the feature.
Center CrvShow a curve connecting the centroids of the features cross-sections. This option is
available only with the Set Perimeter option.

Modifying a Swept Blend Using an Area Graph


The Area Graph option lets you add or remove control points to/from the Origin Trajectory at which you
can specify or change area values.
The GRAPH menu options are as follows:
DefineDefine an area graph using the DEFINE GRAPH submenu. The Define Graph submenu options
are as follows:
- Add PointDefine a control point using the
GET DTM POINT submenu to select or create a datum point on the Origin Trajectory, then enter the
area values.
- Remove PointSelect a control point to remove.
- Change ValueSelect a control point and enter a new area value.
Note:
If a value is zero on the area graph at a parameter, the swept blend self-intersects. To
correct this, add control points to change the area graph value to a positive value.
InfoDisplay an Information Window (see the following figure), which contains the following
information:
- The normalized length of a parameter (point or cross section) measured from the starting point of
the current segment of the Origin Trajectory, in the form i.rrrr. A Origin Trajectory consists of one
or more segments. The integer, i, identifies on which of the segments of the Origin Trajectory the
parameter is located. The value of i ranges from 0 to n, where 0 corresponds to the first segment
and n to the last segment. The decimal .rrrr is the ratio of the length from the starting point on the
segment to the parameter location.
- The section area values at each parameter.
- The driving dimension, if any, for the value of a user-defined area.
- The location type specifies whether the area is at a section or at a user-defined point.

170

Part

Example: Controlling the Perimeter of a Swept


Blend
Using the Set Perimeter Option
b

d
c

a.
b.
c.
d.

Section 1, Perimeter 1
Section 2, Perimeter 2
Perimeter 3. If Per. 1 = Per. 2, then Per. 3 = Per. 1 = Per. 2.
Origin Trajectory

Sample Area Graph and Information Window

c
d
b

a. csys
b. Area values
c. Area graph
d. Solid lines at user-defined locations
e. Dashed lines at fixed cross section locations

Part

171

About Helical Sweeps


You create a helical sweep by sweeping a section along a helical trajectory.
The trajectory is defined by both the profile of the surface of revolution (which defines the distance from
the section origin of the helical feature to its axis of revolution) and the pitch (the distance between coils).
The trajectory and the surface of revolution are construction tools that do not appear in the resulting
geometry.
The Helical Swp option in the ADV FEAT OPT menu is available for both solid and surface features. Use
the following ATTRIBUTES menu options in mutually exclusive pairs to define the helical sweep feature:

ConstantThe pitch is constant.


VariableThe pitch is variable and defined by a graph.
Thru AxisThe cross section lies in a plane that passes through the axis of revolution.
Norm To TrajThe cross section is oriented normal to the trajectory (or surface of revolution).
Right HandedThe trajectory is defined using the right- hand rule.
Left HandedThe trajectory is defined using the left-hand rule.

To Create a Helical Sweep with a Constant Pitch


Value
1. Choose Advanced and Done from the SOLID OPTS menu, then Helical Swp and Done. The system
displays the feature creation dialog box.
2. Define the feature by selecting from the ATTRIBUTES menu, then choose Done.
3. Pro/ENGINEER places you in Sketcher mode. Sketch the profile of the surface of revolution. Specify
the sketching plane and its orientation, and the axis of revolution.
4. Sketch, dimension, and regenerate the profile. Follow these rules:
- The sketched entities must form an open loop.
- You must sketch a centerline to define the axis of revolution.
- If you chose Norm To Traj, the profile entities must be tangent to each other (C1 continuous).
- The profile entities must not have a tangent that is normal to the centerline at any point.
- The profile starting point defines the sweep trajectory starting point. You can modify the starting
point using the options Sec Tools and Start Point.
5. When you have finished sketching the section, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.
6. Enter the pitch value (the distance between the coils).
7. For a surface feature, specify if the feature will have closed or open ends by selecting Open Ends or
Capped Ends from the SURF END menu, then Done.
8. Pro/ENGINEER places you in Sketcher mode to sketch the cross section that will be swept along the
trajectory. Sketch the cross section based about the visible cross hairs. Dimension and regenerate the
cross section.
9. When the cross section is finished, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.

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Example: Creating a Helical Sweep


Cross section of the Helical Sweep

a.

This circular section will be swept along the trajectory.

Helical Sweep Feature with Constant Pitch

Profile for a Helical Sweep

a.
b.

Part

This centerline is the axis of revolution.


This line will be rotated about the centerline to define the surface of revolution.

173

Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch


Value
You can create a helical swept feature with a variable pitch.
In this case, the distance between the coils is controlled by a pitch graph. The initial graph is created when
you specify the pitch value at the start and end points. You can then add more control points to define a
complex curve that governs the distance between the coils along the axis of revolution.
Special considerations for using the Variable option are as follows:
In a pitch graph, control points with different pitch values are connected by a monotonic curve. Control
points with equal pitch values are connected by a line.
In the resulting geometry, the average distance between coils along each portion of the axis (the
segment between two control points in the pitch graph) is the average of the pitch values given at two
consecutive control points.

To Create a Helical Sweep with a Variable Pitch


Value
1. Complete the prerequisite steps.
2. While in the profile section, sketch points to be used as the control points in the pitch graph. These
control points define how the pitch value changes along the axis of revolution. To sketch points, choose
Sketch, Point, then select points on the profile geometry and dimension them. It is easier to dimension
the control points if you put them on the centerline that defines the axis of revolution.
3. After you regenerate your profile sketch successfully, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.
4. Enter pitch values at the trajectory start and end.
5. While the profile section is displayed in the original window, the system displays a subwindow with the
initial pitch graph in it.
6. Finalize the graph by transferring the pitch control points from the profile sketch onto the graph.
Choose Define from the GRAPH menu.
Using options in the DEFINE GRAPH menu, do one of the following:
- Add PointAdd a reference point to the graph by selecting a point in the profile section, or the
start or end point. Enter the desired pitch value at this point. The system locates the selected
control point along the X-axis of the graph and draws a line with the length equal to the specified
pitch value.
- Remove PointRemove a pitch control point by picking it in the profile section.
- Change PointChange the value of the pitch at any selected control point, including the start or
end point. Select a point in the profile section to change its value and enter the new value.
7. After the graph is defined, choose Done/Return from the DEFINE GRAPH menu. To check the graph
data, choose Info in the GRAPH menu. The system displays the Information Window with the pitch
data table.
8. Choose Done from the GRAPH menu.
9. Pro/ENGINEER places you in Sketcher mode to sketch the cross section that will be swept along the
trajectory. Sketch, dimension, and regenerate the cross section.
10. When you have finished, choose Done.

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Example: Creating a Helical Sweep with a Variable


Pitch
Helical Sweep Feature with Variable Pitch

Initial Pitch Graph

d
a

a.
b.
c.
d.

The start point


Distance along the axis of revolution
The end point
Pitch value

Finalizing the Pitch Graph

a
b

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175

a.
b.
c.

The profile section


Select each control point in the profile section and enter the corresponding pitch value.
The resulting graph

Types of Helical Sweep Features


Using the Constant option

Constant distance between the coils


Using the Variable option

Variable distance between the coils


Using the Norm to Traj option

a. Axis of revolution
b. This section is normal to the trajectory
Using the Thru Axis option

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a. Axis of revolution
b. This section is in a plane that passes through the axis of revolution.
Using the Left Handed option

Using the Right Handed option

About Formed Datum Curves


You can transfer a datum curve onto a surface as a formed curve, much like you can transfer a decal to a
surface. The formed curve preserves the length of the original curve.
In contrast, a projected datum curve "distorts" the original curve length. Datum curves can only be formed
on surfaces that can be developed, such as cones, planes and cylinders.

To Create a Formed Datum Curve on a Solid


Surface
1. Choose Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose Formed and Done from the OPTIONS menu.
3. Choose Solid Surfs from the SURFACE LIST menu.

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4. Select or create the sketching plane, then specify the direction of viewing the sketching plane by
choosing Flip or Okay.
5. The system prompts you to specify a direction of feature creation, and displays a corresponding arrow.
Choose Flip, if desired, then choose Okay.
6. Specify a view orientation by picking a Sketcher reference plane.
7. Sketch the datum curve. Using the Adv Geometry option, include in the sketch a coordinate system
that determines the curve reference point.
Locate it on the sketch where you want curve projection to start (the curve will be formed outward from
that point). Make sure the location does not correspond to a point on the surface that is perpendicular to
the screen (for example, do not align it to the silhouette edge of a cylinder).
8. When you choose Done from Sketcher, Pro/ENGINEER creates the curve by projecting the reference
point onto the part surface. Pro/ENGINEER forms the curve onto the first surface it encounters in the
feature creation direction, with the length of the curve segments preserved.

Example: Creating a Formed Datum Curve


This example shows the difference between formed and projected datum curves.
a

a. Sketched curve
b. Projected curve
c. Formed curve
This example shows the creation of the formed datum curve.
a

b
c
d
e

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Formed curve
Sketched curve
Reference point (sketch coordinate system)
Sketching plane
Feature creation direction

To Create a Formed Datum Curve on a Quilt


1. Choose Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose Formed and Done from the CURVE OPTS menu.
3. Choose Quilt Surfs from the SURFACE LIST menu.
If there is only one surface feature in the part, the system highlights it automatically. If there is more
than one, select a surface feature onto which to form the curve.

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4. Set up the sketching plane and direction of feature creation, then sketch the datum curve.
Include in the sketch a coordinate system that determines the curve reference point. Locate it on the
sketch where you want curve projection to start. Pro/ENGINEER will form the curve outward from that
point.
5. Choose Done from the SKETCHER menu. Pro/ENGINEER creates the curve.

About Projected Datum Curves


You create projected datum curves by sketching a section, or selecting an existing datum curve, and then
projecting it onto one or more surfaces.
You can project datum curves onto solid surfaces, a set of non-solid surfaces, quilts, or datum planes. The
surface or quilt you project onto does not have to be planar.
If you create a curve by sketching on plane, it can be patterned.
Projected curves cannot be cross-hatched. If you select a cross-hatched datum curve for projection, the
system ignores the cross-hatching.
There are two types of curves that you can project; they are listed in the PRJCRVTYPE menu:
SketchSketch a curve to project.
SelectSelect a curve or edge to project.

Example: Creating a Projected Datum Curve by


Sketching
Sketch a curve on the front surface. Select the bottom surface to project onto.

Section in Sketcher

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Projected curve created with the Norm To Sket option

Projected curve created with the Norm To Surf option

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To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Sketching


1. Choose Datum > Curve > Projected > Done.
2. Choose PRJCRVTYPE > Sketch > Done.
3. A feature creation dialog box appears with the following feature elements:
- SectionSketch a curve to project.
- SurfacesSelect the surface to project onto.
- Proj TypeSpecify the projection method.
4. Create or select the sketching plane. Specify the direction of viewing the sketching plane. Specify a
view orientation by picking the sketcher reference plane.
5. The system prompts you to specify a direction of feature creation, and displays an arrow. Choose Flip if
desired, then choose Okay.
6. The system places you into Sketcher. Specify reference entities to dimension the curve to the model.
Sketch and dimension the curve. Choose Done to exit Sketcher.
7. Select the type of surface to project onto by choosing an option form the PROJCRVREFS menu:
- SurfacesUse the SURF SELECT and SURF OPTION menus to select the surfaces or quilt onto
which to project the curve. When finished selecting surfaces, choose Done from the SURF SELECT
menu.
- Datum PlanesSelect or create datum planes onto which to project the curve. Choose Select
Plane or Make Plane from the GET DTMSEL menu.
8. The system automatically defines the projection method as Norm To Sket. If you want to project the
curve normal to the surface, choose the Proj Type element in the dialog box and click Define.
9. The PROJ TYPE menu lists the Norm To Sket and Norm to Surf options. Choose Norm to Surf
option and Done to project normal to the reference surfaces.
10. Choose OK from the dialog box. Pro/ENGINEER creates the datum curve by projecting the sketch
onto the selected surfaces.

To Create a Projected Datum Curve by Selecting


Entities
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
Choose CRV OPTIONS > Projected > Done.
Choose PRJCRVTYPE > Select > Done.
A feature creation dialog box appears with the following feature elements:

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5.

6.

7.

8.

- ReferencesSelect curves and edges to project.


- SurfacesSelect the surface to project onto.
- Proj TypeSpecify the projection direction.
Select curve segments and edges by using options in the CHAIN menu. You can select multiple chains.
After you select a chain, choose Done Sel and proceed to select the next chain. When finished selecting
entities, choose CHAIN > Done.
Select the type of surface to project onto by choosing an option form the PROJCRVREFS menu:
- SurfacesUse the SURF SELECT and SURF OPTION menus to select the surfaces or quilt onto
which to project the curve. When finished selecting surfaces, choose Done from the SURF SELECT
menu.
- Datum PlanesSelect or create datum planes onto which to project the curve. Choose Select
Plane or Make Plane from the GET DTMSEL menu.
The system brings up the PROJ TYPE menu. Select one of the following options, followed by Done:
- Along DirProject the curve along the specified direction. Use options in the GEN SEL DIR menu
to specify the direction of projection. The options are:
- PlaneProject the curve normal to a planar surface. Select a planar surface or datum plane, or
create a datum.
- Crv/Edg/AxisProject the curve along the direction specified by an axis, edge, or curve. Select
an axis, edge, or curve segment. If the edge or curve is not linear, select a datum point on it at
which tangency will be determined.
- CsysSelect an axis of the coordinate system as the projection direction.
The system displays a red arrow that indicates the direction. Use Flip to toggle it, if necessary,
then choose Okay.
- Norm to SurfProject the curve normal to the reference surfaces.
Choose OK from the dialog box. Pro/ENGINEER projects the datum curve onto the selected surface.

To Create a Datum Curve Through Points (basic)


You can create a Thru Points datum curve as a spline, or a sequence of alternating tangent lines and arcs.
1. Choose Datum > Curve or click the curve button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose Thru Points, then Done.
3. Pro/ENGINEER displays the Datum Curve dialog box with the following elements:
- AttributesSpecify whether the curve should lie on a selected surface.
- Curve PointsSelect points for the curve to connect.
- Tangency(Optional) Set up tangency conditions for the curve.
Note: The Tangency element can be defined only if at least one end segment of the curve is a spline.
- Tweak(Optional) Modify the shape of the curve that goes through two points by using the
polyhedron manipulation.
4. Use the CONNECT TYPE menu options to select and connect points.
5. When finished, choose Done from the CONNECT TYPE menu to create the curve, or Quit to abort the
process.
6. To define tangency conditions, select the Tangency element and Define in the dialog box. Use the
options in the DEF TAN menu to define tangency at the ends of the curve.
7. Specify the direction for the curve at this tangency location by choosing Flip or Okay from the
DIRECTION menu. The system displays an arrow at the end of the curve.
8. If you created a datum curve through two points, you can "tweak" the curve in 3D space and
dynamically update its shape. To manipulate the curve, choose the Tweak element in the dialog box
and click on Define.

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Creating a Curve by Connecting Points


The CONNECT TYPE and DEF TAN menus are used to create a curve and define tangency at the ends.

Using the CONNECT TYPE Menu


To create a curve, you select and connect points using options in the CONNECT TYPE menu. The options
are as follows:
- SplineConstruct a curve using a three-dimensional spline that passes through the selected datum
points and vertices.
- Single RadConstruct a curve using the same radius through all the bends.
- Multiple RadConstruct a curve by specifying a radius for each bend.
Note: The Attributes element of the curve defined with either the Single Rad or Multiple Rad option
cannot be changed to On Surface.
- Single PointSelect individual datum points and vertices. You could have created these points
individually or as a datum point array.
- Whole ArraySelect all the points in a Datum Point/Offset Csys feature, in consecutive order.
- Add PointAdd to the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end through
which the curve will pass.
- Delete PointDelete from the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end
through which the curve currently passes.
- Insert Point Insert a point between already selected points, vertices, and curve ends. This option
modifies the curve definition to pass through the inserted point. The system prompts you to select a
point or vertex before which to insert the point.
Note: You can add, delete, or insert points during the creation or redefinition of the curve.

Using the DEF TAN Menu Options


Use the DEF TAN menu options to define tangency at the ends of the curve. The options are as follows:
- StartApply tangency condition at the start point of the curve. The system displays a red point or
circle cross-hair at the start of the curve.
- EndApply tangency condition at the end point of the curve. The system displays a red circle
cross-hair at the endpoint of the curve.
- Crv/Edge/AxisSelect an edge, curve, or axis to specify tangency or normal direction at the start
or end point, as prompted.
- Create AxisCreate an axis to specify tangency or normal direction at the start or end point using
the DATUM AXIS menu.
- SurfaceSelect a surface or plane to specify the tangent or normal direction.
- Srf Nrm EdgeSelect a surface to which the curve will be tangent at its start or end point. Select
an edge of that surface to which the curve will be perpendicular at its start or end point.
Note: The start or end point of the curve must lie on the surface edge used for the normal reference.
- ClearRemove the current tangency constraint at the selected end. To have no tangency
constraint at either end, choose Clear for both ends.
- TangentMake the curve tangent to the reference at this end.
- NormalMake the curve normal to the reference at this end.
- CurvatureSet continuous curvature for the curve end where the tangency condition is specified.
Activate this option by placing a checkmark in front of it. This makes the curvature at the end of
the curve equal to that of the connecting end of the tangent entity.

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To Create a Datum Curve Through Points that Lie


on a Surface
1. To create a curve that lies on a specific surface, redefine the Attributes element in the dialog box.
Choose Attributes and click Define.
2. Choose the On Surface option from the CRV TYPE menu, followed by Done. The options in the CRV
TYPE menu are:
- FreeConnect the points without requiring the curve to lie on a surface. This option is set by
default.
- On SurfaceCreate the curve so that it lies on a specific surface patch. Specify the surface to
which the curve will belong using options in the GET SELECT menu. Select a surface or a datum
plane.

Rules for Creating a Datum Curve with the On


Surface Option
Consider the following rules for a curve through points:
The On Surface attribute does not apply to a curve defined with the Single Rad or Multiple Rad
option.
Setting the On Surface attribute may conflict with some of the previous conditions that you defined for
that curve. For example, the points selected to define the curve lie on the surface, and the tangency
conditions must be possible for the selected surface. When the system detects a conflict, it prompts you
to resolve it by removing invalid references.
When you change the attribute from Free to On Surface, any tweaking of the curve is removed.

About Composite Datum Curves


You can interactively create composite datum curves by combining several datum curves, part edges, and
surface feature edges.
Edges can be selected in any order. Selected references must either form one continuous chain (with two
open ends), or one closed loop (with no open ends). Pro/ENGINEER creates individual curves "on top of"
each entity and a single composite curve on top of the combined individual curves.
Pro/ENGINEER combines each continuous chain of a new datum curve into a composite curve with no
redefinable start point. However, datum curves imported using the From File option will likely have
multiple chains.
Pro/ENGINEER does not automatically combine these into a composite curve, but you can pick them to
define a composite curve interactively. You can also create a composite curve with a redefinable start point
by using the Composite option.
When you pick a composite curve, the system highlights that entire curve. To select an underlying edge or
a component curve, use Query Sel.
It is good practice to create a composite curve out of individual components and use this curve as a feature
reference. The composite curve automatically updates when its underlying segments are changed.
Subsequent sketcher entities cannot directly reference composite datum curves for alignment. Instead, you
must align these entities to the underlying curves that make up the composite curves.
You can use the value of the trajectory parameter trajpar_of_pnt with composite curves in relations to
locate a specific point along the composite curve.
Typically, you can create composite curves that exactly follow the original curves and edges with the
CURV TYPE menu option Exact. Alternatively, you can use the Approximate option from the CURV TYPE
menu to create composite curves that approximate a chain of tangent (C1 continuous) curves by a single

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continuous curvature (C2 continuous) spline.


When you use the option Approximate, the new approximate curve always maintains the same endpoint
and tangency at the endpoint as the original curve that it approximates.

To Create an Exact Composite Datum Curve


The Exact option lets you use the underlying curves exactly as they are, without approximation.
1. Choose Datum > Curve > Composite and Done.
2. A feature creation dialog box appears with the following elements:
- AttributesSpecify whether you want to create an exact or approximate curve.
- ReferencesSpecify geometric references.
3. Choose CURV TYPE menu > Exact.
4. Use the CHAIN menu options to select a chain of curves and edges to be used as geometric references.
When finished defining a chain, choose Done from the CHAIN menu.
5. Choose OK from the dialog box.

To Create an Approximate Composite Datum


Curve
Use the Approximate option to create a chain of tangent curves by a single continuous curvature spline.
Pro/ENGINEER replaces multiple discrete segments of a curve with a single, smooth curve.
1. Choose Datum > Curve > Composite > Done.
2. A feature creation dialog box appears with the following elements:
- AttributesSpecify whether you want to create an exact or approximate curve.
- ReferencesSpecify geometric references.
3. Choose CURV TYPE > Approximate.
4. Use the CHAIN menu options to select a chain of curves and edges to be used as geometric references.
For an approximate curve, you must select a chain of tangent curves/edges. When finished defining a
chain, choose Done from the CHAIN menu.
5. Choose OK from the dialog box.
If you sweep along the approximate curve or blend a surface, the resulting surface maintains the curvature
continuity and, therefore, does not have any breaks in it.
If you choose Approximate, you can select a chain of edges or curves to be approximated by a continuous
curvature spline. If the selected chain is tangent within 5 degrees, Pro/ENGINEER approximates it by a
continuous curvature spline. Otherwise, the system highlights the points of discontinuity and you can either
reselect the chain or abort the feature creation.

Using Approximate Curves


Before you create approximate curves, you should be aware of the benefits and cautions of using them.
If you sweep along the approximate curve or blend a surface, the resulting surface maintains the curvature
continuity and, therefore, does not have any breaks in it.
When you use an approximate composite curve as a reference for a surface blend from boundary, you
create a single surface patch, with the following benefits:
Remove small surfaces from the design, preventing the occurrence of small edges and misalignment
that characterize small patches.
Create a single surface with continuous curvature.
Attain better surface aesthetics.
Because an approximate curve is an approximation, the new curve does not exactly follow the original

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edges and curves. Therefore, you could have the following problems:
Gaps between the original reference and the approximate curve, which prohibits Merge by joining or
intersecting of surfaces.
For example, a surface that is swept along the approximate curve might not attach directly to the
original surface, so the two surfaces cannot be quilted together.
The solution to this problem is to extend one or both surfaces so they intersect. However, the surfaces
might never intersect, such as when the surface normals are parallel.
Alternatively, do not use the Approximate option if you need to merge the corresponding surfaces.
No reference to the original edge and surface.
For instance, this prevents you from creating a sweep feature that references the edge and surface
normal.
One solution to this problem is to create a variable section sweep using the Pivot Dir option. This also
prevents you from creating a variable section sweep feature with tangency to the surface.
Undesired inflection in the approximate curve.

To Select a Chain of Edges and Curves


1. The system displays the CHAIN menu.
2. Select the chain type and pick the defining entities. The CHAIN menu options are as follows:
One By OneDefine a chain by selecting individual edges and curves, including composite curves,
one at a time. You can select the edges or curves in any order.
Tangnt ChainDefine a chain by selecting an edge, including all the edges tangent to this edge.
Curve ChainDefine a chain by selecting a curve. Use the CHAIN OPT menu options to select
additional curves, including composite curves. The CHAIN OPT menu options are as follows:
- Select AllSelect all curves that are connected to the currently selected loop in the same feature.
- From-ToSelect the "from" and "to" vertices or curve ends. The system highlights the vertices of
the loop in green. Once both are selected, the system prompts you to pick the portion of the loop to
keep, using the CHOOSE menu options Accept and Next.
Bndry ChainDefine a chain by selecting a quilt and using its one-sided edges. If the quilt has more
than one loop, select a specific loop to define the chain. The system displays the CHAIN OPT menu.
Choose either Select All or From-To.
Surf ChainDefine a chain by selecting a surface and using its edges. If the surface has more than one
loop, select a specific loop to define the chain. The system displays the CHAIN OPT menu. Choose
either Select All or From-To.
Intent ChainDefine a chain by selecting a predefined collection of edges in the model.
Two Points(This option is available only for surfaces from boundaries.) Connect two points to create
a curve and specify tangency conditions for this curve using options in the DEF TAN menu. The options
are as follows:
- StartSpecify tangency at the start of the curve.
- EndSpecify tangency at the end of the curve.
- Crv/Edge/AxisSelect an edge, curve, or axis to specify the tangency direction at the start or end
point.
- Create AxisCreate an axis to specify the tangency direction at the start or end point.
- SurfaceSelect a surface on which the start or end point of the datum curve will lie and to which
the created curve will be tangent. The curve pivots so as to follow its natural direction, while
remaining tangent to the surface.
- CurvatureSet continuous curvature for the curve end where the tangency condition is specified.
Activate this option by placing a checkmark in front of it. This makes the curvature at the end of
the curve equal to that of the connecting end of the tangent entity.
- Srf Nrm EdgeSelect a surface on which the datum curves start or end point will lie and to
which the created curve will be both tangent to the surface and normal to one of the surface

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3.

boundaries.
- ClearClear the tangency conditions.
SelectSelect a chain by using options in the CHAIN menu.
UnselectRemove a curve or edge from the current selection for a chain. For chain types other than
One By One, use the CONFIRMATION menu to confirm or cancel the Unselect command. For the
chain type One By One, select the curves or edges to remove from the chain.
Trim/ExtendTrim or extend the chain ends. Use the CHOOSE menu to determine the end to be
processed. The system displays the TRIM/EXTEND menu, which lists the following options:
- Enter LengthTrim or extend by a specified amount. Enter a negative value to shorten the curve,
or a positive value to extend the curve.
Note: A negative value is not allowed for trimming a spline curve.
- DragUse the mouse to adjust the chain end interactively (the left button finalizes the position,
the middle button aborts the move, and the right button toggles between pausing or continuing the
operation).
- Trim AtTrim the end segment of the curve using the TRIM AT menu. Choose Point to trim to a
specified point (such as a datum point, vertex, or curve end. Choose Curve to trim to an
intersecting datum curve. Choose Surface to trim to an intersecting surface or datum plane.
Start PointSelect the start point of the chain.
When you have finished, choose Done from the lower part of the CHAIN menu.

Redefining and Naming Composite Datum Curves


You can redefine a composite curve from Exact to Approximate, or vice versa.
When you attempt to redefine a composite curve from Exact to Approximate, the system checks if the
curve is tangent. If the selected curve is tangent within 5 degrees, Pro/ENGINEER approximates it by a
continuous curvature spline If it is not, the system aborts the redefinition process.
Redefining or replacing sketcher entities used as references for a composite curve causes the curve to fail
regeneration. To minimize the possibility of such a problem, redefine the curve references to exclude the
missing entity, then add the new entity to the composite curve after it has regenerated.

Naming Composite Curves


You can treat single curve entities as independent features, and do such things as name them or place them
on layers.
To add a name to a composite curve, use Set Up, Name, and Feature, then pick the curve.

About Advanced Rounds


Use advanced rounds when you need more control over the resulting round geometry. Advanced rounds, as
opposed to simple rounds, enable you to define the following:
Multiple round sets
Round shape: Rolling Ball or Normal to Spine
Cross section of the round: Circular or Conic
The type of transition between round sets
The type of corner transition between new and previously created geometry
Generally, when you add a round, the system attempts to generate intermediate round geometry by using a
few basic guidelines that you specify (for example, geometric references, radius of the rounds, and so on)
and certain default attributes, defining the shape and transitions of the round feature.
With advanced rounds, you can customize the default geometry by defining attributes and transitions of the
round.

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Round Sets
An advanced round is made up of one or more "round sets", or segments of the round. Each round set may
have unique attributes, references, and radius values.
As you define each round set, the system generates intermediate geometry. After all round sets are defined,
the system creates default transitions between round sets, which you can then customize.

Example: Sample Round Sets


Defining Round Sets
e

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Round these edges


Round set 1
Round set 2
Round set 3
Default corner transition

To Work with Round Sets


When you define a round set, the Round Set dialog box appears with the ROUND SETS menu.
1. From the ROUND SETS menu, choose from these options:
- AddCreate a new round set by specifying its attributes, geometric references, and radius of the
round.
- RemoveRemove a round set. Select the set to remove by choosing from the RND SET SEL menu.
- RedefineRedefine a round set. Select the set to redefine by choosing from the RND SET SEL
menu.
- Done SetsExit the ROUND SETS menu.
2. After you define round sets, you can modify or remove them by defining the Round Sets element in the
dialog box.

To Create an Advanced Round (basic)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Choose Round from the SOLID menu, or choose Insert > Round.
Choose Advanced and Done from the ROUND TYPE menu.
A dialog box appears, listing elements of the round feature.
The dialog box for the first round set appears automatically.
Define the attributes of the current round set, as you do for simple rounds.
Specify references for placing the round set.
For rounds other than a full round or a thru curve round, enter the radius or radii for the round set.
Optionally, you can define the Round Extent element if you want to extend the round set beyond its

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current boundaries.
9. After the round set is defined, click OK in the Round Set dialog box.
10. To add another round set, choose Add from the ROUND SETS menu, and then define the round set by
repeating the Steps 5 through 9.
11. When you finish defining the round sets, choose Done Sets from the ROUND SETS menu.
12. If you want to define the transition type between round sets or change the system-supplied transitions,
select the Transitions element and then click Define.
13. If you want to define the round shape, select the Round Shape element and then click Define.
14. If necessary, change the Attach Type element.
Note: At this point, you can pre-set attributes of the round by choosing Done Sets from the ROUND
SETS menu, selecting the Round Shape element, and then clicking Define in the dialog box.
Alternatively, you can redefine the Round Shape element later in the process of round creation.
15. To complete the round feature creation, click OK in the dialog box.

To Define the Round Shape Element


When you create an advanced round, the system uses default attributes to create intermediate round
geometry. By default, the round shape is defined as the Rolling Ball model with Circular section. The
default corner transition depends on many other factors, but is usually supplied by the system.
1. If you want to set different default attributes for the entire round feature, define the Round Shape
element in the feature list. Select this element, and then click Define in the dialog box.
2. When the ATTRIBUTES menu appears, select an option from each submenu.
Define the method of creating the round by choosing one of these options:
- Rolling BallThe round is created by rolling a spherical ball along the surfaces to which it would
naturally stay tangent.
- Norm To SpineThe round is created by sweeping an arc or conic cross section normal to a
spine. Select a spine for this type of round. This option is not available for full rounds.
Define the cross section of a round by choosing one of these options:
- CircularThe cross section of the round is circular.
- ConicThe cross section of the round is conic; it looks like a portion of an ellipse. Specify a conic
parameter for the round (from 0.05 to 0.95). This option is not available for full rounds. For the
conic round, the system adds a new element, Conic Parameter, to the dialog box, so you can
redefine it at any time.
Define the default transition type for a corner round by choosing one of these options:
- Corner SphereThe corner round is a sphere whose radius equals that of the largest round set.
This option is available only for circular cross-sections.
- Corner SweepThe corner round is a sweep that wraps around the edge with the largest radius.
This option is available only for circular cross-sections.
- PatchThe corner round is a patch transition between three edges.
Note: You can later customize the default corner geometry by defining the Transitions element.
Define the minimum acceptable radius value for variable radius rounds:
- SplineApproximate the radius by a spline.
- Min RadiusMaintain the minimum radius at the smallest user-specified value within each
variable round set.

Defining the Transitions Element


The Transitions element allows you to specify how Pro/ENGINEER should handle the intersections of
round sets. The following types of transitions appear in the TRANS TYPE menu:
StopThe system stops the round geometry at the specified point, plane, or isoline, or extends it to as
many as three intersecting solid surfaces, or extends it to a system-determined surface.
Blend SrfsThe system holds the round set edges where they are defined and attempts to smoothly
create a surface between the two edges.

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IntersctSrfsThe system extends the two or more selected round set edges as far as possible towards
each other, and attempts to merge them, with a sharp boundary.
ContinueThe system attempts to extend the round set edges towards each other without creating
additional tangent edges.
Corner SphereThe system creates a corner round as a sphere whose radius equals that of the largest
round set. You can modify the radius of the sphere and the distance along each edge to blend into the
smaller radii.
Corner SweepThe system creates a corner round as a sweep that wraps around the edge with the
largest radius.
PatchThe system creates a corner round as a patch tangent to all the edges between three or four
intersecting round set edges. You can add another radius to the transition by selecting a surface on
which to create an arc, or a radius you specify. This becomes the fourth edge of the resulting patch, and
is tangent all around.
Note: The Corner Sphere and Corner Sweep transitions apply only to corner intersections between three
round set edges. The Patch transition applies to corner transitions between three or four round edges.

Example: Defining the Transitions Element


The following figures show examples of different transition types.
Stop

a. Stop transition
Round geometry terminates at the selected surface.
IntersectSrfs
a

a. Intersect transition
Round set geometry extends until it is intersected by an adjacent round set.
Blend (for corner intersections of two round sets)

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a. Blend transition
Blend Srfs (for blending two collinear round sets)
a

a. Blend transition
b. Tangent edge maintained
This is a true Rolling Ball model - as if a marble were rolled along the references, and the resulting
round geometry is the area that the marble could not intersect. Pre-existing edges of the part are
maintained, as well as tangency, as applicable.
Continue (for blending two collinear round sets with the same radius value)
a

a. Extension of neighboring surface to meet round geometry


The resulting geometry looks as if the round was placed first, and then geometry was cut away,
extending surface of the neighboring round as appropriate.
Corner Sphere (for corner transition of three intersecting round sets)

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a. Transitions
b. Sphere
This type of corner transition was referred to as Corner Round in previous releases. The system creates
a Ball corner at the intersection of three round sets. By default, the sphere has the same radius as the
largest round set. You can modify the radius of the sphere as well as the transition distance along the
existing round radii.
Corner Sweep (for corner transition of three intersecting round sets)

a. Swept along largest radius


Round geometry wraps around the round set with the largest radius. The resulting geometry looks as if
the round set with the largest radius was created first, and then the remaining two sets were created
subsequently.
Patch (for corner transition of three converging round sets)

a. Tangent edges
Patched surface is created between intersection points of three or four round sets. You can select three
or more round reference edges to create a patch transition, and you can select one surface on which
you want to place fillet curves.
Patch (for corner transition of four or more converging round sets)

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Select four edge references for this patch transition.


IntersectSrfs (for corner transition of two or more converging round sets)

Tip: Defining the Transitions Element


Consider the following tips for a round with user-defined transitions:
When you copy, reroute, or place a group with an advanced round that contains user-defined
transitions, the system removes user-defined transitions from the resulting feature (in the
copied/rerouted/placed version of the round feature). Add, modify, or redefine the round transitions in
the new feature, as appropriate.
If a round feature fails due to missing transition references, the system prints an error message and
instructs you to redefine the Transitions element by selecting references for each transition. If a
transition has invalid references, first remove that transition and then recreate it with new valid
references.
If the round set geometry disappears, then the transition has failed and you must redefine, remove or
recreate the transition before you attempt to create the round feature.

To Define Transitions By Type


1. Select the Transitions element in the dialog box and click Define.
2. Pro/ENGINEER displays the ROUND TRANS and TRANS TYPE menus so you can specify the transition
types to use between round sets. The ROUND TRANS menu options are as follows:
- Add By TypeAdd a specific type of transition.

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- Add By SelectAdd a transition by selecting from available round set edges.


- RemoveRemove a transition.
- RedefineRedefine a transition type.
- ModifyChange individual dimension values used in a transition.
Choose Add By Type and select one of the transition types from the TRANS TYPE menu.
Depending on the selected type of transition, the system prompts you to pick the required number of
edges to define the boundary of the transition. Choose Done Sel to finish selecting references for a
specific transition. You can select references for several transitions at the same time.
After you create a transition, you can remove or modify it by choosing Remove or Redefine,
respectively. The system displays the TRANSITIONS menu, which lists all the user-defined transitions
(not the transitions that are created by default). Select the transition you want to remove or redefine.
When you finish defining the transitions, choose Done Trans from the ROUND TRANS menu.
The system creates the specified transitions. If the Round Set Geometry disappears when you choose
Done Trans, then the transition has failed. You must redefine, remove, or modify the transition before
you attempt to recreate the round feature.

3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

Example: Defining the Corner Transitions


Possible combinations of corner transitions appear in the following figure.

Various Corner Transitions


R1= R2 = R3

(R1 = R2) < R3

(R1 = R2) > R3

R1 < R2 < R3

a.
b.

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Corner Sphere
Corner Sweep

Part

c. Patch
d. Modified Patch (one fillet surface)
Notes:
1. R1, R2, and R3 are radii of respective round sets.
2. A patch corner transition can be created on three or four round edges.
3. You can modify a patch corner transition to add a fillet curve to one surface between round
edges (fillet surfaces are indicated with an arrow in this illustration).

Corner Sphere Transition

Corner Sweep Transition


a

a. The largest radius


The corner sweep wraps around the round set with the largest radius.

Patch Transition

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a.
b.
c.

Default Corner Patch Transition


Customized Corner Patch Transition
Fillet is added at this location.

To Set the Default Corner Transition


The default corner type applies to all default corner transitions in your round feature.
To set the default type of corner transition,
1. Specify the Round Shape element in the dialog box
2. Choose the desired corner transition from the ATTRIBUTES menu.
To change the default corner transition at any point while defining the round,
1. Reset the default corner transition; the system automatically changes the corner geometry according to
the new setting.
To customize a particular corner transition,
1. Choose the Transitions element and then Define from the dialog box.
2. You can then choose from the following corner transitions in the TRANS TYPE menu:
- Corner SphereThe corner transition creates the sphere with the largest radius of the round sets
to be blended. You can customize the default corner sphere transition by entering the radius of the
sphere and transition distances between the sphere and rounded edges.
- Corner SweepThe corner transition is created as a sweep that wraps around the round set with
the largest radius. If two of the three round sets are larger than the third set and have equal radii,
the system creates a sphere at the corner transition.
Note: When you create a Corner Sweep transition and the round sets are defined as Variable radii, the
system creates the transition using the radius values at the end of each set where these round sets are
intersected.
- PatchThe corner transition is a patch geometry between three or four surfaces. Optionally, you
can customize the patch by placing a fillet curve between any two adjacent round edges.

To Define a Patch Transition


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Define round sets.


Select the Transitions element and then Define in the dialog box.
Choose Patch and Done from the TRANS TYPE menu.
Select the edges of the round surfaces to be blended together. Choose Done Sel.
The system creates an intermediate patch geometry. If you are satisfied with the geometry, choose
Accept and Done from the PATCH menu.
If you want to customize the patch geometry by placing fillet curves between adjacent round edges,
continue with the next step.
Choose Modify and Done from the PATCH menu.
Select a surface where you want to place a fillet curve to define the fourth edge of the patch, and choose
Done Sel. The system highlights the selected surface and prompts you to enter the radius of the fillet
curve.
Choose Done Trans from the TRANS TYPE menu to finalize the transition.

To Define a Stop Transition


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Define round sets.


Select the Transitions element and Define in the dialog box.
Choose ROUND TRANS > Add By Type (or Add by Select) > Stop > Done.
Select the edges of the round surfaces to trim and choose Done Sel.
There are five kinds of stop transitions you can create. Select one of the following from the STOP
SURFACE menu:
- DefaultExtends the round piece by adding a round surface past the default trimming boundaries

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of the reference surfaces, and caps the round according to the geometry of the next non-tangent
surface.
- GeometryExtends the round piece by adding a round surface past the trimming boundaries that
you select.
- Stop At PntTruncates the round piece at an internal datum plane normal to the reference edge
and through a datum point on the reference edge. You can select an existing datum point, or create
one on the fly, using Datum > Point.
- Stop At PlnTruncates the round piece at a datum plane or planar surface. You can either select
an existing plane or create one on the fly, using Datum > Plane. This plane does not need to be
normal to the driving edge or surfaces of the round set.
- IsolinesTruncates the round piece at an internal plane normal to the spine of the round curve,
and through a datum point. You can select an existing datum point, or create one on the fly, using
Datum > Point.
6. Choose Done Trans from the TRANS TYPE menu to finalize the transition.
Tip: Defining a Stop Transition
When you create a stop transition, you can select adjacent surfaces whose extensions will be used to
terminate the round.
This enables you to create a different round geometry depending on which surfaces you select to define
the transition.

Creating a Corner Transition with Existing


Geometry
You can create a corner transition between the new round and existing round geometry by using the
Corner Sphere, Corner Sweep, or Patch transition.
In addition, you can create corner transitions between the round and other existing geometry (for example,
chamfer, cut, and so on) by using the Patch transition.
Note: Creating a patch transition with existing geometry is supported only for three converging round
set edges. A patch transition with four or more round sets must be created in more than one operation.

To Create a Corner Transition with Existing


Geometry
1. Start creating an advanced round as usual.
2. After you have defined one or two round sets, define the Transitions element from the dialog box.
Choose Corner Sphere, Corner Sweep, or Patch from the TRANS TYPE menu.
3. Select one (if you defined a single round set) or two (if you defined two round sets) corner transition
references and choose Done Sel.
4. The system searches the area around the selected references and creates a corner round geometry based
on the references it finds.

Example: Creating a Corner Transition with


Existing Geometry
This example shows a corner sphere transition with the existing geometry.
1. Create a round on this edge.

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a. Existing round geometry


2. Select this edge as a reference for creating a corner transition.

3. Corner Sphere Transition

To Change the Attachment Type


1. Select the Attach Type element in the dialog box, then click Define.
2. The system displays the ATTACHMENT menu, which lists the appropriate subset of the following
options:
- Make SolidThe round will intersect with the existing geometry.
- Make SurfaceThe round will not intersect with the existing geometry.
- Same QuiltThe feature intersects the reference quilt. This option is not available for solid
references.
- New QuiltThe feature creates a new quilt. This option is not available for solid references.
- Make Surf w/EndThe feature creates a new unattached surface with capped edges. This option

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is not available for surfaces.


- New Quilt w/EndThe feature creates a new unattached surface with capped edges. This option
is not available for solids.
3. Choose the desired attachment type, then click OK in the dialog box. Pro/ENGINEER updates the part
to reflect your changes.

Changing the Attachment Type


Pro/ENGINEER predefines the attachment type of a round as Make Solid. This means that the resulting
feature will intersect the existing geometry when it is created (or previewed).
For example, if the round geometry cannot be attached to the part, redefine the round type from Simple to
Advanced, and the attachment type from Make Solid to Make Surface. This allows you to save the round
geometry until you have fixed some geometry errors.
The following table shows possible attachment types for different combinations of geometric references of
the round feature.
GEOMETRIC
REFERENCES OF
THE ROUND

DEFAULT ATTACHMENT
TYPE A

OPTIONAL
ATTACHMENT TYPE B

OPTIONAL
ATTACHMENT TYPE C

Solid-Solid

Make SolidTemporary round


geometry will be created to the
limit of the reference set,
extended to any capping
surfaces if possible. If
necessary, will be capped with a
triangular patch and made into
solid geometry

Make SurfaceYou can


change the default solid to
a surface.

Make Surf w/EndUse


this option in the case of a
failed solid round. Makes
an unattached surface with
removable ends on it.
Once the surface is
created, you can change it
to a solid.

Quilt-Quilt
(same quilt)

Same QuiltTemporary round


geometry will be created to the
limit of the set, trimmed at a
straight line in space, and not
capped with a triangular patch.
The surface is merged into the
existing quilt.

New QuiltYou can


change the default merged
quilt into a new surface.

Make Quilt w/EndUse


this option in the case of a
failed surface round.
Makes an unattached
surface with removable
ends on it. Once the
surface is created, you can
change it to an attached
surface.

Quilt-Quilt
(different quilts)

New Quilt Temporary round


geometry will be created to the
limit of the set, trimmed at a
straight line in space, and not
capped with a triangular patch.
The surface is not merged into
the existing quilt.

N/A

N/A

Solid-Quilt

Make Surface Temporary


round geometry will be created
to the limit of the set, trimmed
at a straight line in space, and
not capped with a triangular
patch. The surface is unattached.

N/A

N/A

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Tip: Resolving Failed Rounds Using Capping


If a solid round should fail, you can resolve it by creating the round as unattached geometry, then adding
other surfaces to make it attachable.
1. Select the Attach Type element in the dialog box, then click Define. The system displays the
ATTACHMENT menu.
2. Select Make Surf w/End.
3. Select the Transitions element and Define in the dialog box.
4. Choose ROUND TRANS > Add By Type (or Add by Select) > Stop > Done.
5. Make stop transitions at some location on the round set, using appropriate options. The round will cap
itself at these places.
6. If you want, you can remove any of the default caps.

To Define Transitions By Select


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

Select the Transitions element in the dialog box and click Define.
From the ROUND TRANS menu, click Add By Select.
Select green edges of round sets, where you want to make user-defined transitions.
If there is more than one valid transition type, move through the types and select one. If there is only
one valid transition type, it will be the default. If there is no valid transition type, the system returns to
the ROUND TRANS menu without creating any transition.
If the selected transition can be modified by additional references or dimensions, you will be prompted
to Accept or Modify the transition.
Select Accept > Done to finish the transition using the default values.
Select Modify > Done to add more references and dimensions.
Note: If the round set cannot be created with these additional or alternative constraints, the round
set geometry will disappear and you must redefine the transition or remove it.
Click Done Sel to finish the transition.
The system creates the specified transition.

To Redefine Sections
When you redefine a section, you can resketch any portion of the section. When you are about to delete an
entity that is referenced by another feature, the system asks for confirmation. You can respond in one of the
following ways:
YesThe system suspends the child feature, and regeneration may fail after you have redefined the
parent. If regeneration fails, Pro/ENGINEER enters the Resolve environment.
No (carriage return)The entity will not be deleted. You can then replace the sketched entity with
another entity, thereby keeping the reference that the child feature needs.
Abort the section redefineReroute or modify the scheme of the child feature so that the section
redefinition is successful.
You can redefine features that were created using the Sketcher text just as any other features of the same
type.
Redefining the section allows you to edit the text, modify the font, and so on.
Note: Redefining the section of a copied feature is synonymous with redefining its parent. When you
attempt to redefine a copy, Pro/ENGINEER displays the section used to define the parent.

To Replace Section Entities


Instead of resketching a section entity, you can replace it with another one by using the Replace command
in the GEOM TOOLS menu. This allows the new entity to keep the ID of the original one and to preserve
any data (for example, geometric tolerances) that may be associated with the original entity.

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The following procedure explains how to replace a sketched entity with another one.
1. Sketch the entity that will be used to replace the current section entity. You can replace existing entities
with new entities only. (When an entity is split using Intersect, one part of the entity is old, and the
other is newand can be used to replace another entity of the section).
2. Choose Geom Tools from the SKETCHER menu, then Replace.
3. Select the existing entity to be replaced.
4. Select the new entity. The system deletes the old entity and any dimensions associated with it. You can
not restore the deleted entity or its dimensions.
Note: You can intersect or fillet all entities except circles without losing the children.

Example: Replacing Section Entities


In the following example, one entity with children is being deleted, and two entities with children are being
intersected. When an entity is intersected, one part of it retains the old entity identifier, and the other part
gets a new identifier. To retain the children, you can use this new entity to replace the old one.
You can also replace a dimension by choosing Dimension > Replace.
In the following example, entities 1 and 3 have children. Instead of deleting them, you can replace 1 with 2
and 3 with 5 in order to preserve children of the entities 1 and 3.
Modification Example
New line

Old section
Step 1: Sketch 2.
Step 2: Replace 1 with 2.
Step 3: Delete 1.

Step 4: Intersect 3 and 4 with 2.


Step 5: Delete 3 and 4. You are notified that
3 has children. Answer "no".

Step 6: Replace 3 with 5.


Step 7: Delete 3 and new entity ends.
3
5

To Add or Remove a Section in a Blend


You can add or remove a section when you are redefining a parallel or non-parallel blend. You cannot add
or remove sections for swept blends. Pro/ENGINEER renumbers all blend sections as necessary after you
have added or removed one or more sections.
For a parallel blend subsection, deleting all entities in the subsection automatically removes it. To add a
new subsection, toggle to an empty subsection and sketch. If the total number of subsections changes, you
must enter all the required depth values again.

Removing
To remove a section of a parallel blend,
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and choose the blend feature. The system
displays the feature creation dialog box.
2. Select the Section attribute, then click Define. Pro/ENGINEER displays the SECTION menu.
3. Choose Sketch from the SECTION menu. The system displays the SKETCHER menu and displays the
blend subsections on the model.

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201

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Use the SEC TOOLS menu Toggle option to toggle to the subsection that you want to remove.
To delete the subsection, delete all the sketcher entities that comprise it.
When you have finished, choose Regenerate to solve the section.
Choose Done. The system prompts you to enter new values for the distance between each section.
Click OK in the dialog box to regenerate the blend feature.

Adding
To add a section of a parallel blend,
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and choose the blend feature. The system
displays the feature creation dialog box.
2. Select the Section attribute, then click Define. Pro/ENGINEER displays the SECTION menu.
3. Choose Sketch from the SECTION menu. The system displays the SKETCHER menu and displays the
blend subsections on the model.
4. Toggle to a blank subsection.
5. Choose Sketch, and sketch the entities for the new subsection.
6. Regenerate the sketch. Choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.
7. Enter the depth between each blend section.
8. Click OK in the dialog box to regenerate the feature.

To Redefine a Section in a Parallel Blend


1. If you choose the Section attribute, the system displays the SECTIONS menu with the following
options:
- Sketch PlaneRedefine the sketching plane.
- SketchModify the section.
- SchemeModify dimensioning scheme.
2. Select Sketch.
3. The system shows all blend section superimposed on the same sketch. The active (modifiable) sketch is
highlighted in blue, while the inactive sketches are grey. Use Sketcher commands to alter the section as
desired.
4. To toggle between the sections of the blend, choose Toggle in the SEC TOOLS menu. Any additional
sketches added to the blend are placed behind the last section created before the redefine.
Note: You can not insert a new section between two existing sections.

To Add or Remove a Section in a Nonparallel


Blend
Removing
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and choose the blend feature. The system
displays the feature creation dialog box.
2. Select the Section attribute, then select the Define button. The system displays the SECTIONS and
SPECIFY menus. The SPECIFY menu lists the existing blend sections.
3. Choose Remove, then choose one of the sections in the SPECIFY menu. The system redisplays the
SPECIFY menu with an updated list of blend sections, so you can add, remove, or modify another
section, if desired.
4. When you have finished redefining the blend, choose Done from the SECTIONS menu.
5. Click OK in the dialog box to regenerate the feature.

Adding
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and choose the blend feature. The system
displays the feature creation dialog box.
2. Select the Section element, then the Define button. The system displays the SECTIONS and SPECIFY
menus. The SPECIFY menu lists the existing blend sections.

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3. Choose Add from the SECTIONS menu, then choose the number of the section you are adding from
the SPECIFY menu. This allows you to insert a new section after an existing one.
For example, if you are adding a section to a blend that already has three sections, the options in the
SPECIFY menu are Section 2, Section 3, and Section 4. The Section 2 option inserts your new section
between the existing sections 1 and 2. The Section 3 option inserts your new section between the
existing sections 2 and 3. The Section 4 option places your new section after the existing section 3.
4. Enter the x-, y-, and z-axis rotation angles for the section you are creating.
5. The system displays a subwindow with the sketcher grid. Sketch the new section and regenerate it.
6. Enter the depth value for the new section.
7. Pro/ENGINEER redisplays the SECTION and SPECIFY menus, so you can redefine another section, if
desired. When you have finished, click OK in the dialog box to regenerate the feature.

To Redefine a Dimensioning Scheme


You can change the dimensioning scheme (how a feature is dimensioned) by choosing Scheme from the
SECTION menu. Redefining the dimensioning scheme changes only how the feature is dimensioned.
1. Choose Redefine from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Redefine, and choose the feature. The system
displays the feature definition dialog box.
2. Select the Section element from the dialog box, then select the Define button.
3. Pro/ENGINEER displays the SECTION menu. Choose Scheme.
4. Select a feature. The system rolls the part back to the state it was in at the time the feature was created.
This prevents you from dimensioning the feature to a feature created after it.
5. For sketched entities, add or delete dimensions to change the scheme.
6. When you add new dimensions, Pro/ENGINEER numbers the symbolic dimensions sequentially,
starting with the most current value. For example, if the current model has dimensions d0, d1, ..., d27,
when you modify the scheme to add new dimensions, the new dimensions start with d28.
7. When you have finished, choose Done. Select one of the buttons in the dialog box, if desired, then
select OK.
Pro/ENGINEER regenerates the part to its full state with the new dimensioning scheme. For successful
regeneration to occur, the revised dimensioning scheme must be sufficient (not over- or underdimensioned).

Side Effects of Modifying a Dimensioning Scheme


When you modify the scheme of a feature, you can delete or add dimensions, and align or unalign the
features. This causes a change in the symbolic representation of feature dimensions that affects drawings
and relation files of parts and assemblies.
Deleting dimensions using the Scheme option obsoletes any relations that contain the deleted dimensions.
You must update the relations file to reflect the changes to the relations, or use Dimension > Replace
instead.
New dimensions added to a scheme will not retain any cosmetic modifications made to the old dimensions.
Note: Dimension notes with obsolete symbolic dimensions replace the dimension with asterisks
("***").

Options for Redefining Datum Curves from File


The Curves option in the REDEFINE menu allows you to manipulate datum curves imported From File.
The system displays the EDIT CURVES menu, which lists the following options:
- Edit FileEdit the current curve file. The system displays the file "feat_#.ibl" (where # is the
internal identifier) in the system window. This file follows the ".ibl" format, regardless of how it
was imported. All the changes are reflected on the curve as you exit the editor.
Note: When you open a file in the .ibl format, it loses the tangency information.

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- CreateAdd additional curves to the same feature by selecting points on the model (datum points,
vertices, curves, and coordinate systems).
- Spline PntsDisplay the SPLINEPNTS menu.
- AdjustAdjust the datum curves so they intersect.
- Trim/ExtendTrim or extend selected curves up to a curve or surface.
- SplitSplit a curve at the intersection with another.
- MergeMerge curves together.
- DeleteDelete all the curves selected.
- MeasureMeasure a curve.
Note: When you redefine a From File curve with children, the Merge and Delete options are not available.

Creating New Curves


You can add new curve segments to the curve feature using the Create option in the EDIT CURVES menu.
You create the curve by selecting points for it to pass through. These points can be datum points, edge and
curve vertices, curves, and coordinate systems. Selecting a datum curve creates a point for the new curve
on the selected datum curve.
The points are used only to establish the offset from the reference coordinate system for the original
feature. You can edit all the curves using the Edit option.

Modifying Imported Curves


Choosing the Spline Pnts option from the EDIT CURVES menu allows you to modify imported curves in
many ways.
The SPLINEPNTS menu lists the following options: Sparse, Smooth, Add, Remove, Move, Show, and
Blank.
Note: You cannot edit datum curves From File using the Modify option.

To Decrease the Number of Spline Points Using


Deviation
1. Choose Sparse from the SPLINEPNTS menu.
2. Choose the spline on which you wish to reduce the number of points.
3. Enter a deviation value that will cause the spline to be redrawn without one or more of its points. This
value must be a positive number.
4. The system displays the spline resulting from the change in green, and tells you how many points will
be removed. If the changed spline is acceptable, choose Accept from the MOD ACTION menu. If not,
choose Reject, and enter a different deviation value.
For each spline, you may need to try several different deviation values before achieving the desired
result, because the proportion of the spline by which points are interpolated varies from spline to spline.

To Make a Spline Smoother


1. Choose Smooth from the SPLINEPNTS menu.
2. Choose the spline that you want to make smoother.
3. Enter an odd number of points that will be averaged together to smooth the spline. For example, you
could enter 1 (which does not change the spline at all), 3, or 5.
Pro/ENGINEER averages the centermost point on the spline, and the appropriate equal number of
points on each side of it (one point on each side if you entered 3, or two points on each side if you
entered 5).
4. The system displays the spline resulting from the change in green. If the resulting spline is acceptable,
choose Accept. Otherwise, choose Reject and try again with a different number of points.

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To Add Points to a Spline


1. Choose Show (if you want to see each point as you add it).
2. Choose Add.
3. Select the curve at the locations where you want the points added.

To Decrease the Number of Spline Points by


Deleting Points
1. If the points on the spline are not already visible, choose Show from the SPLINEPNTS menu and pick
the curve from which you will be removing a point. The system displays the points in red.
2. Choose Remove from the SPLINEPNTS menu. Pick the point that you want to delete.
3. The system displays the spline resulting from the removal of this point in green. If the resulting spline is
acceptable, choose Accept. Otherwise, choose Reject and try again.
4. Pro/ENGINEER deletes the point and changes the spline accordingly.

To Move Curve Points


1. Choose Move from the SPLINEPNTS menu.
2. Select a curve.
3. Select a reference plane. Choose an option from the REF PLANE TYPE menu:
- View PlaneThe reference plane is parallel to the screen.
- SelectSelect any planar surface or datum plane.
- OscPlnAtPntThe reference plane will be through the point being moved. Pro/ENGINEER
constructs the reference plane from the spline tangent and curvature vectors at the selected point.
Note: You can move the splines only in the reference plane.
4. Select the point to move and an adjustment range. The adjustment range is between any two points (the
point being moved must be within this range) and establishes the area where the spline curve will
change.
If you click the middle button or select the two endpoints, the entire curve can change shape. You must
accept or reject changes to the spline after you move each point.
Use the Done move option in the MOVE SPL PNT menu to accept the changes, or the Quit move option
to cancel the process.
The Show option displays the points of a spline. Choose Show and pick a curve. The system displays the
spline points like small white axes. The points remain displayed until you choose Blank from the
SPLINEPNTS menu.

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Example: Adjusting the Curve


Adjusting the Curve

1
2

1
2
3
4

Select these two spline points as the extents of the adjustment.


Select this curve for the second direction.
Select this curve as Fixed for the first direction.
The curve adjusts to intersect the other curve.

Adjusting Curve Endpoints


1
2
4

1
2
3
4

Select this curve at the endpoint for the second direction.


Select these two spline points as the extents of the adjustment.
Select this curve as Fixed for the first direction.
The curve adjusts to intersect the other curve.

To Adjust a Curve
To adjust imported datum curves so they intersect, redefine the datum curve using the Adjust option in the
EDIT CURVES menu. All curves to be adjusted must belong to the same curve feature.
1. Choose Adjust from the EDIT CURVES menu. Select one of the options from the ADJUST TYPE menu:
- FixedThe curves selected remain fixed. If you select this option for the first set of curves, the

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second set will be adjustable automatically.


- AdjustableThe curves selected will be adjusted.
2. Select curves in the first direction. These are curves that cross the second set of curves. Choose Done
Sel.
3. If you chose Adjustable for the first set of curves, you need to select again from the ADJUST TYPE
menu for the second set of curves. Select curves in the other direction.
4. For the curves to be adjusted, you need to set the extent of the curve that will change. To set the extent,
select spline points that are highlighted in green.
5. When the curve is adjusted, answer the Pro/ENGINEER prompt to keep the changes.
When you select curves to adjust, selecting the curve itself adjusts the curve, while selecting the endpoint
for the curve trims the curve to the intersection.

To Split a Curve
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Split from the EDIT CURVES menu.


Select the curve segments to split. Choose Done Sel when you have finished.
Select a surface or another datum curve that intersects the first curve.
Pro/ENGINEER splits the selected segments of the first curve at the points of intersection. If the
reference curve or surface intersects a segment between its points, the system adds a new point. The
system highlights new curves in green, and you can accept or reject the changes.

To Trim or Extend a Curve


You can trim or extend a curve by selecting the curves to trim or extend, then selecting the reference curve
or surface to which to trim or extend.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Trim/Extend.
Select the curves to trim or extend. Choose Done Sel.
Select the reference curve or surface.
The system lengthens or shortens the curves, as needed, to the reference. If the curve is satisfactory,
choose Accept.

To Merge Curves
Merging curves connects imported curves at their endpoints and merges them into one curve.
1. Choose Merge.
2. Choose an option from the PICK CURVES menu, and select the curves. The PICK CURVES options are
as follows:
- Two CurvesMerge any two imported curves.
- ChainMerge connected curves that form a chain with no gaps.

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Example: Merging Curves


The next figure illustrates how to merge curves.

1
2
3
4

Merge these three datum curves using the Chain option.


Merge these 3 datum curves using the Chain option.
Merge the resulting curves using the Two Curves option.
The resulting datum curve.

To Insert Features
Normally, Pro/ENGINEER adds a new feature after the last existing feature in the part, including
suppressed features. Insert mode allows you to add new features at any point in the feature sequence, other
than before the base feature or after the last feature.
1. Choose Insert Mode from the FEAT menu, then choose Activate.
2. Select a feature after which the new features will be inserted. All features after the selected one will be
automatically suppressed.
3. Choose Create and create the new features as usual.
4. Cancel insert mode in one of the following ways:
- Choose Resume from the FEAT menu and select to resume the features that were suppressed when
you activated insert mode.
- Choose Cancel from the INSERT MODE menu. Pro/ENGINEER asks you whether to resume the
features that were suppressed when you activated insert mode, then automatically regenerates the
part.
Note: The system grays out the Cancel and Activate options in the INSERT MODE menu in turn,
depending on whether the insert mode is currently active.
At any time, you can choose the Return option from the INSERT MODE menu to return to the previously
active menu.
If the feature after which the new features will be inserted is a merged-by-copy feature, the system
redisplays the part to show only merged features. The INSERT FEAT menu appears with the options Create

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Copy and Mirror Geom. Once you choose Done from the INSERT FEAT menu, the system redisplays the
whole part and exits Insert mode.

Reordering Features
You can move features forward or backward in the regeneration order list, thus changing the order in which
they are regenerated. You can reorder multiple features in one operation, as long as these features appear in
consecutive order.
Feature reorder cannot occur under the following conditions:
Parents cannot be moved so their regeneration occurs after the regeneration of their children.
Children cannot be moved so their regeneration occurs before the regeneration of their parents.

To Reorder Features
1. Use the command sequence Part, Feature, Reorder.
2. Specify the selection method by choosing an option from the SELECT FEAT menu:
- SelectSelect features to reorder by picking on the screen and/or from the tree tool. You can also
choose Sel By Menu to enter the feature number. When finished selecting, choose Done Sel.
- LayerSelect all features from a layer by selecting the layer. When you finish, choose Done Sel
from the LAYER SEL menu.
- RangeSpecify the range of features by entering the regeneration number of the starting and
ending feature.
3. A system message lists the selected features for reorder and states the valid ranges for the new insertion
point.
4. Choose Done from the SELECT FEAT menu.
5. Choose one of the options in the REORDER menu:
- BeforeInsert the feature before the insertion point feature.
- AfterInsert the feature after the insertion point feature.
6. Pick a feature indicating the insertion point, or choose Sel By Menu to enter the feature number.

About Suppressing and Resuming Features


Suppressing features is like removing them from regeneration temporarily. However, you can "unsuppress"
(resume) suppressed features at any time.
You can suppress features on a part to simplify the part model and decrease regeneration time. For
example, while you work on one end of a shaft, it may be desirable to suppress features on the other end of
the shaft.
Similarly, while working on a complex assembly, you can suppress some of the features and components
for which the detail is not essential to the current assembly process.
Suppress features to do the following:
Concentrate on the current working area by suppressing other areas.
Speed up a modification process because there is less to update.
Speed up the display process because there is less to display.
Temporarily remove features to try different design iterations.
Note: Unlike other features, the base feature cannot be suppressed. If you are not satisfied with your base
feature, you can redefine the section of the feature, or delete it and start again.

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To Suppress Features
1. Choose Suppress from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Suppress. The system displays the SELECT FEAT
and GET SELECT menus.
2. Choose one of the following options from the DELETE/SUPP menu:
- NormalSuppress the selected feature and all its children.
- ClipSuppress the selected feature and all the features that follow.
- UnrelatedSuppress any feature other than the selected ones and their parents.
3. Select a feature to suppress by picking on it, selecting from the Model Tree, specifying a range,
entering its feature number or identifier, or using layers.
4. If any children are present and are not currently selected, the system highlights them in blue and
displays the CHILD menu. Select one of the following options:
- Show RefShow the reference identifier and highlight the reference geometry for each reference
of the highlighted child. step through the references using Next and Previous. You can also obtain
information about the reference, showing the reference identifier and the total number of
references, and what type of reference it is (feature or entity).
- RerouteReroute the references of the highlighted child feature to break the parent-child
relationship.
- Mod SchemeModify the dimensioning scheme of the child.
- SuppressSuppress the highlighted child.
- Suppress AllSuppress the highlighted child and all its children (not just children of the
childrenthis includes other children of the feature being suppressed).
- SuspendSuspend action on the highlighted child. The system retains the feature until it is
actually regenerated, at which time you must decide how to handle it (by deletion, rerouting, and
so on).
- Suspend AllSuspend action on all children of the feature being suppressed until they are
actually being regenerated.
- FreezeKeep the highlighted feature in its current location. This option is available for
components only.
- InfoProvides information about the highlighted child feature.
5. If you create a feature in a part and dimension it to another part in the assembly, the other part becomes
the external parent. If you then suppress that external parent, the system highlights all the dependent
children in blue, and displays the EXTCHILD menu. This menu allows you to abort the suppression of
the feature, or suspend all the external children.
6. Repeat Step 3 for every feature you want to suppress.
7. Choose Done when you have finished selecting features.

To Resume Features
You can resume features (restore them to a fully updated state) by choosing Resume from the FEAT menu,
or Edit > Resume. The system displays the RESUME menu, which lists the following options:

AllResume all suppressed features.


LayerResume all the features on a specified layer.
Last SetResume the last group of features that were suppressed.
Feat IDResume features by internal identifier number.

About Deleting Features


Deleting a feature removes the feature from the part permanently.
When you select a feature for deletion that has children, you must account for the children. You can delete
them, too, but Pro/ENGINEER provides a way to save the children by rerouting.

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Note: Normally, Pro/ENGINEER regenerates all the features from the first modified feature or the first
feature with an external reference, onward, when you select Regenerate. In calculating where to begin
regeneration during Delete operations, Pro/ENGINEER does not consider features with an external
reference.

To Delete Features
1. Choose Delete from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Delete.
2. Select a feature to delete.
3. If any children are present and not currently selected, follow Step 4 in the procedure for suppressing
features.
4. Choose Done when you have finished selecting features. Pro/ENGINEER deletes the selected features.

Deleting Suppressed Features


You can delete suppressed features with the Delete command by selecting them from the Model Tree.
If a feature selected for deletion has suppressed children, the CHILD menu appears, letting you show the
references of, reroute, delete, suspend, or get information about the suppressed children of the selected
feature.

Side Effects of Deleting Features


When you delete a feature whose dimensions are used in a relation, the relation becomes invalid. To fix the
relation, use commands in the OBSOL RELS menu:
- Commnt RelsConvert the obsolete relations to comments.
- Delete RelsDelete the obsolete relations.
- Edit RelsEdit the relations. With Edit Rels you can add comments to, delete, and edit the
relations. You cannot exit from the editor until you have edited obsolete relations.
Note: If the relations file contains conditional logic statements that depend on the deleted feature, the
system forces you to edit the relations file to fix the statements.
If you delete a feature that has a note attached to it, the note remains in the drawing but the extension line to
the feature disappears. If the note included dimensions of the feature, they appear with the default display
of ***.
If you delete a feature that has dimensions included in a family table, the affected columns of the table
become obsolete.
If you delete a feature that was referenced when assembling parts, the parts will not reassemble.
Pro/ENGINEER provides you with several options for recovering the assembly.

About the Reroute Command


Rerouting breaks the parent-child relationship by letting you change feature references.
The Reroute option is available in the FEAT menu (or on the Edit menu); it also appears with the CHILD
menu when you have selected a feature that has children.
You can only reroute external references in the environment (the level in an assembly) in which they were
created.
Pro/ENGINEER checks the rerouting of features to determine if the new reference and the old reference are
compatible. If the references are not compatible, Pro/ENGINEER issues a warning message and continues
processing.
The following features can not be rerouted:
Rounds that have user-defined transitions

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Grouped patterned features


Read-only features

To Reroute Features
You can either reroute features or replace references using the following steps.
1. Choose Reroute from the FEAT menu, or Edit > Reroute. The system displays the REROUTE REFS
and SELECT FEAT menus.
2. Choose one of the following options from the REROUTE REFS menu:
Reroute FeatReroute a feature by selecting new references. If the feature has missing references,
first choose one of the following options from the FEAT REROUTE submenu:
- All RefsReroute all the feature references.
- Missing RefsReroute only the missing references for the feature.
Replace RefSelect a referenced entity and replace it with another entity, as prompted. Choose an
option from the SELECT TYPE submenu. When you have replaced the references, go to Step 5.
The SELECT TYPE submenu options are as follows:
- FeatureSelect a feature, then replace all the referenced (parent) entities.
- Indiv EntitySelect an individual reference entity, such as an edge, vertex, or plane.
3. If you chose Reroute Feat in Step 2, you have the option to roll back the part to just before the feature
was created. This removes any feature created after the one being rerouted from the display. Roll back
the part if many of the features are younger than (created after) the feature being rerouted. This prevents
a younger feature from being used as a reference, which would void the reroute process.
4. Pro/ENGINEER highlights each reference of the feature, in turn. From the REROUTE menu, choose the
appropriate options then Done, and go to Step 6.
The REROUTE menu options are as follows:
- AlternateSelect or create an alternate reference for the feature. Use the Make Datum option, if
necessary, to construct new references. Make sure the datum planes themselves do not reference
the parent feature.
- Same RefThe current reference remains the same.
- Ref InfoShow information about the highlighted reference. This option gives the reference
identifier and the type of reference. This is important because you can only reroute to like
reference types.
- DoneFinish the rerouting process.
- Quit RerouteQuit the reroute for the current feature. Even when you quit the reroute process,
any datums created during feature reroute remain in the model.
5. If you chose Replace Ref in Step 2 and have successfully selected the referenced entity, the system
displays the REF REROUTE menu. Choose one of the REF REROUTE options:
- Sel FeatReroute to the new reference a selected feature only.
- All ChildrenReroute to the new reference all features that used the old reference.
6. After all the features have been rerouted, or all the references replaced, Pro/ENGINEER regenerates the
feature. If the automatic regeneration is successful, the new parent-child relationships are established; if
not, the original references are restored.
Note: To permanently retain the references defined with the automatic regeneration, you must explicitly
choose Regenerate from the PART menu before you save the part.

To Create a Shell
The Shell option removes a surface or surfaces from the solid then hollows out the inside of the solid,
leaving a shell of a specified wall thickness.
When Pro/ENGINEER makes the shell, all the features that were added to the solid before you chose Shell
are hollowed out. Therefore, the order of feature creation is very important when you use shell.

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1. Choose Shell from the SOLID menu, or choose Insert > Shell.
2. The system displays the feature creation dialog box. If desired, select the optional element Spec Thick
to specify thicknesses individually. Click Define.
3. Select a surface or surfaces to be removed. When you have finished, choose Done Refs from the
FEATURE REFS menu.
4. Enter the thickness of the wall. This thickness applies to all surfaces except those to which you assign a
different thickness.
5. If you chose the Spec Thick element, Pro/ENGINEER displays the SPEC THICK menu, which lists the
following options:
- Set ThicknssSet thicknesses for the individual surfaces.
- Reset to DefReset the surfaces to the default thickness.
Choose Set Thicknss. Select a surface and enter the thickness. Continue this process until you have
specified all the surfaces you want. When you have finished, choose Done from the SPEC THICK menu.
6. To create the shell, select OK from the dialog box (see the following figure). If you entered a positive
value for the thickness, material will be removed, leaving the shell thickness "inside" the part.
However, if you entered a negative value, the shell thickness is added to the "outside" of the part.

Example: Creating a Shell


The following figure shows a sample part to be shelled.
Draw a Thru hole.

Shell created around all existing features with constant thickness.

Reorder the hole to come after the shell.

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Restrictions
Note the following restrictions on creating shell features:
You cannot add shells to any part that has a surface that moves from tangency to a point.
You cannot select a surface to be removed that has an adjacent surface to which it is tangent.
You cannot select a surface to be removed that has a vertex created by the intersection of three curved
surfaces.
If the part has a corner between more than three surfaces, the shell feature may be geometrically
undefined; in this case, Pro/ENGINEER highlights the trouble area. The surface to be removed must be
surrounded by edges (a fully revolved surface of revolution is not valid) and the surfaces that intersect
the edge must form an angle through the solid geometry of less than 180 degrees. As long as this
condition is met, you can pick all the sculpted surfaces as the surface to be removed.
When you select surfaces that have other surfaces tangent to them for independent thickness, all
surfaces that are tangent must have the same thickness, or the shell feature fails. For example, if you
shell a part that contains a hole and you want the thickness of the hole wall to be different from the
overall thickness, you must pick both surfaces (cylinders) that make up the hole, then offset them the
same distance.
By default, a shell creates geometry with constant wall thickness. If the system cannot create a constant
thickness, the shell feature fails.

To Create a Pipe
The pipe feature is a three-dimensional centerline that represents the centerline of a pipe.
Given the diameter of a pipe (and, for a hollow pipe, the wall thickness), a pipe connects selected datum
points either with a combination of straight lines and arcs of specified bend radius, or a spline.
After the pipe feature has been created, you can determine its length by using Info from the toolbar.
Before you start to create a pipe feature, reference datum points must already exist.
1. Choose PART (or ASSEMBLY) > Feature > Create > Solid > Pipe, or choose Insert > Advanced >
Pipe.
2. Choose from the following option pairs:
- GeometryCreate a pipe feature with a hollow or solid geometry.
- No geometryCreate the pipe trajectory only.
- HollowCreate a hollow pipe with a specified wall thickness.
- SolidCreate a pipe with solid geometry (a rod).
- Constant RadThe bend radius for all arc segments of the pipe will be the same.
- Multiple RadThe bend radius for each arc segment is specified and can be modified separately.
3. Choose Done from the OPTIONS menu.

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4. If you selected Hollow, enter the values for the outside diameter and wall thickness in response to the
prompts.
5. The system displays the CONNECT TYPE menu, allowing you to add, delete, and insert points to
redefine a pipe trajectory, as well as specify tangency to a linear trajectory.
6. You can create the pipe trajectory by connecting the datum points. One of the CONNECT TYPE menu
options can be used interchangeably on the same pipe to construct the trajectory. The options are as
follows:
- SplineCreate the trajectory as a three-dimensional spline passing through the datum points.
- Single RadCreate the trajectory by connecting datum points with alternating straight lines and
arcs with a constant radius, starting and ending with straight lines. The datum points are connected
with straight lines, then the breakpoints are filleted with the arcs of the specified bend radius.
- Multiple RadCreate the trajectory by connecting datum points with alternating straight lines
and arcs with a variable radius, starting and ending with straight lines. The datum points are
connected with straight lines, then the breakpoints are filleted with the arcs of the specified bend
radii.
You can connect datum points in a datum point array using one of the CONNECT TYPE menu options:
- Single PointSelect individual datum points. These points can have been created individually or
as part of a datum point array.
- Whole ArrayConnect in consecutive order all the points in a datum point array.
7. You can add, delete, or insert points while creating or redefining the pipe feature using the following
options:
- Add PointAdd to the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end through
which the curve will pass.
- Delete PointDelete from the definition of the curve an existing point, vertex, or curve end
through which the curve currently passes.
- Insert PointInsert a point between already selected points, vertices, and curve ends. This
modifies the curve definition to pass through the inserted point. The system prompts you to select a
point or vertex before which to insert.
8. Use one of the techniques below to complete the creation of the pipe trajectory, depending on the
option you chose:
- SplineStart picking points; the system connects them with a spline.
- Single RadPro/ENGINEER prompts you to enter a bend radius value after you have selected the
third datum point of the trajectory. The system uses this radius for all the other bends in the current
pipe feature.
- Multiple RadPro/ENGINEER prompts you to enter a radius value for each bend defined by
three consecutive points. The SEL VALUE menu lists all the existing radius values for this pipe.
Either select one of the listed values, or choose the New Value option and enter the new value.
- Spline (alternating with either Single Rad or Multiple Rad)Create a trajectory for the first
option, then the other. Connect the trajectory points accordingly.
Note: As you select datum points, the system constructs segments of the pipe feature. If a segment
cannot be constructed, Pro/ENGINEER ignores the last datum point selection.
9. When you have finished creating the trajectory, choose Done.

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Example: Pipe
Hollow pipe feature with geometry

Creating a Pipe Feature in Assembly Mode


Perspective view

Side view

216

Part

Pipes
When the pipe has been created, you can modify the diameter, wall thickness (if any), and bend radii.
You can redefine the feature attributes by toggling between the following OPTION menu options:
- Geometry and No geometryIf you choose Geometry, Pro/ENGINEER constructs the pipe
feature with hollow or solid geometry. If you choose No geometry, the system constructs the pipe
trajectory with no hollow or solid geometry.
- Hollow and Solid.
You cannot redefine the pipe trajectory type. In addition, you cannot toggle between the following pipe
attributes:
- Line/Arc and Spline
- Constant Rad and Multiple Rad
You can redefine the feature references. When you choose References from the REDEFINE menu,
Pro/ENGINEER redisplays the CONNECT TYPE and GET SELECT menus.
Note: You can insert datum points as you redefine a pipe feature. To do this, the datum points must be
older than the pipe feature. If they are not, you can reorder them.

Creating Pipes in Assembly Mode


You can construct pipes in Assembly mode as either a part feature or an assembly feature.
When you create a pipe as a part feature in Assembly mode, you can use datum points on other parts.
However, when you attempt to retrieve and regenerate the model in Part mode, the system issues a warning
if some of the datum points belong to other parts.
Although the system displays the pipe trajectory, it will not show the "external" datum points. To resolve
the conflict, you can change the pipe trajectory in Part mode by modifying the remaining datum points.
A pipe can also be an Assembly feature, although it will have no geometry. The process of creating an
Assembly pipe feature is the same as described previously, but the system does not display the Geometry
and No geometry options.

Creating a Part Consisting Only of a Pipe Feature


To create a part consisting only of a pipe feature, start with three default datum planes, create a datum point
array, then create a pipe.

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Creating Pipe Connections


For two separate pipes to be connected without creating an unattached feature, you must align their
segments.

How to Create Pipe Connections


1. Create both datum point arrays using the same coordinate system.
2. Create an intermediate one-point array using that coordinate system.
3. Write relations to determine coordinates of the intermediate point, relative to those of its neighbors. For
instance, in the example below, the relations are as follows:
DX6 = (DX2 + DX3) / 2
DY6 = (DY2 + DY3) / 2
DZ6 = (DZ2 + DZ3) / 2
To find the dimension symbols corresponding to the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the points, use the Info
option.
4. Create the pipes, using the intermediate point as the last point in one pipe and the first in another.
5. Regenerate the model.

Compound pipe
1

3
4

1
2
3
4

First array
Intermediate point, located on the line connecting points 2 and 3
Second array
First pipe created through points 0, 1, 2, and 6 with bend radius R1; second pipe created through points
6, 3, 4, and 5 with bend radius R2

Specifying Part Accuracy for Pipes


The part accuracy value is very important, especially when you are creating long, thin pipes.

Creating Pipes with Multiple Radii


If you create a pipe with multiple radii, make sure all the radial values are different. Otherwise, the system
creates only one dimension for equal radii and you will not be able to control them individually.
If equal radii are required, modify the pipe after it has been created.

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About Sketched Cosmetic Features


Sketched cosmetic features are "drawn" on the surface of a part. They include such things as company
logos or serial numbers that are stamped on an object.
Sketched cosmetic features are also used to define the boundaries of a region for FEM partial loads. Other
features can not reference the cosmetic feature (dimensions, Use Edge, and so on).
Sketched cosmetic features do not have to be regenerated or dimensioned. However, when in a nonparametric state, their section or location can not be modified.
If you want a non-parametric section and you dimension the section anyway, you can use Sketcher mode to
modify the shape of the feature. Then delete all the dimensions before you choose Done. When the system
prompts that the section is unresolved, enter "yes" to continue.
Unlike other features, cosmetic features can have a line style. You can use the Cosm Font option from the
GEOM TOOLS menu to set the color, font, and style of the feature.

Each individual geometry segment of the feature, whether a single feature or a pattern, can be set to a line
style; they do not all have to be the same.
When you redefine a cosmetic feature, the line style can not be changed. If the line style does not have the
default width, or if it uses a user-defined font, it is replaced with the appropriate default values.

Regular Section Sketched Cosmetic Feature


A regular section cosmetic feature stays right where you sketch it, whether "in space" or on a part surface.
It is a flat feature.
Regular section cosmetic features can be cross-hatched when they are created. The cross-hatching is
displayed in all modes, but is modifiable only in Drawing mode. In Part and Assembly mode, the crosshatch will be displayed at 45.
If you create a cosmetic feature as a pattern, any changes to a member of the pattern, including cross-hatch
modification, also changes every other member of the pattern.

To Create a Regular Section Cosmetic Feature


1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Feature > Create > Cosmetic > Sketch, or Insert > Cosmetic > Sketch.
Choose Regular Sec, and Xhatch or No Xhatch.
Set up sketching references and sketch the feature. Choose Done when finished.
The system displays the cosmetic feature in cyan. If you selected Xhatch, the cross-hatch is displayed
in yellow.

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Example: Creating a Regular Section Cosmetic


Feature
The following figure illustrates a patterned cosmetic feature with cross-hatching.

To Create a Projected Section Cosmetic Feature


Projected section cosmetic features are projected onto a single part surface; they can not cross part surfaces.
Projected sections cannot be cross-hatched or patterned.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Cosmetic from the FEAT CLASS menu, then Sketch from the COSMETIC menu.
Choose Project Sec and Done.
Select the surfaces onto which the feature will be projected and choose Done Select and Done Refs.
Set up the sketching plane.
Specify section references, sketch the section, and choose Done.

Example: Creating a Projected Section Cosmetic


Feature
The following figure illustrates a sketched cosmetic feature that is projected.

a.
b.
c.

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Sketched section
Surface for projection
Resulting feature

Part

About Cosmetic Threads


A cosmetic thread is a cosmetic feature that represents the diameter of a thread. It is displayed in magenta.
Unlike other cosmetic features, you cannot modify the line style of a cosmetic thread, nor are threads
affected by hidden line display settings in the ENVIRONMENT menu. Threads are created with the default
tolerance setting of limits.
Cosmetic threads can be external or internal, and blind or through. You create cosmetic threads by
specifying the minor or major diameter (for external and internal threads, respectively), starting surface,
and thread length or ending edge.
For a starting surface, you can select a quilt surface, regular Pro/ENGINEER surface, or split surface (such
as a surface that belongs to a revolved feature, chamfer, round, or swept feature). For an "up to" surface,
you can select any solid surface or a datum plane.
Note: A thread that uses a depth parameter (a blind thread) cannot be defined from a non-planar surface.
A blind external cosmetic thread fails if the minor diameter is equal to the diameter of the placement
surface.
The following table lists the parameters that can be defined for a thread at its creation, or later when the
thread is added. In this table, "pitch" is the distance between two threads.
PARAMETER NAME

PARAMETER VALUE

PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION

MAJOR_DIAMETER

Number

Thread major diameter

THREADS_PER_INCH

Number

Threads per inch (1/pitch)

THREAD FORM

String

Thread form

CLASS

Number

Thread class

PLACEMENT

Character

Thread placement
(A-external, B-internal)

METRIC

TRUE/FALSE

Thread is metric

You can manipulate thread parameters as you can manipulate other user-defined parametersyou can add,
modify, delete, or display them using options from the MODEL PARAMS menu.
To access the MODEL PARAMS menu, choose Parameters from the appropriate SETUP menu, then choose
Feature from the OBJ PARAMS menu and select a thread to have its parameters modified.

To Create Cosmetic Threads


You can create cosmetic threads using cylinders, splines, and non-normal planes as the references.
1. Choose Feature > Create > Cosmetic > Thread, or Insert > Cosmetic > Thread. Pro/ENGINEER
displays the COSMETIC THREAD dialog box that lists the required elements for the threadThread
Surf, Start Surf, Direction, Depth, Major Diam, and Note Params.
2. Select the cylindrical thread surface.
3. Select the starting surface of the cosmetic thread.
4. Pro/ENGINEER displays a red arrow that indicates the direction of feature creation. Choose Flip, if
necessary, then Okay.
5. The system displays the SPEC TO menu with the options Blind, UpTo Pnt/Vtx, UpTo Curve, and
UpTo Surface. Choose one of the options, then Done. If you select
UpTo Surface, you can select a solid surface or datum plane, or you can create a datum plane "on-thefly".
6. The system then prompts for the necessary depth information, depending on which option you chose.

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For example, if you chose Blind, the system prompts for the depth.
7. Enter the diameter of the thread. The system displays a default value of the diameter of the cylinder.
8. Whether a thread is external or internal is determined by the geometry of the thread surface. If it is a
shaft, the thread is external; if it is a hole, the thread is internal.
9. For an internal thread, the default diameter value is 10% larger than the hole diameter. For an external
thread, the default diameter value is 10% smaller than the shaft.
10. Pro/ENGINEER displays the FEAT PARAM menu with the options Retrieve, Save, Mod Params, and
Show. If desired, select one of these options. Choose Done/Return.
11. If you are satisfied with the definition of the thread, click OK in the dialog box.

Creating Cosmetic Threads


The parameters file lists all the information on the thread parameters. You can edit the parameter file as
needed. For example, the system prompts you twice for information about the diameter. One benefit of this
redundancy is that you can place a metric thread on an English unit part, and vice versa.
Note the following:
Options that can be specified in both the parameter file and the creation user interface are displayed
with the values from the creation user interface by default. If you change these values, or if you read in
another parameter file, these new values remain in the file. However, the values in the creation user
interface remain unchanged. For example, if you specified a thread diameter of 2.5, then change the
parameter file so the diameter is 3.5, the thread diameter remains 2.5. Note that if you modify the
values in the parameter file, they lose their associativity with the model.
The associativity between the parameter file and the creation user interface exists only during feature
creation. After you accept the default values, or make changes in the parameter file, these values remain
the same until you select the option
Note Params from the SEL ELEMENTS file. Even if you redefine the feature and the diameter or the
thread type, the parameter file remains unchanged unless you manually change it.
Pro/ENGINEER calculates the THREAD PLACEMENT value in the parameter file based on whether
the thread is external (the thread surface geometry is a shaft) or internal (the thread surface geometry is
a hole).
The system displays the values of the feature in the dialog box, which may not be the same as the
values in the parameter file. However, if you choose the Feat Info option, Pro/ENGINEER displays
both the values you specified during feature creation and the values in the parameter file.

Example: Creating Cosmetic Threads


The following figures illustrates "blind" and "through" thread features.
Blind Thread
a
c

a.

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Surface

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b. Thread surface
c. Length
Through Thread
a
b

a. Surface
b. Thread surface
c. Ending edge+
Sample threads appear in the following figures.
Internal thread from the round up to the chamfer

External thread from the round up to the chamfer

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Creating Custom Cosmetic Threads


A thread is a grouped cosmetic feature. You can create your own (custom) thread by creating a new group.
After the custom thread exists, you can step through the appropriate directory path to reach it. However, the
menu option "UP" is not available for custom cosmetic threads.
To create a cosmetic thread as a UDF, set the configuration file option "allow_udf_style_cosm_threads" to
"yes".
To create a custom cosmetic thread, create a UDF and store it in a custom directory in the same path as the
external and internal directories: <loadpoint>/intudfs/threads. You can then select this group using the
option Search/Retr.
Note: Custom cosmetic threads stored in the loadpoint may be preserved during a system update
installation. Therefore, be sure to back up the custom cosmetic thread directory before updating an
installation.
The benefit of using a UDF as a thread feature is that thread parameters can be assigned to a cosmetic
thread. These parameters can then be shown in a drawing by choosing Detail, Show, Note, Feat & View to
select a feature in a picked view.
To include thread parameters in an assembly drawing, you must add the part that contains the thread to the
drawing.

To Create Custom Cosmetic Threads


1. Create a simple part on which you want to create the thread. For example, extrude a cylinder, then
extrude a radial hole through it.
2. Create an extruded surface that completely goes through the solid material, using a circle as its section.
This will be the main feature of the thread.
Note: When you create the surface features, try to pick the minimum number of references to make a
simpler UDF.
3. Create a surface copy feature using the SURF FORM Copy option to copy the surface whose profile you
want to match. If this thread is being created on an existing hole, use the Fill option from the SRF
GATHER menu when you copy the surface to fill in the hole. Choose Loops from the GATHER FILL
menu, then pick the edge of the hole on the surface.
4. Create a surface TRIM feature, choosing Use Quilt from the SOLID OPTS menu as the trim type. Pick
the thread as the surface to trim and the copied surface as the surface to create the trim.
5. Group the surface features together in a UDF.

About User-Defined Features


User-defined features can be subordinate or standalone. Consider the following definitions:
SubordinateA subordinate UDF gets its values directly from the original model at run time, so the
latter must be present for the subordinate UDF to function. If you make any changes to the dimension
values in the original model, they are automatically reflected in the UDF.
A model can have more than one subordinate UDF associated with it. Items in the family table of a
subordinate UDF show the identifiers and symbols from the original model.
StandaloneA standalone UDF copies all the original model information into the UDF file. Because of
this, a standalone UDF requires more storage space than a subordinate UDF. If you make any changes
to the reference model, they are not reflected in the UDF.
When you create a standalone UDF, you have the option of creating a reference part by copying the
original part from which the UDF is derived. The reference part has the same name as the UDF, with
the extension _gp. For example, if you name a UDF radial_holes, the reference part is named
radial_holes_gp.prt. A reference part displays UDF references and elements through the original
features.

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Required Information for UDFs


Each UDF consists of selected features, all their associated dimensions, any relations between the selected
features, and a list of references for placing the UDF on a part. The UDF dialog box provides a running
status of these UDF elements during UDF creation and modification.
Note: Reference dimensions, geometric tolerances, and surface finishes will not appear in any group
instance, so you do not need to place them in the generic features.
Follow these recommendations for creating a UDF:
Make sure you have the desired dimensioning scheme.
Provide the necessary relations between the defining features before you create the UDF. For example,
a simple relation was added to the pattern shown in the figure above before the UDF was created. When
you enter the number of instances in the pattern, the features are always spaced evenly. If a relation
contains external dimensions (external to the features you are referencing), you can copy them by
defining the Ext Symbols element when you create the UDF.
Although a reference part is not required for a standalone UDF, it is useful to have a reference part
displayed when you place a UDF. The system highlights the dimensions to be entered and the reference
information at the appropriate times during the UDF placement. If you have no reference part, the
number of UDF elements you can modify is limited.

Restrictions on UDFs
Consider the following restrictions when working with UDFs:
When creating a UDF or copying features, you cannot mix features from the merged geometry group
(created with the By Copy option) with features outside of this group.
Parameters not used in relations are not copied with UDFs to another part.
A UDF created in Part mode can be used in Assembly mode to create assembly features, as long as that
UDF does not contain features that are not allowed for assembly features (such as rounds).
When you copy a group with an advanced round which contains user-defined transitions, the system
removes user-defined transitions from the resulting feature. Redefine the round transitions in the new
feature, as appropriate.

Dimension Types
You can create a UDF with the following dimension types:
Variable dimensionsDimensions for which you will enter values when you place the UDF in a part.
Invariable dimensionsDimensions that you will not change when you place the UDF in a part.
Table-driven dimensionsDimensions and dimension tolerances for which values are given in a family
table. Every instance in the family table has its own dimension values.

To Create a UDF (basic)


1. Choose UDF Library from the FEAT menu. The UDF menu lists the following options:
- CreateAdd a new UDF to the UDF library.
- ModifyModify an existing UDF. If there is a reference part, the system displays the UDF in a
separate part window. This option is not available in Assembly mode.
- ListList all the UDF files in the current directory.
- DbmsPerform database management functions for the current UDF.
- IntegrateResolve the differences between the source and the target UDFs.
2. Enter a name for the UDF.
3. Choose one of the following options in the UDF OPTIONS menu, followed by Done:
- Stand AlonePro/ENGINEER copies all the required information to the UDF. Respond to the
prompt whether to include a reference part.

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- SubordinatePro/ENGINEER copies most of the information from the original part at run time.
Notes:
- A standalone UDF cannot have an assembly as a reference model, but a subordinate UDF can.
- Punch and Notch UDFs (Pro/SHEETMETAL) cannot be subordinate.
4. The system displays the UDF feature creation dialog box with the following elements:
- FeaturesSelect features to include in the UDF.
- Ref PromptsEnter prompts for specifying placement references. The system will print these
prompts to guide you when you place the UDF.
- Var ElementsSpecify feature elements that you want to be able to redefine when you place the
UDF in a part.
- Var Dims(Optional) Select dimensions that you want to modify when you place the UDF in a
part and enter prompts for them.
- Dim Prompts(Appears if Var Dims is defined) Select dimensions whose prompts you want to
modify and enter new prompts for them.
- Dim Values(Optional) Select a dimension that belongs to the UDF and enter its new value.
- Family Table(Optional) Create a family table of UDFs.
- Units(Optional) Change the current units.
- Ext Symbol(Optional) Include external dimensions and parameters in the UDF.
5. Choose the Features element and Define from the dialog box.
6. Pro/ENGINEER displays the UDF FEATS menu, which lists the following options:
- AddAdd a feature to the UDF.
- RemoveRemove a feature from the UDF.
- ShowHighlight all the features in the UDF.
- InfoList all the features in the UDF in the Information Window.
7. Choose Add from the UDF FEATS menu.
8. Using the SELECT FEAT menu, select the features to add to the UDF. When you have finished, choose
Done from the SELECT FEAT menu and Done/Return from the UDF FEATS menu.
9. Enter the prompts for the references used by the selected features. The system highlights each reference
and asks you to enter the prompt. For example, if you enter [bottom surface] for the highlighted
surface, then when you place the UDF, the system will prompt you, "Select the bottom surface."
When you specify a prompt for a placement reference that is used by more than one feature in the UDF,
the system lets you specify either single or multiple prompts for this reference. Choose the desired
option from the PROMPTS menu and then select Done:
- SingleSpecify a single prompt for the reference used in several features. When the UDF is
placed, the prompt appears only once, but the reference you select for this prompt applies to all
features in the group that use the same reference.
- MultipleSpecify an individual prompt for each feature that uses this reference. If you select
Multiple, the system highlights each feature that uses this reference, so you can enter a different
prompt for each of them.
10. After you have entered all the prompts, the system displays the MOD PRMPT and SET PROMPT menus
so you can change any prompt as follows:
Use Next and Previous from the MOD PRMPT menu to select the prompt you want to change, and enter
the new prompt instead.
To change a single prompt (specified for the placement reference used in several features) into multiple
prompts, find a prompt that you want to change, choose Multiple, and enter an individual prompt for
each feature, as prompted by the system.
11. If you are satisfied with the prompts, choose Done/Return from the SET PROMPT menu.
12. The required elements in the UDF dialog box have been defined. You can complete the creation of the
UDF by choosing Done/Return from the UDF menu and then clicking OK in the UDF dialog box, or
define any optional elements as described in the following sections.

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To Define Variable Elements in the UDF


When you create a UDF, you can specify feature elements (for example, attributes or a section of a
particular feature) that you want to redefine when you place the UDF.
Note: As an alternative to defining variable elements, you can skip references during the placement of the
UDF, and the system will ask you to redefine the features that have missing references.
1. Select the Var Elements element in the dialog box and click Define.
2. Select a feature that belongs to the UDF for which you want to specify variable elements.
3. The system displays the SEL ELEMENT menu, which lists the elements of the selected feature. Place a
check mark in front of the elements you want to define as variable, then choose Done.
4. When you finish selecting variable elements, choose Done Sel from the GET SEL menu.

To Define Variable Dimensions in the UDF


You can select dimensions that you may want to modify when you place the UDF.
1. Select the Var Dims element and Define in the dialog box.
2. The VAR DIMS menu appears with the following options:
- AddAdd one or more dimensions to those that are variable. Choose the Add Dims option to
select or show the dimensions, and choose Done/Return when you have selected all the
dimensions.
- RemoveChange the variable dimensions to be invariable. Choose the Remove Dims option to
select or show the dimensions, then choose Done/Return.
- ShowHighlight all the variable dimensions in the reference color.
3. To add a variable dimension, choose Add.
4. Specify the selection method by choosing one of the options in the ADD DIMS menu:
- Select DimSelect one of the UDF dimensions.
- Select AllSelect all the UDF dimensions.
- Show AllHighlight all the invariable UDF dimensions in the reference color.
5. After you have selected dimensions, choose Done/Return from the ADD DIMS menu.
6. If you want to remove a variable dimension, choose Remove from the VAR DIMS menu. Specify the
selection method by choosing one of the options in the REMOVE DIMS menu:
- Select DimSelect one of the UDF dimensions.
- Select AllSelect all the UDF dimensions.
- Remove LastChange the last variable dimension selected to be invariable.
Select dimensions and choose Done/Return from the REMOVE DIMS menu.
7. Enter prompts for variable dimensions.

To Activate Pro/PROGRAM in the UDF


Pro/PROGRAM is available only for subordinate UDFs.
In your Pro/PROGRAM design, include only features needed to define the UDF. You can add any standard
Pro/PROGRAM control statements.
1. Select the Pro/PROGRAM element in the UDF dialog box and click Define.
2. The system displays the PROGRAM menu, which lists the following options:
- Show DesignShow the current design in an Information Window.
- Edit DesignModify the design with the system editor. The GET INPUT menu allows you to
choose the source of values for the Pro/PROGRAM inputs for the model. Choose Current Vals to
use the current values, Enter to enter new values from the keyboard, or Read File to read in new
values from a file. The system then adds the Pro/PROGRAM design for the UDF features to the
model. If a Pro/PROGRAM already exists in the model, the system integrates the changes.
Choose one of the options, then Done/Return.

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When you add an instance of a subordinate UDF on a model, the system copies any Pro/PROGRAM
control statements that affect the UDF features into the model, and executes the program. Pro/ENGINEER
also copies INPUT statements (see the Fundamentals manual). You copy relations in the same way as
regular UDFs.
Note: The control statements are copied only once at placement time. They are not recopied on
regeneration, even if the group is UDF-driven.

To Define External Symbols


You can define any symbols in the group relations (dimensions and parameters) that are external to the
group being defined.
1. Select the Ext Symbols element in the UDF dialog box and click Define.
2. The system displays the EXT SYMBOLS menu, which lists the following options:
- AddAdd the undefined external symbols to the UDF.
- RemoveRemove the defined external symbols from the UDF.
- ModifyModify the defined external symbols in the UDF.
- ShowShow the external symbols and their corresponding status in an Information Window.
3. Choose Add to add a symbol.
4. The system also displays the SEL SYMBOLS menu, which lists the following options:
- SelectSelect the symbols from a data menu.
- From RelsUse all the external symbols in the relations.
- EnterEnter the name of an external symbol at the input prompt.
Choose Select.
5. Pro/ENGINEER displays the EXTERNAL menu, which lists all the external symbols in the UDF being
created, along with the options Select All and Unsel All.
Place a check mark in front of the external symbols that should be defined, then choose Done Sel from
the EXTERNAL menu.
6. Pro/ENGINEER displays the SYMBOL ACTION menu, which lists the following options:
- ConvertConvert the external symbol to Pro/PROGRAM input.
- ReplaceReplace the symbol with an alternate symbol at the time of group placement.
Select the action for the specified symbol, then choose Done.
7. At the prompt, enter the alternate name for the symbol.
8. For each external dimension that is being defined, the system highlights the external symbol in the
reference part and prompts you for a new prompt to be displayed for the dimension (or parameter) when
you place the group. Enter the prompt for the external symbol.
During placement of the group, after you have resolved the placement references, any external symbols that
have been previously defined in the UDF are highlighted in the reference part, one by one. Pro/ENGINEER
prompts you to select the alternate dimension or parameter in the target part.
External symbols that were defined with the Pro/PROGRAM Convert option during creation are converted
to Pro/PROGRAM input dimensions or parameters

To Use the DBMS Menu


The Dbms option in the UDF menu displays the DBMS menu, enabling you to perform standard database
management commands specifically on UDFs. The DBMS menu lists the following options:

SaveSave the UDF to disk.


Save AsSave a copy of the UDF under a new name.
BackupSave the UDF to a specific directory on disk.
RenameChange the name of a UDF object.
EraseErase the UDF from memory.

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EraseNotDispErase all the objects that are not being displayed in the current session.
PurgePurge all previous copies from the disk.
InstDbmsGenerate an instance index file for UDF instances regenerated and stored in the current
directory. See Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER for more information.
Delete AllDelete the UDF from memory and disk.
Note: When you use DBMS options, consider their effects on UDFs. When UDF-driven groups are present
in your part, renaming and deleting removes needed references.

To Create a UDF Library


Before you create a UDF, you may want to create a UDF library directory. By default, Pro/ENGINEER
creates the UDF in the current directory.
If you create a UDF library directory, make sure all users have Read access permission. When you create a
UDF using the Create > User Defined command, copy the UDF files, name.gph and name_gp.prt, to this
UDF library directory.
To access the UDF library directory in Pro/ENGINEER, specify the directory name with the configuration
file option "pro_group_dir".
You can set up the directory tree to support the UDF library hierarchy. You can easily "walk through" this
directory tree to search for a specific UDF to place on a part as a group. However, when you retrieve a part
with a dependent group, the group file must be located in the directory set by the "pro_group_dir" option.

Placing a UDF in a Model


When you place a UDF, you copy the features into your model. The copied features become a group.

Types of Groups Created from a UDF


Groups created from a UDF can be as follows:
- Independent groupsWhen you place a UDF on a part, you can create the resulting group as being
"independent" of any changes to the UDF. The system copies all the required UDF values into the
part, along with the UDF.
- UDF-driven groupsWhen you place a UDF on a part, you can create the resulting group as being
a UDF-driven group. Changes to the fixed dimensions of the UDF cause a change to the group
when you choose Update from the GROUP menu.
When a UDF is subordinate, a UDF-driven group is indirectly driven by the original model of the
UDF. When you retrieve the part with a UDF-driven group, the variables are also updated.
Note: UDF-driven groups update dimension values only if the features included in the UDF have not
changed since the UDF was placed. If features are added to or removed from a UDF, updating the UDF in a
model does not add or remove the features. To add or remove features to/from a UDF, make a copy of the
old UDF, rename it, and then recreate this new UDF in all models in which the old UDF was placed.

To Change the Group Type


If you no longer want a UDF-driven group feature to be UDF-driven,
1. Choose Disassociate from the GROUP menu.
2. Select the UDF-driven groups to make independent.
3. Choose Done/Return when you have finished.
If, as variable elements, you redefine all the dimensions of a UDF-driven group, the group is no longer
UDF-driven. Pro/ENGINEER disassociates the group and issues a message stating it has done so.

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To Place a UDF (basic)


The following procedure explains how to place a UDF:
1. Choose Create from the FEAT menu, User Defined from the FEAT CLASS menu, and retrieve a UDF
to place as a group by using the GROUP RETRIEVE menu
...or...
Choose Group from the FEAT menu, Create from the GROUP menu, From UDF Lib from the
CREATE GROUP menu, and retrieve a UDF using the UDF RETRIEVE menu.
2. A subordinate UDF always displays the original model. If a standalone UDF has a reference part, the
system displays it in a subwindow if you answer yes to the prompt to retrieve the reference part. If the
UDF has a family table, Pro/ENGINEER displays the RETR INST menu and the INSTANCES menu,
which lists the instances.
3. Choose the Retr Inst option
4. The system displays the PLACE OPTS menu. Choose Independent and specify a scaling option from
the middle portion of the menu, or choose UDF Driven, then Done. The PLACE OPTS menu lists the
following options:
- IndependentCopy all the required UDF values into the part to create a group that will be
independent of any changes to the UDF.
- UDF DrivenThe group remains driven by the UDF. The dimensions of a UDF-driven group
update either automatically whenever the model is retrieved, or when you choose Update from the
GROUP menu. Because the variable dimensions of a group are not UDF-driven, they are unaffected
by any change to the dimensions of the UDF. In addition, variable elements are unaffected.
5. Specify the placement scale by choosing one of the options in the SCALE menu, followed by Done. The
SCALE menu options are as follows:
- Same SizeKeep the group the same size as when you created it, by rescaling the dimension
values while you place the UDF. This option converts dimensions as needed (for example,
millimeters to inches). This option is available only when the model and the group have different
units.
- Same DimsKeep the same numeric value for all the dimension values, regardless of any
difference in units for the model and the group. For example, the dimension 25 inches will become
25 millimeters.
- User ScaleScale all the dimensions by a scale factor you enter when prompted, but do not
change the units of the group.
6. If the UDF you are placing has variable dimensions, enter their values at the system prompt.
7. Select the display option for invariable dimensions by choosing an option from the DISP OPTION menu,
followed by Done. The DISP OPTION menu options are as follows:
- NormalCreate normal dimensions. You can then modify these dimension values to create a
unique version of the group.
- Read OnlyMake the dimensions read-only. You can display them, but cannot modify them.
- BlankBlank the dimensions so they cannot be displayed or modified in any mode. Be careful
using this option. The only way to retrieve the dimensions is to delete the group features and place
the UDF again.
8. Place the UDF by selecting placement references. When you place the UDF, you can skip some of the
placement references and redefine them later. As each placement prompt appears, select an action from
the WHICH REF menu:
- AlternateSelect a corresponding reference by picking on the model.
- SameUse the current reference. This option appears only if the group is placed in the same
model where it was originally created.
- SkipSkip the current reference and move on to the next one. Later, you must redefine the feature
that requires the current reference.
9. After you have either defined or skipped all the references, an Information Window appears with a list
of the skipped references. At this point you can do one of the following:

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- If you want to redefine the missing references, choose Confirm from the CONFIRMATION menu.
The system places you in the feature creation environment so you can redefine the feature element
that uses the skipped reference.
- If you do not want to redefine the missing references, choose Cancel from the CONFIRMATION
menu. The system displays the GP REFS menu. Place a check mark in front of the references that
you want to respecify and choose Done. The system brings up the SEL REF menu with the
Alternate and Skip options so you can resume the process of specifying the references that you
identified with the checkmarks.
Note: The Skip option is available for features created in Release 16.0 and later through the dialog user
interface.
10. After you complete the placement process, the GRP PLACE menu appears with the following options:
- RedefineRedefine the group references in the same way as you defined them. For more
information, see the following section.
- Show ResultPreview the geometry.
- InfoShow the current status of the group prompts.
11. If you are satisfied with the group placement, choose Done from the GRP PLACE menu. The system
creates the group.

To Redefine the References Element


1. When you redefine the References element of the group feature, the GR REFS menu appears with all
placement references listed according to their prompts.
2. As you move the cursor across the list of references (with the exception of skipped references), the
system highlights the corresponding reference geometry in both the model window and UDF
subwindow. A system message reports on each highlighting action, explaining the colors used.
3. Place a check mark in front of the references that you want to redefine.

To Define Skipped References


In order for the system to place the UDF correctly, you must define missing references by using the same
options that you used to specify this reference originally.
Typically, the system brings up the dialog box for the feature that uses the skipped reference. The dialog
box lists only elements with skipped references and variable elements.
Each skipped element has the status comment "References are missing." To define the skipped reference,
select the corresponding element from the feature dialog box and click Define.
Depending on the type of reference skipped, the procedure for defining skipped references follows one of
these scenarios:
The skipped reference is used by an element other than a sketched section
For the skipped reference, the system places you into the feature creation environment so you can
redefine the element that uses the skipped reference.
The skipped reference is a sketching plane or horizontal references of a section
If you must redefine a sketching plane or horizontal references, the system displays the dialog box for
the feature that used the skipped reference. From the dialog box, select the Section element and Define.
Choose Sketch Plane from the SECTION menu and define it as appropriate.
The skipped reference is used by a section (other than a sketching plane or horizontal reference)
If you must redefine a section reference (for example, edges used as dimensioning references), the
system displays the dialog box for the feature that used the skipped reference. Select the Section
element and Define from the dialog box. Choose the Sketch option from the SECTION menu; the part
reappears in the sketching view, and the SECTION PLACE menu appears with the following options:
- DragAndDropPlace the existing UDF section directly on the part by using the drag-and-drop
technique. After you select this option, a red outline of the section, attached to the cursor, appears
on the screen. Using the mouse, move the section to its new location and place it by pressing the

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left mouse button. Dimension the section to the part and regenerate it. To quit section placement,
press the middle mouse button.
Note: The DragAndDrop option is not available for the sections that are either fully aligned to part
geometry or created with the Use Edge option.
- Create NewDiscard the existing UDF section and create a new section. Confirm your intent by
choosing Confirm. The SKETCH menu appears and you can sketch a new section.
When you redefine a missing reference used by several features, consider the following:
If the skipped reference has a single prompt for all features, you must redefine this reference for each
feature where it is used. For example, if you use an edge to place a hole and a cut, and you have set up a
single prompt for both features, you must reselect the reference edge for both the hole and the cut if you
skip the edge reference when you place the group.
If the skipped reference has individual prompts for all features, you must redefine this reference only
for the feature where it was skipped.

To Resolve a Failed Regeneration


When placement of a UDF fails because of incorrect references, you can either redefine the failed features
or place the UDF incompletely by including only the fully defined or successful features.
If you place an incomplete UDF, the excluded (or incomplete) features are still listed as group members in
the Model Tree; however, they are marked as incomplete.
When you redefine the incomplete group to specify missing feature references, the properly redefined
features appear in the group.
Note: When a fully defined feature fails during placement, you can leave the group incomplete.

How to Resolve the Placement Failure


1. When the UDF placement fails, the system brings up the FAILED FEAT menu and shows the reason for
failure in the Message window.
2. Select an option from the FAILED FEAT menu, followed by Done. The options are:
- INFOObtain information about the features that could not be placed and reasons for failure. For
example, "Feature #12 (protrusion) failed regeneration. Could not determine feature depth."
- IncompleteMake the failed feature incomplete, and place the group without regenerating that
feature.
- Clip IncompleteMake the failed and all subsequent features incomplete, and place the group
without regenerating these features.
- Redefine UDFRedefine the group so all of its features can be placed.
3. The GRP PLACE menu appears so you can continue with the group placement.

Feature and Dimension Names in a Group


After you place the UDF in a new part, the system gives new names to the groups parameters according to
the consecutive sequence of dimension numbers of the part.
If the UDF has features or dimensions with user-defined names, these names will be preserved in the
resulting group.
If these names already exist in the destination model, the system places the group using default names.
You can view the original parameter names by choosing Info, Feat Infothe original names appear in
parentheses next to the new parameter names.

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About Local Groups


Local groups differ in the following ways from the groups defined from UDFs:
You cannot replace local groups.
When you create a local group, you do not give placement references. Local groups provide the only
way to collect several features to pattern in one operation as if they were a single feature.
When you create a local group, you must select the features in the consecutive sequential order of the
regeneration list. A quick way to do this is to select the intended group by range.
If there are features between the specified features in the regeneration list, Pro/ENGINEER asks if you
want to group all the features in between. If you do not want to group some of the features within the
sequential order, first reorder the features.
For example, you can select features 2, 3, and 4, but you cannot select features 2, 3, and 17. In this case,
reorder feature 17 to feature 4.
Features that are already in other groups cannot be grouped again.

To Create a Local Group


1. Choose Create from the GROUP menu and Local Group from the CREATE GROUP menu.
2. Select each feature to include in the local group.
...or...
Select the starting and ending features. Choose Done.
3. Answer yes to the prompt asking if you want to group all the features in between. If you answer no to
this prompt, the system does not create the local group.
Note: To create a local group of the Analysis type, you must have the appropriate license. When you select
features to include in the local group of the Analysis type, the Analysis feature must be the last item
selected.

Working with Groups


After you place a UDF on a part, all features that were copied from that UDF become a group. The
following feature operations treat groups as a single feature:
- Suppress
- Delete
- Layer
- Group/Pattern
- Ungroup
Note: To pattern a group with external references in Assembly mode, the parent assembly must be in
session.

Selecting a Group by Name


For operations such as Replace, Pattern, Unpattern, and Ungroup, you can select a group from the
Model Tree, or you can use the Sel By Menu option in the GET SELECT menu. When you choose Sel By
Menu, the SEL OPTIONS menu appears with the following options:
- GroupSelect the group name from the Group Names dialog box. When you move the cursor
over a group name in the dialog box, the group will highlight on the screen.
- FeaturesSelect the group by its ID, number, or name from the SPECIFY BY menu. You can also
select the last feature using this menu.

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Replacing a Group
After you placed the UDF, you can replace it with another one that has the same number of references and
lists them in the same sequence.
When you replace the group, the system suppresses the original group and keeps it in the model. The
suppressed groups are available for selection when you replace the group next time.
Children of the suppressed group are suppressed with the group. For example, when you replace a
patterned group, the pattern becomes inactive, and it becomes active when the original group is replaced
back.
In a group defined from a UDF that has a family table, you can replace any instance with any other instance
of the same family table.
Note the following restrictions:
Both groups must have the same number of prompts, type, and order of references. For example, a
group that uses a linearly placed hole can not be replaced with a group that uses a radially placed hole;
one has two references to edges or surfaces for linear dimensions, the other has one reference to axis for
rotational center and one reference to the edge or surface for angular dimension. These are not
compatible.
Groups with suppressed children cannot be replaced.
Local groups can not be replaced.

Deleting a Replacement Group


Deleting the active group from the part deletes all the associated groups.

To Replace a Group
Each time a group is replaced, Pro/ENGINEER keeps track of the group being replaced as it becomes
inactive and adds it to a list of inactive groups.
To replace one group with another or replace a group with an instance from a family table, follow these
steps:
1. From the GROUP menu, choose Replace.
2. Select the group feature to replace in the part using the SELECT FEAT menu.
3. Select the new UDF to place on the part to replace the group selected in Step 2. Choose Retrieve or
Search/Retr to retrieve a new UDF for placement, or choose PrevReplaced to select from the namelist
of the groups that has been previously replaced.
Note: If the group is table-driven, you must also select an instance.
4. If the old and new groups are interchangeable, the system proceeds with the selections for scale and
variable dimensions (if any).
5. If any features reference the group, the CHILD menu appears, which allows you to reroute, delete,
suspend, or suppress the child feature. In this case, the Suppress option means that Pro/ENGINEER
will make the child feature inactive, along with the group being replaced. As soon as you place the
group back, the system resumes the child feature.
6. The replaced group and its children (if suppressed) become inactive.

Replacement Conditions
The system always attempts replacement for group instances that are from the same family table. The
following examples illustrate how the system attempts replacement for groups that are not members of the
same table or that do not have a defined table.
The system attempts replacement when the types of references are similar. For example, the existing
group has the following references and prompts:
- edge"left edge"

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- surface"place surface"
- axis"Axis"
If the replacement group has the following references and prompts, Pro/ENGINEER replaces the
groups:
- edge"left edge"
- surface"place surface"
- axis"axis"
Replacement is not possible when the types of references are different. For example, the existing group
has the following references and prompts:
- edge"right"
- surface"left"
If the replacement group has the following references and prompts, Pro/ENGINEER does not replace
the groups:
- edge"right"
- edge"left"

To Pattern a Group
You can pattern groups created from UDFs and local groups using Pattern from the GROUP menu.
You can select all the dimensions in the selected group as incremental dimensions except those used to
create a feature pattern within the group. When you create a patterned group, one member represents the
whole group. When regenerating, however, Pro/ENGINEER regenerates all the features individually.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Pattern from the GROUP menu.


Using the SELECT FEAT menu, select the group to be patterned.
Create a pattern.
Specify the variable dimensions, increments, and number of instances.

Tip: Patterning a Group


When you pattern or copy a group, be careful which placement dimensions you select to increment or vary.
If a feature in a group references another for placement (for example, a chamfer references the edge of a
hole), you need to change only the placement dimensions of the referenced feature.
If you place features in a group separately, you must change the placement dimensions of each member.
Otherwise, features with unchanged dimensions will have several copies superimposed on each other.
A feature created using the Use Prev option (to select sketching and reference planes) has its own
dimension if the previous section plane has one. To pattern a group that includes this feature, you must
select and modify these dimensions.

To Use the GROUP Menu


Another way to copy features quickly, without having to specify all the references is to combine the
GROUP menu options Local Group, Pattern, Unpattern, and Ungroup.
To copy features using the GROUP menu options,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Pattern from the GROUP menu.


Select the group to be patterned.
Specify the variable dimensions, increments, and number of instances.
Choose Unpattern to remove the pattern setting for a family table generic part, then select the pattern.
Choose Ungroup to disassemble the groups into individual features and select each group instance.

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Rules for Patterning Groups


Remember the following rules when you work with groups and patterns:
If the features of a group reference a pattern, you can create a pattern of the group referencing that base
pattern (that is, a group reference pattern).
If patterned groups are unpatterned, each group member behaves like a group of copied features. For
dimension patterns, variable dimensions again become variable dimensions and can be modified
individually. Other dimensions are still shared by the group unless you ungroup them and make them
independently modifiable using the Make Indep option. You can delete an individual group to create
an irregular pattern-like setting.
You can not ungroup patterned groups. You must first unpattern the groups, then ungroup them. The
process of unpatterning and ungrouping features does not automatically give them individual
dimensions. The original parent dimensions selected for the group and pattern still control all the
features. To make them independently modifiable, use the Make Indep option.
You can not pattern a feature that belongs to a group pattern. The workaround is to modify the number
of group members to one, pattern the feature, then pattern the group again.
If you redefined a feature in a group pattern, the system will recreate the pattern and assign new IDs to
pattern instances. Children of the original pattern members will fail because they lost their references.
When you replace a patterned group, the pattern becomes inactive.

To Mirror the Model


All the geometry of a part can be mirrored at one time using the Mirror Geom option in the FEAT menu.
This is similar to copying geometry by reference. The Mirror Geom option creates a merge featurethe
mirrored geometry merged with the original geometry. Dimensions of a merge feature cannot be shown in
drawings.
To show the dimensions of features that are created by mirroring and copying,
1. Create the features instead using Copy, Mirror, and All Feat.

How to Mirror All Geometry at One Time and Create a Merge Feature
1. Choose Mirror Geom from the FEAT menu.
2. Select a plane about which to mirror.

Example: Mirroring the Model


Original part
a

a.

236

Mirror plane

Part

Original part mirrored once


b

a.
b.

Mirror plane
Cut added after mirror

Original part mirrored twice

Note: Mirroring coordinate systems follows the right hand rule. Pro/ENGINEER mirrors the x- and y-axes
of the coordinate system appropriately, then determines the Z-axis.

About Suppressing Individual Group Members


Beginning with Pro/ENGINEER release 2001 you can suppress individual features that are members of a
group without destroying (ungrouping) the group first. In order to suppress individual group members, you
must first set the configuration option del_gp_memb_ind to yes. If the configuration option is set to
no (the default setting), the system does not allow you to select individual group members from the Model
Tree or Graphics window.
When you suppress an individual group member (including a part or component), its children are
suppressed.
When you resume an entire group, any individual features that were suppressed separately are resumed
along with the rest of the group. For example, if you suppress an individual group member and then
suppress the entire group, when you resume the group, the entire group is displayed, including the feature
that was suppressed separately from the rest of the group.
Using Pro/PROGRAM to Manipulate Groups
All Pro/PROGRAM statements that are associated with a group member in existing models are modified to
be associated with its group header upon retrieval.

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Selecting Groups with Suppressed Group


Members
When you select a group name (group header), all of the members of that group will be affected by the
chosen operation. For example, if you select a group name to define a UDF, all suppressed group members
are included together with the unsuppressed member(s). They will later be placed as suppressed group
members if they are not activated by the UDF family table. The same is true when performing patterning
operations on groups. However, when you choose Info > Feature in the menu bar and then select a group
name (header), the system displays information about the group name, not the entire group. When you
select an individual group member, information about only that group member displays.

Tip: Manipulating Groups Within Family Tables


If you want to manipulate an entire group using a Family Table, you must add the group name (header) to
the Family Table. A group name is a separate feature that can be added individually. All features that
belong to a group in an existing Family Table are replaced with their group headers when they are
retrieved.

To Suppress Individual Group Members


Make sure you set the configuration option del_gp_memb_ind to yes before suppressing individual
group members. If the configuration option is set to no, the system will not allow you to select individual
group members.
1. Using the Model Tree or Query Select in the GET SELECT menu, select an individual feature that is
part of a group. The feature is highlighted in the Graphics window.
Note: You cannot select individual group members by clicking them in the Graphics window. If you
click on a feature that is part of a group, the entire group is selected.
2. Click Edit > Suppress, or click the right mouse button and then click Suppress in the shortcut menu.
3. In the Confirmation window that opens, click Yes to suppress the selected feature(s). The features are
suppressed from the display, and a black rectangle symbol appears in the Model Tree to the left of the
feature name, indicating its suppressed status. If you select a feature to suppress in error, click No to
cancel the suppression.
4. To resume the features immediately after suppression, click Edit > Undo Last on the menu bar, or
click Feature > Resume > Last Set on the PART or ASSEMBLY menu.
Note: If you suppress an individual feature that is part of a group and then suppress the entire group,
when you resume the group, the entire group is displayed. That is, the feature that was suppressed
separately is resumed along with the rest of the group.

To Resume Individual Group Members


Note: If you suppress an individual feature that is part of a group and then suppress the entire group, when
you resume the group, the entire group is displayed. That is, the feature that was suppressed separately is
resumed along with the rest of the group.
1. In the Model Tree, select the features you want to resume.
2. Click Edit > Resume, or right-click to display the shortcut menu and then click Resume. The selected
features are resumed.
To resume the features immediately after suppression, click Edit > Undo Last on the menu bar, or click
Feature > Resume > Last Set on the PART or ASSEMBLY menu.

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Part

Using Pro/PROGRAM to Suppress and Resume


Group Members
If you want to manipulate an entire group, you must associate your Pro/PROGRAM statements with a
group name (header) feature. All Pro/PROGRAM statements that are associated with a group member in
existing models are changed to be associated with its group header upon retrieval.

To Create a Cut or Slot


1. Choose Feature > Create > Cut (or Slot), or Insert > Cut.> Slot.
2. Choose the desired option from the SOLID OPTS menu.
3. Pro/ENGINEER displays the appropriate dialog box. Proceed creating the feature according to the
chosen form, and the solid or thin option.
Note: The Slot option on either the SOLID menu or the Insert > Cut menu is available when the
configuration file option allow_anatomic_features is set to yes.

To Create a Cut (streamlined)


Using a Sketched Datum Curve
1. Select a sketched datum curve.
2. Choose Insert > Cut > Extrude/Revolve. (If you choose Revolve, the datum curve must have an
associated centerline. If the section contains more than one centerline, then one must be declared an
axis of revolution.) A cut, created with blind depth or variable angle, will appear in the feature.
3. Use the handle to change the depth or angle.
Note: You can also modify the depth or angle by double-clicking on the dimension value and either
entering a new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.
4. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

Using a Datum Plane or Planar Surface


1. Select a datum plane or planar surface.
2. Choose Insert > Cut > Extrude/Revolve. The sketcher will open.
3. Sketch the section. (If you are creating a revolved cut, you must also sketch a centerline. If the section
contains more than one centerline, then one must be declared an axis of revolution.)
4. A cut, created with blind depth or variable angle, appears. Use the handle to change the depth or angle.
Note: You can also modify the depth or angle by double-clicking on the dimension value and either
entering a new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.
5. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

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Example: Specifying the Side for a Cut Feature


The flip arrow points toward the area to be removed. Use the Flip and Okay options in the SEL SIDE
menu to specify the side.
1

1 Flip arrow
Okay

Flip

Indicating the Location of a Cut


To create a cut to remove material, you use the same techniques as when you add material.
If you have sketched an open section, the system displays a red arrow indicating the side where material is
to be added or removed.
Use the Flip and Okay options in the SEL SIDE menu to specify the side.

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Part

About an Extruded Feature


The Extrude option in the SOLID OPTS menu creates a feature that is formed by projecting the section
straight away from the sketching plane.
You can also create a streamlined extrude feature by selecting its references and using the Extrude option
on the Insert > Protrusion menu.
It is the most basic and frequently-used form option.

To Create a Thin Extruded Feature


Choose SOLID > Protrusion > Extrude > Thin > Done.
Choose One Side or Both Sides.
Select a sketching plane and orient the section.
Sketch the feature section. Remember that thickness is being added automatically, so you can use a
simplified "stick figure" approach to the sketch.
5. Choose a thin feature direction using the THIN OPT menu.
6. Enter the thickness of the thin section.
7. Choose a depth option and enter a depth, if required.
Note: If an endpoint of the sketched feature terminates on a part vertex that causes ambiguity, you must
select the terminating edge or surface for the highlighted endpoint of the sketched section.
Otherwise, the thin feature will be terminated with its end face normal to the sketched sectionit will
not follow the part contour.

1.
2.
3.
4.

To Specify the Depth Attribute


When you define the Depth attribute of a feature (for example, a protrusion, cut, slot, hole, or surface
feature), the SPEC TO (or SPEC FROM) menu appears with the following options:
BlindEnter a dimension for the feature depth. You can then control the feature depth by changing the
depth dimension.
2 Side BlindFor a feature defined as Both Sides, enter a separate depth value for each side with
respect to the sketching plane.
Thru NextTerminate the feature at the next part surface.
Thru AllThe new feature intersects all surfaces.
Thru UntilExtend the feature until the intersection with the specified surface.
Pnt/VtxSpecify the depth up to a plane parallel to the sketching plane, and passing through the
selected datum point or vertex.
UpTo CurveSpecify the depth up to a plane parallel to the sketching plane, and passing through the
selected edge, axis, or datum curve.
UpTo SurfaceSpecify the depth up to a selected surface.
Notes:
- A blind feature has a user-defined depth dimension that governs its depth.
- A 2 Side Blind feature has two depth dimensions with respect to the sketching plane.
- In the special case of a sketched blind hole, the depth is indicated in the feature section.

The "Through" Options


The system creates a "through" feature from the placement surface until its intersection with the specified
termination surface.
Consider the following rules for using the through options:
- For all through intersections, the feature being created must lie entirely within the surface (or quilt)
on which it is terminated.

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241

- When you use the Thru Until option for an extruded feature, the feature cannot terminate on a
datum plane. Use the
UpTo Surface option to select the terminating datum.
- When you use the THRU UNTIL option for a blend, you can select a datum plane to terminate the
feature, but the datum plane must be parallel to the sketching plane.
- Protrusions created with the THRU NEXT option cannot terminate on a datum plane.
- Thru Next, Thru Until, and Thru All are not available when you create surface features.
- Thru All is available for protrusions only if the part has existing geometry.
Some tips for using the "through" options:
- Use a through option (Thru All, Thru Until, or Thru Next) when you want the feature to
terminate on a specified surface.
- Use Thru Next when the feature should stop at the first surface it reaches.
- Use Thru All when the feature should stop at the last surface it reaches.
- Use Thru Until when you want to pick the termination surface.
- Through features do not have a parameter associated with the extrusion depth. Modifying the
terminating surface alters the depth of the feature.

The "Up To" Options


The "up to" options are available for extruded (protrusions, cuts, and slots), revolved, and surface features.
When you use the UpTo Surface option, you can select an existing surface or create a datum plane.
Choose the desired method by selecting one of the following options:
- Select SurfSelect any part surface, quilt (composed of one or more surfaces), or datum plane.
- Make DatumCreate a datum plane be used as an Up To reference.
For solid features, you can select the surfaces of the following types:
- Another part surface, which need not be planar
- A datum plane, which need not be parallel to the sketching plane
- Quilt composed of one or more surfaces
When creating features in Assembly mode, you can select geometry of another component as references for
the "up to" options.
Using a quilt as the terminating surface allows you to create features intersecting with multiple surfaces.
This is very useful for creating patterns consisting of multiple terminating surfaces.

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Part

Example: Extruded Features


The following figures illustrate some sketched extruded features.
Closed section, multiple contours (Protrusion)
Before

After

Open section (Cut)


Before

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243

After

Location of a blind feature relative to the sketching plane


One side

Both sides

244

Part

Thru options for both sides


2

1
2
3
4

SPEC TO option Thru All


Direction of feature creation
Sketching plane
SPEC FROM option Thru Next

Valid depth options for removing material in holes, cuts, and slots

Placement surface

c
b
a
1

a.
b.
c.
1.
2.
3.

Part

Thru Next
Thru Until
Thru All
Next surface
Until surface (Blend) or UpTo surface (Extrude)
Thru All surface

245

Valid depth options for adding material


1

3
4
6

a.
b.
c.
d.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Blind
Thru Next
Thru Until
Thru All (Blend)
Placement surface
Next surface
From surface From To (Blend), or UpTo surface (Extrude)
To surface
Thru All surface
Until surface

Using a datum plane as an "up to" reference - using both sides and Up To Surface
Original part (sketch on datum plane)

1
2

From surface
Up To surface
Same view after feature creation

246

Part

Side View after feature creation


2
1

3
2

1
2
3

Sketching plane
Up To Surface
Feature created using Both Sides

To Create an Extruded Feature


1. Choose SOLID OPTS > Extrude > Done.
2. Specify the location of the extruded feature with respect to the sketching plane. The choices are as
follows:
- One SideSpecify the depth of the feature to one side of the sketching plane.
- Both SidesSpecify depth for both sides of the sketching plane separately.
3. Specify the sketching plane.
4. Specify the direction of feature creation.
5. Orient the sketching plane.
6. The system places you in Sketcher. Select model references for placing the section.
7. Sketch the section, then choose Done.
8. If prompted, specify the side to add or remove material using Flip and Okay.
9. Define the Depth element.
10. Click OK in the dialog box.

To Create an Extruded Feature (streamlined)


Using a Sketched Datum Curve
1. Select a sketched datum curve.
2. Choose Insert > Protrusion > Extrude. A protrusion from the sketched datum curve will appear, with
the Blind option as default. There will be a green handle to adjust the depth.
3. Use the depth handle to change the depth.
Note: You can also modify the depth by double-clicking on the dimension value and either entering a
new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.
4. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

Using a Datum Plane or Planar Surface


1. Select a datum plane or planar surface.
2. Choose Insert > Protrusion > Extrude. The sketcher will appear.
3. Sketch the section, then choose Done. A protrusion from the sketched section will appear, with the
Blind option as default. There will be a green handle to dynamically adjust the depth.
4. Use the depth handle to change the depth.
Note: You can also modify the depth by double-clicking on the dimension value and either entering a
new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.

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247

5. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

Attributes of an Extruded Feature


If you choose One Side, the feature starts from the sketching plane and is extruded in the direction of
feature creation according to the selected depth option.
If you choose Both Sides, for options other than Blind, you must define the from and to sides of the
feature. Which side is considered "from" or "to" depends on the direction of feature creation.
Note the following rules for the "both sides" features:
For a Blind feature, the depth you enter is divided symmetrically by the sketching plane.
The system applies the through options with respect to the sketching plane. For example, if you select
Thru Next from the SPEC FROM menu, the system looks for the next valid surface from the sketching
plane, in the direction opposite to the direction of feature creation.
Up to options allow you to locate the feature completely aside from the sketching plane. They also
allow you to use vertices, edges, datum planes, and non-planar surfaces as termination references.

Open and Closed Sections for Extruded Features


Extruded sections can be open or closed. Note the following:
Open sections cannot have more than one loop. All open ends should be explicitly aligned to the part
edges.
Closed sections may consist of one or more closed outside loops, or of one outside loop with one or
more inside loops. In the last case, Pro/ENGINEER takes the largest loop as the outside, and each other
loop is considered to be a hole in the large loop. The loops must not intersect each other.

To Create a Revolved Feature


The Revolve option creates a feature by revolving the sketched section around a centerline.
A revolved feature can be created either entirely on one side of the sketching plane, or symmetrically on
both sides of the sketching plane.
To create or redefine a revolved feature, specify the elements in the following order:

Attributes
Section
Direction
Angle

To Create a Revolved Feature (streamlined)


Using a Sketched Datum Curve
1. Select a sketched datum curve. The curve should have an associated centerline. If the section contains
more than one centerline, then one should be declared the axis of revolution (system default is the first
sketched centerline).
2. Choose Insert > Protrusion > Revolve. A revolved protrusion appears with the default angle set to
Variable.
3. Use the handle to change the angle.
Note: You can also modify the angle by double-clicking on the dimension value and either entering a
new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.
4. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

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Using a Datum Plane or Planar Surface


1.
2.
3.
4.

Select a datum plane or planar surface.


Choose Insert > Protrusion > Revolve. The sketcher opens.
Sketch a section to revolve, and a centerline to revolve around.
A revolved protrusion appears with the default angle set to Variable. Use the handle to change the
angle.
Note: You can also modify the angle by double-clicking on the dimension value and either entering a
new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.
5. To complete the feature creation, click the middle mouse button or choose another command. The
system regenerates the feature automatically.

Attributes of a Revolved Feature


The ATTRIBUTES menu elements One Side and Both Sides are available for all but the first feature. For
Both Sides (see the next illustration), the feature will be revolved symmetrically in each direction for one
half of the angle specified in the OPTIONS menu, whether preset or variable.
Revolved Cut or SlotBoth Sides Option
1

60.00

1
2

Axis of revolution
Sketching plane

Sketching the Revolved Feature Section


To create a revolved section, create a centerline and the geometry that will be revolved about that
centerline.
Rules for sketching a revolved feature:
The revolved section must have a centerline.
The geometry must be sketched on only one side of the axis of revolution.
If you use more than one centerline in the sketch, Pro/ENGINEER uses the first centerline sketched as
the axis of rotation.
The section must be closed.

Specifying the Angle of Revolution


Use the options in the REV TO menu to specify the angle of revolution of the feature, and whether that
angle is to be measured entirely on one side of the sketching plane, or symmetrically on both sides of the
sketching plane. The options are as follows:
VariableSpecify any angle of revolution less than 360 degrees. The angle is controlled by a
dimension that the system displays when you modify the part, and in drawings. A corresponding
dimension will not appear if you choose a preset angle.

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90Create the feature with a fixed angle of 90 degrees.


180Create the feature with a fixed angle of 180 degrees.
270Create the feature with a fixed angle of 270 degrees.
360Create the feature with a fixed angle of 360 degrees.
UpTo Pnt/VtxCreate the revolved feature up to a point or vertex. The revolved feature ends when
the section plane reaches the point or vertex (see the next illustration).
UpTo PlaneCreate the revolved feature up to an existing plane or planar surface that must contain
the axis of revolution. If you are revolving to a datum plane, identify the plane and use the flip arrow to
indicate on which side of the axis of revolution to stop revolving when the feature reaches the datum
plane (as it is created in the direction of revolution). The feature ends when its revolving section plane
reaches the plane. If you are revolving to a non-datum plane surface, indicate the side by the location at
which you select the surface as a reference (see the next illustration).

Example: Creating a Revolved Feature


In the next illustration, the revolve feature is created using the UpTo Plane option by selecting DTM1.
Depending on the direction of the axis of revolution, you will get two different results.
Creating a Revolve Feature with UpTo Plane
Direction of the axis of revolution is the same as the direction of feature creation.
1
2

1
2
3

250

Axis of revolution
Direction of feature creation
Section

Part

Direction of the axis of revolution is opposite the direction of feature creation.

1
2

1
2
3

Axis of revolution
Direction of feature creation
Section

Revolve Cut or Slot


Before
1

1
2

Part

Section
Axis of revolution

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After

Rules for Creating a Full Round


Use the Full Round option to create a round by replacing a surface with a round. The Full Round option is
available for simple and advanced rounds. You can apply a full round to solid or surface geometry.
If the system encounters a non-tangent edge, it terminates the round geometry at this location. Therefore,
you need to define two round sets for this situation. You can change the user-defined transition type to
achieve the desired geometry. The Continue and Blend Srfs transition types create different geometries.
ContinueAttempts to join two round set edges by extending them, without creating a break between
them.
Blend SrfsTakes two round set edges, holds their locations, and smoothly blends a surface between
them.
Consider the following restrictions when you create full rounds. You cannot create a full round if
More than two sets of edges border the same surface.
You define the Round Shape element as Conic.
You define the Round Shape element as Norm to Spine.

To Create an Advanced Full Round


1. Choose Create > Round.
2. The Round feature creation dialog box appears with the ROUND TYPE menu. Choose Advanced and
Done from the ROUND TYPE menu.
3. The Round Set dialog box appears for creating the first round set.
4. From the RND SET ATT menu, choose Full Round. From the lower submenu, choose one of these
placement options, followed by Done:
- Surf-SurfSelect two surfaces bounding the surface to be replaced by a round. Select the surface
to be replaced by the round.
- Edge-SurfSelect an edge and a surface bounding the surface to be replaced by a round. Select
the surface to be replaced by the round. See the figure below
- Edge PairSelect a pair of edges bounding the surface to be replaced by the round.
5. Choose OK from the Round Set dialog box.
6. To create another round set, choose Add from the ROUND SETS menu and repeat Steps 4 and 5.
7. When you finish creating the sets, choose Done Sets.
8. The system creates an intermediate geometry for the round. If you want to change the transitions,
choose the Transitions element from the dialog box.
9. Choose OK from the dialog box.

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Side View of Edge-Surf Round


2

1
2
3
4

Edge reference
Surface to be removed
Surface reference
Resulting round

Example: Creating a Round Through a Curve

a.

Part

Select this curve.

253

Differences Between Round Types


The following figures show examples of how to use the Edge Chain, Surf-Surf, Edge-Surf, and Edge
Pair options when you select geometric references for a round.

Edge Chain/One by One

a.
b.

Select these edges.


Resulting round

Edge Chain/Tangnt Chain

a.
b.

254

An edge from a tangent chain


Resulting round

Part

Surf-Surf

a.
b.

Select these two surfaces.


Resulting round

Edge-Surf
a

a.
b.
c.

Part

Select this edge.


Select this surface.
Resulting round

255

Example: Creating an Advanced Full Round


1. Round this surface
1

2. Create two round sets (you can use the same references)
2

a. Non-tangent edge.
3. Transition type Continue
3

View A

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4. Transition type Blend Srfs


4

View A

Example: Simple Full Round


a

a.

Full round

Example: Creating a Simple Variable Radius


Round
a

a.
b.

Part

You must enter the radius values for these vertices.


Optionally, you can create datum points to enter additional radii.

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To Create a Round Through a Curve


1. Choose Round > Simple (or Advanced) > Done.
2. From the RND SET ATTR menu, choose Thru Curve, Edge Chain or Surf-Surf, and Done.
3. If you selected Edge-Chain, pick an edge between two surfaces to be rounded. If you selected SurfSurf, pick two reference surfaces.
4. Pick a curve at which the round will follow along one of its tangent attachment sides.
5. Complete the round creation as with other types of rounds.
Use the Thru Curve option in the RND SET ATTR menu to create a round through a curve. This type of
round is formed by rolling a ball tangent to two surfaces, passing through the driving curve to define the
radius. The radius of the round at each point along the spine is determined by the selected curve.

To Create a Simple Round


The following procedure lists basic steps to create a simple round.
Choose Round from the SOLID menu, or choose Insert > Round.
Choose Simple and Done from the ROUND TYPE menu.
The ROUND:General dialog box appears, listing elements of the round feature.
The Attributes element in the feature list is selected by default. Use the RND SET ATTR menu options to
specify the attributes of the round.
Specify the type of round by selecting one of these options:
- ConstantCreate a round between two sets of surfaces with a constant radius.
- VariableCreate a round between two sets of surfaces with variable radii. Specify radii at the
ends of the chain of edges or at the ends of the spine (when the spine is required) and, optionally,
at additional points along the edges or along the spine.
- Thru CurveCreate a round between two surfaces by forcing one of the tangent edges to follow
a curve.
- Full RoundCreate a round by removing a surface: the round is constrained by the consumed
surface.
Specify the type of references for placing the round by selecting one of these options:
- Edge ChainPlace a round by selecting a chain of edges. To select the chain, use options in the
CHAIN menu. The surfaces bordering this chain will form the rolling tangent attachment for the
round.
- Surf-SurfPlace a round by selecting two surfaces. The edges of the round will remain tangent to
these surfaces.
- Edge-SurfPlace a round by specifying a chain of edges and a surface. The round will only stay
tangent to the surface; the edge reference will not maintain tangency.
- Edge PairPlace a full round by specifying a pair of edges. This is a shortcut to select a surface
that contains two edges, and the surface is consumed.
5. Choose Done from the RND SET ATTR menu.
6. Select placement references, as the system prompts you.
7. For a constant radius round, enter the radius for the round
8. Optionally, for other than a full round, define the extension boundaries of the round by specifying the
Round Extent element.
9. If necessary, define the Attach Type element to force the system to create surface geometry that is
attached to solid geometry. (The system matches surface rounds to surface references, and solid rounds
to solid references, if possible.)
10. When you finish defining the feature, choose OK from the dialog box.
1.
2.
3.
4.

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To Create a Simple Edge Round (streamlined)


1. Select an edge or edges on which to create a round.
Note: By selecting an edge, you automatically select any tangent edges.
2. Click the right mouse button and choose Round Edges, or choose Insert > Round. A constant radius
round will appear on that edge.
3. Modify the radius of the round by dragging the handle.
Note: You can also modify the radius by double-clicking on the dimension value and then either
entering a new value or selecting a value previously used in the current session.

Starting Out in Part Mode


The first feature you create in the model can be a solid, datum, or a group of features copied from your
UDF library.

Creating the Initial Solid Feature


The first solid feature is the "working block" of material that is refined and modified until the final design.
The first feature extrusions are always extruded in the positive direction (out of the screen towards you).

To Create the First Feature


Creating Datums as the First Feature
The first feature in the part can be a datum feature. Creating a set of orthogonal datum planes as the base
feature is helpful when the first solid feature is going to be a sphere, toroid, or sculptured surface because it
usually does not have the planar surfaces needed to reorient the model or specify sketching planes.
1. Choose Insert > Datum.
2. Select the datum feature type from the Datum menu:
- PlaneCreate three orthogonal datum planes that intersect at the default origin. If you choose this
option, three datum planes with the names DTM1, DTM2, and DTM3 appear in the center of the
screen at right angles to each other.
- CSysCreate a default coordinate system.
- GraphCreate a graph to be used for relations.
- Offset PlanesCreate three orthogonal datum planes with specified offsets along the x-, y-, and zaxis. The system prompts you for the offset value for the x-direction, y- and z-directions. The
system assumes that the x-axis is horizontal and pointing to the right, the y-axis is vertical and
pointing up, and the z-axis is normal to the screen and pointing towards you. You can specify
offset = 0. The system creates three datum planes with the names DTM1, DTM2, and DTM3. The
system also displays a coordinate system named DEFAULT, which is located in the center of the
screen.

Creating a User-Defined Feature as the First Feature


If you have the Pro/FEATURE module, you can create a group from your UDF library as the base feature
as long as it has no references to other features.
For example, you might have a UDF that is a solid feature that references two datum planes, which
reference the default coordinate system (created as the base feature). All the features must then be included
in the UDF to become the base feature for a new part.

To Create Incomplete Features


For features that use the dialog user interface, you can suspend feature creation without losing data that you
have already defined. This produces an incomplete feature, which you can complete later (for example,

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when required geometric references are available for feature definition). Because you have not finished
feature creation, the system can not generate geometry for the incomplete feature.
An incomplete feature differs from a failed feature in the following respect: It is intended to be left
unfinished until the design intent is clarified or geometry it depends on becomes available. A fully defined
feature cannot be made incomplete.
Incomplete features are listed in the feature status column of the Model Tree as "Incomplete".
The following operations can not be performed on incomplete features:
- Pattern
- Copy
- UDF creation
- Local group
- Reroute
- Modify
- Feature relations
To leave a feature incomplete when creating a feature,
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose OK from the dialog box.


When the system asks you if you want to leave the feature incomplete, choose "Yes."
You can exit Sketcher with an incomplete section by choosing Done from the SKETCHER menu.
To finish an incomplete feature, choose Redefine and complete definition of all required elements.

Using the ODUI Dialog Boxes


An ODUI dialog box lists required and optional elements that let you define a feature. The system walks
you through the process of defining required elements. To define an optional element, double-click on an
element or select an element and choose Define in the dialog box. To move the selection up and down the
element list, use the arrow keys.
When you define a particular element, the system brings up right-side menus. You can access help on a
particular feature attribute through the contact-sensitive help for that menu option.
The ODUI dialog box has the following buttons:
Define Define or redefine a feature element. The system displays the status of each element next to its
name. After you complete defining an element, the system changes its status to Defined and activates
the next required element. To redefine an element, select the element and choose Define.
Refs Display references for the selected element.
Info Display information on this feature.
OK Complete feature creation.
Cancel Abort feature creation.
Preview Display the feature geometry based on the definition that you have provided.
Resolve This button appears only if the feature fails after you choose Preview or OK. By pressing
this button, you enter the "fix model" environment.

Parent-Child Relations
After you have created the base feature, you can add other features. The order of creating features is
important. A feature does not "know" anything about the features that are created later.
For example, if you create a hole using the Thru All option, then add a protrusion at its bottom, the hole
will not penetrate the protrusion. You can change the order in which features are regenerated using the
Reorder option in the FEAT menu. Using this example, if you reordered the protrusion before the hole, the
hole would then penetrate the protrusion.

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For placement or dimensioning references, each feature depends on one or more of the earlier features and
is considered to be the "child" of these features. This parent-child relationship is very important when you
modify a part. When you suppress or delete a parent, the system asks what action to take for its children,
including whether to suppress or delete them.
Note that you cannot reorder features so the child is "earlier" in the feature list than the parent. However,
you can modify parent-child relationships using Reroute, or Redefine > Scheme in the FEAT menu.

To Control Datum Display


To control the display of datum planes, datum axes, datum point symbols and tags, and coordinate systems,
choose View > Datum Display, and set the appropriate options in the Datum Display dialog box.
You can display all datum points with or without name tags. You can also control the display of datum
features by setting the appropriate configuration options to "yes" or "no", as shown in the following table.
DATUM FEATURE

CONFIGURATION OPTION
CONTROLLING DISPLAY

Datum plane

datum_display

Datum axis

axis_display

Datum point

datum_point_display
datum_point_symbol_display
datum_point_tag_display

Coordinate system

display_coordinate_sys

Datum curves are unaffected by any of these options for datum display. If you want to blank a datum curve,
place it on a layer and blank the layer. Similarly, you can "turn off" the display of individual datum features
or datum name text by placing them on a layer, then blanking the layer.
You can also reassign the colors of datums and datum tags by choosing View > Model Setup > Color &
Appearances.

About Datum Planes


You can use datum planes to create a reference on a part where one does not already exist. For example,
you can sketch or place features on a datum plane when there is no appropriate planar surface.
You can also dimension to a datum plane as if it were an edge. When you are constructing an assembly,
you can use datums with assembly commands.
Datum planes are infinite. You can size datum planes, except those made on-the-fly, to visually fit a part,
feature, surface, edge, axis, or radius.
You create a datum plane by specifying constraints that locate it with respect to existing geometry. The
constraints you choose must locate the datum plane relative to the model without ambiguity (except for the
option Thru Cyl).

Datum Plane Colors and Names


By default, datum planes have two sides: yellow and red. You use the colors when you assemble
components, orient views, and sketch references. Pro/ENGINEER displays datum planes as red or yellow,
depending on which side is facing the screen.
When you create datum planes, the system assigns them names in sequential order (DTM1, DTM2, and so
on). You can change the names of the datum planes using PART > Setup > Name, or by editing them in
the Feature Name column of the Model Tree.

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Selecting Datum Planes


To select a datum plane, you can pick on its name, or select one of its boundaries.
The visual boundaries of the datums sometimes get in the way of selecting surfaces or edges of the model.
If this happens, use Query Sel, or set the configuration file option select_on_dtm_edges to
sketcher_only so the visual edges of the datum are selectable only when you dimension sketched
sections.

Creating Datum Planes On-the-Fly


In the process of feature creation, the system lets you create a datum plane on-the-fly using the Plane
option in the Datum menu.
Consider the following rules about the datum planes created on-the-fly:
Datum planes that you create during feature creation are internal to and belong to that feature.
Datum planes on-the fly become invisible after you create the feature. Any associated dimensions
positioning the datum plane are included with those of the feature. This gives you more choices for
varying dimensions when you create a feature pattern.
Datum planes created on-the-fly cannot be referenced by other features.
When you use Copy/Mirror to copy features and use datum planes on-the-fly as the mirror plane, this
datum plane stays visible because it can be referenced by more than one feature.
When you create datum planes on-the-fly to use in creating a cross-sectional view of a model or quilt,
Pro/ENGINEER puts them on a layer named xsec_datums. The layer xsec_datums is automatically
blanked.

To Change the Display Size of Datum Planes


Although datum planes are actually infinite planes, by default the system displays them scaled to the model
size. The size of a displayed datum plane changes with the dimensions of a part. You can size all datum
planes, except those made on-the-fly, to visually fit a part, feature, surface, edge, axis, or radius.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose FEAT > Redefine.


Select a plane to redefine.
Check the Attributes option and choose Done.
To change the size of the datum plane, choose one of these options in the OPTIONS menu, followed by
Done. The options are as follows:
- DefaultSize the datum plane to the model (part or assembly).
- Fit PartSize the datum plane to the selected part. This option applies to assemblies only.
- Fit FeatureSize the datum plane to a part or assembly feature.
- Fit SurfaceSize the datum plane to any surface.
- Fit EdgeSize the datum plane to fit an edge.
- Fit AxisSize the datum plane to an axis.
- Fit RadiusSize the datum plane to a specified radius, centering it within the outline of the
model.

To Create a Datum Plane (basic)


The following procedure describes basic steps for creating a datum plane:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Choose Insert > Datum > Plane or click the plane button on the datums toolbar.
Choose the desired constraint option from the DATUM PLANE menu.
Pick the necessary references on the model.
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you have established the necessary constraints.
Choose Done to create the datum plane, Restart to respecify all the constraints, or Quit to abort.

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To Create a Datum Plane (streamlined)


1. Select one of the following combinations of features or geometry (these will define a fully constrained
datum plane):
- Two coplanar edges or two axes (must be coplanar but not collinear)
- Three datum points or vertices (one must not be on the same line)
- A datum plane or planar surface and an axis or edge (edge or axis must not be normal to plane)
- A datum plane or planar surface and two datum points or vertices (points or vertices must not be
collinear with the normal to the plane)
- A datum plane or planar surface and a datum point or vertex (point or vertex must not be on the
selected plane or surface)
- A datum point and an axis or edge (point must not be collinear with the axis or edge)
- A datum plane or planar surface
2. Choose Insert > Datum > Plane or click the plane button on the datums toolbar.
3. A fully constrained datum plane appears.

Tip: How to Create a Series of Datum Planes


Normally, you create a single datum plane, then you have to redo the menu picks Datum > Plane, and so
on to create additional planes.
However, when you set the configuration file option repeat_datum_create to yes, you can continue
to make the same type of datum feature (plane, axis, and so on) without redoing all the menu picks, until
you want to end.
This option does not work when you are making datum planes on-the-fly.

To Create Default Offset Datum Planes


If your first feature in the model is a solid feature, you can use the Offset Planes option to add a set of
default planes that are offset from the default coordinate system.
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Offset Planes.
Note: If the model already has a coordinate system with the name "DEFAULT", that coordinate system
will be used as a reference.
2. Enter the offset distances in the X-, Y-, and Z-direction with respect to the default coordinate system.

Datum Constraints
The following datum constraints can only be used alone, because each completely locates the datum plane:
- Through/PlaneCreate a datum plane coincident with a planar surface.
- Offset/PlaneCreate a datum plane that is parallel to a plane and is offset from the plane by a
specified distance (see the figure below).
- Offset/Coord SysCreate a datum plane that is normal to one of the coordinate system axes and
offset from the origin of the coordinate system. When you select this option, the system prompts
you to select the axis to which the plane will be normal. Enter the offset along this axis.
- BlendSectionCreate a datum plane through the section that was used to make a feature. If
multiple sections exist, as for a blend, the system prompts you for the section number.
The offset of an Offset, Plane and Offset, Coord Sys datum plane is a parameter that can be used (for
example, in patterns or relations) and modified.

Datum Constraints that Can Be Used Alone


The options Through > AxisEdgeCurv and Through > Cylinder can be used alone. When the options are
used alone, Pro/ENGINEER establishes the orientation of the datum. These placement types are intended

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263

for revolved geometry, where the orientation of the datum makes no difference.
When you specify the orientation of these datum planes, use additional constraints, otherwise the system
may change the orientation when you modify the part.

Datum Constraints that are Used in Pairs


The following constraints must be used in combination with other constraints:
- Through > AxisEdgeCurv
- Normal > AxisEdgeCurv
- Normal > Plane
- Parallel > Plane
- Tangent > Cylinder
- Through > Point/Vertex
- Angle > Plane
You can pair the Through > Point/Vertex option with the options Through > AxisEdgeCurv, Through >
Cylinder, Parallel > Plane, or Normal > Plane.
With Normal > Plane, two constraints of the type Through > Point/Vertex define the plane explicitly. If
you specify Normal > Plane and one constraints of the type Through > Point/Vertex, Pro/ENGINEER
creates the plane in the default orientation. You can also use Through > Point/Vertex to select three datum
points through which the datum plane will pass.
You can use the option Through > AxisEdgeCurv to create datum planes through imported wireframe
geometry and datum curves. The option can be used as a standalone when the selected entity is a circle or
an arc, or a spline that lies in a plane. When you use lines, you need two lines to establish the proper
constraints.

Offset and Angled Datums


The options Offset > Plane, Offset > Coord Sys, and Angle > Plane create datum planes whose location
or orientation is governed by a parameter. These parameters are especially useful when you are making
patterns of datum planes.
The possible options for specifying the offset distance are as follows:
- Thru PointDefine the location by picking a point on the model through which the datum plane
will pass. Pro/ENGINEER will approximate the offset distance based on the selection area. The
region selected does not have to include a datum point or vertex.
- Enter ValueEnter a value for the offset and angle. An arrow appears on the part that indicates
the positive direction of the offset and angle. Use this option when the datum does not pass through
any other point on the model.

Using a Composite Curve as a Reference


It is good practice to use a composite curve as a references, rather than its underlying segments. This will
prevent the feature from failing if any segment has been deleted.
Note that when you constrain a datum plane to be normal to a composite curve at the connection point of
two non-tangent segments of the curve, the features orientation is determined by the curve segments
closest to the start of the composite curve.

To Redefine Datum Planes


You can redefine datum planes created with Feature > Create, as well as sketching planes created on-thefly. You can redefine sketching planes created on-the-fly only if they fail regeneration.
1. Choose FEAT > Redefine.

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2. Select a datum plane.


3. For a regular datum plane, choose any of these options: Attributes, Direction, and References. For a
datum plane on-the-fly, you can choose only the References option.
4. Redefine the datum plane as prompted by the system.
Note: You cannot redefine dimensional patterns of datum planes.

Possible Effects of Redefining Datum Planes


If you redefine the sketching plane of a feature so it is geometrically different from the original plane (for
example, one that is not parallel to the previous position) and the sketch cannot be regenerated using the
new versions of the known entities, you can still make the necessary changes.
Pro/ENGINEER restores the section using the old values (as the section was last regenerated) and issues an
error message saying the old values were used.
You can then enter Sketcher to see both the new and the old values of the entities. Redimension and
resketch as necessary to get the new model to solve.
For a failed sketching plane, the system asks if you want to redefine the references of the plane. If you
respond "yes," you can choose new sketching plane references using the SETUP PLANE and SKET VIEW
menus. If you respond "no," you can redefine the feature that the sketching plane is being used to create.

About Datum Axes


Like datum planes, datum axes can be used as references for feature creation. Datum axes are particularly
useful for making datum planes, placing items concentrically, and creating radial patterns.
Datum axes, as opposed to feature axes, are individual features that can be suppressed, blanked, or deleted.
The system automatically creates an axis for extruded arcs only when you set the configuration file option
"show_axes_for_extr_arcs" to "yes".

Datum Axes Names


Pro/ENGINEER names datum axes A_#, where # is the number of datum axes that have been created.
You can change the default name of the axis. You can select an axis by its name, or by selecting the axis
itself.

Example: Using Datum Axes in Modeling


Through edge

Through cylinder

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265

Intersection of two planes

Through two points

Normal through point on surface (normal to surface)

To Create a Datum Axis


1. Choose Insert > Datum > Axis or click the axis button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose the desired constraint option from the DATUM AXIS menu. The options are as follows:
- Thru EdgeCreate a datum axis through the specified straight edge.
- Normal PlnCreate an axis that is normal to a surface, with linear dimensions locating it on that
surface.
- Pnt Norm PlnCreate an axis through a datum point and normal to a specified plane.
- Thru CylCreate a datum axis through the "imaginary" axis of any surface of revolution (where

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an axis does not already exist). Select a cylindrical surface or revolved surface. Note that some
features that only appear to be cylindrical, such as a remove surface round, cannot be selected.
- Two PlanesCreate a datum axis at the intersection of the two specified planes (datum planes or
surfaces). The two planes cannot be parallel, but they do not have to be shown to intersect on the
screen.
- Two Pnt/VtxCreate an axis between two datum points or edge vertices. Select the datum points
or edge vertices.
- Pnt on SurfCreate an axis through any datum point located on a surface. You did not have to
create the point using the On Surface option. The axis will be normal to the surface at that point.
- Tan CurveCreate an axis that is tangent to a curve or edge at its endpoint or any datum point on
the curve. Select the curve or edge to be tangent to, then select an endpoint of the curve or edge.
3. Pick the necessary references for the selected option.
Tips for creating datum axes:
You can set a configuration file option to specify continuous datum axes creation to avoid making
multiple menu picks for each axis. To do this, set the configuration file option
repeat_datum_create to yes.
In the process of defining a datum axis, you may need to create a datum point "on-the-fly", for example,
when you use the Pnt on Surf or Pnt Norm Pln option.

To Create a Datum Axis (streamlined)


1. Select one of the following combinations of features or geometry:
- An edge
- A cylinder
- Two datum planes or planar surfaces (must not be parallel)
- Two datum points or vertices
2. Choose Insert > Datum > Axis or click the axis button on the datums toolbar. The new axis appears in
the graphic window and in the model tree.

About Datum Points


Datum points are used to specify point loads for mesh generation, attach datum targets and notes in
drawings, and create coordinate systems and pipe feature trajectories. You can also place axes, datum
planes, holes, and shafts at a datum point.
By default, Pro/ENGINEER displays a datum point as an X, with the associated text in the form PNTn,
where n is the number of the datum point. To select a datum point, pick on the datum point text or on the
point itself.
You can change the display symbol used for datum points using the configuration file option
"datum_point_symbol". A datum point can use any of the following symbols: CROSS, CIRCLE,
TRIANGLE, or SQUARE.
You can rename datum points using the Name command in the SETUP menu. For a datum point feature
with multiple points, you can rename each point individually. Datum points declared in a layout cannot be
renamed.

To Create Datum Points (basic)


The following procedure explains how to create datum points using model geometry.
1. Choose Insert > Datum > Point or click the point button on the datums toolbar.
2. Choose one of the following options from the DATUM POINT menu:
- On SurfaceCreate a datum point on a surface. Dimension the datum point from two planes or
edges. Datum points created using this option can be patterned. You can select the locating
dimensions to establish pattern direction. If you create a datum point on a surface that belongs to a

Part

267

quilt, the point references the whole quilt rather than the particular surface on which it was created.
- Offset SurfCreate a datum point offset in a specified direction from a surface at a specified
distance from two referenced placement planes or edges.
- Curve X SrfCreate a datum point at the intersection of a curve and a surface. The curve can be a
part edge, surface feature edge, datum curve, axis, or an imported datum curve. The surface can be
a part surface, surface feature, or datum plane.
The system creates the datum point at the location at which the surface and the curve intersect that
is closest to the "pick" used to select the curve. The system "remembers" the initial pick location
on the curve, not on the surface. For example, if you modify the angle used to place a datum plane,
Pro/ENGINEER places the point at the nearest corresponding intersection of the curve and planar
surface.
- On VertexCreate a datum point on the vertex of a part edge, surface feature edge, datum curve,
or imported wireframe.
- Offset CsysCreate a datum point array at an offset from one or more coordinate systems.
Note: You can only change the array of one or more datum points created using Offset Csys by using
the Redefine command.
- Three SrfCreate a datum point at the intersection of three surfaces. Each surface can be a part
surface, surface feature, or datum plane.
- At CenterCreate a datum point at the center of an arc, circle, or elliptic entity
- On CurveCreate a datum point on an edge or curve with a parameter value for its location that
references the length along the curve from one of its vertices.
- Crv X CrvCreate a datum point on one curve that is located where it is the minimum distance to
another curve. The curves do not need to intersect.
- Offset PointCreate one or more datum points at an offset from a point or vertex.
Choose Done from the DTM PNT MODE menu.
3. Select the necessary entities to constrain the location of the point.
Notes:
In certain cases, you cannot individually select multiple datum points created as a single feature. In
these cases, Pro/ENGINEER does not allow you to pick the points.
You can also create datum points in the Sketcher.

Datum Point Array Options


A datum point array is a single feature consisting of one or more datum points. You create these datum
points by specifying three coordinate values, relative to some coordinate system.
You can enter the coordinate values from the keyboard, or they can be read in from a file. You can create
dimension patterns of datum point arrays.
In the feature information, Pro/ENGINEER displays a table of the coordinate system names and the offsets
of the points for the datum point array.
Use the following options in the DTM PNT ARR menu to specify datum points for the array:
Enter PointsAt the prompt in the Message Window, enter the directional offsets (X, Y, and Z; r,
theta, and Z; or r, phi, and theta) for one or more datum points. The datum point array table will not be
saved to disk unless you subsequently save the points using the option Edit Points in this menu, or
Output in the PNT ARR TBL menu. In this case, these points appear in the NAMES menu namelist when
you choose Redefine or Modify and select by name. Once added to an array table, these points also
appear in table arrays for the Modify or Redefine commands.
Edit PointsUse the system editor to enter rows of offsets for each datum point in the array, then exit
from the editor. Pro/ENGINEER saves the array table for this array of points in a disk file named
coordsysname.pts.#, where # is the version number that is automatically updated each time you write
the file.
Read PointsRead coordinates of the datum points from a file. Enter the name of an ASCII file that

268

Part

contains rows of offsets in the appropriate format, or the name of an IGES file. The ASCII file format
can contain point numbers in the first column. When the system reads the file, these numbers are
ignored.
The ASCII file should be formatted so the three coordinates for each point are on one line. If more than
three numbers are on one line, the system assumes the second, third, and fourth are the coordinates of
interest. This means that you can number datum points, if desired. You can separate the coordinates
using spaces or tabs, and the coordinates can be integers or floating-point numbers. The file name
should end with the extension ".pts".
You can use any combination of these techniques for the current coordinate system. When a datum point
array is created, the system immediately displays points that have been successfully read or entered (before
you select Done) as white Xs without tags.

To Create a Datum Point Array


1. Choose Datum > Point > Offset Csys.
2. Pro/ENGINEER displays the POINT ARRAY menu, which has the following options:
- With DimsCreate a parametric datum point array that can contain up to 100 points.
- Without DimsCreate a non-parametric datum point array. The system does not assign names or
modifiable dimensions to individual points in the array. This point is recommended when the
number of points is large.
3. Choose Set Crd Sys to select or create a coordinate system. The system displays the GET COORD S
menu. Choose Select and select an existing coordinate system from the namelist menu, or choose
Create to create a new one.
4. Set the coordinate system type by selecting Cartesian, Cylindrical, or Spherical from the SET CSYS
TYP menu.
5. Choose one of the options in the DTM PNT ARR menu: Enter Points, Edit Points, or Read Points.
6. If desired, you can set up a new coordinate system and specify more points by repeating Steps 3
through 5.
7. When you have finished, choose Done. The system displays the datum point names in yellow and
displays their tags in white.
Note: Modify the array by choosing Modify from the PART menu and picking a point in the array.

To Create a Sketched Datum Point


1. Click Datum > Point or click the point button on the Datums toolbar.
2. Click DATUM POINT > Sketch.
3. The Sketched Datum Point dialog box opens with one element:
SectionSketch datum curves.
4. Set up a sketching plane using the SETUP SK PLN and SETUP PLANE menus.
5. Set up a sketch view using the SKET VIEW menu. The Sketch menu appears on the top menu bar.
6. Click Sketch > Point.
7. Sketch as many points as needed and dimension them. Click Done to exit Sketcher.
8. Click OK from the Sketched Datum Point dialog box.
Note: You can use any sketched geometry as construction geometry when creating sketched datum points.

To Create a Datum Point on a Curve or Edge


You can create a datum point on a curve or edge, with a parameter value for its location that references the
length along the curve from one of its vertices.
1. Choose On Curve and Done from the DATUM POINT menu.
2. To dimension the point, choose one of the PNT DIM MODE menu options:
- OffsetDimension the point to a planar surface. Select the surface from which to measure the
offset distance. The default value given in the dimension prompt is the location at which you
selected the curve or edge. If you modify the location of the point on the curve, the dimension
measures the distance from the surface to the point.

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269

- Length RatioExpress the distance from the point to the curve vertex as a ratio of the total length
of the curve, shown as a fraction in decimal form. Enter a ratio value between 0 and 1, where 0 is
at the vertex from which you are measuring, and 1 is at the other end of the curve. For example,
entering .25 places the datum point at 1/4 of the curve length from the vertex from which the
measurement is made toward the end. The default value given in the dimension prompt is the
location at which you selected the curve or edge. Pro/ENGINEER displays the dimension as #
REL.
- Actual LenDimension the point by measuring a specific distance from the vertex of the curve.
Enter a value between 0 and the total length of the curve. The system displays this range in the
prompt for the value. Pro/ENGINEER displays the dimension as # LEN.
3. Select the edge or curve at the location where you want to add the datum point.
4. If desired, continue adding points along this curve or edge.
5. Choose Done when you have finished adding points.
6. Enter dimensions for each of the datum points.
Note: If you choose Length Ratio or Actual Len, the dimensions are only within a tolerance limit
determined by the part accuracy and are not necessarily exact. After you complete the feature, the system
displays the accuracy in a message. However, if you choose Offset, the dimensions used are exact.

To Create a Datum Point On-the-Fly


1. When you must create points while creating a feature, simply select an option from the Datum menu
2. If you selected Point, the DTM PNT MODE menu appears with the following options:
- Add NewCreate new datum points in the feature. select an option from the DATUM POINT
menu, and follow the system prompts to locate the points.
Note: For the current master feature, the DATUM POINT menu shows only valid options for creating
datum points.
- ChangeChange the placement of an existing datum point. Select the point you want to change,
choose an option from the DATUM POINT menu, and define the point as usual.
- RemoveRemove selected datum points from the feature.
3. Once you create all required points, choose DTM PNT MODE > Done. Upon creation, the system
automatically selects all new points for an operation.

To Create an Offset Datum Point


Using the Offset Point option, you can create a datum point by specifying an offset direction, then
selecting another point (datum point, vertex, or coordinate system) from which the new datum point is to be
offset.
1. Choose Offset Point from the DATUM POINT menu.
2. Select how to specify the offset direction using one of the following options in the OFFSET DIR menu:
- Entity/EdgeThe offset direction is along a straight edge, axis, or straight curve.
- Plane NormThe offset direction is normal to a plane.
- 2 PointsThe offset direction is indicated by a line passing through two points (two vertices,
points, or coordinate systems).
- Coord SysThe offset is along the axes of a coordinate system.
3. Select the appropriate references for the direction of the new points.
4. Pick the points from which to offset. Choose Done Sel when you have finished.
5. Enter the offset distance along the direction shown (if you selected Coord Sys, the system prompts you
for an offset distance along each axis in turn). A negative value creates an offset in the opposite
direction.

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Part

To Modify Points in a Datum Point Array


To modify datum points in the array, use one of the following methods:
Display datum points, select the dimensions you want to change, and enter new values.
Edit a data file.
1. Choose Modify and pick on a datum point name. Pro/ENGINEER highlights the whole array and the
corresponding coordinate system in red, and highlights the selected point name in yellow.
2. The system displays the MOD ARR OPT menu, which has the following options:
Show DimDisplay the coordinates of the selected datum point (or all the datum points in the array)
and select each dimension you want to modify. To display the dimensions, choose from the following:
- SingleDisplay the dimensions of the selected point only.
- AllDisplay the dimensions of all the points in the array.
TableModify the whole array using the array table.
3. Choose Done/Return from the PNT ARR TBL menu.
4. Choose Regenerate to see the changes.
Note: The values in a non-parametric datum point array can be changed using Redefine, References.
However, the number of points in the array can only be changed by using Enter Points.

Using the Table Option to Modify a Datum Point


Array
Use Table option to modify the whole array using the array table. The system displays the MOD ARR TBL
menu, which has the following options:
Enter PointsEnter coordinates of the datum points by typing in the Message Window.
Edit PointsModify the coordinates of the datum points by editing the array table. Pro/ENGINEER
puts you in the system editor and saves the array table to disk before displaying it for editing. You can
edit the table many times between regenerations. After each edit, the system indicates the new positions
of the points using white Xs. On regeneration, the system displays datum points in yellow, with their
names.
InputAdd datum points to the current array by entering the name of a file containing their X, Y, and
Z coordinates. The system adds new coordinates at the end of the current array table. (This operation
does not save the array table to disk.)
OutputSave the array table to disk.
ShowDisplay the array table in the Information Window.
Note: You cannot add or delete datum points if the datum point array is used in a pipe feature.

To Redefine Datum Points


There are three cases for redefining datum points:
Redefining a parametric datum point arrayYou can change the values and the number of points in the
array.
Redefining a non-parametric datum point arrayYou can change the values, but not the number of
points in the array.
Redefining all other datum pointsYou can choose Redefine, References, which allows you to use the
same DTM PNT MODE menu options as when you created the points.

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271

Index
3
3D sweep........................................ 146, 147
creating ............................................... 147

A
Advanced command ............................... 188
ROUND SETS menu........................... 188
Ambiguity .................................................. 88
resolving................................................ 88
Angle of revolution .................................. 248
revolved feature .................................. 248
Angular reference ..................................... 98
creating ................................................. 98
Approximate curve.................................. 185
benefits and drawbacks ...................... 185
Arrowhead .............................................. 116
switching display ................................. 116
Assembly feature .................................... 216
pipe ..................................... 216, 217, 218
Axis command ........................................ 265
Datum menu........................................ 265

B
Base feature ..................................... 62, 258
datum plane as.................................... 258
thin ........................................................ 62
UDF as ................................................ 258
Blend command...................................... 147
SOLID OPTS menu............................. 147
Blend feature147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154,
155, 156, 201, 202
adding section ............................. 201, 202
capping ............................................... 155
closed rotational .................................. 156
closed section ..................................... 153
creating ............................................... 149
creating a general ............................... 156
creating a parallel................................ 152
dimensioning a section........................ 152
imported from file ................................ 151
importing ............................................. 150
making cuts in a parallel...................... 152
modifying imported.............................. 152
non-parallel ................................. 153, 154
open rotational .................................... 156
redefining section ................................ 202
removing section ......................... 201, 202
sections ............................................... 149
sketching active section ...................... 152
specifying tangent surfaces................. 154

Part

starting points...................................... 149


subsection start point .......................... 152
toggling sketching section ................... 152
types.................................................... 148

C
C1 continuous........................... 81, 171, 183
curves.................................................. 183
helical sweep profile ............................ 171
spinal bend............................................ 82
C2 continuous......................................... 183
curves.......................................... 183, 184
Centerline ............................................... 248
revolved feature .................................. 248
Chain .............................................. 185, 186
selecting .............................................. 185
Chamfer command ................................... 33
SOLID menu ......................................... 33
Chamfer feature........................................ 33
creating corner ...................................... 33
creating edge ........................................ 33
dimensioning schemes.......................... 33
Color ....................................................... 260
datums ................................................ 260
Composite datum curve .......... 183, 184, 186
approximate ........................................ 184
exact.................................................... 184
naming ................................................ 186
redefining ............................................ 186
Constraints.............................................. 262
datum plane ........................................ 262
Coordinate system........ 52, 53, 54, 110, 258
creating ................................................. 52
default ................................................. 258
from file ................................................. 53
offset ..................................................... 53
renaming ............................................. 110
Copy command......................................... 39
FEAT menu ........................................... 38
Copying features. 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 50, 234
datum curve .......................................... 50
in a group ............................................ 234
mirroring ................................................ 42
moving................................................... 42
new references................................ 40, 41
same model........................................... 40
same references ................................... 41
translating.............................................. 43
Cosmetic command ................................ 218
FEAT CLASS menu ............................ 218
Cosmetic feature............................. 218, 219
projected section ................................. 219

273

regular section..................................... 218


setting the line style............................. 218
Cosmetic thread feature ......... 220, 221, 223
creating ............................................... 220
custom ................................................ 223
properties ............................................ 221
Create..................... 142, 153, 204, 220, 235
cosmetic threads ................................. 220
merge feature...................................... 235
new curve segments ........................... 204
parallel blend....................................... 153
sweep.......................................... 142, 143
Csys command ......................................... 53
Datum menu.......................................... 53
Curve .............................................. 206, 207
adjusting.............................................. 206
extending ............................................ 207
merging ............................................... 207
splitting ................................................ 206
trimming .............................................. 207
Cut .......................................................... 152
in parallel projected blends ................. 152
Cut command ......................................... 238
SOLID menu ....................................... 238
Cut feature .............................................. 238
streamlined.......................................... 238

D
Datum axis........ 95, 110, 112, 260, 264, 266
color .................................................... 260
modifying............................................. 112
naming ................................................ 264
patterning .............................................. 95
renaming ............................................. 110
streamlined.......................................... 266
Datum curve43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 177,
178, 181, 182, 183, 204
at surface intersections ......................... 44
composite.................................... 183, 184
copying.................................................. 50
creating a sketched ............................... 43
formed ................................................. 177
from equation ........................................ 50
importing ............................................... 44
offset from boundary ............................. 49
offset from surface ................................ 46
projected ............................................. 178
redefine from file ................................... 44
redefining ............................................ 203
sketched................................................ 43
split........................................................ 46
streamlined............................................ 44
through points ..................................... 181
two-projection........................................ 50
using cross section................................ 45
Datum plane110, 112, 258, 260, 261, 262,

274

263
changing size ...................................... 261
constraints................................... 262, 263
creating ............................................... 261
creating on-the-fly ............................... 260
default ................................................. 258
modifying............................................. 112
names ................................................. 260
offset ................................................... 258
redefining ............................................ 263
renaming ............................................. 110
selecting .............................................. 260
streamlined.......................................... 261
Datum point ............ 214, 266, 268, 269, 270
array .................................................... 214
creating on a curve or edge................. 268
redefining ............................................ 270
sketched.............................................. 268
Datum point
creating on-the-fly ............................... 269
Datum point array ................... 267, 268, 270
creating ............................................... 268
modifying............................................. 269
options................................................. 267
Dependent features .................................. 43
Depth attribute ........................................ 240
Dimension112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 203,
223, 224
deleting................................................ 203
invariable............................................. 224
modifying............................................. 112
modifying format.................................. 115
modifying location ............................... 115
moving text.......................................... 115
obsolete............................................... 203
precision.............................................. 113
redefining scheme ............................... 203
switching arrowheads.......................... 116
table-driven ......................................... 224
types.................................................... 223
variable................................................ 224
Dimension symbol .................................. 114
modifying............................................. 114
Direction arrow.......................................... 61
Dome feature .......................................... 132
Draft command ......................................... 64
TWEAK menu ....................................... 64
Draft feature................ 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73
angle ..................................................... 70
multiple............................................ 72, 73
neutral curve ................................... 73, 74
neutral plane ......................................... 67
no-split neutral plane ............................. 69
reference plane ..................................... 64
restrictions............................................. 64
split lines ............................................... 70

Part

split-at-plane.......................................... 69
split-at-sketch ........................................ 70
variable ........................................... 65, 66

E
Ear command ......................................... 138
TWEAK menu ..................................... 138
Ear feature .............................................. 138
Evaluate command ................................... 56
Datum menu.......................................... 56
Evaluate feature.................................. 56, 57
creating ................................................. 56
relations ................................................ 57
External symbols .................................... 227
defining ............................................... 227
Extrude command................................... 240
SOLID OPTS menu............................. 240
Extrude feature ............................... 246, 247
creating ............................................... 246
direction of creation............................. 246
section................................................. 247
sketching feature................................. 247
streamlined.......................................... 246

F
Feature38, 39, 42, 43, 62, 64, 65, 110, 111,
116, 124, 125, 149, 166, 167, 171, 208,
209, 210, 211, 212, 224, 234, 239, 240,
258, 259
adding ................................................. 259
blend ................................................... 149
copy by moving ..................................... 42
copying.................................... 38, 39, 234
creating first ........................................ 258
deleting ............................................... 210
deleting suppressed ............................ 210
dependent ............................................. 43
depth options............................... 149, 240
draft........................................... 64, 65, 66
helical sweep....................................... 171
incomplete................................... 258, 259
independent .......................................... 43
modifying multiple sections ................. 111
modifying names ................................. 110
patterning ............................................ 234
protrusion (see Protrusion).................... 62
read only ............................................. 110
redefining ............................................ 116
reordering............................................ 208
rerouting .............................................. 211
resolving failure ................................... 124
resuming ..................................... 209, 210
specifying side..................................... 239
suppressing......................................... 209
swept blend ......................................... 166

Part

thin revolved.......................................... 61
unsuppressing..................................... 209
user-defined (see UDF)....................... 223
Flange command ...................................... 31
SOLID menu ......................................... 31
Flange feature........................................... 31
Formed datum curve....................... 177, 178
on quilt................................................. 178
on solid surface ................................... 177

G
General patterns ....................................... 93
Geometry checking................................. 129
Graph................................................ 56, 164
evaluation............................................ 164
mapping .............................................. 163
redefining .............................................. 56
Graph command ....................................... 55
Datum menu.......................................... 55
Groove command ..................................... 62
COSMETIC menu ................................. 62
Groove feature.................................... 62, 63
creating ................................................. 62
Group.............. 228, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235
changing type...................................... 228
failed regeneration .............................. 231
local..................................................... 232
operations ........................................... 232
pattern restrictions............................... 235
patterning ............................................ 234
replacing.............................................. 233
Groups ............................................ 236, 237
suppressing individual members . 236, 237

H
Helical sweep feature ..................... 171, 173
creating ............................................... 173
with constant pitch............................... 171
with variable pitch................................ 173
Helical Swp command ............................ 171
ADV FEAT OPT menu ........................ 171
Hole command.......................................... 23
SOLID menu ......................................... 23
Hole dialog box ......................................... 23
Hole feature .............. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 240
blind..................................................... 240
creating sketched .................................. 25
creating standard .................................. 26
creating straight..................................... 23
placing a linear ...................................... 28
placing a radial ...................................... 28
placing by dimensioning ........................ 28
placing on datum plane ......................... 28
placing on surface ................................. 28
standard charts ..................................... 26

275

thread note formatting ........................... 27

I
Identical patterns ...................................... 93
Importing blends ..................................... 152
Independent features................................ 43
Insert....................................................... 208
feature ................................................. 208
Instance .................................................. 100
spacing and size ................................. 100
Intent Chain command.............................. 86
CHAIN menu ......................................... 86
Intent Surfs command............................... 86
SURF OPTIONS menu ......................... 86
Internal identifier ..................................... 210
Invariable dimensions ............................. 223

L
Line style ........................................ 112, 218
MODIFY menu .................................... 112
modifying............................................. 112
setting ................................................. 218
Lip command .......................................... 141
TWEAK menu ..................................... 141
Lip feature............................................... 140
Local Push command ............................. 131
TWEAK menu ..................................... 131
Local push feature .................................. 131
height .................................................. 131

M
Messages ............................................... 129
geometry check................................... 129
Mirror command........................................ 42
FEAT menu ........................................... 42
Mirror Geom command........................... 235
FEAT menu ......................................... 235
Model Player........................... 127, 128, 129
Modify ............. 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116
cutout feature ...................................... 111
decimal places ............................ 113, 114
dependent copy................................... 112
dimension format................................. 115
dimension text ..................................... 115
dimensions .......................... 112, 113, 115
feature names ..................................... 110
flipping dimension arrows.................... 116
merge feature...................................... 111

N
Neck command......................................... 30
SOLID menu ......................................... 30

O
Offset command ..................................... 137

276

TWEAK menu ..................................... 137


Offset feature .......................................... 137
creating ............................................... 137
Offset Planes command ......................... 262
Datum menu........................................ 262
Offset point ............................................. 269
creating ............................................... 269

P
Parallel blend feature .............................. 201
add or remove a section...................... 201
Parallel projected blend .......................... 152
cuts in.................................................. 152
Parent-Child relations ..................... 211, 259
Part ......................................................... 117
merging ............................................... 117
Part accuracy.................................. 122, 123
absolute............................................... 123
assigning other part accuracy ............. 123
modifying............................................. 122
relative................................................. 123
Pattern command ..................................... 92
FEAT menu ........................................... 92
Pattern feature92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100,
101, 104, 105, 106, 107
angular reference .................................. 98
benefits.................................................. 92
datum axes............................................ 95
deleting................................................ 105
dimension........................ 95, 96, 101, 104
dimension accuracy ............................ 107
general .................................................. 93
identical ........................................... 92, 93
instance................................................. 93
modifying............................................. 105
modifying relations ................................ 93
modifying table-driven ......................... 106
parameters .......................................... 101
redefining .............................................. 94
reference ............................................. 105
restoring relations.................................. 94
rotational ............................................... 96
rules .................................................... 104
table-driven ......................................... 105
types................................................ 92, 93
varying..................................... 92, 93, 100
Pipe command........................................ 213
SOLID menu ....................................... 213
Pipe feature ............ 213, 214, 215, 216, 217
connections ......................................... 217
creating ....................................... 214, 215
Pitch........................................ 171, 173, 220
cosmetic threads ................................. 220
graph in helical sweep......................... 173
helical sweeps..................................... 171
Point command....................................... 266

Part

Datum menu........................................ 266


Project Sec ............................................. 153
BLEND OPTS ..................................... 153
Projected datum curve............ 178, 180, 181
selecting .............................................. 181
sketching ............................................. 180
Protrusion ..................................... 57, 58, 62
creating ................................................. 57
multiple contours ................................... 62
restrictions............................................. 62
thin extruded ......................................... 58
thin revolved.......................................... 58
Protrusion command................................. 57
SOLID menu ......................................... 57

R
Radius Dome command ......................... 132
TWEAK menu ..................................... 132
Redefine ........................... 56, 116, 117, 203
dependent copy................................... 116
dimensioning scheme ......... 116, 117, 203
features with elements ........................ 116
graph..................................................... 56
imported geometry .............................. 117
merged part......................................... 117
sketch.................................................. 116
sketching plane ................................... 116
surface feature .................................... 117
Reference features ................................... 87
creating ................................................. 87
Regen Info .............................................. 127
Relations........................... 57, 126, 166, 203
constraint violation .............................. 127
evaluate feature .................................... 57
obsolete .............................................. 203
parametric graph ................................. 166
sweep.................................................. 166
Reordering features ................................ 208
Replacement conditions ......................... 233
group........................................... 233, 234
on replacing a group ........................... 233
Resume .................................................. 209
feature ................................................. 209
Revolved feature............................. 247, 248
about ................................................... 247
angle of revolution............................... 248
creating ............................................... 247
sketching ............................................. 248
streamlined.......................................... 247
Rib feature ................................................ 34
rotational ............................................... 34
straight .................................................. 34
Rotational command............................... 156
BLEND menu ...................................... 156
Round command ...................................... 85
SOLID menu ......................................... 85

Part

Round feature85, 88, 90, 187, 188, 189,


193, 196, 198, 251, 257
advanced................................. 85, 86, 187
ambiguity............................................... 88
attachments......................................... 198
creating advanced ............................... 188
creating simple .................................... 257
defining patch transitions..................... 196
defining shape..................................... 188
defining transitions .............................. 189
defining transitions by type.................. 193
full........................................................ 251
sets.............................................. 187, 188
simple.............................................. 85, 86
stop transition...................................... 196
streamlined.......................................... 257
through a curve ................................... 257
variable radius....................................... 90

S
Section Dome command ........................ 133
TWEAK menu ..................................... 133
Section dome feature.............. 133, 134, 136
blended ....................................... 134, 136
restrictions........................................... 133
swept................................................... 134
Shaft command......................................... 30
SOLID menu ......................................... 30
Shaft feature ............................................. 30
Shell command ....................................... 212
SOLID menu ....................................... 212
Shell feature.................................... 212, 213
creating ............................................... 212
restrictions........................................... 213
Simplified representation118, 119, 120, 121,
122
accelerated.......................................... 121
creating ............................................... 119
editing.................................................. 120
erasing ................................................ 121
features ............................................... 119
using work region ................................ 120
Sketch command .................................... 268
DATUM POINT menu.......................... 268
Sketcher section ..................................... 200
redefining ............................................ 200
replacing.............................................. 200
Sketching plane ...................................... 116
redefining ............................................ 116
Slot command......................................... 238
SOLID menu ....................................... 238
Spinal Bend command.............................. 81
TWEAK menu ....................................... 81
Spinal bend feature................................... 85
redefining .............................................. 85
Spline.............................................. 204, 205

277

adding points....................................... 204


decreasing number of points............... 204
deleting points ..................................... 205
moving points ...................................... 205
smoothing ........................................... 204
Streamlined features44, 238, 246, 247, 257,
261, 266
cut ....................................................... 238
datum axis........................................... 266
datum plane ........................................ 262
extruded .............................................. 246
revolved ...................................... 247, 248
round........................................... 257, 258
sketched datum curve ........................... 44
Suppress ................................ 209, 236, 237
feature ................................................. 209
individual group members ................... 237
Surface ................................................... 117
redefine merged surfaces ................... 117
Sweep command .................................... 143
SOLID OPTS menu............................. 143
Sweep feature111, 142, 146, 159, 163, 164,
166
along a composite curve ..................... 166
modifying............................................. 111
sketching section................................. 162
specifying tangency............................. 164
three-dimensional................................ 147
trajectory ..................................... 146, 147
trajectory parameter ............................ 166
trajectory rules..................................... 142
variable section ................................... 163
Swept Blend command........................... 167
ADV FEAT OPT menu ........................ 167
Swept blend feature........ 166, 168, 169, 170
controlling perimeter............................ 169
creating ............................................... 167
modifying............................................. 170
restrictions........................................... 166

T
Table-driven dimensions......................... 223
Tangent spine ........................................... 81
Text......................................................... 112
moving ................................................ 112
Tolerance................................................ 113
modifying............................................. 113
Toroidal bend feature.......................... 79, 80

278

creating ................................................. 80
properties .............................................. 79
ToroidalBend command............................ 79
TWEAK menu ....................................... 79
Trajectory................ 142, 143, 162, 163, 171
helical sweep....................................... 171
rules for defining.................................. 142
variable section sweep ........................ 163
Trajpar .................................................... 163
in sweeps ............................................ 163
Transitions ...................... 193, 195, 196, 200
default corner ...................................... 195
defining by select ................................ 200
defining by type ................................... 193
patch ................................................... 196
stop ..................................................... 196
Tweak features ......................................... 63

U
UDF223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230,
231, 232
changing group type............................ 228
creating ............................................... 224
DBMS functions .................................. 227
defining................................................ 224
defining skipped references ................ 230
defining variable dimensions ............... 226
dimension types .................................. 224
failed regeneration .............................. 231
local groups......................................... 232
placing................................................. 229
Pro/PROGRAM ........................... 226, 227
required information ............................ 224
restrictions........................................... 224
using to create a group ....................... 228
UDF
library .................................................. 228
UDF Library command............................ 224
FEAT menu ......................................... 224

V
Variable dimensions ............................... 223
Varying patterns........................................ 93

W
Work region ............................................ 120
for simplified representations .............. 120

Part